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KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA

SASO ...../2009

SAUDI STANDARD
DRAFT No. 11198/2008

Thermal insulation - Physical quantities and definitions

SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS ORGANIZATION


THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT SAUDI STANDARD CIRCULATED FOR
COMMENT. IT IS, THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY NOT
BE REFERRED TO AS A SAUDI STANDARD UNTIL APPROVED BY THE
BOARD OF DIRECTORS.

SAUDI STANDARD

SASO ...../2009

Foreword
The Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO) has adopted the International standard No.
ISO 7345:1987 Thermal insulation - Physical quantities and definitions issued by the ISO.
The text of this international standard has been translated into Arabic so as to be approved as a
Saudi standard without introducing any technical modification.

Contents

Page

Introduction ..................................................

. ... .

Scope and field of application ...................................

. ... .

Physical quantities and definitions

.................................

.. ...

Energy Performance of buildings

.......................................

Symbols and units for other quantities. ..................................

Subscripts ..........................................................

Annex

Concept of thermal conductivity

...........................................

.. .
Ill

STANDISO 7345 : 1987 (E) ARD )

INTERNATIONAL

Thermal insulation
and definitions

Physical

quantities

Introduction

This International Standard forms part of a series of vocabularies related to thermal insulation.
The series will include
ISO 7945, Thermal insulation

Ph ysical quan tities and definitions.

ISO 9251, Thermal insulation

Heat transfer

ISO 9346, Thermal insulation

Mass transfer

ISO 9229, Thermal insulation

Thermal insulating

conditions
-

and properties

of materials

Vocabulary.

Ph ysical quan tities and definitions.


materials

and products

Vocabulary.

l1

ISO 9288, Thermal insula tion - Heat transfer b y radia tion - Ph ysical quan tities and definitions.

Scope

and field

1)

of application

This International Standard defines physical quantities used in the field of thermal insulation, and gives the corresponding Symbols
and units.
NOTE - Because the scope of this International
Standard is restricted tothermal
insulation, some of the definitions given in clause 2 differ from those
given in ISO 31/4, Quantities and units of heat. To identify such differentes
an asterisk has been inserted before the term concerned.

Physical

quantities

2.1

heat;

quantity

2.2

heat flow

rate:

Quantity

and definitions

of heat
Quantity of heat transferred to or from a System divided by time:

Unit

W/m2

@=-----dQ
dt
2.3

density

of heat flow

Heat flow rate divided by area :

d@
=cL4

NOTE - The word density


density
(2.4).

1)

rate:

In preparation.

should

be replaced

by surface

density

when

it may be confused

with linear

ISO7345:1987

(E)

Quantity

2.4

linear

density

of heat flow

rate:

Heat flow rate divided by length:

Unit

41

Wlm

A.

W/(m- Kl

(rnmK)/W

(rn2aK)/W

RI

(rn- KVW

d@
41 = y-

2.5

thermal

conductivity:

Quantity defined by the following

relation:

-4 grad T

NOTE - A rigorous treatment


of the concept of thermal conductivity
is given in the annex, which also deals
with the application
of the concept of thermal conductivity
to porous isotropic or anisotropic
materials and
the influence of temperature
and test conditions.

2.6

thermal

gradT=
NOTE -

Quantity defined by the following

resistivity:

relation:

-r-q

A rigorous

treatment

resistance:
2.7 *thermal
the steady state condition:

of the concept

of thermal

resistivity

is given

in the annex.

1) Temperature differente divided by the density of heat flow rate in

Tl - *z

R=

4
NOTES
of thermal
1 For a plane layer for which the concept
constant or linear with temperature
(see the annex):

RZ---

conductivity

applies,

and when

this property

is

d
A

where

d is the thickness

of the layer.

