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A company

of ThyssenKrupp
Technologies

Uhde

ThyssenKrupp

Nitrate fertilisers

Table of contents

Page
1.

Company profile

2.

Uhde The right choice

3.

The Uhde ammonium nitrate neutralisation technology

4.

The Uhde pugmill granulation process

12

5.

Prilling for low-density ammonium nitrate

16

6.

Ammonium sulphate nitrate ASN

18

7.

Calcium nitrate CN

19

8.

Liquid N fertiliser UAN and CN

20

9.

Main references

22

The world of fertilisers is almost as extensive as that of


agricultural products. As an international technology-based
engineering contractor, Uhde meets the challenge posed with a wide
range of key processes for fertiliser production, including ammonia,
nitric acid, nitrogenous and phosphate fertilisers, ammonium nitrate
and UAN. More than 360 references in world-scale ammonia, nitric
acid and fertiliser plants bear witness to Uhdes dedication to
providing customers with competitive advantages:
advanced economic and environment-friendly technologies;
professional quality-controlled engineering and project execution
principles; and maximum plant reliability.
Uhde a valuable partner for an entire spectrum of nitrate fertilisers.

1. Company profile

Uhdes head office


in Dortmund, Germany

With its highly specialised workforce of more than 4,900 employees and its
international network of subsidiaries and branch offices, Uhde, a Dortmund-based
engineering contractor, has, to date, successfully completed over 2,000 projects
throughout the world.
Uhdes international reputation has been built on the successful application of
its motto Engineering with ideas to yield cost-effective high-tech solutions for its
customers. The ever-increasing demands placed upon process and application
technology in the fields of chemical processing, energy and environmental protection
are met through a combination of specialist know-how, comprehensive service
packages, topquality engineering and impeccable punctuality.

2. Uhde The right choice

Uhde can look back on more


than 80 years of experience in
the fertiliser sector, during which
time the company has engineered more than 360 plants.

Natural gas

With todays intensive agriculture, soil yields are very much


a matter of choosing the right
type of fertiliser. Selection
criteria for the wide range of
different grades now available
include soil type, climate and
crop type. This, in turn, reflects
the need for high-quality fertiliser
production. Choosing the right
process is of the essence.

Lime stone

NH3
Uhde

HN03
Uhde

Uhde offers proven, competitive


processes based on both proprietary and renowned licensed
technologies, thus putting us
in a position to offer a full range
of plants for the production of
single-component and mixed
nitrogenous fertilisers.

CN

NH3

CO2

HNO3

The diagram on the right (Fig. 1)


provides an overview of the
principal fertiliser production
routes, as well as the available
processes and main licensors.
This brochure deals only with
the key processes offered by
Uhde for the production of
nitrate fertilisers.
For our urea, nitrophosphate,
compound fertiliser, nitric acid
and ammonia processes, please
refer to our separate brochures.

UAN
Uhde

Urea

AN

Stamicarbon,
UFT

Uhde, INCRO

CAN
Uhde

CAN
BASF

Fig. 1:
Uhde fertiliser processes
Nitrogen fertiliser

CN
Uhde

ASN
Uhde

Phosphate rock

Potassium

Sulphur

H2SO4
Monsanto

NH3

H2SO4

H3PO4

Ca3(PO4)2

YFT

KCl/K2SO4

Nitrophos.
BASF

CN
conv.
BASF

Lime

AN sol.
H3PO4
H2SO4

AS
Uhde

NP
BASF

NPK

NP
INCRO

NPK

NP
YFT, INCRO

NPK

MAP
YFT, INCRO

DAP
YFT, INCRO

SSP
YFT, INCRO

YFT:

INCRO

YFT, INCRO

YARA Fertilizer Technology

INCRO: Subsidiary of Intecsa-Uhde/Fertiberia


UFT:

BASF

TSP

Uhde Fertilizer Technology

YFT, INCRO

Compound fertiliser

Phosphate fertiliser

Insert: 3D plant model

General view of the nitric acid and ammonium nitrate


plant for Enaex S.A. in Mejillones, Chile.
Capacities: 925 t/day HNO3 (100%) and
1,060 t/day AN prills.

