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SUBJECT:

IC 741

TITLE:
STUDY OF IC741
DATE :

IC741:
The purpose of these experiments is to introduce the most important of all analog building blocks, the
operational amplifier (op-amp for short). This hand-out gives an introduction to these amplifiers and a
bit of the various configurations that they can be used in. Apart from their most common use as
amplifiers (both inverting and non-inverting), they also find applications as buffers (load isolators),
adders, subtractors, integrators, logarithmic amplifiers, impedance converters, filters (low-pass, highpass, band-pass, band-reject or notch), and differential amplifiers.
Amplifiers, in general, taking as input, one or more electrical signals, and produce as output, one or
more variations of these signals. The most common use of an amplifier is to accept a small electrical
signal and increase the voltage or power, for example the amplifiers inside of a stereo.
OP-AMPs (OPerational AMPlifiers) are a fundamental building block for handling analog electrical
signals. An op-amp is a differential to single-ended amplifier, i.e. it amplifies the voltage difference
Vp Vn = Vi at the input port and produces a voltage Vo at the output port that is referenced to the
ground node of the circuit in which the op-amp is used.
Typically an OP AMP has two inputs called + and -, ( or VIN+ and VIN-) and a single output. The
output depends only on the difference of the voltage on the two inputs. If the difference of the two input
voltages is VIN , then the output voltage is VOut = VIN* Avi. This defines the (voltage) gain (Avi).
Ideal characteristics:
1) Infinite voltage gain A.
2) Infinite input impedance so that almost any signal can drive it and there is no loading of the
preceding stage.
3) Zero output impedance so that output can drive an infinite number of other devices.
4) Zero output voltage when input voltage is zero.
5) Infinite bandwidth so that any frequency signals from 0 to can be amplified without attenuation.
6) Infinite common-mode rejection ratio so that the output common-mode noise voltage is zero.
7) Infinite slew rate so that output voltage changes occur simultaneously with input voltage changes.
Comparison of the LM741 against the ideal OP-AMP:
Sr.
No.
1
2
3

Characteristic
Input Resistance
Output Resistance
Voltage Gain

Ideal

Typical for real 741

6 M
50
50000 to 100000
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4
5
6
7

Bandwidth
Offset voltage
Input Current
Voltage difference of inputs

0
0
0

1 MHz , changes at 0.7 V/sec


1 MV
30 nano Volts ( 3 X 10-8 volts )
????

Standard OP-AMP vs. Ideal OP-AMP model:

FIG. 1: EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF PRACTICAL OP-AMP and IDEAL OP-AMP.


Pin configuration:

FIG. 2: PIN CONFIGURATION OF IC741 AND IC741


Pin
1
2
3
4

Name
Offset null
Inverting input
Non-inverting
input
-VEE

Purpose
Since the op-amp is differential type, input offset voltage must be
controlled so as to minimize offset. Offset voltage is nulled by
application of a potentiometer between pin-1 and pin-5.
All input signal at this pin will be inverted at output pin-6.
All input signal at this pin will be processed normally without inversion
Rest is same as pin-2
This pin is the negative supply voltage terminal. Supply voltage
operating range for 741 is -5 to -15 V dc.
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Offset null

Output

+Vcc

N/C

Same as pin-1.
Output signals polarity will be the opposite of the input signals when
this signal is applied to the op-amps inverting input. Output signals
polarity will be the same as the inputs when this signal is applied to the
op-amps non-inverting input.
This pin is the positive supply voltage terminal. Supply voltage
operating range for 741 is +5 to +15 V dc.
Not connected.

Specifications:

Supply Voltage 18V


Internal Power Dissipation 310mw
Differential input voltage 30V
Input Voltage 15V
Operating temperature range 0C to 70C

Applications:

Non-inverting amplifier
Inverting amplifier
Integrator
Differentiator Low Pass,
High Pass,
Band pass and Band Reject Filters

Features:

No External frequency compensation is required


Short circuit Protection
Off Set Null Capability
Large Common mode and differential Voltage ranges
Low Power Dissipation
No-Latch up Problem
741 is available in three packages: 8-pin metal can, 10-pin flat pack and 8 or 14-pin DIP

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