You are on page 1of 28


Few Historical Evidences of India

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------In previous chapter we have placed some questions about the practice of
Marxist theory in Indian soil. Here there is need to discuss few evidences form
historical juncture of India briefly before going to above mentioned subject. We
are presenting this master in very simplified and straight forward manner without
giving much of quotations and references as the academicians usually do yet for
the sake of this discussion few words of Marx should be remembered in this
context. Academicians and intellectuals have been continuing this discussion and
referred Karl Marx, so it is well none to them. For the need of historical
requirement we have to rethink these few words as mentioned by Karl Max.
After completion of great works Capital Marx had tried to write another great
works regarding the backward country of Russia. In that aim he had collected
huge information and notes, but he could not finish this great works before his
death. In that unfinished work in a discussion note he stated few words which
are most important and relevant till today. Marx stated that a mere translation of
Marxism would not be successful in the revolutionary struggle in any country
because every country has its own dialect and this dialect depends on its
historical, cultural all these traditions and social dialect the revolutionary activity
would not go for successful revolution. Without proper evaluation of this social
dialect the class struggle would not develop into higher form of revolutionary
struggle, so we have to think various co factors regarding religion, races,
classism and cultural aspect in progressing class struggle for revolutionary
change of the society. It will be different from country to country. Through there
may be a world view for revolutionary change of the society, but we have to
consider several local, national, racial, cultural geographical etc. issues. Along
with the class struggle the new society, these issues should be kept in mind
before proceeding. In present social situation whatever is desire for socialistic
revolutionary model search already has started for it. This search for model not
only from today began long period ago, that is, sometime Russian model,
sometime Chinese etc. are long being debated. Sometime advancement in
industrial sector or the caught the eyes of Indian Marxist for advocating in
support of Russian model they cried horse for it, again in form colonial situation
and semi feudal presence with vast rural nature of this country, the Marxist of
India put forward the concept of Chinese model and spoke in high sounding voice
in favour of it.
In the present time of globalization the experience and the
struggle of Latin America are being gotten attention by Indian Marxist for
reforming political outlook and to take similar strategy and tactics. But this is
vast country India or Indian sub-continent. With plurality in nationality religion,
racial, tribal, provincial, ethnic, geographical and prolong historical and cultural

tradition. India is so vast that it is greater, bigger and wider in all these aspects
than a continent. So, those who seek or copy of a revolutionary model form any
successful revolution of other socialist countries, they are going of mere
translation of Marxism. Implementation of such theory and practice ultimately
ruined the revolutionary struggle. In this period of globalization all countries are
somehow well connected to other and do not sustain in alienated from the world
economic and cultural system. So, any revolutionary struggle of any country
should have a world outlook. Though it has uniqueness from country to country.
Because any country either vast or small the influence of globalization is must.
For uneven development of capitalism and imperialism the remnants of older
society like semi feudalism still exist in present globalized world. So the classical
concept of Marxism and Leninism does not lost its relevant. It is still working
today for formation of new master discourse for revolutionary struggle in any
country of present world system. In a changing world the class struggle and its
methodology of revolutionary strategy and lactic should be changed according to
the need of time.
The revolutionary struggle should be covered various
contradictions and problems regarding religious, racial, cultural, ethnic linguistic
and ecological issues along with major class contradictions. This is why the
development of revolutionary struggle should be different from country to
country and its character of class struggle will be different due to solving other
problems working within the people of those countries. It is a very simplification
if we set a model by translating any successful revolutionary process of any
country for the revolutionary process of any country for other country. So, there
should not be a fixed model or concept for revolutionary struggle of any country
it should be different according to the need of time and need of the country to
cover for solving the major class contradiction class inequality with all other
issues have mentioned above for changing the society with change of ownership
of means of production land development of productive forces with cultural and
social values. Every country has its own characteristics, according to that
revolutionary struggle will develop this revolutionary struggle will put forward a
world outlook, in other side, by synthesizing the local diversity and variations
with the aspiration of working class and common people the revolutionary
programme and its strategy and lactic should develop. It is never possible to fix
a model and its path has a readymade subject before starting revolutionary
struggle. A structural outline may be suggested from taking the lesson from past
revolutionary experiences and by judging present socio political and cultural
conditions. In no way it with be fixed. According to need there may be change
for changing the objective situation of any state and society. In this chapter we
are facing some important questions given as below.
1. Socialist revolution and socialist model,
2. Its world outlook and outline of worldwide changes,
3. Local feature and class struggle and its application in a country.
In answer to this question in respect to India the class struggle and its
methodology of application in new form should be taken for discussion. For this
we are discussing few historical evidences taken form pre-history, ancient,
medieval period and modern India. It is very brief nothing is unknown to
historical academicians and learned people, but we are calling these evidences

for common reader. Sub head non-violence and pre historic India the famous
Bengal novelist Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, the writer of Anandamath and
national anthem BandeMatram, said in his time with great dissatisfaction that
our country, India has no written history. At present this is not hold good in last
150 years foreign, nationalist internationalist, Marxist and modern historians
have done numerous researches and wrote huge writing to enlighten us about
Indian and brought into fore various outlooks to reconstruct the dark Indian
historical aspect. In the see of knowledge these are still scanty. Therefor much
information is beyond our knowledge and its search the scholars are engaged.
The author of this book has not that courage to introduce any new concept about
Indian historical experiences, but being a common observer we have e to say
few words to reconsider some historical evidences from which we can think in
newer way for some new concept for social struggle for its upliftment.
By introducing the ideology of non-violence (Ahimsa) as the methodology
of Indian nationalist freedom struggle Mr. M. K. Gandhibecame successful to get
nationalist hegemony in the long term freedom struggle of India against British
imperialism. He became famous throughout the world and the concept of nonviolence as methodology for struggle has gotten a world-wide dimension. In so
many countries of the world have been practising this methodology of nonviolence and non-cooperation as a weapon for their struggle. In the decade of
60s of previous century the struggle against apartheids Mr. Martin Luther King, a
black leader and priest of Christian missionary, utilized this methodology of nonviolence or unarmed struggle in USA. This great man was shot dead like Mr. M.K.
Gandhi by their opponent. In the decade of 80s of last century the massive
struggle of the student of China for democracy had followed the same line of
non-violence. But this struggle of students of China was demolished with cruelty
by military armed action taken by Chinese Government led by Chinese
Communist Party.
This Ahimsa as methodology and ideology has been
resounded repeatedly in Indian history in much aspect sometime like social
reform, other time for social justice and in all time to construct humanist
character of social personality of human being. In modern India it is utilized
uniquely for political and national freedom struggle as a main stream of Indian
national movement led by Mr M K Gandhi and Indian National Congress. Human
races started their journey from middle of Africa as Homo Sapience Sapience as
an old pre historic human species. The CroMagnon the ancestors of modern
human races were evolved (We are not discussing about other species like
HomoErectus, Homo habilis, Homo Sapience Neanderthals etc. in this context
because all of these species had perished long before pre historic human
civilization) . Presumably ninety thousand years ago from middle Africa and they
reached Indian sub-continent before barely seventy thousand years. They
spread into India and their journey continued in this sub-continent and they
spread nearly sixty thousand years back to reach Sri Lanka and even in continent
of Australia nearly thirty thousand years ago. (There are many books regarding
this anthropological journey and history about human races is available. Author
is referring the book Pre historic Infix by Mr Irfan Habib or easy reading to the
interested readers.) Many types of clan and sub clan of human races came to
Indian sub-continent by flow in thousand and thousand years. This pre historic

clan and sub clans through their inter action and intercourses gave birth to some
racial identity like Negrito, Negribotu, Australoid, Proto Australoid, Vedic etc. as
this is explained by the anthropological historian. Though there is much debate
and controversies are going on. But more or less consensus is that these racial
groups were being formed the pre historic races. At present the majority of
Indian tribal population like Kohl, Bheels, Munds, Santhal etc. have come from
these pre historic races and a greater portion of the pre historic races were
amalgamated with the main stream of population and grew as non-tribal identity.
Afterward he Dravid races came to India, the origin of Dravid races has many
different opinions. Perhaps they evolved from some clan and sub clans were
remaining or residing in the area of Afghanistan and Baluchistan at the western
front of Indian sub-continent. Few tribes are still using Dravidian languages at
present time in these areas. This may shows the relics of the genesis of Dravirian
language group people. So, we may conceptualize that this Drabid races were
originated from the Western frontier area of Indian sub-continent and spread
towards Easter and soothers parts of this sub continents they mixed with the
other remaining races as mentioned above. By long time of interactions these all
races including Drabirian had constructed the last stage of pre historic
civilization that is Neolithic stage. It occurred before ten thousand years from
present time. At the result of this constructing and deconstruction of process of
civilization the great Indus civilization of and Mohenjo-Daro appeared in the
history as one of the oldest civilizations of World.
There are relics of
contemporary civilizations have bound Western and northern part of India.
Similar civilization of contemporary period was evidenced in riverine West Bengal
and some relics have been found, at present it is a mind of Pandu kings at
Birbhum district of West Bengal. In very brief we can say that the pre historic
civilization was developed o the ancient historical civilization through the prolong
interacting and admixture of Austroloid, Proto Austroloid and Drabid races.
Nearly four thousand years ago the Aryan language group people entered
into India. It is better to remark Aryan language based various groups of people
were not unified race of sects, many stream of these human groups entered
India by major three floor with some minor flows for nearly one thousand years
distributing of time.
The archaeologist historians have agreed about the
presence of Alpian Aryan races in Indus civilization. Some historians like Rig lee
said them as outer Aryan. According to historian these Aryans traversed Indian
sub-continent and mainly concentrated in Gujrat, Maharashtra, at Western part
of Indian and Odisha and Bengal, that is, Eastern part of Indian sub-continent.
Other Aryan language people came to India with Vedas. They are known as
Nordic Aryans. Due to great ancient literature Vedas these Aryan language
groups are mainly known as Aryan bases. Due to this literature some knowledge
can be deducted by the historians about the culture, religion, and history of
these races, but about Alpines such evidences are lacking. The knowledge about
this race is very scanty. In subsequent period great strife, struggle and
interaction took place among these two Aryan groups and other non-Aryan races
and finally union and synthesis occurred. Nordic Aryans possibly came from
Russians steno areas and middle of the Asia. They left their nomadic character
and entered India and became gradually agriculture based clan. The strife,