3. The Uhde
ammonium nitrate
neutralisation technology

Ammonium nitrate neutralisa-

General

tion is a proprietary Uhde pro-

Ammonium nitrate is produced from gaseous


ammonia and aqueous nitric acid in an exothermic reaction according to the following equation:

cess, designed for maximum


NH3 + HNO3
reliability and safety. This
well-proven technology is the
basis of our nitrate fertiliser
technology portfolio and has
been used successfully by
our customers in more than
40 commercial-scale plants
for about 4 decades now.

NH4NO3 - HR

The heat of reaction is released into the circulating stream of AN solution, causing a temperature
rise. Precise control of the reaction system
parameters is essential for highly-efficient ammonium nitrate production. These parameters include in particular good mixing in of the reactants
as well as reliable temperature and pH control.
The Uhde technology comprises an external
circulation loop, either forced or natural, and
also a sophisticated reactant feed and mixing
system for stable operating conditions.
Uhde offers two proprietary types of neutralisation processes for the production of ammonium
nitrate solution:
Vacuum neutralisation and evaporation
This process is the most popular alternative
because it involves the lowest investment costs.
The reaction takes place in a slightly pressurised
neutraliser to prevent the ammonium nitrate
solution from boiling in the mixing and reaction
sections thus minimising ammonia losses.
Subsequently, the solution is flashed into a
vacuum through a restriction orifice adjacent to
the vapour separator, thereby utilising the reaction heat for water evaporation. A solution concentration of 95 wt.% can be achieved with a
preheated feed of 60 wt.% nitric acid. For control and safety reasons, however, the AN solution concentration is mostly limited to 92 wt.%.
The higher concentration necessary for further
process steps, such as granulation (Section 4)
or prilling (Section 5) is achieved by steam
heating the solution under vacuum pressure.
For optimum process control and stability, Uhde
preferably applies a thermosyphon evaporation
system. The scrubbed process vapours are used
for feedstock preheating; surplus vapours are
condensed.

Ammonium nitrate neutraliser

Pressure neutralisation
In order to utilise the heat of reaction more
efficiently, the process vapour system in this
case operates above atmospheric pressure.
Uhde offers two main pressure neutralisation
alternatives for effective heat recovery:
a) The heat of reaction stored in the hot ammonium nitrate solution leaving the neutraliser is
used direct for the final concentration stage.
Even if a final concentration of 97 wt.% is
required, there is no need to import additinal
steam. (Fig. 3)
b) Heating steam is imported for final concentration of the ammonium nitrate solution,
while part of the heat of reaction is utilised to
generate low-pressure steam at approx. 5 bar
abs. (Fig. 4)
In both cases the flash steam from the vapour
separator at 2 - 4 bar abs is used for intermediate concentration of the weak ammonium
nitrate solution. Again, the remaining process
vapours are used for feedstock preheating;
surplus vapours are condensed. Depending on
how the vapour condensate is to be used, some
or all of the vapours need to be scrubbed before
condensation in a separate vapour scrubber.

Fig. 2:
Vacuum neutralisation
and evaporation

Process condensate
for scrubbing/saturation
CW

CW

Vapour
separator

Orifice

Vapour
separator

Process condensate

AN
neutraliser

HNO3

Steam

AN
evaporator

NH3 gas

NH3 gas

AN solution

AN melt

10 bar

Clean condensate
Circulation pump
Vapours to scrubber

Fig. 3:
Pressure neutralisation
with direct heat recovery

Process condensate
for scrubbing/saturation

Vapour
separator

Vapour
separator

Orifice

Vapour
separator

AN melt
Final
evaporator

First
evaporator

AN
neutraliser

NH3 gas
HNO3

Circulation pump

Process condensate to scrubber


Vapours to scrubber

Fig. 4:
Pressure neutralisation
with clean steam production

Process condensate
for scrubbing/saturation

Vapour
separator

Vapour
separator

AN melt
Steam

Steam 5 bar
Boiler feed water

NH3 gas

Steam
boiler

First
evaporator

Final
evaporator

10 bar

AN
neutraliser

HNO3

Process condensate to scrubber

10

Uhde can also offer a


third-party ammonium
nitrate process, for example
the INCRO pipe reactor
process, if required.

