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Valves

Function of Valves: Control of the


Water System
1.
2.
3.
4.

Start or Shut Down a System


Regulate Pressure
Check Backflow
Control the Direction of
water

Rules Regarding Location of Valves


-

Locate and distribute valves


in such a manner that they
can isolate a certain section
of the network in case of
system breakdown (before
each branch)
Locate valves where they are
not
too
visible
while
remaining
accessible
to
users

Type of Valves
1. Gate Valve a.k.a. Pull-away
Valve
- Use mainly to completely
close or completely open
the water line (does not
control flow of water)
- Best suited to the main
supply an pump lines
wherein
operation
is
infrequent
2. Globe Valve
- Controls the flow of water
with a movable spindle
- Can
reduce
water
pressure
- Only one side of the valve
is inlet
3. Check Valve
- Main
function
is
to
prevent the reversal of
flow (backflow) in the line

A line of valve that allows


fluid to flow in the
direction
but
closes
automatically to prevent
flow in the opposite
direction
4. Angle Valve
- Operates in the same
manner as Globe Valve
(disc and seat design)
- Used to make a 90 turn
in a line
- Reduces number of joints
Types of Faucets/Bibbs
1. Compression Cock
- Operates
by
the
compression of
a soft
packing upon a metal
sheet
2. Key Cock
- Operates with a round
tapering plug ground to
fit a metal sheet
Hose Bibb
- Has grooves fit for hose
3. Ball Faucet
- Constructed with a ball
connected to the handle
Parts of
System

Cold

Water

Distribution

1. Service Pipe
- Pipe from the street
water or other source of
water supply to the
building served
2. Water Meter
- Device used to measure
in liters or gallons the
amount of water that
passes through the water
service
3. Horizontal Supply Main

The
principal
water
distribution pipe running
from the water meter
from which the various
branches and risers to
the fixtures
4. Riser
- A water supply pipe
extending vertically to
one full storey or more to
convey water into pipe
branches or plumbing
fixtures
5. Fixture Branch
- The water supply pipe
between
the
fixture
supply pipe and the
water distributing pipe
6. Controls and Valves
- Used
for
control,
isolation, and repair of
the water distribution
system
Types of a Cold Water Distribution
System
1. Upfeed System
- Direct Upfeed
- water is provided by
the
city
water
companies
using
normal pressure from
public water main
- Air
Pressure
System
(Pneumatic)
when
pressure
supplied by the city
water supplied is not
strong enough
- Compressed
air
is
used to raise and push
water into the system.
2. Downfeed (Overheadfeed) or
Gravity System

water is purified into a


large tank on top of the
building and is distributed
to the fixtures by means
of gravity
Upfeed System

Advantages
1. Eliminates extra cost of pumps
and tanks
Disadvantages
1. Pressure from water main is
inadequate
to
supply
tall
buildings
2. Water
Supply
is
affected
between peak load hour
Air Pressure System
Advantages
1. With compact pumping unit
2. Sanitary due to air tight water
chamber
3. Economic
(smaller
pipe
diameter)
4. Less initial construction and
maintenance cost
5. Oxygen in the compressed air
serves as purifying agent
6. Adaptable air pressure
7. Air pressure serves zones of
about 10 storeys interval
Disadvantages
1. Water supply is affected by loss
of pressure inside the tank in
case of power interruption
Overheadfeed System
Advantages

1. Water is not affected by peak


load hour
2. Not
affected
by
power
interruption
3. Time needed to replace broken
parts does not affect water
supply
Disadvantages
1. Water
is
subject
to
contamination
2. High maintenance cost
3. Occupies valuable space
4. Requires stronger foundation
and other structure to carry
additional load of tank and
water

Fire Protection System


Types of Fire Protection System
1. Dry Standpipe System
- No longer utilized in new
buildings

How it works: A standpipe is


connected to the exterior of
the building
- The standpipe is a pipe
installed in buildings not as
part of the water supply or
waste disposal system but
primarily used as water
conveyance in case of fire
2. Wet Standpipe System
- How it works: A piping
network (Line is directly
connected to the main
waterline) connected to all
levels of the building (at
least 1 standpipe on each
level)
3. Wet Standpipe System with
Siamese Connection
- How it works: A piping
network (line is directly
connected to the main
waterline) connected to all
levels of the building (at
least 1 standpipe on each
level);
additionally
a
Siamese
connected
is
located outside the building
for additional water supply
(connects to fire truck hose)