strain and struggle were continued for few centuries. Ultimately they defeated
and over power on the other races. But by cultural and civilization indicator they
belonged to backward stage. The Aryans, the Austroloid, Proto austroloied and
Dravian human sect mixed well with each others and progressed towards the
great old civilization of India. In history this civilization is known as Hindu
civilization. This Hindu civilization only became possible by the interaction
between all the races. Non Aryan races contributed major share in development
of Hindu civilization. According to Dr.Atul Sur, a famous social Historian, the
Hindu civilisation was contributed seventy five percent from non-Aryan racial
culture. With the progression of time many other clans and sects like Shaks,
Hoons etc. and other races sub-caste entered Indian sub-continent. Gradually
they became partner of Indian civilization. If we observe the trend of Indian
history, we find the future of assimilation among them. Synthesis and union were
more obvious then strike and strain. Much talked question of RabindraNath
Tagores in his one of famous poems about the ethnicity of great Indian
nationhood has been made-Here the Aryans, the non-aryans, here Drabid,
China, the Shaks, the Hoons, the Pathan, the Mughal merged in one bodys- This
picture of union and synthesis of all races, religions and culture can be explained
as assimilation and was different from other civilizations of the world. It took a
different charter and feature her cooperation synthesis and assimilation were far
greater than strife and struggle and got greater important. One race and sect
without destroying other sects have tried to stay jointly. Why such social
psychology was developed in India? Answer to this question, we may find it from
the feature of Indian History and we have to refer this in the pre-historic time just
end of the last ice age which was far softer in comparison to Europe and ended
well sometime before Europe. With Himalayan-washed, sufficient rainfall and
natural temperature condition, the forest and animal treasure were found in
plenty in India. As a result the primitive races here gave better aces for
procurement of food by collection than hunting. They preferred food-collection
which was easier than hunting forest animals. Collection of fishes from plenty of
natural resources of river and huge domestic animals protein gave Indian People
good nutrition. This was ungues in pre-historic India. When in other parts of the
world one clan destroyed another clan top get their land and its resources for
their survival. In India this was not feature for continuing their lives. They
developed the civilization by conquering natural wealth and right over them.
Because of huge natural resources process of destruction was not needed as
compared with the history of other part of the World. Here Paddy, wheat, jowar,
burley, ragi etc. was found in plenty, oil seeds were available by simple tilling.
Even they can be easily got in nature with the vast wealth of domestic animals
like cows, buffaloes, milk and milk products like ghee, butter could be got much
easier; by not killing animals life was possible. For all these features nonviolence doctrine gradually developed through the struggle of primitive toiling
masses over nature. This doctrine had been revolutionised the Indian theology in
later days of Indian history. This non-violence being an inherent feature of India.
Its influence was observable in various stages as has been seen ancient
medieval and even in the modern days. Again at present time and in recent
period this ideology of non-violence have utilised in different types of struggle

may be political or social. This ideology of non-violence may be used as a

weapon for some time for religious reforms for establishment of social justice,
some time for fraternity, some time for national movement and freedom
struggle. This non-violence methodology of struggle have utilised in post
independent India by Mr. Jayprakash Narayan against off when he had given the
leadership to combat the authoritarian, semi fascist measures taken by central
government of India of congress led by Mrs Indira Gandhi. Even in the recent
days the anti-corruption movement led by Mr. Anna Hazare created some impact
over the people of India and against the Central government is an example of
application of non-violence struggle. If we analyse the struggle of modern days
throughout the world we can see the non-violent or armed struggle is getting
popularity and effectivity day by day than militant armed struggle which is going
to be less effective and may be obsolete (reader may go through different issue
of socialist register, EPW Devid Hardy may for unarmed struggle an issue of
2013.) Ideology of the non-violence was originated and developed by Indian
working population with their experiences of struggle against measure and man
and became a very powerful weapon for struggle. This methodology has used
for thousand and thousand year against many odds and obstacle and take a
generalised shape for its application to change the social system thousand the
world. It does propagate of humanitarian massage of cooperation, unity and
synthesis in place mass destruction as used by the exploiter and ruling class.
First application of non-violence was found historic form in Buddhism and Jainism.
Between these two influences of Buddhist religion was much wider and deeper
enabling it to spread whole India and process the boundary bar of this subcontinent to the most of the country of Asia like China, Japan and the countries of
Southey east and Far East Asia. Even today this religion is a matter of discussion
among the people of whole world. Buddhism had created a religious hegemony
for few centuries of time in India, but later its influence gradually decreased and
ultimately became nearly a forgo history. If we study and analyse the era of
Goutam Buddha historically, we can see that this was the time for rapid change
of socio political order.
These changes were taking place in ideological,
philosophical and political stride.
For historical limitation the traditional
republican states based on clan and tribes were gradually withering and in that
place the feudalism feudal states were growing up. That era was a full of
struggle, strife and strain in social political arena which influences debate and
struggle in philosophical outlook and theory.
The traditional materialist
philosopher like MukhyaliGhoshal and Ajeebaks were not capable to explain this
tremendous socio political change for giving a better alternative got the common
people. So, they became isolated from the people and their philosophical
became obsolete. They have drowned in the darkness of depression. They were
trapped in the old philosophical concept about the world and became perished
withi8n change of the social within the womb of history. With the change of
social order In anti-thesis to this Goutam Buddha had accepted the reality of
feudalism through he given the concept of republican state and its democratic
set up in an higher place than feudal Kinghood. His moral support went in favour
of common people and republican state. He was a pioneer of dialectical
thoughts of cause and affects in his vision everything of the world like society,

life etc. all is changeable and nothing is fixed. In other words he opposed
feudalism. According to him feudalism and Kinghood were reality for time being,
but not per manual one. It would be changed with the change of time and
historical situation. It would sustain till it would be replaced by newer, greater
and a better welfare state. He placed a dream of communistic society by
harvesting the embryo of social equality and democracy within Buddhist Sangha
established by him. These Sangha had been continuously reacting with the
common people, particularly poor, for shaping and modifying the human like
towards healthy, simple and humanist outlook. In comparison to Goutam
Buddhas proposition the traditional materialist and the follower of Ajibaks
where aimless remain in darkness struggled and revolted against the
Brahminical concept of society of inequality based on four caste system as
determined by heredity. He uplifted the flag of social justice of universal
brotherhood. He had denied any society based on inequality and remained silent
about spiritualism, god and absolute soul. Love affection and pity was sounded
by him to the nation. In place of luxurious life he advocated healthy and simple
life patter for common people above everything. As a great compassioned man,
Goutam Buddha, revolted against Vedic customs, culture and refuels like
sacrifices of animals and other Brahamical social order based on the caste
division (Chaturvarnashran). These all rituals and customs were much burden of
the common and poor people. He had tried with vigour to remove this burden
and introduced the revolutionary thoughts of social equality for human life. Due
to historical limitation his dialectical though would not merged with materialism
to give birth of revolutionary philosophy of dialectical materialism as of modern
days. Goutam Buddhas dialectical thought had not seen any revolutionary class
in that historical juncture to initiate socio political revolution. As it had been
observed by Karl Marx in 19th centurys Europe due to development of science
and society and genesis of revolutionary proletarian class within the womb of
capitalist society. The merchant class had evolved due to result of caste divided
Brahaminical social system of ancient India in the time of Buddha was not
aspirant for state power though they were economically sound and became
follower of Buddhism but politically of ambitious,. The Brahamins and Kshatriyas
enjoyed high position in the social system based on caste division as the result of
chaturvanashram proposal by Brahminical system. These two established higher
castes had fought with each other to establish their hegemony over society and
to get state power. The strife frail and cooperation were continued between two
higher castes in republican states based on clan or sub clan ant later in feudal
state power. The relics of this struggle between two higher castes have been
evident in modern Indian state power and social system. And their strife is
continuing. The merchant class businessmen who were mostly remained in
Vasyas though ecomically sound, but had lesws social dignity as compared to
Brahamin and Kshatriyas. The Shudras, the lowest strata of Chaturvarnasham
caste orientation were the most neglected, tortured, exploited poor people of
By number they were majority in ancient period and even today.
Buddhas noble concept had casted great influence among these wider sections
of exploited poor people and applied for their welfare. GoutamBuddha had reset
and remodelled the democratic system of ancient republican state of India to a