Pipe reactor process

Vapour scrubbing

In this process ammonia and nitric acid are


mixed in a long pipe equipped with internals.
The heat of reaction immediately produces water
vapours which cause a rapid flow through the
pipe with a high degree of turbulence. In a downstream separator the flow is split into vapours
and ammonium nitrate solution. The solution is
fed into a flash tank before being pumped to the
concentration stage while the vapours are
scrubbed prior to further utilisation. The reaction
process typically operates at pressures of 4-5 bar
abs and the vapours can thus be used for further
solution concentration and other heating purposes.

The vapours formed in the ammonium nitrate


neutralisation and evaporation process are
scrubbed either direct in the vapour separator or
in a separate scrubbing column. Depending on
the quality of the process vapours, a single or
dual-stage scrubber is applied. The condensed
overhead vapours from the scrubber can be
used for various purposes, e.g. as scrubbing
make-up water or as feed for a demineralised
water plant. Contaminant levels in the clean
condensate are as low as 15 ppm nitrogen.
The sump concentrate can be used for nitric
acid make-up.

Uhde has already constructed and successfully


commissioned licensed pipe reactor technology.

Fig. 5:
Vapour scrubbing

Steam
Steam ejector

CW

CW
Condenser

Steam condenser

Vapours
Process condendates

Clean condensate
Vapour scrubber

Process condensate pump


Process
condensate tank
HNO3
Process water for HNO3 plants

Scrubber pump

11

Ammonium nitrate vacuum neutralisation


and evaporation unit for Enaex S.A. in
Mejillones, Chile.
Capacity: 1,060 t/day AN solution
(92/96 wt.% AN)
Consumption figures (expected)
Vacuum

Pressure neutralisation

neutralisation

Fig. 2

Steam import (4.5/10 bar a)


Steam export (6.5/4.5 bar a)
Cooling water
Electrical energy
Ammonia
Nitric acid

kg/tAN
130
kg/tAN
31.0
m3/tAN
2.0
kWh/tAN
213
kg/tAN
kg/tAN
789

Remarks: Figures for 60 wt.% nitric acid feed, 96 wt.% AN product,


cooling water at T = 10C, electrical energy without DCS,
lighting, CR AirCon, limestone grinding, etc.

Pugmill
granulation

2 bar abs with direct

4 bar abs with clean

AN 33.5

heat recovery

steam production

CAN 27

Fig. 3

Fig. 4

10
22.5
3.8
213
789

52
240
3.8
4.8
213
789

Fig. 6

90
5.0
29.0

12

4. The Uhde pugmill granulation process

General
Today modern fertiliser plants supply granulated
products. Prilling is becoming less common due to
environmental constraints and increased product
quality requirements.
In producing fertiliser from the various solid and
liquid feed materials, the granulation unit must
ensure that the resulting product meets market
requirements with regard to its chemical and
physical properties.
There are many different ways of producing
granules, such as flaking, drum, pan or pugmill
granulation and fluid-bed technology.
In the past, Uhde has built granulation plants for
all common fertiliser grades from straight N fertiliser to NP(K) and P(K) fertilisers. Uhde has a
wealth of experience in the design and operation
of granulation plants and is in a position to build
plants based on all modern granulation processes.
The most common granulation process used
in nitrate fertiliser plants built by Uhde is the
proprietary Uhde pugmill granulation process.
AN granules

13

AN/CAN pugmill granulation plant,


Fertiberia S.A. (formerly Enfersa) in Sagunto/Spain
Capacity: 1,100/1,400 tpd (33.5 wt.%/26 wt.% N)

CAN granules

Pugmill granulation unit for the Irish


Fertilizer Company (IFI) in Arklow, Ireland.
Capacity: 1,400 t/day CAN granules (27.5 wt.% N)

14

Pugmill granulation unit for ANWIL S.A.


in Wloclawek, Poland.
Capacities: 1,200 t/day AN granules and
1,500 t/day CAN granules

The Uhde pugmill granulation process


The core component of Uhdes own granulation
process is a pugmill granulator. A pugmill or
blunger is a horizontal mixing and agglomeration
device. Its design is based on a horizontal U-type
trough with dual shafts and paddles extending
the length of the trough. The rotation of the
pitched paddles moves the product from the
bottom of the trough up through the centre. As
a result of the speed at which the paddles rotate,
the granules are fluidised in the upper part of
the granulator.

