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org/wiki/G-factor_(physics)

g-factor (physics)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For the acceleration-related quantity in mechanics, see g-force.

A g-factor (also called g value or dimensionless magnetic moment) is a

dimensionless quantity which characterizes the magnetic moment and

gyromagnetic ratio of a particle or nucleus. It is essentially a proportionality

constant that relates the observed magnetic moment of a particle to the

appropriate angular momentum quantum number and the appropriate

fundamental quantum unit of magnetism, usually the Bohr magneton or

nuclear magneton.

Contents [hide]

1 Calculation

1.1 Electron g-factors

1.1.1 Electron spin g-factor

1.1.2 Electron orbital g-factor

1.1.3 Total angular momentum (Land) g-factor

1.2 Nucleon and nucleus g-factors

1.3 Muon g-factor

2 Measured g-factor values

3 Notes and references

4 See also

Calculation[edit]

Electron g-factors[edit]

There are three magnetic moments associated with an electron: One from its

spin angular momentum, one from its orbital angular momentum, and one

from its total angular momentum (the quantum-mechanical sum of those two

components). Corresponding to these three moments are three different gfactors:

The most famous of these is the electron spin g-factor (more often called

simply the electron g-factor), ge, defined by

\boldsymbol{\mu}_S = \frac{g_e\mu_\mathrm{B}}{\hbar}\boldsymbol{S}

where S is the total magnetic moment resulting from the spin of an electron,

S is its spin angular momentum, and B is the Bohr magneton. In atomic

physics, the electron spin g-factor is often defined as the absolute value or

negative of ge:

The z-component of the magnetic moment then becomes

The value gS is roughly equal to 2.002319, and is known to extraordinary

precision.[1][2] The reason it is not precisely two is explained by quantum

electrodynamics calculation of the anomalous magnetic dipole moment.[3]

Secondly, the electron orbital g-factor, gL, is defined by

where L is the total magnetic moment resulting from the orbital angular

momentum of an electron, L is the magnitude of its orbital angular

momentum, and B is the Bohr magneton. The value of gL is exactly equal to

one, by a quantum-mechanical argument analogous to the derivation of the

classical magnetogyric ratio. For an electron in an orbital with a magnetic

quantum number ml, the z-component of the orbital angular momentum is

Thirdly, the Land g-factor, gJ, is defined by

where is the total magnetic moment resulting from both spin and orbital

angular momentum of an electron, J = L+S is its total angular momentum,

and B is the Bohr magneton. The value of gJ is related to gL and gS by a

quantum-mechanical argument; see the article Land g-factor.

Protons, neutrons, and many nuclei have spin and magnetic moments, and

therefore associated g-factors. The formula conventionally used is

where is the magnetic moment resulting from the nuclear spin, I is the

nuclear spin angular momentum, N is the nuclear magneton, and g is the

effective g-factor.

Muon g-factor[edit]

muon due to loop diagrams involving the new particles. Amongst the leading

corrections are those depicted here: a neutralino and a smuon loop, and a

chargino and a muon sneutrino loop. This represents an example of "beyond

the Standard-Model" physics that might contribute to g-2.

The muon, like the electron has a g-factor from its spin, given by the equation

\mathbf{\mu} = \frac{ge}{2m_\mu}\mathbf{S}

where is the magnetic moment resulting from the muons spin, S is the spin

angular momentum, and m is the muon mass.

The fact that the muon g-factor is not quite the same as the electron g-factor

is mostly explained by quantum electrodynamics and its calculation of the

anomalous magnetic dipole moment. Almost all of the small difference

between the two values (99.96% of it) is due to a well-understood lack of a

heavy-particle diagrams contributing to the probability for emission of a

photon representing the magnetic dipole field, which are present for muons,

but not electrons, in QED theory. These are entirely a result of the mass

difference between the particles.

However, not all of the difference between the g-factors for electrons and

muons are exactly explained by the quantum electrodynamics Standard

Model. The muon g-factor can, at least in theory, be affected by physics

beyond the Standard Model, so it has been measured very precisely, in

particular at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. As of November 2006, the

experimentally measured value is 2.0023318416(13), compared to the

theoretical prediction of 2.0023318361(10).[4] This is a difference of 3.4

standard deviations, suggesting beyond-the-Standard-Model physics may be

having an effect. The Brookhaven muon storage ring is being transported to

Fermilab where the g-2 experiment will use it to make more precise

measurements of muon g-factor.[5]

Particle

g-factor

Uncertainty

Electron g_\mathrm{e}

2.00231930436153

Neutron g_\mathrm{n}

3.82608545

0.00000090

Proton g_\mathrm{p}

5.585694713

0.000000046

Muon g_{\mu}

2.0023318414

0.00000000000053

0.0000000012

The electron g-factor is one of the most precisely measured values in physics,

with a relative standard uncertainty of 2.6 x 1013.

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