higher and developed form in his established Sangha and Sanghic life. The
private property was not allowed in sanghie life and the property of Sangha
became the common property of every member. He did not select any person to
be successor of him and gave the directives to his followers to affect the leader
of sanghik life by democratic way and to take any decision on the basis of
support of majority. All revolutions in the Sanghik life should be taken by
discussion of all members and decision would be made by support of majority
and should be followed by all. In this way he kept the embryo of more developed
future communistic society within sangha life for future wold. This was not
possible in rising ancient feudal state of India. In his life style he was able to win
the heart of poor and common people of modern India. His massage of Ahimsa
was influenced common people so greatly that all classes, castes recess and
tribes had become his followers and which may be defined as the hegemony of
ideology. In contradiction too feudalism and Barhminical system which based on
class and caste exploitation Buddha was able to establish the hegemony of this
ideology of affection, pity and universal brotherhood by applying the
methodology of Ahimsa or non-violence. Buddha considered ancient republican
state system as of far better and higher social system than autocratic feudal
state. He had developed the democratic system of ancient republican state in a
greater form and applied it in sanghik life For this reason being a founder of
Buddhist Sangha he did select any person to be successor of him. He had given
a full right to his follower and member his Sangha to elect their leader for
functioning of Sangha. All policies of sangha should be taken after debate and
discussion by the members (Buddhist monk) of Sangha with support of majority.
In Sangha there was no existence of private property of any member. Any
donation and collection from alms form the people should be kept as the
property of Sangha and that should be used for the welfare of common poor
people. Summing up all this may be a form of communistic pattern of life within
Sangha. In such way GautamBuddha kept the ideology of equality and concept
of communist a embryonic form within Sanghic life. He knew that his
concept was not possible in social life at that period of time which was a utopia.
That is why he limited it within Sanghik life with a dream that it might be
progressed to wider form with the advancement civilization and society. In the
time of Buddha it was a historical juncture of tremendous and violent social
turmoil and it was a period of social deconstruction and reconstruction with strife
and stain. When aggressive struggle was continued among opposite forces of
clans, republican states and rising feudal states this social turmoil caused lot of
misery and oppression for most of the common people. In this time of unrest,
Buddhas massage of affection, brotherhood, pity and welfare for common
people was created a cold breeze on the mind and life of common people. This
tremendous influence of Goutam Buddha within common people creating
hegemony of ideology over the society. This was so great that even autocratic,
powerful feudal Kings also were forced to show their honour and regard to him.
Though they had planned to attack other states they had to take permission from
Goutam Buddha as in the form of blessing. Magadha King Ajatashotru before
attack of Baishali went to Buddha for his blessing. But Buddhas support was in
favour of Baishali because it was a republican state. Buddhas non-violence

ideology continued and his moral sway prevailed for some centuries and
established ideological hegemony over the society. To find its source we have
again and again go to pre-history of India. There primitive peoples group
assimilated each other to a synthesis of life with cooperation though there was
much struggle within them, but they had given more importance to labour and
cooperation. The war, destruction, murder tendency and property lure could be
found among the hierarchy. The Aryans entered India as looter and it was also
prevalent among this Aryan language. The primitive peoples group was much a
head to this Aryan in their life process. Though this Aryan language grouped
races were much backward to the non-Aryan primitive people of India according
to indicator of civilization. Some historians think that for this reason the Aryans
formulated the caste divided society and established their higher achy over the
non-Aryan people by introducing chaturvarnashram caste system. The caste
division arising from chaturvarnshram still prevent in India with its bad effect. In
present days the politics of casteism and racial conflict are the result of this bad
effect of chaturvarnashram. The politics of caste race and religious conflict are
playing an important role in Indian context. Buddha did not accept this caste
division was revolted against this caste division of high and low among human
beings. His mind was in favour of tortured, oppressed, and backward and sub
alters people. As a great compassionate man Goutam Buddha won the heart of
the oppressed and exploited people by his message of affection, brotherhood
and compassion. There were lot of upheaved and term occurred in Indian
history. Many foreign invasion and internal conflict was running with the change
of political, social and cultural scenario of this sub-continent. Many dynasty,
regional power was arisen and had fallen in Indian history. After Buddha two
thousand and five hundred years have passed. Even Buddhist nearly perished
form India. But the concept of non-violence (Ahimsa) has been blowing in the
mind of Indian people through its culture, ethics and religion. In has been
practising by different sects of people with different philosophical and cultural.
Another great application of this non-violent methodology was evident at the end
of mediaeval period in different part of India through Bhakti Movement started
by Sri Chaitanya in Bengal and it spread to whole eastern part of India and even
influenced northern and southern parts of India. Sri Chaitanya appeared in the
history more than five hundred years ago when the social and state system were
in great crisis and in vulnerable condition. The society, religion and the state
system became very work and poor. The invaders came from Arab, Turkey and
others from Middle East had make aggression to India with their religious
weapons of Islamic concept. Whole India became under dominated by these
Muslim invaders and Indian feudalism had reshaped with newer religious concept
as Islamic theology is practising social justice and there is no casteism within it.
So, as a religion Islam in some way is ahead to Hindu religion and its culture in
humanitarian aspect. A big number of Indian people particularly of lower strata
and sub alters groups had become converted to Islam and this was patronised by
the state power which was dominated by Muslim feudal lords. A newer religious
group of people evolved and they are known as Indian Muslim. This Islamic
religion and its culture have deep enrooted in Indian culture and civilization. For
this establishment of Islamic culture and religion application of force terror and

state support were required. But slowly Islamic culture and religion with Muslim
population have become inseparable with Indian culture and placed a permanent
position in Indian history. In one side the Hindu religion, culture and old society
were torn and became poor by its caste division and conflict, and on the other
side the oppression of autocratic foreign Muslim invaders who became rulers of
this sub-continent resulted lot of misery and repression of common poor people.
In this darkness and crisis moment of history Sri Chaitanya came with massage
of love, affection and Ahimsa. He was different from Buddha in his philosophical
concept. As a member of idealist religious philosophical thought he took the
weapon of Bhakti to propagate the concept of equality and social justice and
among the people. He had tried to remove all the difference and division within
mankind by depicting all people as Bhakta disregarding any religious or
sectorial bar. He gained same position and dignity to god and Bhaktas making
a concept of commonness between man and god. He developed a new idealist
philosophical concept of A ChaitanyaVedavedTatwa, a new theory and concept
in Indian philosophy. According to non-dualism AdaytyVedanta theory of
Shankara the supreme soul (Brahma) is only true and life and world are false. Sri
Chaitanya had opposed this strong idealist philosophy of Shankara and he denied
it he established the unity between the world and its creator or in other way
between god and its devotee (Bhakta). Through this sense of unity he wiped out
all the differences among races, people and religion, he gage the highest
recognition of love in social life and he fought for social justice of equality. Sri
Chaitanya had utilized devotion or Bhakti bad as weapon to attack very
strongly against the caste division and conflict within mankind based or religion
and races. It was the theory of lion cooperation movement based on Ahimsa
non-violent methodology not only in Indian history but also true for world. By
applying this methodology he had given a leadership for a strong anti-state
movement against the authoritarian feudal state power. This was an incident
when the Nama sankirtana(Songs of devotees) was banned by the local
administrator (Kazi). Sri Chaitanya had opposed this authoritarian banning of
local administrator and made a strong protest by non-cooperation movement by
gathering huge number of people and demanded to withdraw this ban. The Kazi
became frightened and accepted this demand for removing ban. This was the
first non-cooperation movement of the history based on non-violent doctrine,
achieved a success. So, it was found not only in human life or in religious
concept this doctrine can be applied for social movement also. It may be utilised
for social reform and can be used against the state system for change of it.
Another important matter to be noted that in Chaitanyas movement the follower
mostly came from sub alters class people and from lower caste. We are now
going to note that the wider application of non-cooperation movement based on
non-violence concept in national movement of pre independent India and also in
post independent. We are discussing a greater subject in very brief. So, there
must be lot of questions and debates may rise. There is no scope to solve this
question in this book. We are putting forward some outlines to place before the
In modern freedom movement of India many types of struggle took
place. These are terrorist, anarchist, democratic soft liner and hard liner. These