All solid feeds (e.g. filler or additives) and the


recycle material are added at the front of the
pugmill to ensure sufficient mixing before the
liquids are added. The liquid feed (e.g. ammonium nitrate melt) is distributed over the fluidised
material using a proprietary distributor.
In the granulator the material is built up to size
through agglomeration and layering. The hot,
moist granules leaving the granulator drop through
a chute into the rotary drying drum. In the drying
drum the granules are dried by means of hot
air. The dried granules are then screened into
oversize, on-size and undersize fractions by
double-deck or single-deck screens. The undersize
fraction is returned to the granulator immediately;
the oversize fraction is crushed beforehand.
The on-size, or product, fraction is cooled in
a fluidised-bed cooler with conditioned air to a
suitable storage temperature.
The cooled product is then passed to a conditioning unit where surface-active substances are
applied to improve the handling and/or transport
properties (e.g. caking, dusting, etc.).
The waste air of the fluidised-bed cooler is used
to dry the product, thus considerably reducing the
amount of waste air to be treated. It also reduces
power consumption as the products can be dried
autothermally or with a significantly reduced heat
input by an air heater installed upstream of the
drying drum.
Most of the dust in the waste air from the drying
drum is removed by cyclones and returned to the
granulator. After passing through the cyclones,
the air still contains dust and ammonia, which
have to be removed in order to comply with
environmental regulations.

3D model
of Uhde pugmill granulation

The waste air from the drying drum and the air
from the dedusting system are therefore passed
to a wet scrubber. Here, the dust is largely
removed from the air by close contact with the
scrubbing solution while the ammonia reacts
with the nitric acid contained therein.
The bleed from the scrubber is returned to the
evaporation system. Therefore, no liquid
effluents are produced during normal operation.

15

Key features

Uhde pugmill granulator

AN solution

Flexible with regard to capacity


Flexible with regard to production of different
products e.g. AN, ASN, CAN, CN
Easy addition of supplementary nutrients
(S, Mg, etc.)
Capacity installed single-line capacity
from 200 to 1,800 mtpd
Emissions below BAT levels
No liquid effluents
Power consumption below 30 kWh/t
(depending on product)
Low air flow

AN granules

Fig. 6:
Uhde pugmill process
to atm.

Clean condensate

HNO3
Screens
Additive
Cyclones
Scrubber
Bleed

Crushers

(to evaporation)

AN melt

Pugmill granulator

Fluidised-bed cooler

AN/CAN
Coating drum
Filler
(limestone, dolomite)

Coating agent

Drying drum

Steam

Steam

Cond. air

5. Prilling for low-density ammonium nitrate

16

Although prilling plants for


fertiliser-grade ammonium
nitrate have decreased in
importance compared to
granulation processes, prilling
is still the state-of-the-art

Low-density ammonium nitrate (LDAN) is used


as an effective and cost-efficient mining explosive,
mainly as a mixture with fuel oil (ANFO) or in
emulsion-type explosives. The high porosity of
the LDAN allows good oil absorption, which is
necessary for an optimal blasting energy yield.
If no additives are used, chemically pure ammonium nitrate can be produced, e.g. as feedstock
for medical purposes (nitrous oxide).

The prills are then sequentially dried in two rotating


drums, screened, cooled in a fluid-bed cooler and
coated with an anti-caking agent. Off-spec
material is redissolved and recycled to the process.
All air used in the process is scrubbed to meet
BAT emission levels. By reusing the cooling air
in the drying drums, energy consumption and
waste air flow are significantly reduced.
Uhde has designed LDAN prilling plants with
single-line operating capacities of 1,250 mtpd
and engineered licensed processes of up to
1,060 mtpd.

