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Energy Saving in Electrical Utilities

K. R. GOVINDAN
Kavoori Consultants
22, Janakiraman Street,
West Mambalam,
Chennai, 600 033.

Distribution System and


Transformers

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About the faculty


CEO of Kavoori consultants: services
offered:
Energy audit, electrical safety and
installation audit, relay protection and
coordination studies, maintenance,
technical training of executives and
technicians of all trades, in-house as well
as open seminars,
Technical trouble shooting

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ATTITUDE
Half full or half empty?

Two liters container; 1 liter liquid.


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ENERGY MANAGEMENT

More precisely,

EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT OF ENERGY,


THE VITAL RESOURCE.
What is efficient management?
Energy is utilized to do work;
Use only the required minimum
Or optimum requirement
To perform a particular work.

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In the Present day context of:

Depleting energy sources


Spiraling costs
pollution of environment to alarming levels.

Energy management assumes top priority

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ENERGY AUDIT
PRE REQUISITE FOR AN ENERGY MANAGEMENT
PROGRAMME
BY ITSELF DOES NOT SAVE ENERGY
HELPS MANAGEMENT IDENTIFY AREAS OF HIGHEST
SAVINGS POTENTIAL

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FUNCTIONS OF AUDIT
Assesses various forms of energy use
Compares with estimated minimum
Provides inputs for budgetary control

MOST IMPORTANT FOR


OLD PLANTS

?
SET UP WHEN FUEL COST WAS VERY LOW
NO CONCERN FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY

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Good energy management is

Increasing utilization efficiency or reducing


losses
Or
CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

Let us consider the electrical


energy
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THE STORY OF ENERGY


300 BILLION YEARS AGO, ENTIRE
ATMOSPHERE OF OUR EARTH- UNFIT
FOR LIFE SUPPORT
SLOWLY ALGEY AND LIKE PLANTS
APPEARED, CONVERTED CO2 INTO O2
Received and STORED energy from the sun
BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Then, animals appeared
Were living on plants

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SEEMS
63 MILLION YEARS AGO
ALL LIVING AND NON LIVING THINGS
SUDDENLY BURIED
THE CAUSE MAY BE A DELUGE OR
THE FALL OF AN ASTEROID
UNDER HIGH PRESSURE FOR LONG TIME
BECAME FOSSILS
THE ENERGY STORED
IN THEM IS THE FUEL WE ARE ENJOYING
NOW!

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STORY OF DEPLETING ENERGY!

Why energy conservation?


We burn them, exhaust them;
May be after some decades, no
fossil fuel will be available.
We convert atmosphere to CO2 and
other pollutants
May be after a few hundred years
earth may become the old self and
not suitable for any living being

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Energy saved and generated


One kWhr electrical energy saved is
equivalent to a saving of fuel for the
generation of 5kWhrs!
How?

Power from generating stations to the utilization


point passes thro many equipments like
transformers, transmission lines, cable feeders etc.
Thermal efficiency of a turbo generator is only
30%!and other equipments efficiencies are also
involved.

Hence the high figure!


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Power generation, transmission and distribution

14

Typical industrial power distribution SLD

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One M.W. used a day


Cnsumes 17 M.T. of coal,
pollutes atmosphere by
3.4 tons of coal dust,
0.13 tons of SO2 and
0.18 Tons of oxides per day!

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Control of Atmospheric pollution


Burning of fossil fuels generates
sulphuric, carbonic, and nitric acids
They fall on Earth as acid rain, affecting both

natural areas and the built environment.


Monuments and sculptures made from
marble and limestone are vulnerable, as
the acids dissolve calcium carbonate.
A liter of petrol, diesel, kerosene used in a vehicle
causes approximately 2.3 kg of CO2 emissions.
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Control of pollution
Energy conserved reduces fuel
consumption
Fossil fuels burnt generates green house
gasses
Also causes acid rain etc.
Some of the solar radiation is reflected
back by the earth and atmosphere and
they escape to the space.

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REMEMBER!
1.

GRID POWER EACH KW SAVED RESULTS IN


REDUCING 6.4 TONNES OF CO2
EMISSIONS/ YEAR

2. DIESEL GENERATORS EACH KW SAVED RESULTS IN


REDUCING 7.2 TONNES OF CO2
EMISSIONS/ YEAR
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Pollution green house gasses

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Effects of global warming


Will melt polar ice caps and rise the sea levels
there will be about half to one meter increase
in sea level by 2020
at the present levels of global warming
Coastal cities such as Mumbai, Kolkata and
Chennai could go under sea by 2020
could make at least one billion people
homeless between now and 2050
say scientists.

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DO NOT MAKE THE ENTIRE EARTH


LOOK LIKE THIS!
PLEASE GIVE A GOOD EARTH TO OUR CHILDREN!

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We have a social responsibility for the future


generation
Leave the world, a wonderful place, as it isfor the future generation

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It's true that we don't know


what we've got until we lose it!

Conserve the fast depleting


conventional energy

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ENERGY CONSERVATION

Most urgent, top priority


Depleting sources
Spiraling cost
Cannot have the luxury of
unproductive usage and high
demands

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ENERGY CONSERVATION
OPPORTUNITIES IN
NO TWO IDENTICAL FACTORIES ARE
ALIKE

Scientific approach is needed to tackle


unique problems of each industry An energy audit

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CONCLUSION
Audit helps in identifying energy
conservation opportunities,
Not an one time function;
A continuous activity
Initial phase may provide plenty of
opportunities; but
May taper down as the activity continues.