all flows of movement merged with the main steam of Indian freedom struggle
organized by Indian National Congress. After 1920s and onward these main
stream, freedom struggle was led by Mr MK Gandhi who introduced non-violent
methodology by applying non-cooperation, civil disobedience and satyagraha
like hunger strike to fight against the imperialist British ruler for swaraj or
independence. He utilized the same weapon of non-violence for Indian freedom
struggle. India freedom struggle was a long term processing which many tuned
and voices were sounded. Many armed tribal revolt, many armed and unarmed
peasant struggle took place among the all armed struggle, the greatest one was
Sepoy Mutiny which was termed as MahaBidroho (Great revolt and according
to Karl Marx which was depicted as the first independence war of India). Native
Indian British soldier had revolted in this mutiny mostly in northern part, but they
were not the sole partner of this revolt. These Indian British soldier usually came
from rural background. So they had a living connection with peasantry. This
revolt also involved a big section of Indian peasantry. But overall leadership was
given by the feudal lords who had been affected by British rule. This leader
feudal class had already been delayed and bankrupted. Due to lack of modern
outlook and leadership this great revolt could not result success. The feudal
leaders of this mutiny had their own class interest. So they had not united to
place a better state pattern than the state formed by imperialist British ruler.
With the introduction of British rule and opening of the modern European culture
and thoughts a new intelligentsia with modernity had grown up throughout India.
This newly raised intelligentsia had formed a new elite class mainly came from
economically higher group of people. Along with elite class there was a big
population of middle class was formed. This both raised elite and middle class
were influenced by modern European thoughts. As British imperialist had given
limited civil right to this country for their own imperial interest which were
lacking in pre British feudal India the newly raise elite and middle class did not
accept the feudal leader to come again in power because they might snatch
there civil rights. Not only for civil right would these new classes and their
interest have better served by imperialist ruler. So, l they did not give support to
this mutiny rather they opposed it. Some ultra-leftist historian criticises this role
of intellectuals and elite classes of that period as bootlickers and reactionary
force created and nourished by imperialist. This ultra-left social critic and
historian have field upon those intellectuals, elite of that period and their role, at
the same time depicted them as follower a supporter of British rule. This is not
correct analysis of historical reality for proper analysis we have to study the
dialectical relation of older and newer classes. With this Historical reality and the
contradiction within it.If we do not think so we must have to reach an over
simplification of a historical era. The contradiction in the society is always
changing with the change of the social dynamics. These intellectuals for some
time supported imperialist British rule came from elite and middle class in next
generation, with the advent of nationalism they took anti-imperialist role and led
the freedom struggle. This show to analyse the historical reality is not so simple
and there must be some extra ordinary factor remain in it.
The intellectuals of 19th century India were mostly influenced by European
ideology, philosophy and political thoughts. The British ruler came to India and

established a new state system in which they have given some civil rights as has
already said. The civil right was given for their imperialist interest and to
concretize colonial state system as a supreme power. These civil rights act as a
pillar of safeguard for imperialist rule and exploitation. Introduction of modern
education system, better road and transport communication, limited right to
express of peoples opinion, permission given for publishing newspaper and
establishment of modern printing press, advent of modern health system and
introduction of modern judiciary. These all are required for need of imperialist
rule. At the same time these are safeguards for imperialist exploitation. But in
opposite side of the dialectics this limited civil rights were also shared by Indian
people, especially newly raised elite and middle class. These rights were not
prevailed in pre-British imperial rule. So the great Sepoy Mutiny led by mainly
Indian feudal class and their ideology was not supported by newly raised
intellectuals and elites as Independence War. In brief though the Sepoy mutiny
had got involvement of greater number of people, but they didnt create a total
influence or hegemony over majority of the people and intellectuals of colonial
India. Indian history has to wait for another few decades to grow modern
nationalism. Modern nationalism had been developing since the last decade of
19th century. The source of this modern nationalism was due to progress of Indian
national bourgeois or capitalist class, those who were giving the leadership of
modern Indian national freedom struggle. In this struggle of Indian freedom
movement the Indian National Congress became the main stream through long
term national movement. The Indian National Congress old group like
SurendranathBanarjee, DadabhaiNowrjee etc. were taking soft attitude to British
ruler and known as soft liner. A newer group like BalgangadharTilak,
LalaLajpatRoly, Bipin Chandra Pal etc. are known as hard liner and as trio leader
Lal Bal Pal took an uncompromising attitude to British imperialism. Apart from
the National Congress there were many revolutionary of terrorist and anarchist
outlook had struggled against British imperialism through the lesson from soft
liner, hard liner, extremist and terrorist movement. The Indian Freedom
movement was continued and in course of time in the second decade of 20 th
century Mr MK Gandhi came in the forefront of freedom struggle led by Indian
National congress. He became the sole leader throughout India from Kashmir to
Kanyakumari. With the progression of time various political groups like rightist,
leftist, socialist and even communist had taken part in Indian National congress
with the same goal of freedom movement. So, Indian National Congress was not
a homogenous party, rather it was a wider platform of all freedom loving people.
If we study and analyse the long term dynamics of freedom struggle we can see
that the movement started from and after 1920s like non-cooperation movement
for PurnaSwaraj (complete freedom) ,Laban Satyagraha and many civil
disobedience movements which were organized by Indian National Congress and
was under the leadership of Mr MK Gandhi and based on his non-violence
concept with methodology of non-cooperation, hunger strike etc. These
movements some time had created tremendous vigorcity and other time went
slowly through many micro movements to reorganize for a greater and higher
form of struggle. This character of Indian freedom struggle organised by Indian
National Congress led by Mr MK Gandhi may be nearly simulate of the thought of

Antonio Gramchis concept of war of position and war of movement. Though Mr

Gandhi and other leades of Indian National Congress had no connection with
Gramchi and his writings. All this movement was organized by Indian National
Congress and other freedom fighting groups targeted towards formation of the
concept of sovereignty, independence and nationalism and which was slowly
established the idea and structure of a independent sovereign Indian state
among the people of all classes and different strata of this country. It was
established that an independent sovereign country can give move welfare and
development for the people and society which is never possible in an imperialist
or foreign rural dominated dependent state. For that reason Indian National
Congress spread the massage of independence among the wider section of
people and earned their support, that is to say that they succeeded to establish
suzerainty of independent Indian state, in other words they had able to establish
their hegemony among the Indian people to replace imperialist British ruler. For
Indian freedom struggle there were all-out freedom movement was organized
within a period of a century one was the great Sepoy Mutiny in 1958 and second
one. Quit India Movement of 1942 which has renamed as August Revolution led
by Mr MK Gandhi with participation of majority of Indian population and most of
the political parties. Difference of these two great struggles is about
establishment of hegemony by the leaders and the leading class among the
majority of different section of people in the leaders of Sepoy Mutiny came from
feudal classes and were unable to create hegemony among the common people.
But in Quit India Movement this hegemony for a sovereign independent India
was established and which was created by the leaders of national struggle who
were basically representing the class interest of Indian National bourgeois. After
independence and after assassination of Gandhi some movements were
organized based on the methodology of non-violence doctrine in Indian. Among
them the most important was the movement against autocratic rule of Mrs Indira
Gandhi who was the prime Minister of congress led central government at 1970s.
These anti autocratic movements was led by the veteran leader of Quit India
Movement and national struggle Mr Jay Prakash Narayan who belonged to the
socialist fraction of pre independent Indian national Congress. Mr Jayprakash
Narayan had been isolated from parliamentary power politics since
independence. He was involved in his Sarbaday movement for welfare of poor
and backward people to uplift their life and consciousness in Gandhian nonviolence concept. He entered in direct politics after a long time since
independence when the opposition to Indira Gandhi led congress government
invited him to give the leadership of anti-autocratic movement Mr Jay Prakash
Narayan took this challenge courageously and applied the methodology of nonviolence and movement went an all-out shape to volcanize northern Indian
people against autocratic and semi fascist outlook of Mrs Gandhi to combat this
movement Mrs Gandhi introduced internal emergency and oppressive semi
fascist measure by using state power. But after relaxation of emergency in 1977
Mrs Gandhi led congress got a severe setback in parliamentary election and she
was defeated by Janata Dal. This defeat of Mrs Gandhi was a result of antiautocratic movement led by Mr Jay Prakash Narayan. Congress party was lost for
the first time a non-congress central government was formed in India. This was

