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# Fall 2011

Matthias Strauch

M 507 Lie Algebras - Homework 10
If not stated otherwise, F denotes an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero, all Lie algebras are
finite-dimensional Lie algebras over F , and all F -vector spaces are finite-dimensional.
(1) Consider the Cartan matrix (of size n  n) for the root system of type An : 

2 1 0
0  

1
2 

1
0   

0 .1 2. 1
C .
..
..
..
.. 

.  

0
0

...
...

0
... 

1
0

...
...
...
...
2 
1

0
0
0
..
. 

1

. .. 2 0 1 .. . 1 2 pn Deduce from this that the group Zn {CZn is cyclic of order n group of the root system of type An is cyclic of order n 1. . .  0 . . . .. .. and permuting rows) one can obtain a matrix of the type  1 2 1 0  0 1 2 1    . ... . 0 0 0 ...... C1   ... 1   0 0 ..     2 Show that by performing elementary row operations on C (adding an integral multiple of one row to another row. . .. . .... 1q . . . ... .

   . and indicate some points of the weight lattice Λ  Zλ1 Zλ2 . Can you see that the mesh spanned by a base of Φ has three times the area of the mesh tt1 λ1 t2 λ2 | ti P r0. λ2 q. (4) For Φ of type A2 . (a) (Iwasawa decomposition. indicate some points of the root lattice Λr  ZΦ (the group generated by Φ).  1. where U P SUpnq  tX P ¯  1n u. Conclude that the fundamental (2) Draw a (nice!) picture of the root system Φ  A2 (with correct lengths and angles1). We write SLn pCq  SUpnqB and call this the Iwasawa decomposition of SLn pCq. 1su spanned by λ1 and λ2 ? (3) If λ P Λ . Πpλ2 q and Πpλ1 sets (similar to the picture in problem 2. draw in this picture the fundamental weights λ1 and λ2 . Draw pictures of these (5) 2 SLn pCq is simply connected. continued ÝÑ 1it is recommended to use an extra sheet of paper for this exercise 2optional . determine explicitly the sets Πpλ1 q. and B is an upper triangular matrix (with complex entries) having positive SLn pCq | X T X real entries on the diagonal (and determinant one). prove that the set Πpλq consisting of all dominant weights µ   λ and their W-conjugates is saturated.) Use the Gram-Schmidt process (for the hermitian vector space Cn ) to show that any A P SLn pCq can be written uniquely as A  U B. but on a different sheet). We denote the subgroup of SLn pCq consisting of such matrices B by B.

. . (Hint: consider the canonical map SLn pCq Ñ PGLn pCq.) Apply the long exact sequence of homotopy groups (sets) . . . respectively. (c) The group PGLn pCq is defined to be the quotient of GLn pCq by its center C  1n .) Remark. (a) Show that the center of SLn pCq is µn  1n SUpnq.Comments. The groups SLn pCq{Γ (Γ a subgroup of the center of SLn pCq) give a complete set of linear algebraic groups (over C) that are simple in the sense of algebraic groups and that have as Lie algebra the Lie algebra of type An1 . . i. . . The ’extreme’ cases SLn pCq (trivial fundamental group) and PGLn pCq (maximal possible fundamental group) are called the simply connected group of type An1 and the adjoint group of type An1 . . (It is even a locally trivial fibre bundle with general fiber SUpn  1q. corrections and queries can be sent to me at mstrauch@indiana.e. is a Serre fibration. show that π1 pSLn pCq{Γq  Γ.e. PGLn pCq  GLn pCq{C ..edu (b) Show that the group B is contractible. i. Show that the stabilizer of e1 P S 2n1 is precisely " 1 0 0 C * | C P SUpn  1q  SUpn  1q . ÝÑ π1 pSUpn  1qq ÝÑ π1 pSUpnqq ÝÑ π1 pS 2n1 q ÝÑ . A ÞÑ Ae1 . Show that the same is true for (b) If Γ is a subgroup of the center of SLn pCq. that its underlying topological space (a subspace of 2 Mn pCq  Cn ) is contractible. 3optional . |zn|2  1u invariant. Use part (a) to show that SLn pCq is simply connected. znq P Cn | |z1|2 . and deduce (by induction on n) that SUpnq is simply connected.  tζ  1n | ζ n  1u. . . Show that π1 pPGLn pCqq is cyclic of order n. . (6) 3 Fundamental groups of quotients SLn pCq. (c) Verify that the action of SU pnq on Cn leaves S 2n1  tpz1. It follows that the map SUpnq Ñ S 2n1 .