Main characteristics of the final LDAN prills:


Uniform spherical shape

process for low-density

Nitrogen content > 34.7 wt.%

Uhde cooperates closely with INCRO in the field


of LDAN prilling technology.

Water content < 0.1 wt.%


ammonium nitrate.

Grain size 1 - 2 mm

Uhde offers a proprietary

Fuel absorption > 6 wt.% (adjustable)


Free-flowing

technology as well as quali-

Good thermal resistance to hot climates

fied engineering services for

For the production of low-density prills the


ammonium nitrate melt is pumped to the prilling
tower top and mixed with a prilling additive.
From here the melt is sprayed in droplets which
crystallise in a countercurrent stream of cool air.

licensed processes.

Fig. 8:
Uhde LDAN prilling process

Ammonium nitrate prilling unit for


Queensland Nitrates Pty Ltd., Australia.
Capacity: 400 t/day AN prills
(technical grade)

Prilling additive

Screens

Prilling air
scrubber

Fluidised-bed cooler

Drying air
scrubber

Coating drum
AN prills

Anti-caking agent

Conditioned air

Scrubber bleed
to evaporation

AN melt

Pre-drying drum

Prilling tower

Drying drum

Bucket
elevator
Steam

Steam

17

6. Ammonium sulphate nitrate ASN

18

The depletion of sulphur in soils is increasing


and this has spurred demand for sulphur-containing fertilisers, such as ammonium sulphate
nitrate.
This is particularly attractive as it can be produced in a modified AN or CAN pugmill granulation plant.
Ammonium sulphate nitrate is a double salt
which approximately corresponds to the following
formula:
2 NH4NO3 x (NH4)2SO4
Commercial-grade ammonium sulphate nitrate
contains 26% nitrogen and 14% sulphate.
In the Uhde process described below, the
ammonium nitrate combines with ammonium
sulphate to form ammonium sulphate nitrate.
The addition of additives results in a product
which is very hard and has excellent storage
properties.

An approx. 85% AN solution is fed to a saturator


together with sulphuric acid and gaseous NH3.
The ammonium sulphate nitrate melt is formed
by the neutralisation of the sulphuric acid with
gaseous NH3 at approx. 160C.
The heat of reaction liberated through the
formation of ammonium sulphate vaporises water
contained in the feedstock, thereby causing the
ammonium sulphate nitrate solution to reach
the required final concentration.
The ammonia-bearing vapours from the saturator
are treated in a scrubber, where the ammonia is
removed by reaction with nitric acid. The scrubber
bleed is returned to the saturator.
ASN can be granulated in a pugmill granulation
unit as described on page 14.

Fig. 9:
Ammonium sulphate nitrate process

to atm.

Vent

CW
Scrubber

Scrubber
to process

HNO3

HNO3
Screen
AS (case by case)

Dedusting
Crusher

Al2(SO4)3

from points

FeSO4

to saturator

H2SO4 (80 90%)


NH3 gas
Process condensate
CW
Granulator

Orifice

NH3 gas
HNO3

Air
Steam
ASN conversion

Drying drum

Air

Fluidised-bed cooler
ASN

7. Calcium nitrate CN

Ground limestone and nitric acid of 50 - 60%


concentration are mixed in agitated tanks.
The components react to form calcium nitrate
solution according to the following equation:
CaCO3 + 2 HNO3

Ca(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2

The CO2 and water vapours liberated by the


reaction are withdrawn, and any entrained
droplets are removed by the scrubbing system.
Commercial-grade calcium nitrate (CN) contains
approximately 5 - 7% ammonium nitrate to
improve storage properties. The required AN
content can be obtained by neutralising the
remaining free acid with ammonia or by adding
fresh ammonium nitrate solution.
If CN is used to produce liquid fertiliser, an evaporation step is not needed. Any inerts or other
components of the limestone that do not react
with nitric acid have to be removed by filtration.
The remaining sludge is disposed of.

