SASO ...../2009
SAUDI STANDARD
DRAFT No. 11198/2008
SAUDI STANDARD
SASO ...../2009
Foreword
The Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO) has adopted the International standard No.
ISO 7345:1987 Thermal insulation  Physical quantities and definitions issued by the ISO.
The text of this international standard has been translated into Arabic so as to be approved as a
Saudi standard without introducing any technical modification.
Contents
Page
Introduction ..................................................
. ... .
. ... .
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.. ...
.......................................
Subscripts ..........................................................
Annex
...........................................
.. .
Ill
INTERNATIONAL
Thermal insulation
and definitions
Physical
quantities
Introduction
This International Standard forms part of a series of vocabularies related to thermal insulation.
The series will include
ISO 7945, Thermal insulation
Heat transfer
Mass transfer
Thermal insulating
conditions

and properties
of materials
Vocabulary.
and products
Vocabulary.
l1
ISO 9288, Thermal insula tion  Heat transfer b y radia tion  Ph ysical quan tities and definitions.
Scope
and field
1)
of application
This International Standard defines physical quantities used in the field of thermal insulation, and gives the corresponding Symbols
and units.
NOTE  Because the scope of this International
Standard is restricted tothermal
insulation, some of the definitions given in clause 2 differ from those
given in ISO 31/4, Quantities and units of heat. To identify such differentes
an asterisk has been inserted before the term concerned.
Physical
quantities
2.1
heat;
quantity
2.2
heat flow
rate:
Quantity
and definitions
of heat
Quantity of heat transferred to or from a System divided by time:
Unit
W/m2
@=dQ
dt
2.3
density
of heat flow
d@
=cL4
1)
rate:
In preparation.
should
be replaced
by surface
density
when
it may be confused
with linear
ISO7345:1987
(E)
Quantity
2.4
linear
density
of heat flow
rate:
Unit
41
Wlm
A.
W/(m Kl
(rnmK)/W
(rn2aK)/W
RI
(rn KVW
d@
41 = y
2.5
thermal
conductivity:
relation:
4 grad T
2.6
thermal
gradT=
NOTE 
resistivity:
relation:
rq
A rigorous
treatment
resistance:
2.7 *thermal
the steady state condition:
of the concept
of thermal
resistivity
is given
in the annex.
Tl  *z
R=
4
NOTES
of thermal
1 For a plane layer for which the concept
constant or linear with temperature
(see the annex):
RZ
conductivity
applies,
and when
this property
is
d
A
where
d is the thickness
of the layer.
These definitions
assume the definition of two
which the density of heat flow rate is uniform.
reference
temperatures,
quoting
values
of thermal
resistance,
2 Thermal
resistance
should be replaced
linear thermal resistance
(2.8).
Tl 
thermal
resistance
differente
when
it may be confused
with
T2
41
NOTE  This assumes the definition of two reference
the linear density of heat flow rate is uniform.
temperatures,
1)
quoting
values
In ISO 31/4,
of linear thermal
thermal
resistance
resistance,
is called
thermal
insulance
or coefficient
of thermal
insulation,
Quantity
surface coefficient
of heat transfer:
Density of heat flow rate at a surface in the steady
29.
state divided by the temperature differente between that surface and the surroundings:
Unit
W/(m2 K)
W/(m2 K)
W/(mK)
W/(m2 K)
NOTE  This assumes the definition of the surface through which the heat is transferred,
the temperature
of
the surface, Ts, and the ambient temperature,
Ta (with reference to free or forced convection and radiation
from surroundkg
surfaces, etc.).
thermal
conductance:
Reciprocal of thermal resistance from surface to surface under
2.10
conditions of uniform density of heat flow rate:
1
AE
R
Thermal
conductance
should be replaced
with linear thermal conductance
(2.11).
NOTE confused
by surface
thermal
conductance
when
it may be
linear thermal
conductance:
Reciprocal of linear thermal resistance from surface to
2.11
sutface under conditions of uniform linear density of heat flow rate:
A, = RI
thermal
transmittance:
Heat flow rate in the steady state divided by area and by the
2.12
temperature differente between the surroundings on each side of a System:
Qb
u=
(T,  T2)A
of the System,
the two
reference
transmittance
temperatures,
thermal
transmittance
resistance
when
between
it may be con
the surroundings
on
W/(mK)
linear thermal
transmittance:
Heat flow rate in the steady state divided by length and
2.13
by the temperature differente between the surroundings on each side of a System:
u, =
45
(T,  Tz) I
of the System,
the two
2.14
heat
capacity:
reference
temperatures,
resistance
between
the sur
by
dTas
of a small quantity
J/K
Quantity
2.15
specific
heat
capacity:
2.15.1
specific
heat
capacity
at constant
pressure
2.15.2
specific
heat
capacity
at constant
volume
2.16
*thermal
capacity:
a=
Thermal conductivity
diffusivity:
Unit
J/kgmK)
cP
J/kgmK)
J/kgK)
m2/s
A,
ec
NOTES
1
For fluids
the appropriate
The definition
3 The thermal
from separately
specific
assumes
diffusivity
measured
heat capacity
is cP.
is homogeneous
and opaque.
directly
or calculated
2.17
thermal
effusivity:
specif ic heat ca pacity :
For fluids
the appropriate
specific
heat capacity
density and
is cP.
