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Fall 2011

Matthias Strauch

M 507 Lie Algebras - Homework 10
If not stated otherwise, F denotes an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero, all Lie algebras are
finite-dimensional Lie algebras over F , and all F -vector spaces are finite-dimensional.
(1) Consider the Cartan matrix (of size n  n) for the root system of type An : 

2 1 0
0  

1
2 

1
0   

0 .1 2. 1
C .
..
..
..
.. 

.  

0
0

...
...

0
... 

1
0

...
...
...
...
2 
1

0
0
0
..
. 

1

. .. 2 0 1 .. . 1 2 pn Deduce from this that the group Zn {CZn is cyclic of order n group of the root system of type An is cyclic of order n 1. . .  0 . . . .. .. and permuting rows) one can obtain a matrix of the type  1 2 1 0  0 1 2 1    . ... . 0 0 0 ...... C1   ... 1   0 0 ..     2 Show that by performing elementary row operations on C (adding an integral multiple of one row to another row. . .. . .... 1q . . . ... .

   . and indicate some points of the weight lattice Λ  Zλ1 Zλ2 . Can you see that the mesh spanned by a base of Φ has three times the area of the mesh tt1 λ1 t2 λ2 | ti P r0. λ2 q. (4) For Φ of type A2 . (a) (Iwasawa decomposition. indicate some points of the root lattice Λr  ZΦ (the group generated by Φ).  1. where U P SUpnq  tX P ¯  1n u. Conclude that the fundamental (2) Draw a (nice!) picture of the root system Φ  A2 (with correct lengths and angles1). We write SLn pCq  SUpnqB and call this the Iwasawa decomposition of SLn pCq. 1su spanned by λ1 and λ2 ? (3) If λ P Λ . Πpλ2 q and Πpλ1 sets (similar to the picture in problem 2. draw in this picture the fundamental weights λ1 and λ2 . Draw pictures of these (5) 2 SLn pCq is simply connected. continued ÝÑ 1it is recommended to use an extra sheet of paper for this exercise 2optional . determine explicitly the sets Πpλ1 q. and B is an upper triangular matrix (with complex entries) having positive SLn pCq | X T X real entries on the diagonal (and determinant one). prove that the set Πpλq consisting of all dominant weights µ   λ and their W-conjugates is saturated.) Use the Gram-Schmidt process (for the hermitian vector space Cn ) to show that any A P SLn pCq can be written uniquely as A  U B. but on a different sheet). We denote the subgroup of SLn pCq consisting of such matrices B by B.

. . (Hint: consider the canonical map SLn pCq Ñ PGLn pCq.) Apply the long exact sequence of homotopy groups (sets) . . . respectively. (c) The group PGLn pCq is defined to be the quotient of GLn pCq by its center C  1n .) Remark. (a) Show that the center of SLn pCq is µn  1n SUpnq.Comments. The groups SLn pCq{Γ (Γ a subgroup of the center of SLn pCq) give a complete set of linear algebraic groups (over C) that are simple in the sense of algebraic groups and that have as Lie algebra the Lie algebra of type An1 . . i. . . The ’extreme’ cases SLn pCq (trivial fundamental group) and PGLn pCq (maximal possible fundamental group) are called the simply connected group of type An1 and the adjoint group of type An1 . . (It is even a locally trivial fibre bundle with general fiber SUpn  1q. corrections and queries can be sent to me at mstrauch@indiana.e. is a Serre fibration. show that π1 pSLn pCq{Γq  Γ.e. PGLn pCq  GLn pCq{C ..edu (b) Show that the group B is contractible. i. Show that the stabilizer of e1 P S 2n1 is precisely " 1 0 0 C * | C P SUpn  1q  SUpn  1q . ÝÑ π1 pSUpn  1qq ÝÑ π1 pSUpnqq ÝÑ π1 pS 2n1 q ÝÑ . A ÞÑ Ae1 . Show that the same is true for (b) If Γ is a subgroup of the center of SLn pCq. that its underlying topological space (a subspace of 2 Mn pCq  Cn ) is contractible. 3optional . |zn|2  1u invariant. Use part (a) to show that SLn pCq is simply connected. znq P Cn | |z1|2 . and deduce (by induction on n) that SUpnq is simply connected.  tζ  1n | ζ n  1u. . . Show that π1 pPGLn pCqq is cyclic of order n. . (6) 3 Fundamental groups of quotients SLn pCq. (c) Verify that the action of SU pnq on Cn leaves S 2n1  tpz1. It follows that the map SUpnq Ñ S 2n1 .