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CHAPTER -I Introduction

1.1 Introduction of Irrigation System:

Irrigation system is very essential life blood of agriculture. Simply
irrigation means to make water available in farming field anytime. Irrigation
system involves all the part such as source of water, dam, canal, drainage,
filed of farm even water source.
Oxford dictionary defines- Irrigation means to supply land or
crops with water by means of stream, reservoirs, channels, pipes And so
an irrigation system involves all parts of irrigation.
1.1.1 History of development irrigation system in Nepal:
Nepal is an agricultural country and her people were farmer in
ancient time and most people even today. In ancient time and until some past
decades the irrigation system of Nepal were traditionally run and constructed
and almost system today. The dams of the system were made up of shrubs,
branches of tree, stone and soils, which were so weak. The system couldnt
be use during monsoon season so that floods didnt come and damage the
dam. There wouldnt be adequate water through a year. The concept modern
irrigation system was introduced during Rana regime about 1950 B.S.
student who had sent to study in Japan by genius Rana prime minister Dev
Samsher, introduced the concept of modern irrigation system and as 1 st
canals or as 1st modern irrigation system Chandra Nahar (Chandra canals)
was constructed and named after the Rana prime minister Chandra Samsher.
After that many canals like Gandak Nahar, Chatara Nahar etc. have

1.1.2 Types of Irrigation System:

On the basis of source of water of irrigation system they can be
categorized in the flowing group:
I) Surface water irrigation system
II) Pound water irrigation system
III) Ground water irrigation system
IV) Collection water irrigation system
1.1.3 Introduction of surface water irrigation system:
Generally an irrigation system has water from rivers stream,
pound, or pound from rains. Surface water irrigation system is the supply
of water to cultivate area by the pipes, cannels, channels, from river,
stream or reservoirs. Surface water irrigation system do the use for
cultivate area of unusable water. Main source of surface water are river,
khola and reservoir. Unusable water of the source of surface water can be
using many kinds of crops by the surface water irrigation system. So that
surface water irrigation system is called distribution water of khola, river,
and reservoir to the allocated area.
Source of surface water are:



1.1.4 Need of surface water resource development project:

Nepal is a very rich for water resource and other natural
resource as well, the uses of resource are very poor. Agriculture is one of the
largest sectors in Nepalese economy. It provides employment more than
80% work force. Due to available irrigation system hasnt developed in
cultivate area. If there are available irrigation systems we can growth our
economy status by the agricultural occupation. So the content of Nepal many
many need of surface water irrigation system.
1.1.5 Introduction of Dhade khola and Ghyang khola Dovan irrigation
A. Background:
Dhade khola and Ghyang khola Dovan irrigation project is one
of the project most requested by the local farmer. Proposed Dhade khola and
Ghyang khola Dovan project is located at Ghyang sukathokar VDC, ward
no.1, 2,3and 4of Dolakha District. North of project site is Pobati VDC, west
of project site is salungeshowre and verpu VDC, east of project site is
Jaapha VDC, and south of project site is Verpu VDC. Tamakoshi is situated
at the east of project site and Ladke khola is situated at south of project area.
Ghyang khola is tributaries of Tamakodhi River. The project area lies 164
KM east of Kathmandu. The route is KTM-CHARIKOT- TAMAKOSHIJAAPHE- GHYANG- SUKATHOKAR. It is 32 KM from Charikot, the
district headquarter of Dolakha. The gross command area is of this system is
about 210He as per the field survey. The cultivate command area is
estimated to be about 161.7 He. Out of total cultivable area of 161.7 He only
140He of net command area is level terrace land with medium to instance
cultivate and can be fully utilized by irrigation facility. Although the other
remaining 21.7 He land are sleepy sloped and non irrigable type of land,

hence be ignored. The feasibility study life of the project was about 20 years.
In this way this project commenced in FY 2067/68 and termination FY
2068/69. The total life of the project was 22 years.

B. Objective of the project:

The main objective of the project to increase the agricultural
yield in about 185 He of fertile level terrace land by providing a reliable
irrigation service, as currently the agriculture with in this command area is
based primarily on rain feed condition. After the completion of the project
the living standard and their livelihood of people living with in this
command area is expected to increase substantly. After the completion of the
system, agricultural yield is expected to increase by introducing improved
cropping pattern, crops verity and agricultural extension services. On the
basis of above statement pointoutly objective of the project are:
1) Increase agriculture yield.
2) Improve the people life style.
3) Improve the crops technique.
4) Increase in growth of crops.
5) Improve economically status of the people of project area.

1.2 Objective of the study

The objectives of the study are:
a. Study and interpret the Dhade khola Ghyang khola dovan
irrigation project.
b. To study the impact of the project on growth rate of crops.
c. To evaluate the trend of the project.

1.3 Methodology:
1.3.1 Research, design and structure:
The research design is the main part of field work report writing
of any type of research design. It tends to collect the right quantum of
accurate type of research and design. Descriptive and analytical research and
design have been used to achieve the objective of the assignment. Some
statically tools have been also use to examine the fact and descriptive
technique have been adopted for evaluation simple bar diagram, pie chart,
multiple bar diagram of trend lines have been adopted for evaluation. Simple
bar diagram, pie diagram and multiple bar diagram have been used.

1.3.2 Data collection procedure:

The field work assignment report writing totally based on fact
and figure collected from data available in the office of Nepal engineering
consultancy services under ministry of water resource development of
irrigation central irrigation development sub-Division # 4 Charikot,

1.4 Limitation of the study:

1. The study is only focused on the Dhade Khola and Ghyang Khola
Dovan irrigation project.
2. The study is dependent upon the secondary data and its fact and figure
from NECOS Ghettekulo Kathmandu.
3. The study only focused on the impact (effect) on growth rate of crops
on the project area.
4. The time for field work is limited.
5. Only few statistical tools have been used for analysis.