2 This property
is relevant to the nonsteady
state. lt may be measured or calculated
from separately
measured quantities by the above formula. Among others, thermal effusivity accounts for the response of a
surface temperature
to a Change of the density of heat flow rate at the surface. The lower the thermal
effusivity of the material the more sensitive the surface temperature
is to changes of heat flow at the surface.
Energy
Performance
volume coefficient
31
and by the differente
of buildings
of heat loss:
of temperature
W/(m3 K)
F,, = VAT
coefficient
of heat loss assumes a conventional
volume and the different contributions
resulting
through
definition
of internal temperature,
in the heat flow rate.
the
ex
areal coefficient
of heat loss: Heat flow rate from the bluilding divided by the area and
32
the differente of temperature between the i nternal and external environment :
Q)
F, = AaAT
W/(m2m K)
3.3
Ventilation
a conventional
definition of internal
resulting in the heat flow rate.
Symbols
and units
for other
the number
of air changes
Unit
external
h
rate:
temperature,
Quantity
per hour is
quantities
T
OC
thickness
4.4
length
4.5
width;
4.6
area
m2
4.7
volume
m3
4.8
diameter
4.9
time
4.1
thermodynamic
4.2
Celsius
4.3
temperature
temperature
breadth
4.10
mass
kg
4. i 1
density
kglm3
Subscripts
identification
meaning
exterior
surface
interior surface
si
exterior sutface
se
conduction
cd
convection
cv
radiation
contact
g
a
ambient
Annex
Concept
A.0
of thermal
Introduction
To facilitate the understanding of the applicability of the concept of thermal conductivity, this annex sets out a more
rigorous mathematical treatment.
A.1
Thermal
gradient
grad
Tat
a Point
conductivity
grad T and 9 are parallel and opposite, so that r is defined at
each Point as the proportionality constant relating the vectors
grad Tand 4:
grad T =  r<
. . . (4)
In this case, r is also the opposite of the ratio at the same Point
between the components of grad Tand 4 along any direction s
and does not depend on the direction s Chosen.
In the general case (thermally isotropic or anisotropic
material& each of the three components that define grad T is
a linear combination of the components of the vector 4. The
thermal resistivity is, therefore, defined through the tensor
of the nine coefficients of these linear combinations and
through the following formal relationship :
7
r1
dT
. . . (1)
an
gradT=
A.2
(Surface)
density of heat flow rate, q, at
a Point P (of a surface through which heat is
transferred)
 [?]
Gj
. . . (5)
This is defined as
. . .
(2)
A.3
Thermal
resistivity,
r, at a Point
A.4
Thermal
conductivity,
L, at a Point
...
6)
. . . (7)
[ 1
faces of this body are assumed to be adiabatic and perpendicular to them. Suppose that the material form of which the
body is made is stable, homogeneous and isotropic (or anisotropic with a symmetry axis normal to the main faces). In such
conditions, the following relationships, derived from Fouriers
law under steady state conditions, apply if the thermal conductivity A or [A=] or thermal resistivity r or J is independent of
temperature.
[ 1
1
A zz
r
R=
AW,
Gd
A(T,
. . . (8)
 Tz) = F
 T)
cz
d
A
Qi
. . . (9)
rd
If all the above conditions are met except that the thermal conductivity A or [ A=] IS a linear function of temperature, the above
relationships still apply if the thermal conductivity is computed
at the mean temperature Tm = (Tl + Tz)/2.
l
Similarly, if a body of length Z is bounded by two coaxial cylindrical isothermal surfaces of temperatures Tl and Tz and of
diameters Di and D,, respectively, and if the ends of the body
are flat adiabatic surfaces perpendicular to the cylinders, then,
for materials that are stable, homogeneous and isotropic, the
following relationships, derived from Fouriers law under steady
state conditions, apply if the thermal conductivity A or thermal
resistivity r are independent of temperature:
A ==
1
r
D
Q>In e
Di
2n:l(T,
 Tz) =
D
4
 In2
Di
R
. . . (IQ)
R=
(T,  T+nZD
45
=A2
1 D
D,
In=rIn...(ll)
Di
D,
Di