the greatest event in Indian politics after independence which again proves the
power of non-violence methodology. In very recent period the anti-corruption
movement took place in 2013 led by Mr Anna Hazare, a social activist but not a
political person, created some impact among the urban people. Anna Hazares
anti-corruption movement had had gone in non-violent path. The severe debacle
of congress party in 16th parliamentary election of 2014 is mainly due to flew
issues among them corruption is one.
In Indian freedom struggle the concept of arm struggle was well convinced
to many leaders and workers who were fighting for national freedom struggle for
overthrowing imperialist British ruler to establish a sovereign independent India.
We must have to show our regards to these freedom fighters for their selfsacrifice, patriotism, limitless courage and iron determination. Yet the path of
armed struggle could not become the main stream of Indian freedom struggle.
The communist party of India and the other leftist with communist outlook have
also the concept of armed struggle for changing the society through armed
revolution. They were influenced some time by armed Russian revolution, other
time by gorilla warfare of Chinese revolution. The communist revolutionary
struggle of 20th century in other states like Vietnam Cuba etc. has follow armed
struggle. So, from inspection most of the communist parties and leftists have a
strong structural determination of armed struggle for revolutionary change and
seizure of state power. Most of the leftist parties are keeping this concept in their
political ideology, but in practice they are engaged in parliamentary vote politics.
But the Maoist fraction of CPI (ML) still belongs to this concept of armed struggle.
They are fighting for seizure of state power through this violent armed struggle.
They are able to create some influence in few area of few provinces, mainly
forest based tribal locality like Andhra, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Odisha. But
these Maoist revolutionaries have not accepted by the greater population of
India. A dramatic heroism is reflected in armed struggle which influences greatly
and mostly the youth. When this heroism cannot match with social reality, then
it goes to a fanatic shape lead to an indiscreet suicidal decision and it is true
when it is applied with patriotism or a greater cause like in freedom struggle, in
socialist revolution and even in international revolution and even in international
liberation movement.
So, from above brief study we can observe that from pre-history to present
time through ancient, medieval and modern days the changes in social and state
system have gone mostly through the non-violent path. Most of the successful
effort to change the social values, state character, and even human culture of
Indian civilization has occurred through this path. This is a unique and special
historical character of Indian civilization which gives India an extra ordinary
different shape form the other countries of the world. In the present days of
terrorism conflict and war between nation to nation, race to race, religion to
religion at this time this concept of non-violence which is originated and develop
from India history can show new light to the people of international arena by
crossing its own boundary for changing society and human values. This is a
contribution of Indian historical reality which may be applied in most struggle
and class struggle for Indian and international perspective. Though this nonviolent methodology has grown up in Indian soil. It is getting slowly an

international means for upliftment of human civilization. We can recall the effect
of non-violence in ancient period through Jesus, in his preaching which was
based on concept of non-violence. Some theologises Milova of Russia in 19 th
century vide Glimpse of World History by Pt,. Jawaharlal Nehru, Jesus lived in
India by Kirsten of present days) opined that Jesus was influence d by Buddhist
thought and he came to India and learned Buddhism which he had applied in his
own way in Middle east. This may or may not be true, but it is an application of
non-violence concept for universal brotherhood, affection and love which is quite
similar with Indian concept of non-violence. Non-violence methodology for
struggle is not limited in India at present days. The struggle against apathies in
USA by Martin Luther King in 1960s was an example of application of this
methodology. This movement was successful; but the fate of Mr Martin Luther
king was same as Amr MK Gandhi. Both of them were assassinated by
conspiracy of opponent groups. Though unsuccessful and demolished cruelly the
struggle of Chinese students for democracy in 1980 at Tien men Square of
Baizing was another example of non-violence form of movements. In last 50
years non-violence of unarmed struggle for any cause that may be for social
justice, democracy and liberating has been getting more popular and
accumulating more peoples support. Recently anti autocratic movement in
Mission for overthrowing the dictatorship of President Hosni Mubarak is an
instance of unarmed struggle, though it was not properly a non-violent one. The
people of Missor was gathered spontaneously on sit on movement for more than
three week continuously day and might neglecting the threat of army
intervention and ultimately became successful with resignation of Mr Hosni
Mubarak from his dictatorial presidential power. Terrorism at present days is
basically created due to imperialist exploitation and their conspiracy. The
imperialist forces utilised terrorism to demolish any militant struggle arising from
the exploitation and oppression of imperialist and capitalist ruler. They tried to
divide the society in intra and international aspect on ethnic, racial and religious
background this imperialist conspiracy has two faces one is to divide society and
world and other to demolish any militant popular mass movement by stamping it
as a terrorist movement. Most of the popular mass movement has become
trapped by imperialist tactics. Terrorism in present days is flowing within
religious and ethnic conflict, sometime within anti-imperialist movement. Even
socialist revolutionary utilize terrorism and become victim of rulers trap. Slowly
we are going in a world of inhuman polluted society. So, this planet is becoming
a frightened one. In other side after dieback ale of traditional socialist state and
economic system the world is now being ruled by imperialist and capitalist
power. They are using this terrorism to divide society and to combat it they are
introducing state terror which mainly directed to destroy any militant and
socialistic mas movement. So, the ruler are getting the consent of the people to
maintain law and order of the society and ultimately to destroy revolutionaries.
The Indian leftist force has two different approaches for the revolutionary
activity in the aim of seizure of power. In pre independent period CPI and in post
independent period the CPI gradually divided into CPI, CPI (M), CPI (ML) and CPI
(ML Maoist). Some other leftists also exist in political arena like RSP, Forward
Bloc, and SUCI etc. The last three smaller political parties are mostly

concentrated in West Bengal and have a very limited national impact. At present
there all leftists are facing severe crisis and going towards a total bankruptcy in
Indian political fields. That shows through the parliamentary election of 2014
May that they had reduced in great number in parliamentary seats. In 2004 total
left block got a maximum number if 64 seats out of 543 and in recent 2014s
election it is reduced to 10 out of the same number. Reduction to more than 1/6 th
number is reflecting their tremendous dis popularity that they gained in last 10
years. Now what we are discussing that the two approaches of communist and
leftist one is to capture the state power by armed struggle and another through
organizing all type of mass struggle and like working class movement, peasant
movement, popular mass movement for ripening the pre-conditions for
revolutionary epoch to capture state power. The second approach there are
more revisionist element show have diverted this mass movement and class
struggle towards parliamentary electoral fight and slowly the revolutionary
element become reduced and the revisionist forces have overpowered the
leadership of all these leftist parties towards parliamentary establishment and
branded them as a legal left. This legal leftist led by revisionist force has
reshaping leftism to capture the provincial power in the view of giving relief and
welfare to the people within capitalist system of class exploitation and they
become part and parcel of capitalist system. The leftism has become a great
fiasco and revolutionary slowly vanishes into the blue. The opposite trend of
leftist who had accepted the ultra-line of armed struggle for capturing the state
power they had become gradually isolated from common people and sinking in
deep depression. This ultra-line revolutionary had started their journey in pre
independent national liberation movement and running face in post independent
period through the struggle like Telegana peoples war, militant Tabaha
movement of peasants of Bengal, the Naxalbai movement and in present days
the CPI(ML) Maoist are still practising armed struggle for capturing the state
power. They are also reducing day by day. The ultra-leftist has no lack of
courage, sacrifice and patriotic determination; but after giving due honour to this
revolutionaries we have to say that their wrong route compelling them to be
isolated form common mass for organizing popular mass struggle and class
struggle aiming for revolutionary change of society and seizure of power. They
have been branded as illegal left. So, in course of time both legal and illegal left
are facing a serious setback in Indian political arena and the revolutionary zeal
become gradually obsolete in the mind of common people and intellectuals in
India. If we analyse the action of these two different lines of leftists they have
shown more impo0rtance for power politics either through capitalist
parliamentary means or by armed struggle. They did not give much attention for
developing class consciousness through mass struggle and class struggle to
establish the hegemony of communist ideology for changing society and state.
The communist and leftist have been practising for nearly a century period time,
yet their influence among the Indian people remains minor effect. So, they are
designated as one of the political party or group like other political parties in
Indian politics. This is a reality and especially more applicable to the legal leftists.
At the same time the ultra-left or illegal left have remained isolated from the
common people and they are considered as a fanatic and anarchist (Anarchism is

a different political thought which is not applicable to the ultra-leftist) as a

common perception of people of Indian. Question is arising repeatedly that why
this fate of the leftist and communist has occurred. There is no lack of
patriotism, dedication, self-sacrifices among the leftist leaders and workers, but
why their efforts go to failure, why are they isolated from majority of the Indian
people? We have to search answer of these questions.
In the beginning of this chapter we have said the famous comment of Karl
Marx about social dialect of any country. This dialect does not mean mere
translation as language or dialogues of common people rather it is social custom,
culture, traditions and religious characteristics of any country or nation. The
communists of India had copied or translated Marxism from successful
revolutionary struggle, mostly about Russia and china. This is one of the
answers of the fallacy of the Indian communist for their dependence towards
Russian and Chinese for revolution in Indian soil. The colonial legacy have
deeply enrooted and nurtured among the intellectuals and educated people.
This educated people mostly came from Indian middle class and a fraction of
middle class intellectuals had turned up towards leftist and communist view.
This middle class people hold the leadership of leftist political parties since its
inception to present days. They cannot develop organic leadership from
proletarian class and other toiling masses like peasantry. Middle class petty
bourgeois is always a vacillating class and they are usually dependent some time
self-contradicting ideology of bourgeois thoughts. Indian middle class paly
bourgeois has originated within the womb of colonial imperialist state system.
So, they are more dependent and have a colonial legacy towards the foreign
establishment. Therefore, the communist and leftist leadership which came
mostly from the middle class intellectuals have always a tendency to copy for
their character of dependence. They have inherent weakness to analyse the
characteristic of Indian history, tradition, culture and polity by their own original
thought process. Perhaps due to bookish knowledge of Marxism they have
translated and applied these revolutionary thoughts in Indian soil by copying
Russian or Chinese path. Without proper analysis of Indian social and political
reality they are guided more or less blindly some time by British communist most
of the time by Russian communist party and comintern, other time in post
independent period they followed the line of Chinese communist party. This lack
of originality of leaders intellectuals of the leftist of India have compelled them to
make lot of historical blunder as it was vividly seen at the time of quit India
Movement communists did not support this great national liberation movement
to make happy Russian communist party and communist international neglecting
national interest. There are so many blunder done by communists which may be
depicted as mountain of errors. This may be explained due to depending
character of middle class leadership of leftist, lack or organic leadership from
working people, lack of originality, insight and foresight. Thus the strategy and
tactics of Indian leftist and communist have been formulated mainly following
the line of Russian and Chinese model of revolution. But in reality India is not
only the vastest country of the world, rather a sub-continent with multiplicity of
race, language, culture, religion, ethnicity, caste, class etc. This vastness is not
by number of population like China, but due to variety as said above. So India