These definitions
assume the definition of two
which the density of heat flow rate is uniform.

reference

temperatures,

Tl and 72, and the area through

Thermal resistance tan be related either to the material, structure


or surface. If either 7j or T2 is not the
temperature
of a solid surface, but that of a fluid, a reference temperature
must be defined in each specific
case (with reference to free or forced convection
and radiation from surrounding
surfaces, etc.).
When

quoting

values

of thermal

resistance,

2 Thermal
resistance
should be replaced
linear thermal resistance
(2.8).

Tl and T2 must be stated.


by surface

2.8 *linear thermal


resistance
: 1 Temperature
heat flow rate in the steady state condition:
R, =

Tl -

thermal

resistance

differente

when

it may be confused

with

divided by the linear density of

T2

41
NOTE - This assumes the definition of two reference
the linear density of heat flow rate is uniform.

temperatures,

TI and Tz, and the length along which

If within the System either Tl or T2 is not the temperature


of a solid surface, but that of a fluid, a reference
temperature
must be defined in each specific case (with reference to free or forced convection
and radiation
from surrounding
surfaces, etc.).
When

1)

quoting

values

In ISO 31/4,

of linear thermal

thermal

resistance

resistance,

is called

Tl and T2 must be stated.

thermal

insulance

or coefficient

of thermal

insulation,

with the Symbol M.

ISO 7345 : 1987 (E)

Quantity
surface coefficient
of heat transfer:
Density of heat flow rate at a surface in the steady
29.
state divided by the temperature differente between that surface and the surroundings:

Unit

W/(m2- K)

W/(m2- K)

W/(m-K)

W/(m2- K)

NOTE - This assumes the definition of the surface through which the heat is transferred,
the temperature
of
the surface, Ts, and the ambient temperature,
Ta (with reference to free or forced convection and radiation
from surroundkg
surfaces, etc.).

thermal
conductance:
Reciprocal of thermal resistance from surface to surface under
2.10
conditions of uniform density of heat flow rate:
1

AE----

R
Thermal
conductance
should be replaced
with linear thermal conductance
(2.11).

NOTE confused

by surface

thermal

conductance

when

it may be

linear thermal
conductance:
Reciprocal of linear thermal resistance from surface to
2.11
sut-face under conditions of uniform linear density of heat flow rate:

A, = RI
thermal
transmittance:
Heat flow rate in the steady state divided by area and by the
2.12
temperature differente between the surroundings on each side of a System:

Qb

u=

(T, - T2)A

This assumes the definition


boundary conditions.
2 Thermal
transmittance
fused with linear thermal

of the System,

the two

reference

should be replaced by surface


transmittance
(2.13).

3 The reciprocal of the thermal


each side of the System.

transmittance

temperatures,

thermal

is the total thermal

Tl and Tz, and other

transmittance

resistance

when

between

it may be con-

the surroundings

on

W/(m-K)

linear thermal
transmittance:
Heat flow rate in the steady state divided by length and
2.13
by the temperature differente between the surroundings on each side of a System:

u, =

45
(T, - Tz) I

This assumes the definition


boundary conditions.

of the System,

the two

2 The reciprocal of the linear thermal transmittance


roundings
on each side of the System.

2.14

heat

capacity:

reference

temperatures,

is the total linear thermal

Tl and T2, and other

resistance

between

the sur-

Quantity defined by the equation:

NOTE - When the temperature


of a System is increased
of heat dQ, the quantity dQldT is the heat capacity.

by

dTas

a result of the addition

of a small quantity

J/K

ISO 7345 : 1987 (E)

Quantity

2.15

specific

heat

Heat capacity divided by mass.

capacity:

2.15.1

specific

heat

capacity

at constant

pressure

2.15.2

specific

heat

capacity

at constant

volume

2.16
*thermal
capacity:
a=-

Thermal conductivity

diffusivity:

Unit

J/kgmK)

cP

J/kgmK)

J/kg-K)

divided by the density and the specific heat

m2/s

A,
ec

NOTES
1

For fluids

the appropriate

The definition

3 The thermal
from separately

specific

assumes
diffusivity
measured

heat capacity

that the medium

is cP.

is homogeneous

and opaque.

is relevant to the non-steady


state and may be measured
quantities
by the above formula.

directly

or calculated

4 Among others, thermal diffusivity


accounts
for the response of the temperature
at a location inside a
material to a Change of temperature
at the surface. The higher the thermal diffusivity
of the material, the
more sensitive the interior temperature
is to changes of the surface temperature.

2.17
thermal
effusivity:
specif ic heat ca pacity :

For fluids

the appropriate

Square root of the product of thermal conductivity,

specific

heat capacity

density and

is cP.