19

CN can be granulated in either a drum or pugmill granulation unit to yield well-shaped round
granules, the appearance of which is similar to
that of calcium ammonium nitrate granules.
(see page 14).
The calcium nitrate melt is fed to the granulator
via a metering station along with the recycled
material (the fines, the crushed oversize, and
the dust from the dust-collecting facilities).
The granules are then air-cooled in a cooler.
The cooled product is screened, and the on-size
fraction is bagged or sent to the bulk storage area.
The waste air from the cooler is treated in a wet
scrubber before being discharged to atmosphere.
CN solution from nitrophosphate production
The nitrophosphate (ODDA) route for the
production of NP(K) fertiliser produces CN solution
as a by-product. This solution, too, can be used
to produce CN granules or liquid CN fertiliser.

If granulated product is required, the calcium


nitrate solution is sent to an evaporator to obtain
the concentration required for granulation.
Fig. 10:
Calcium nitrate process

CW

Screen

Process condensate
Vapour separator
Crusher
Evaporator
Steam
CN granules
Process condensate

Granulator

to solution

Additive

Scrubber

NH3 gas
CaCO3
HNO3

Cooling/Drying Drum

Sludge
CN conversion unit

20

8. Liquid N fertiliser
UAN and CN

UAN

Fertiliser complex for CF Industries Inc.


in Louisiana, USA including
a 2,000 t/day urea plant,
a 870 t/day nitric acid plant,
a 1,105 t/day AN plant and
a 2,450 t/day UAN solutio plant.

The use of liquid fertilisers is a common practice,


especially in North America. A fertiliser with
excellent physical properties is UAN solution, which
is a mixture of ammonium nitrate, urea and water.
Standard solutions contain 28, 30 and 32%
nitrogen, respectively, but can also be enriched
with soluble plant nutrients, such as sulphur,
boron and calcium compounds. A typical composition of UAN solution with 32% N is
AN : Urea : H2O = 45 : 35 : 20%
As UAN solution is a liquid with a low viscosity,
it can easily be applied by spraying without the
need for additional irrigation. Depending on its
composition, the salting-out temperature of the
solution can be well below zero degrees centigrade and transport and storage are thus simple
even in cold climates.
Uhde has designed UAN plants based on two
process alternatives:
a) UAN solution on the basis of ammonium
nitrate neutralisation
In this process alternative ammonium nitrate is
produced as described in Section 3. Urea solution
and water are mixed with the AN solution in a
special UAN mixing unit to obtain the required
nitrogen content and adjusted to an alkaline pH.
After cooling and the addition of a corrosion
inhibitor, the final UAN solution can easily be
stored and handled.

Fig. 11:
UAN solution process with ammonia gas

CW
Condenser
Vapour
separator
Orifice
Process condensate

Ammonia
heater

AN
neutraliser

NH3 gas

AN solution

HNO3
Process
condensate tank

Process condensate pump


UAN solution

Urea solution

NH3 gas

Circulation pump

CW
UAN cooler

UAN solution tank

UAN solution pump

Corrosion
inhibitor

21

b) Neutralisation of urea off-gas


When implementing a once-through urea
synthesis, the ammonia-rich off-gas can be used
to drive the ammonium nitrate neutralisation
reaction. Due to the high CO2 content in the
off-gas, the neutralisation reaction is performed
in a natural circulation loop, followed by the UAN
preparation steps described before. In order to
minimise the ammonia losses in the vent gas,
a sophisticated scrubbing system is installed,
reducing the losses to 0.013 kg AN/tAN.
Contaminant levels in the process condensate
used as make-up water for a nitric acid plant
are as low as 300 ppm AN and 100 ppm HNO3.

CN
Calcium nitrate solutions are non-pressurised
liquids mainly used for drip or irrigation systems
in horticulture. A typical solution is CN-17 with
a composition AN : CN : H2O = 31 : 36 : 33%.
This solution is a fast-acting fertiliser containing
both nitrate (for quick response) and ammonium
nitrogen (for retarding nutrition) while the calcium
buffers the pH in the soil.
The production of AN and CN is described in
detail in Section 3 and 7, respectively.