has oldest tradition of civilization with numerous problems and contradictions

which vary from time to time and place to place. Revolution for a vast country or
sub-continent must requires deeper attention of its social dynamics and original
thinking for revolutionary process and may be possible by applying the Marxist
ideology in its own social dialect. This is never possible by establishing a fixed
formula or by following any successful revolutionary model. He revolution is a
dynamic process and the ideology for it may change with change time and
perspective. Any rigid fixed formula or strategy may cause failure to
revolutionary effort.
This is a doubt that the communist of India knows how much about this
country and its people by observing their oppression, deprivation and their
character of reaction which constructing and deconstructing the Indian social
conditions. There were many numerous revolts, armed. Struggle and violent
protest took place in our country. The sacrifices, dedication of these struggling
people have no end. but after giving due honour and respect to these struggles
and struggling people, we have to say that these were not the principle tune of
Indian peoples reacting and method. India is a country of greater unity and
synthesis, its principle tune of unity deeply enrooted inside the mind of Indian
people in their customs, culture social and religious norms. The discussion of
ethnic and racial character of Indian civilization and its culture at the beginning
of this chapter was aiming to rediscover the principle tune of Indian social dialect
and dynamics. In pre-history the austoloid, protoaustroloid, David etc. racial
groups have formed Indian civilization based on greater unity and created a
social perspective of brotherhood and peace. The doctrine of Ahimsa i.e., nonviolence has evolved and developed by the toiling masses and it is running
through millennium to millennium, This concept of assimilation is flowing within
Indian population from micro to macro level or form regional to sub continental
perspective. Many races, clans sub clans came in India by century after
centuries and assimilated within Indian civilization with its principle tune of unity,
cooperation and brotherhood. They also contributed much for beautification and
development of basic tune of Indian civilization. Indian people prove through
historical experiences that a great social unity cans possible along with
maintaining the multi plurality in racial, ethnic religious, cultural and social
identity. So, this is a contribution of Indian history for formation of newer united
world of unity, brotherhood and peace maintaining national, ethnic and racial
identity. In these contexts we may recall few words of Swami Vivekananda. He
pronounced strongly and courageously these words about Indian social character
and described its uniqueness of unity and brotherhood in his famous address at
Chicago in great world religious conference. Later in his writing he predicted
about revolution that this would first might Coeur in Russia, after that in China.
According to his prophecy revolution in India might take place after the
revolution of those two great countries which would be more develop and
enriched regarding its revolutionary characteristics. He explained his concept
about revolution according to his concept based on Upanishad. We are not
going to explain or criticise his prophecy; but we can hope that the revolution of
India will have to be occurred in much greater perspective with developed
ideological and practical knowledge. The revolution of India must have a world

view and it may be a starting point of new international revolutionary process.

The revolutionary practice in India will have to solve all the contradictions based
on religious, language and racial backwardness etc. in addition to the class
contradiction. India is a country of multi prove characteristics, its vastness may
be greater than even a continent. The geographical variation may be a subject
of special observation. If we see the class character of this country that also a
combination of most modern developed classed with other backward classes,
poor illiterate people who are the victim of decaying feudal remnants mostly
heterogeneous class of peasantry (the class character of India will be discussed
in later chapter). In Indian population we get a lot of variety can be seen starting
from highly developed of 21st centuries civilian with most modern technological
capability and knowledge to general middle class, proletarian class, backward
peasantry of rural background and even to primitive collection based tribal
population in forest aras. In production centre it has a opposite production
system one side highly mechanised technology and in other side most primitive
form of production technique based on manual physical labour. Along with the
all disparities this country also has conflict within different religious, conflict
within caste system, sexual equality, various superstitions and much social
injustice. Any successful evolution or the later revolution will must have to solve
all these problems and disparity for upholding human civilization towards unity
brotherhood and equality.
The revolutionary groups political parties or front will have to attend the
creditability of a modern prince has described and proposed prince has described
and proposed by Antonio Gramci. (Discussion regarding this subject will be put
forward later in this book. These revolutionaries will become the modern prince
and through their action the aspiration as well as hope for secured future of all
toiling classes and different strata of population may be fulfilled that the interest
of organized industrial proletariat, contract labour, landless peasant , sharecroppers, middle class petty-bourgeois, technologists, cybertariat (the worker
involved in information technology) would be well maintained. This action of
revolutionaries will be synchronised with Indian historical and cultural tradition to
organize revolutionary process ion Indian soil for success. In this chapter we have
so far discussed about the non-violence methodology like non- cooperation, civil
disobedience, General Strike, Hunger Strike all are the means of non-violence
struggle which already proved its efficacy for fight, all type of disparity, socio
economic and political field. The majority people of India have reacted through
this non-violence methodology and struggled to establish their right in society
and state. Applying this methodology from Goutam Buddha to Gandhi and even
today the leaders in religious, social and political field had won the mind and
heart of Indian people and got a permanent position in Indian as well as world
history. In a changed situation of national and international perspective when
terror and violence become more evident from the side of oppressor and ruler
and in the other side the same reaction has taken by militant people the
possibility to develop the class- struggles towards future revolutionary goal by
applying this non-violent methodology may create a great hope for peoples
struggle. The main objective of Marxism is to develop class consciousness and
class-struggle towards revolutionary struggle to change society and state system

and to abolish class- exploitation to make a new world devoid of exploitation and
to establish human right, freedom and equity. Most of the traditional Marxist
have a concept that this class-struggle must be allied with militant armed
struggled to achieve revolutionary goal. Such type of concept is so much deeply
enrooted in the mind of Marxist revolutionaries that they never think that power
of mass-struggle based on non-violence, so they have neglected this method of
struggle to apply in their revolutionary practice. From the past experiences
mostly of Soviet Russia and China which occurred at adjacent time of two world
wars when violent armed struggle was inevitable and was possible for seizure of
power. So, there armed revolution become successful is a special historical
perspective. It is counter posed to the experience of the proletarian struggle of
19th century from the class-struggle of France to Parry-Commune which were
organised by non-insurrection, but got failed. There are so many debate
regarding failure of the proletarian revolution in 19 th century with great lesson of
Marx and Angles at has enlightened the cause of failure of this revolutionary
struggle which are incorporated in the revolutionary practice of 20 th century. In
20th century the historical perspective of capitalism changed to imperialism and
moribund stages attend which leads to world war first and second. Marxist has
extended by Comrades Lenin to apply it in a different historical era and got
success in two great countries like Soviet Russia, China along with East European
countries, some Asian countries and Latin American country like Cuba; one-third
of World population become the civilian of Socialist (so-called) state. The first
half of the 20th century even up to 70s the triumph of communist party led
revolutionary struggle with doctrine of Leninism which is Marxism in the era
of imperialismhad been continued. In this historical era along with the
revolutionary practice of 19th century, most of them took path of armed
insurgency. These all make a strong ideation that armed struggle for in the mind
of most of the Marxist revolutionaries is inevitable. So most of the Marxist and
communist have fused the idea of armed struggle with class struggle and may
be inseparable.
After the Second World war the historical perspective has been slowly
changing to after the Second World War historical perspective has been slowly
changing from an era of cold war to neo liberalism In between this era the
traditional socialist country faced the severe crisis and ultimately went to
counter revolution either declared that is in Soviet Russia and East European
countries or undeclared in China and most of the Asian countries (these
countries take capitalist path under the banner of socialism led by communist
party). So, a new historical era came in the fore front with neo liberal imperialist
international economy which is patronized by most of the state of this planet.
This planet becomes vulnerable after invention and application of nuclear
weapon with start of nuclear race to be a super power among the developed and
developing country. Natural balance has been severely neglected, resulting
towards the severe ecological crisis, economic disparity and inequality leading
towards an endless international economic crisis. All these factors culminatingto
be the civilian of a vulnerable planet. International condition of 21 st Century is
quite different from previous two centuries. Here existing endless crisis in all