2 This property
is relevant to the non-steady
state. lt may be measured or calculated
from separately
measured quantities by the above formula. Among others, thermal effusivity accounts for the response of a
surface temperature
to a Change of the density of heat flow rate at the surface. The lower the thermal
effusivity of the material the more sensitive the surface temperature
is to changes of heat flow at the surface.

Energy

Performance

volume coefficient
31
and by the differente

of buildings

of heat loss:

of temperature

Heat flow rate from the buildin g divided by the volume


between the internal and external environment :

W/(m3- K)

F,, = VAT

NOTE - The heat flow rate may optionally


building envelope, Ventilation,
solar radiation,
The use of volume
ternal temperature,

include the contributions


of heat transmissions
etc. The volume,
V, shall be defined.

coefficient
of heat loss assumes a conventional
volume and the different contributions
resulting

through

definition
of internal temperature,
in the heat flow rate.

the

ex-

areal coefficient
of heat loss: Heat flow rate from the bluilding divided by the area and
32
the differente of temperature between the i nternal and external environment :
Q)

F, = AaAT

W/(m2m K)

ISO 7345 : 1987 (EI

NOTE - The heat flow rate may optionally


building envelope, Ventilation,
solar radiation,
area, etc.

include the contributions


of heat transmissions
through the
etc. The area may optionally
be the envelope area, the floor

The use of areal coefficients


of heat loss assumes
temperature,
area and the different contributions

3.3

Ventilation

a conventional
definition of internal
resulting in the heat flow rate.

Symbols

and units

for other

the number

of air changes

Unit

external

h-

Number of air changes in a defined volume divided by time.

rate:

NOTE - The unit for Ventilation rate, h - 1, is not an SI unit. However,


the generally accepted way to express Ventilation
rate.

temperature,

Quantity

per hour is

quantities
T

OC

thickness

4.4

length

4.5

width;

4.6

area

m2

4.7

volume

m3

4.8

diameter

4.9

time

4.1

thermodynamic

4.2

Celsius

4.3

temperature

temperature

breadth

4.10

mass

kg

4. i 1

density

kglm3

Subscripts

In Order to avoid confusion, it will often be necessary to use subscripts or


shall be explicit.
However, the following

identification

marks. In these cases,

meaning

subscripts are recommended.

exterior

surface

interior surface

si

exterior sutface

se

conduction

cd

convection

cv

radiation
contact

gas (air) space

g
a

ambient

ISO 7345 : 1987 (E)

Annex
Concept

A.0

of thermal

Introduction

To facilitate the understanding of the applicability of the concept of thermal conductivity, this annex sets out a more
rigorous mathematical treatment.

A.1

Thermal

gradient

grad

Tat

a Point

This is a vector in the direction of the normal y2to the isothermal


surface containing P. Its magnitude is equal to the derivative of
the temperature T versus the distance from P along this normal, ~1,the unit vector of which is Zr,.
From this definition
grad Tm& = -

conductivity
grad T and 9 are parallel and opposite, so that r is defined at
each Point as the proportionality constant relating the vectors
grad Tand 4:
grad T = - r<

. . . (4)

In this case, r is also the opposite of the ratio at the same Point
between the components of grad Tand 4 along any direction s
and does not depend on the direction s Chosen.
In the general case (thermally isotropic or anisotropic
material& each of the three components that define grad T is
a linear combination of the components of the vector 4. The
thermal resistivity is, therefore, defined through the tensor
of the nine coefficients of these linear combinations and
through the following formal relationship :

7
r1

dT

. . . (1)

an

gradT=

A.2
(Surface)
density of heat flow rate, q, at
a Point P (of a surface through which heat is
transferred)

- [?]

Gj

. . . (5)

If the thermal resistivity r or [f ] is constant with respect to


coordinates and time, it may be assumed as a thermal property
at a given temperature.

This is defined as
. . .

(2)

When dealing with heat exchanged by conduction at each


Point of the body where conduction exists, the quantity q
depends on the orientation of the sur-face (i.e. on the orientation of the normal at P to the surface of area A ) and it is possible to find a direction, ~1, normal to a sut-face of area A,
containing P where the value of q is maximum and designated
by vector G:
(3)
For any other surface of area A, containing P, the (surface)
density of heat flow rate, q is the component of 8 in the direction s normal to that surface at P.
Vector 4 is given the name thermal flux density (not heat
flux density). Thermal flux and heat flow rate are equivalent expressions when dealing with conduction. Whenever
vector G cannot be defined (in convection and in most cases of
radiation), only the expressions heat flow rate and (surface)
density of heat flow rate shall be used.