UAN solution plant


for CF Industries Inc.
in Louisiana, USA

UAN off-gas vent scrubber

Fig. 12:
UAN solution process with urea off-gas

CW

Vapour
separator

Off-gas
scrubber

Urea off-gas

AN neutraliser

AN solution

Clean condensate

HNO3

Process
condensate tank
HNO3

Corrosion inhibitor

CW

Urea solution

UAN solution
UAN solution tank

9. Main references

22

AN/CAN/CN granulation plants


Completion Customer

Plant site

Raw
materials

Process

Nitrogen
content
%

Capacity

Remarks

2000

ANWIL SA

Wloclawek, Poland

AN solution, dolomite

Uhde Pugmill Granulation

33.5
27

1,500

CAN Granules

1999

Irish Fertilizer Industries (IFI)

Arklow, Ireland

AN solution, dolomite

Uhde Pugmill Granulation

27.5

1,400

CAN Granules

1999

AZOCHIM S.A.

Piatra Namt, Romania

AN solution, dolomite

Uhde Pugmill Granulation

33.5

mtpd

Final Products

1,200

AN Granules or

700

AN Granules or

26

1,000

CAN Granules

1,600

CAN Granules

1993

Sasol Fertilizers

Secunda, South Africa

AN solution, dolomite

Uhde Pugmill Granulation

28

1991

Abu Qir Fertilizers and

Abu Qir, Egypt

AN solution, dolomite

Fluidised-bed Granulation

33.5

1989

Chemie Linz

Linz, Austria

AN solution and CaCO3

Drum Granulation (BASF)

28

1,800

CAN Granules

Uhde Pugmill Granulation

26

475

CAN Granules

Uhde Pugmill Granulation

33.5

1,100

26

1,400

(reconstruction)
Chemical Industries Co.

2 x 1,200

AN Granules

(HFT)
from CN conversion

1988

GNFC

Bharuch, India

AN solution and CaCO3


from CN conversion

1987

ENFERSA

Sagunto, Spain

AN solution,
dolomite/limestone

1987

Quimigal

150

AN Granules or
CAN Granules

Alverca, Portugal

CN solution

Uhde Pugmill Granulation

15.5

CN Granules

Completion Customer

Plant site

Raw
materials

Process

Nitrogen
content
%

2010

Orica Australia Pty. Ltd.

Bontang, Indonesia

AN-solution

Prilling (Uhde)

34.8

970

2007

CSBP Ltd

Kwinana, Australia

AN solution

Prilling (Uhde)

34.8

1,060

LDAN Prills

1999

Queensland Nitrates Pty Ltd

Moura, Australia

AN solution

Prilling (KT)

34.8

400

LDAN Prills

1999

Enaex S.A.

Mejillones, Chile

AN solution

Prilling (KT)

34.8

1,060

LDAN Prills

1996

TNC Thai Nitrate Co.

Rayong, Thailand

AN solution

Prilling (KT)

34.8

220

LDAN Prills

1993

VBC Industries

Visakhapatnam, India

AN solution

Prilling (Norsk Hydro)

34.5

240

AN Prills

1983

Empresa Pblica

Cachimayo, Peru

AN solution

Uhde Prilling

34.5

220

LDAN Prills (exp.)

Carseland, Canada

AN solution

Uhde Prilling

34.8

680/1,250

AN prilling plants
Capacity
mtpd

Remarks
Final Products
AN Prills

Industrial Cachimayo
1977

CIL Inc.

LDAN Prills

23

Nitrogen solution plants


Completion Customer

Plant site

Raw
materials

Process

2010

Orica Australia Pty. Ltd.

Bontang, Indonesia

HNO3, NH3

Uhde Vacuum Neutralisation

2010

Orica Australia Pty. Ltd.