aspect of human life and other side the balance of power has been lost towards a
unipolar imperialist power with military hegemony of US superpower. The
contradiction between the imperialist and their associated rulers with working
class and common people being the most important one. In this situation the
severe reaction from oppressed people are reflected through some militant and
terrorist line of action in different sphere of life. This terrorism is going on in
political, ethnic, religious and caste problem. The ruler along with imperialist
force utilises this terrorism for destroying mass movement by applying state
coercion. In the present world the side of exploited people get no proper political
direction and become aimless resulting isolated and scattered struggle and
revolt which have not established any alternative methodology of action to
reorganize the toiling mass for a better society. In this perspective the non
violent method of struggle may be utilised to be the most powerful means of
action for struggling people. There should not be any conflict between nonviolence movement and class struggle as traditionally Marxist think so. Class
struggle is a historical concept and when it is consciously directed then the
revolutionary process begins for ripening both objective and subjective condition
for a revolutionary change. In last two centuries arm struggle was utilised as the
end point of revolutionary struggle. But in changed historical perspective 21 st
century this arm struggle, oriented class struggle become less effective to
reorganize working class and other toiling mass for revolutionary practice. There
is no doubt that apart from non-violent methodology any other means of action
which is superior and humanistic to non-violence is so far known. Todays in the
period of oppression and terrorism the non-violence methodology may be an
alternative for working class and toiling mass to fight against this tyranny. Class
struggle can be organized by non-violent means which will be a dialectical
alternative for revolutionaries.
The Marxist and leftist have to think this
methodology to make a fusion with concept of class struggle to form hegemony
of leading revolutionary class, that is, proletariat over toiling mass and common
people. Leftists should come out form their rigid conception of arm struggle of
19th and 20th century which is not prevailed in this 21 st century. They have to
reconsider this Indian historical contribution and this should be incorporated with
Marxist outlook for reorganizing revolutionary practice in a changed historical
epoch. They have to organize peoples by in large against economic social
cultural and political disparity and problem by applying this methodology in class
struggle in this alternative path the consciousness of working class and common
people will be developed. This enables the revolutionaries and working people
marching towards revolution. They have to build a new India which will uphold a
humanistic modern socialism in the map of the world for formation of newer
international system of state and society of peace, freedom, equality,
brotherhood and devoid of exploitation. We may define this humanistic socialism
as the socialism of 21st century or neo socialism which leads to international
communist society in future.
Before going to discuss about new India, new worldneo socialism land
communism we may spend few words about class struggle. Studies regarding
class struggle, revolution and socialism were matter of debate and discussion in

Indian leftist politics till 70s of 20th century. There were much debates were
continued about stage of revolution. Which will be the stage of revolution is it
neo democratic or national democratic or peoples democratic or directly
socialist revolution that were debates which make differences among the leftist
political parties. Yet with this difference most of the leftist political parties were
able to be united for making a front because they had commonness in their
conception for a same goal of socialism and communism which will take place by
the leadership of revolutionary proletarian class.
There was another issue which helps the leftists to make the front that
they want to utilize Indian democratic state struggle of toiling mas to develop
mass struggle and class struggle for future revolutionary aim. So, they have
given their representation in parliamentary system by taking part in electoral
process. In due course of time parliamentary electoral fight became the main
stream of political action of legal leftists and they are practising it for more than
half century period of time. The ultra-leftists, especially Maoist, are isolated form
parliamentary electoral politics and remain engaged in the path of nonparliamentarian arm struggle. But till today the leftists are continued same
politics of electoral fight though they had got a severe setback in recent 16 th
parliament election of May, 2014. By participating in parliamentary electoral
process leftists are more and more engaged in electoral fight to get more
members in parliament and to get provincial power. The importance of mass
movement and revolutionary class struggle are severely neglected this reduced
their mass appeal causing the debate of leftists in recent parliamentary election.
In this political situation we are not put forwarding to reject the struggle in
bourgeois parliament as ultra-leftists have conceptualized so far. In capitalist
democracy there are some established civil right.These all civil rights are acted
in society and state through different system and media. These are democratic
rights of political thoughts by participation in bourgeois parliamentary system
and judiciary system which are apparently autonomous and impartial to politics
and state ruler, the education system, freedom of press and news media, right
for expression of thoughts and opinion of individual groups, the trade union right
and human right etc. All these abovementioned systems of state and society are
established by the constitutional rights which are applied to form the safeguard
to a state system managed by capitalist class. There are so many other
safeguards which are continuously working within the society and state to prove
its rationality. Through the safeguards of capitalist system and the rulers of this
state is getting consent from people of different class and strata of any country
to rule them in other word to exploit them. This is a chain system by which the
exploiter and ruler of any capitalist state have maintained their superiority and
hegemony upon all types of civilian like working class, peasantry, petty
bourgeoism, technologist, scientist, intellectual etc. By at large the broad
population chose representative by selecting a political party or political front to
rule the state as per constitutional rights which is basically made for capitalist
class interest. The leftists participated in Indian parliamentary electoral process
with a conception to uphold the communist ideology and to utilize democratic
and trade union rights for development of class struggle towards revolutionary

practices to change capitalist state system towards socialism. By taking charges

of provincial state power they are successively turning towards electoral fight
and neglecting mass movement and class struggle by which they become share
holder of present state system and ultimately takes a revisionist path resulting
loss of their revolutionary communist identity. They became a parliamentary
political force as like other pro capitalist political parties. So, according to
authors view participation in capitalist democracy should be guided by political
ideology for flourishing mass movement and class struggle towards revolutionary
phase or epoch by utilizing the democratic rights as given by the bourgeois
The bourgeois political parties of India are basically representing the class
outlook of Indian monopoly capital and imperialist corporate capital at present in
this globalized liberal economic system. These bourgeois political parties are
also getting support from rural rich peasant, rural landlords, some capitalist
farmers and big land holders. They are taking various strategy and tactics to
camouflage the common and exploited people by making the electoral process
as a great festival of democracy of electorate. The main objective of participation
of leftist and Marxist political parties in this electoral process is to establish the
civilian right and consciousness of the people, at the same time to expose the
limitation of the constitution introduced by capitalist exploiting class. So,
struggle inside parliament and mass movement and class struggle outside
parliament are organized by leftist and Marxist shall lea for formation o9f
consciousness among all strata of toiling mass and common people about their
right with exposer of limitation of present state system which is made for
exploiting ruling class.
There both struggle in inside and outside of the
parliament will strengthen the revolutionary conception and activity for changing
the social system towards a newer state and society devoid of class exploitation.
This change is only possible through a revolutionary epoch. Perhaps there is not
much debate among most of the Marxists except few ultra-leftists. The principle
aim is to build the consciousness of toiling masses for alternative better social
system and to inspire political leaders, works and common people for
revolutionary change through development of class struggle. The parliamentary
fight is a part of the whole revolutionary political struggle. So anyone or any
political party it think that by getting the majority in capitalist parliamentary
democracy, they can change whole society and state radically to a newer state
of socialism by abolishing capitalist mode of production and establishment of
social ownership in place of private property oriented society, they are living in
the paradise of fools. Giving more importance towards parliamentary electoral
politics has started form early post independent period when communist party
and leftist were taking part in parliamentary election to utilize this fight as a
weapon for their principle struggle.
Though there were many ideological
differences among the leftist political parties but they were able to make a front
in parliamentary electoral politics through their experiences.
But their
organizational strength was limited within few provinces like Kerala, West Bengal
and Tripura and some negligible influencein the rest of the country. This limited
organizational strength of leftist and communist parties could not give them the

opportunity to be a major or determining political force in central politics. But

this situation pushed the leftists to be a regional political force. For this uneven
organizational strength of leftist they have concentrated their fight in provincial
electoral politics. For getting the provincial state power they had succeeded too.
First, the communist party led provincial government formed in Kerala, then in
West Bengal afterward in Tripura. Among these in West Bengal CPI(M) led leftists
were able to hold the power continuously for 34 years from 1977 to 2011. In the
small state Tripura they are in power in power till the date when this writing is
going on (June, 2014). Here in Tripura leftist led by CPI(M) is able to hold state
power more than 25 years. A different scenario has been noticed in Kerala where
more or less alternatively they are coming in power in consecutive assemble
Leftist had faced some difficulty and conspiracy against them in early
period when they came in power in provincial government. First attack took
place in Kerala by Congress led central government when Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru
was the prime minister. The leftist led provincial government of Kerala was
dethronedundemocratically and unconstitutionally by the conspiracy of Central
Congress government. Later late 60s nearly same conspiracy and attack by
congress led central government occurred in West Bengal consecutively twice
when the United Front had formed non Congress state government in West
Bengal. After internal emergency from 1977 onward leftist had regained their
power in these three states since them they did not face such crisis or conspiracy
from central government. One reason is from that time crisis in central
government has started and many unstable coalition governments came in
power. There was a rapid change in political scenario with formation of two major
coalition like Congress led UPA and BJP led NDA divide Indian politics into
bipolarity, but with same economic outlook. From late 80s no single political
party got absolute majority in General Parliamentary Elections. In recent 2014 th
general election BJP has got a land slide victory and has an absolute majority of
285 parliamentary seats out of 543 seats, though they have fought this election
with their coalition allies.
During the last 35 years since 1977 central
government could not take any aggressive stand against the leftist.
Second cause for stability of leftist in provincial state power failing to
organize mass movement and class struggle throughout India and became
concentrated in regional politics which pushed leftist towards electoral fight and
getting the provincial power the revisionist fraction of leftist and communist
parties have become more powerful within them they captured the Key position
within this parties and in provincial government. The leftist parties more and
more engaged in State Bureaucratic activity in capitalist constitutional power
neglecting class struggle they are taking revisionist path and derailed from
revolutionary practice. The revolutionary elements of communists and leftist
parties have been reducing day after day.
Third cause with the international crisis of socialism and counter revolution
in socialist countries form 80s of 19 th century onward there is great depression
among the communist revolutionary in global scenario affected Indian leftist

