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Modern Transient & Dynamic Testing

Uttam Mishra
Ranvir Bariya

Doble Engineering Company

Outline
Introduction of Steady state, dynamic and Transient

Testing
Why Transient & Dynamic relay testing?
What is the existing relay test practice?
How the existing practice may be enhanced?
What would be the new testing methodology and tools?
Conclusions
Q/A

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Test types

Steady state Testing


(all protection )

Dynamic Testing
(all protection )

Transient Testing
(all protection )

End to end Testing


(line protection )
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Steady State Testing


It is defined as applying phasors to determine relay settings by slowly
varying relay input up to pre determined value.
Steady state testing is usually used for pickup tests. The injected
current/voltage/frequency is raised/lowered until the relay responds
accordingly.

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Steady State Testing


The rate of change is slow enough so, it is time consuming
test.
Steady state test signals are commonly used for
individual relay calibration / testing.

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Dynamic Testing
Dynamic-state testing is defined as simultaneously applying the
fundamental frequency component of voltage and current that
represents power system states of pre-fault, fault and post-fault.

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Dynamic Testing
The dynamic state simulation signals are often helpful in testing
protection systems that filter out all components of the signal except
the fundamental frequency.

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Transient Testing
Transient testing is defined as simultaneously applying
fundamental and non fundamental frequency components
of voltage and current that represent power system
conditions obtained from digital fault recorders (DFR) or
electromagnetic transient programs (EMTP).
Analysis of questionable relay operation
Transient simulation signals reproduce all components of a
test signal that are important to the performance of a
protection system.

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Transient Testing
The current in Figure , for instance, is injected into an
overcurrent relay to test the response of the relay to the
high peak current that flows during the first cycles of
energization.).

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Transient Testing
The response to this type of signal (of a relay used for
protecting a capacitor bank) cannot be determined from
steady state or dynamic state signals, and is normally also
not discernable from the manufacturers application guide.
Testing by transient simulation is one way to gain insight
into what might be a secure setting.
Testing of individual applications using transient test signals
is often an important aid to developing reliable and fast
protection applications and settings.

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End to End Testing

Comm Channel

Protection
under test

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End to End Testing


Ultimate testing tool
Evaluates complete relay and associated equipment performance
Co-ordination between two end of relaying scheme
Current reversal
Evolving fault
Must for critical lines
Ensures proper operation of the complete relaying scheme

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What is the existing relay test practice?


Phasor testing procedure which does not represent power system
condition
Sets a fixed voltage and ramps current from zero until the relay
operates. Repeats such a test for several operating points.
The existing approaches in transient testing provide basic idea how
the transient tests should be conducted.
The existing approaches are in most cases aimed at some specific
situation when transient tests are required.
Majority of relay test engineers just continue to use what is easy
and believe that it is just not necessary!. It is a waste of time!
Not very difficult but pre-planning work is needed than to use the
steady state methods.
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Why Transient & Dynamic relay testing?


Provide complete protection scheme testing under realistic power
system condition
Numerical relays respond to transients differently. They use signal
processing techniques and numerical algorithms to calculate the
fault. In each calculation step, samples of transient voltages and
currents are processed
Some relays have over 2000 setting possibilities
Increases productivity, reduce testing time
Requires extensive configuration and setting procedure.
To implement conformance and compliance test
Cause of failure can be investigated
When the new relays need to be procured. User can assure weather
a given relay is suitable for the specific power system application by
testing a relay under realistic conditions
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Test Methodology
Generate a set of test scenario through simulation programs
Collect useful fault recording and of black out events
Create standard steps for automated testing
Automate the simulation to minimize test time
Finally create a test library
Implement comparative tests for a set of different relays with similar
functions
Collect relay response events, analyze the results and summarize
them in a test report with comparative results.

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Creating Test Library

Conformance
test

Power System
Model

Test Library

Compliance
test

Fault Records

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Confirmance Test
The objective is to test the basic functionality of the relays, verify the
operating characteristics, calibrate relay settings and implement
periodic maintenance test.
The concern of this test is the statistical performance related to the
relay operating characteristic and tripping time. To fulfill this test, a
batch of test cases with a variety of disturbance conditions including
faults and non-faults are generated through simulation.

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Fault Scenario ( sensitivity)


Verify whether relay has successful to detect internal and external
fault
Switch on to fault detection
Verify ability to trip relay when fault occur during power swing
Verify auto reclose and auto reclose operation
Verify capability of relay to trip on internal fault during system
frequency fluctuates in normal range

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SOTF Test

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Auto reclose scheme test

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Power Swing during fault

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No fault Scenario ( stability )

Verify the relay ability not to trip at stable power swing


Verify the relay ability not to trip overload conditions
Loss of potential
Loss of load
Load encroachment

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Power swing block

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Compliance Test
The objective of compliance application test is to verify whether a
relay can operate correctly under peculiar circumstances in power
system particularly during abnormal operating conditions.
The response and relay operating time performance under specific
scenarios is checked Eg. Use of the recorded data to analyze causes
of an unwanted relay operation in a pre and post-event analysis.
Those possible scenarios which may cause relay unintended
operation will be recorded and saved into the test case library.

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Test scenarios for Compliance Tests


Relay performance on 3 Phase
power swing / out of step
Cross country fault

Parallel line out of service

Fault in reverse direction


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Power Swing / out of step

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Cross Country fault


A fault can occur, for instance, between phases A and B but the phases belong to
different lines on the same tower. The undesired operation of the relays at
substation R can occur because they must rely on the local phase selection to
determine the fault type and which phase or phases to trip.

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Parallel line out of service


Parallel line out of service can cause unwanted operation of distance relays. When
overhead lines are connected in parallel or run in close proximity for either the
whole or a part of their length, mutual coupling exists between the two circuits

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Fault Reversal condition

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Power System Model (PSM)


Power system model contains thousands of nodes
A reduced-size power flow case with a manageable number of
dynamic system models is needed for real time testing.
Reduction of a full dynamic system model to a small dynamic model
requires testing on the full power flow and dynamic model to
determine which portions of the power system are electrically remote
from the line being tested.
Doble has Power System model for real time testing
This model represents two machines equivalent with lumped
impedance parameter for line and source value

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PSM Programs

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Using Power System Model


Power system model contain four power system configuration:

Single line
Parallel line
Single line with tap
Parallel line with tap

Obtain source impedance and line impedance at both ends of line


Enter impedances as positive , negative and zero sequence
impedance.
Select fault location or drag and drop the fault location sign and run
the test

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Equivalent PSM

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Equivalent PSM

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DFRs of black out and critical faults


Generate test scenarios. Test cases (ATP, MAT or COMTRADE file)
are generated through batch simulation program

cases of interest are selected from digital fault recorder (DFR) files or
blackout event files.

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Software Framework

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Doble Testing Software

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Transwin Software features

Transient fault record playback


Dynamic conditions can be created
Transient data can be recorded
Application for end to end testing

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Using the new Protection suite 2.1

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Benefits of Protection Suite 2.1


One relay assistant software for complete relay
performance testing
Steps can be created for performance testing
Protection suite will be able to create one library for all tests
Same library can be used for testing all relays of similar
functions.
Comparison of Settings.
Create and edit characteristics with a few simple steps.
Software User Interface enhancements.
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Conclusion
Reduced time to test complete protection
Faster diagnostic of questionable operations
Confirm actual settings
Relay PERFORMANCE evaluated to assure the BEST decision
regarding application practices & relay performance under critical
conditions
Utilities have used dynamic relay testing to find problems that were
unexplained with previous test methods.
Incident reports can now be meaningfully investigated.

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