A.3

Thermal

resistivity,

r, at a Point

This is the quantity that permits the computation by Fouriers


law of the vector grad Tat Point P from the vector 4 at Point P.
The simplest Situation (thermally isotropic materials) is when

A.4

Thermal

conductivity,

L, at a Point

This is the quantity that permits the computation of the vector


8 at P from the vector grad Tat P, i.e. its product with thermal
resistivity is one or a unit tensor. If 8 and grad T are parallel and
opposite, it is
< = - A grad T
Ar=

...

6)

Like thermal resistivity, thermal conductivity is, in the most


general case, a tensor [A=] of the nine coefficients of the linear
combinations of the components of grad T that define each
component of i, through the following formal relationship:
=t
4 = - A.grad T

. . . (7)

[ 1

It is obvious that [ 2 ] may be obtained b jnverting


? and
vice versa. lf the thermal conductivity A or r R ] is constant with
respect to coordinates and time, it may be assumed as a thermal property at a given temperature.
The thermal conductivity may be a function of the temperature
and of the direction (anisotropic material); it is, therefore,
necessary to know the relationship with these Parameters.
Consider a body of thickness d, bounded by two plane parallel
and isothermal faces of temperatures Tl and Tz, each of these
faces having an area A. The lateral edges bounding the main

ISO 7345 : 1987 (E)

faces of this body are assumed to be adiabatic and perpendicular to them. Suppose that the material form of which the
body is made is stable, homogeneous and isotropic (or anisotropic with a symmetry axis normal to the main faces). In such
conditions, the following relationships, derived from Fouriers
law under steady state conditions, apply if the thermal conductivity A or [A=] or thermal resistivity r or J is independent of
temperature.

[ 1

1
A z----z
r
R=

AW,

Gd
A(T,

. . . (8)

- Tz) = F

- T)

c-z

d
A

Qi

. . . (9)

rd

If all the above conditions are met except that the thermal conductivity A or [ A=] IS a linear function of temperature, the above
relationships still apply if the thermal conductivity is computed
at the mean temperature Tm = (Tl -+- Tz)/2.
l

Similarly, if a body of length Z is bounded by two coaxial cylindrical isothermal surfaces of temperatures Tl and Tz and of
diameters Di and D,, respectively, and if the ends of the body
are flat adiabatic surfaces perpendicular to the cylinders, then,
for materials that are stable, homogeneous and isotropic, the
following relationships, derived from Fouriers law under steady
state conditions, apply if the thermal conductivity A or thermal
resistivity r are independent of temperature:

A =-=

1
r

D
Q>In e
Di

2n:l(T,

- Tz) =

D
4
- In2
Di
R

. . . (IQ)

R=

(T, - T+nZD
45

-=A2

1 D
D,
--In-=r-In-...(ll)
Di

D,

Di

where D may be either the external or the interna ld iameter or


any other specified diameter.
If all above conditions are met except that the thermal conductivity A. is a linear function of temperature, the above relationships still apply if the thermal conductivity is computed at the
mean temperature Tm = (Tl + T2)/2.
With the above limitations, formulae (8) and (10) are normally
used to derive from measured quantities the thermal conductivity of homogeneous opaque medium at a mean temperature
Tr-llThe same formulae (8) and (10) are often used to derive from
measured quantities a thermal property of porous media for
which heat transfers are more complex and tan follow three
modes : radiation, conduction and, sometimes, convection.
The measured thermal property that takes all these transfers
into account tan still be called thermal conductivity (sometimes
called apparent, equivalent or effective thermal conductivity)
when, for a medium of homogeneous porosity, it is essentially
independent of the geometrical dimensions of the specimen, of
the emitting properties of the surfaces which limit this
specimen and of the temperature differente ( Tl - Tz).
When these conditions are not fulfilled, the surface thermal
resistance must be used to characterize a specimen of a given
geometry under a given temperature differente (Tl - Tz) and
under given emittances of the boundary surfaces.