Presentation and Analysis of Data
This section analyzes the development of Dhade Khola and Ghyang
Khola Dovan irrigation project and its different year. It analyzes the
development of project on its different stage i.e. before project and after
project on its impact on allocated area. Capital investment amount, numbers
of resource & tube wells and irrigation system developed and so caused
growth rate increase of various crops. So this section analyzed the
development of project on different year as well as impact on growth rate of
To measure the development trend of the project on the basis of the
flowing technique;

On the basis of capital investment amount.

On the basis of command area land use.

On the Basis of growth rate increased.

2.1 On the basis of capital investment amount.

The investment amount for the development of each year of the
project is the capital investment amount for the year and total amount of sum
of each year is projects capital investment that is project budget or cost. On
the basis of investment amount of different year of the project its
development trend have been analyzed so for total NRs 5908858.77 Have
been invested on the project and in its each year flowing year:


1st Year

2nd Year






In %




Table-1 On the basis of capital investment amount



On the basis of capital investment amount

On the basis of capital investment amount

From above table and figure we see investment amount of project on

each year increasing. In first year NRS 2363543.51expensed, which was less than
20% on 2nd Year and 2nd year NRS 3545315.26 which was more than 20% on 1 st
year. In total NRS 5908858.77 Capital invested for the Dhade Khola and Ghyang
Khola Dovan irrigation project. Some parts of the capital have been used for the
environment protection and contingency. Projects budget has been used very
much in 2nd year.

2.2 On the basis of command area land used.

Command areas are the areas covered by an irrigation system. The land
quantity of areas is measured in hector (He) and the command areas are the
quantity of land irrigated by each year of development of irrigation system. So far
where ending year of projects 2nd year i.e. 2065/66 total 287 He land has been
facilitated. The table and figure and diagram below show the development trend.

Table 2 On the basis of command area land used:

Command area land use

Before project

After project
Figure -3
On the basis of command area land use

Figure -4
On the basis of command area land


2.3 On the basis of growth rate increase




Paddy Monsoon
Paddy Spring



The type of various crops at the before project is very low, primary due to
lack of irrigation facilities. Traditional method in Farming has contributed to
low yield in before project scenario. But the after project the type of various
crops is excellent by the irrigation facilities. There is good impact on Paddy
crops. Because only monsoon paddy growth before project. But after the
project spring paddy also growths in spring season same as monsoon
quantity. And all the various crops increased by the project. In the below
figure have also crops growth rate presented.


Figure - 5

On the basis of crops and crops yield

Figure - 6
On the basis of crops and crops yield


From the above table and figure we see of the project has good or
positive impact upon density of crops and has caused growth of crops
density. The yield of various crops at the before project situation is very low
but the yield of various crops at the after project situation is increasing in
height rate. Approximate double increase in average by the Dhade Khola and
Ghyang Khola Dovan irrigation projects facilities.


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
3.1 Summary:
The country, which is mainly dependent upon agriculture, has to make
Available to the farm or crop field so that growth rate could be facilitated
and increased. Irrigation system is lifeblood of agriculture. Traditionally
constructed irrigation system can't make water available to crops field.
Whole year and the system can't have adequate water whole year so that
growth rate of crops would be last and people were hardly able to meat only
their demand of cereal. Food crops and other crops as well throughout the
year. So to meet the demand of the farmer their salves for whole year and to
generate income for surpluses to increase growth rate of the crops is very
essential. The growth rate couldn't be increase. Only by increasing fertilizers
use weather that the chemical or organic fertilizers by using modern
equipment, tools& utensils and by following modern approaches of
agriculture if only water is supplied enough with following all those
technique and method the growth rate would certainly be increased. As
Nepal is rich for water resources the irrigation system's development would
be easy if the nation could finance for irrigation system development and
utilized the water flowing in rivers from high mountains. Financing aspect
has been very hard to meet by the nation as the construction of dams on
rivers and construction of channels of canal & drainage system require a hug
amount of fund so by using small amount available to construct & develop


small irrigation system by using surface water resources of water is in

As the main purpose of study is to find out the development of Dhade
Khola & Ghyang Khola Dovan irrigation project throughout it's effect on
growth rate of crops in the project area, all data used here for analysis are
based on data provided by 'Nepal Engineering consultancy'. For comparative
study pie diagram, simple diagram, multiple bar diagram have been used.

3.2 Conclusion
The project lies in the hill region of the country. At present the
proposed command area is under upland crops as well as paddy, the paddy
cultivation without reliable irrigation facility. With the construction of the
project, the proposed command area is expected to be provided with Dhade
Khola and ghyang Khola Dovan irrigation project is a new project
undertaken the irrigation facility. Consequently, the agriculture yield will be
increase substantially and eventually the living standard of the people living
within the command area will be increased.
The total financial construction cost of the project has been estimated
NRs 5908858.77 and per Hectare cost is NRs 42206.13, which is quite
reasonable in hilly area.


3.3 Recommendation:
On the basis of secondary data provide from the Nepal Engineering
consultancy services Ghattekulo, Katmandu, Nepal. This report is prepared.
From this study flowing recommendation has been recommended:
Since the all facilible of projects is not fully utilized so the
capacity of the project can be convert for electricity.
Well utilized the project in general public to develop the


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