Bontang, Indonesia

LDAN solution

UAN Mixing

Nitrogen
content
%

Capacity

Remarks

mtpd

Final Products

990

AN solution

145

UAN solution 29 % N

Evaporation
Urea solution
2009

Ferrostaal

Point Lisas, Trinidad

HNO3, NH3,

and Tobago AUM-Project Urea

Uhde Vacuum Neutralisation

1,920

UAN Mixing

4,300

UAN solution 32 % N

1,100

AN solution

1,000

UAN solution 32% N

2007

Nitrogenmuvek Rt.

Petfrd, Hungary

HNO3, NH3

Uhde Vacuum Neutralisation

2006

Abu Qir Fertilizers

Abu Qir, Egypt

AN solution

UAN mixing

AN Solution

& Concentration
and Chemical Industries Co.
2004

Saskferco Products Inc.

Urea solution
Belle Plaine, Canada

HNO3, NH3,

Uhde Vacuum Neutralisation

255

Urea solution

UAN Mixing

565

Uhde Vacuum Neutralisation

1999

Enaex S.A.

Mejillones, Chile

HNO3, NH3

1999

The Mauritius Chemical &

Port Louis, Mauritius

NH3, HNO3

Donaldsonville, USA

HNO3, NH3,
Urea solution
HNO3, NH3,

AN solution
UAN solution 32% N

1,060

AN solution

225

AN solution

Uhde Atmospheric Neutralisation

1,105

AN solution

Uhde UAN Mixing

2,450

UAN solution 32% N

Uhde urea off-gas Neutralisation

1,460

AN solution

Urea offgas

Uhde UAN Mixing

3,250

UAN solution 32% N

and solution

Offgas scrubbing

Abu Qir, Egypt

HNO3, NH3

Uhde Vacuum Neutralisation

Tertre, Belgium

NH3, HNO3

Pressure Neutralisation

& Concentration
Uhde Vacuum Neutralisation

Fertilizer Industry Ltd (MCFI)


1998
1994

1991

CF Industries Inc.
CF Industries Inc.

Abu Qir Fertilizers

Donaldsonville, USA

2 x 1,150

AN solution

2,100

AN solution

1,100

AN solution

and Chemical Industries Co.


1990

Kemira

(Kemira Carnit Process)


1987

ENFERSA

Sagunto, Spain

HNO3, NH3

Uhde Pressure Neutralisation


& Concentration

1987

Quimigal

Alverca, Portugal

HNO3, NH3, Ca(NO3)2

Quimigal/Uhde Process

135

CN solution

1983

Insomnia Construction (Pty) Ltd.

Sasolburg, South Africa

HNO3, NH3

Uhde Vacuum Neutralisation

800

AN solution

1978

PAKARAB Fertilizer Ltd.

Multan, Pakistan

NH3, HNO3

700

AN solution

680

AN solution

& Concentration
Uhde Vacuum Neutralisation
& Concentration
1977

CIL Inc.

Carseland, Canada

HNO3, NH3

Uhde Vacuum Neutralisation


& Concentration

1977

CF Industries Inc.

Donaldsonville, USA

HNO3, NH3,

Uhde Atmospheric Neutralisation

Urea solution

Uhde UAN Mixing

(1,250)
600

AN solution

1,330

UAN solution 32%N

* AN solution capacity as 100% AN

Specialities
Completion Customer

Plant site

Raw
materials

Process

2002

Gujarat State Fertilizers

Sikka, Jamnagar, India

Ammonia, Sulphuric

INCRO pipe reactor

1,320

DAP

2001

Gujarat State Fertilizers

Sikka, Jamnagar, India

Ammonia, Sulphuric

INCRO pipe reactor

230

DAP

1980

Bandirma Gbre Fabrikalari A.S.

Bandirma, Turkey

NH3, H2SO4

Uhde Crystallisation process

21

600

AS

1973

Nitrogenous Fertilizer Industries

Ptolemais, Greece

NH3, HNO3, H2SO4

Uhde Pugmill Granulation

26

580

ASN

and Chemicals Ltd.

Nitrogen
content
%

Capacity
mtpd

Acid, Phosphoric Acid

and Chemicals Ltd.

Remarks
Final Products
(diammonium phosphate)

Acid, Phosphoric Acid

(diammonium phosphate)

PDF 23.4.2009

FL 221e