greatly. In addition to this,triumphs of globalized liberal imperialist policies have

forced the revolutionary fraction to be more coined in Indian politics. All these
factors have strengthened revisionism to play major role among the leftist. By
getting the taste of bourgeois state power the middle class leadership of leftist
and communist parties have lost their revolutionary zeal and surrendered to
bourgeois establishment class struggle, revolution, socialism and communism all
these subjects become slowly confined in political literature.
In ground reality the electoral fight become the main objective of the
leftist to get provincial state power by any means. So, to get success in electoral
fight they have taken various tacticslike some trade union movement for some
economic relief, limited land reform, few state oriented welfare, some time
playing as a mediator between working class and capitalist, other side creating
terror, frightening people and rigging in election these all measures are targeting
for to remain in power Changing this political character of leftist they proves
that they are not threat to the capitalist state system as it was thought in the
early ;post independent period by the ruler of these states. So, they remain in
power of provincial governments for longer time and became part and parcel of
capitalist establishment resulting loss of their limited honourable revolutionary
position among the peopleof ultimately faced a tremendous set back in
consecutive electoral process from 2009 to 2014 both in general parliamentary
and state assembly election. Leftism becomes a great fiasco and marching
towards a complete bankruptcy.
By overthrowing the revolutionary path and taking revisionist line
whatever possible result that happened among the leftist political parties and
groups The revolutionary workers and leaders slowly reduced, in that place the
revisionist elements have captured the leadership of all leftist parties including
communist parties. In addition to this a big number of opportunist elements with
their vested interest gathered around these leftist. The ground realities are such
that these opportunist influence leftists in such a way that their presence
becomes more important and vivid to the people. Large number of honest and
committed leftist and communist workers has drowned in the sea of depression.
Leftists and communists have reached at the end point of revisionist and
bourgeois petrification. They have become target of common peoples hatred.
The leftists have never been popular in politics all over India. But they got an
honourable position in the mind of common people in few provinces and have
scattered epics among the people of most of the provinces of India. They have
lost this honourable position by taking revisionist lines and taking the remains of
bourgeois meal. The people successively consider them as an opportunist,
power craving and dishonest political force as like other political parties or even
below to them. This is a very unfortunate situation and the hope to get rid of
this is very difficult. From 2011 2014 there are two general parliamentary
election.One assembly election in different states and mainly local body elections
like panchayat and municipality elections have taken place. In all these elections
the leftists performedconsecutively very bad. Greatest set back has happened in
May, 2014 in General Parliamentary Election, particularly in West Bengal where
they have faced massive debacles getting only two seats with slim majority out

of 42 seats of this province. This was unimaginable even few years back. In the
last few years the congress or policy making conferences have organized by
different leftist and communist parties. But they did not able to take any
alternative policy to correct themselves for reorganizing left unity to organize
popular mass movements and class struggle for re-establishing themselves to
the people. No serious effort and self-criticism have taken in their discussion.
Few sounds have been heard to change the leadership for this failure, but
nothing appeared in ideological question and strategy and tactics of leftists. It is
just like by replacing few heads everything will be OK in future. It is another
foolish concept and this is proving the theoretical and ideological bankruptcy of
the leftists, both in leaders and root level. Revisionism has been enrooted
throughout these leftists from top to bottom. At present leftists unity is going for
disintegration and hope for correction is nearly lost. This is a great crisis
moment not only for leftist parties, but also for toiling mass and common people.
So, in this situation there is no political force is exists in India to carry the voice
of general mass.We have to think in deeper way with greater insight and selfcriticism for making an alternative path to reorganize toiling mass and common
people for upliftment of this society and state.
The relation between the leaders and workers of leftist and communist
parties is bureaucratic one and making distortedparty machinery from top to
bottom. This is just like order supplier relationship. Here order will be given form
higher level like central committee and provincial committees and these orders
will be carry out from grass root to district level, that means they are working as
a supplier. There is least chance of any debate and discussion regarding policy
and routine work in these leftist parties. So, command is given by higher level to
be followed by lower level. The dialectical relation from grassroots level to
central level in debate and discussion which nourishes any political party does
not persist in present leftist parties.
Democratic Centralismis kept as a
terminology in party literature, but in reality centralism is practised. In result of
this they became sterile in intellectual, ideological and political action. This
situation again lifts them to stay in the power of provincial government and they
have no alternative to it. So,most of the leftists and communists took electoral
fight as their main objective for getting class struggle and mass struggle and
ultimately they kept revolution and socialism in the cold store.
There are few reactions due to this revisionism we have noticed in Indian
communist struggle like in 1948 communist party took a programme of arm
revolution in newly formed independent Indian state. But arm revolution by
unorganized people and its leadership were destroyed easily by the repression of
newly formed state machinery. This arm struggle failed completely with the
bloodshed and death of thousands of activist and poor people keeping the
ballads of heroism for future people. Afterwards from 1967 to 1971 a fraction of
Communist Party, popularly called as Naxalite, politically named CPI(ML) had
tried an arm revolutionary practice to capture the state power. They have given
a call to barricade the town by villages by organizing a class struggle in rural
areas. This effort was nipped in bud by the repression and police action of state.
This Naxalite movement started as a militant peasant movement at a village

Naxalbariin North Bengal by peasants and leadership given by some communists

of CPI(ML). Mr. KanuSanyal was one of the leaders of this movement. Later they
formed a party named as CPI(ML). Whose secretary was Mr.CharuMajumdar, a
veteran communist of North Bengal region. Under his leadership Naxalite
movement spread in other part of West Bengal, Bihar,Andhra and in sporadically
parts of India. In West Bengal this movement created a great impact among the
students and youth who had jumped in this movement ignoring their future
career and life. This movement loses its base in rural area and have taken a
terrorist line and quickly isolated from general mass. Most of the activists of this
movement came from youth of middle class families.
So, they were
unexperienced in Marxist politics both in ideology and practice. They did not
create any impact among the proletarian class and even in peasantry. The selfsacrifice for revolution and heroism with a dream of forming a new society was
actually guided them to jump in this movement. The young generation though
they had a great heart, but novice inpolitics they could not analyse the ground
reality of this country and even their leaders - this pushed them to take terrorist
measure which has no relation with class struggle and Marxist ideology. The
repressive measures taken by state machinery could disintegrate this movement
within a short period. The Naxalite activistsbecame fractionalized in many
groups. Many of them were murdered by state action and a great number were
put into jail. Later some fractions of these activists formed again CPI(ML) party
and being legalized by constitutional rights. They are active mostly in Bihar and
in few parts of West Bengal. Though they take more rational approach in politics
but they get little impact in Indian politics.
Another few groups of Naxalite activists formed another party CPI (MLMaoist). This Maoist are continuing the legacy of Naxalite movement of arm
struggle they are mostly concentrated in tribal based forest areas of West Bengal
Jharkhand, Bihar and Andhra. They are continuing their activities through their
arm actions and many encounters are taking place regularly against state
machineries. Though they have won some popularity among the regional people
and tribal population and able to create some threat to provincial and central
government but they have a little effect on common people and remain isolated
form greater mass of Indian population. This Maoists[CPI(ML-Maoist)] is an only
illegal political party with communist ideology in Indian politics. They are
recognized terrorist and banned political element by state and this conception is
prevailed in the mind of common people. Their action and encounters proves
their courage and sacrifice which should be remembered with due honour but
they have created a frightening situation among the general mass. The outcome
of this militant ultra-leftist extremism isolation from all toiling classes and
general mass. So they failed to organize proletarian class and peasantry for
higher form of mass movement and class struggle for revolutionary change of
state and society. In reacting to revisionism they took another line of deviation in
revolutionary struggle where they are giving much more importance towards
armed struggle and neglecting mass movement and class struggle, ultimately
creating terror. Thus they are trying to keep their existence which is historically
proved a failed effort. In exchange of loss of numerous lives and blood shed we

are getting a negative situation of depression. The class struggle, revolution and
socialism are successively drowning within this depression created by revisionist
leftism and ultra-leftism. In other side the extreme rightist force like BJP is
growingday by day and now in power with absolute majority in Indian parliament
of 2014 general election. So, it is a total crisis of leftism in this countrythatis of
the mouthpiece of oppressed, exploited and all common people. Today time has
come to think deeply and a new way that what we want, how do we wantthis?
And why do we want? The answer of this basic question will be discussed later in
this book.