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MISSING THE OBVIOUS

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PARETTO ANALYSIS

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ENERGY CONSERVATION

First let us look at:


What is power,
What is energy and
The sources of energy

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WHAT IS ELECTRICITY?
AMPERES?
VOLTS?
WATTS?
FLOW OF CURRENT
WITH POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE
ACROSS A RESISTANCE
FLOW OF CURRENT GIVES POWER
POWER FLOWING FOR A PERIOD

AMPERES
VOLTS
OHMS
WATTS
ENERGY

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Simple circuit

4 AMPS

960W

240 V

60
(Heater)
4 AMPS

4AMPS = 240VOLTS/60 OHMS


VOLTAGE MAKES CURRENT FLOW
THROUGH A RESISTANCE.

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POWER, ENERGY
Power rate of doing work
Energy quantity of work done
Electrical:
Kilo Watt, Kilo Watt Hour
Mechanical:
Horse power, foot pound force (ft lbf)
THERMAL:
British thermal units (BTU)
Joule
Calorie

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Energy equivalents:

1 kilowatt hour =

3.6 10^6 Joules (J) or 3600000

859.85*10^3 k Calories (kcal) or 859850 cal

2.65 10^6
3412

(J)

foot pound force (ft lbf)or 2650000


British thermal units (BTU)

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ENERGY FORMS
Coal
Oil
Gas
Electricity
Steam
Compressed air
Vacuum

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ENERGY SOURCES or FUELS


Material capable of releasing energy
When chemical or physical structure
changed or converted.
Releases energy either by chemical means
-burning,
or by nuclear means, like
nuclear fission or nuclear fusion.

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ENERGY FORMS

Identify source or carriers:


CARRIERS
steam
water
air
electricity?

pressure, heat
potential,Velocity (k.e)
pressure
potential difference

DO NOT GET CONSUMED


Energy imparted, carried and delivered.

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ENERGY FORMS
Identify source or carriers:
Sources:
Inherent energy expended by irreversible chemical
process - burning
Fuels
OIL
GAS
COAL
Gets consumed.

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REDUCE WHAT?
OUTPUT? USEFUL WORK DONE

NO ! WORK DONE SAME


INPUT? YES.

HOW?
ENERGY INPUT = USEFUL WORK DONE + ENERGY
LOST IN CONVERSION / TRANSMISSION.

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ENERGY INPUT = USEFUL WORK + LOSSES

OR
USEFUL WORK +
(LOSSES+WASTAGE+LOW EFFICIENCY)

TO MINIMIZE ENERGY USE:


~IDENTIFY AND MINIMIZE LOSSES.
intrinsic to the system and equipments.
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LOSSES

AVOIDABLE
WASTAGE
LOW EFFICIENCY
UN EVEN DEMAND

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INCREASING POWER FACTOR

REDUCES DEMAND. OK, BUT,


DOES IT REDUCE ENERGY LOSSES?
IF YES, HOW?

AC CIRCUITS POWER NOT = VOLT * AMPS

A PHASE ANGLE EXISTS BETWEEN VOLTAGE


AND CURRENT

POWER = INST VOLTAGE * INST CURRENT


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Power factor

Components of Impedance
(I) Resistance + Reactance (Vectorial sum)
Reactance = Inductive reactance + Capacitive reactance
(Vectorial sum)
These two oppose each other I.e. 180 degrees apart

Almost all circuits, especially in industries inductive I.e,


have low lagging power factor.

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Because
Load consists mainly of:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Induction motors
Static controls thyristors etc,
Power transformers and voltage regulators,
Welding machines,
Electric-arc and induction furnaces,
Choke coils and magnetic systems,
Neon signs and discharge lamps.

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Inductive loads

Higher inductive load:


Lower power factor and higher reactive current
Line losses depend directly upon the square of the
current immaterial of its power factor
Losses proportional to Sq of current!

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Lesser current lesser losses!


kW

kVA1
`

KVA2`

1
2
R KVA
Capacitive
reactance in
RKVA

From the sketch:


Inductive component of kVA1 = kW*Tan1 to be reduced to
kW * Tan 2. Or to reduce 1 to 2; the demand kVA1 is
reduced to kVA2
Possible by supplying a leading RKVA equal to
(kW * Tan 1) (kW* Tan 2)
Or, the capacitance required in RKVA =
kW * (Tan 1 Tan 2)
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Capacitance required for power factor


correction
Capacitance required in kVAr =
Avr. Demand * Avr P.F. * (Tan 1 Tan 2) Or,

Cap. required in kVAr =


M.D * Present P.F. * (Tan(Cos-1 Prsnt P.F) TanCos-1
required P.F.))
Power

Factor correction by static capacitors:


In most industrial cases, pay back less than 18
months.
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Selection of capacitors

POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Reliability of the equipment to be installed


Probable life.
Capital cost.
Maintenance cost.
Running costs.
Space required and ease of installation.

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LOCATION OF CAPACITORS
Nearest to inductive load or switch board: Reduce current
and I2R loss
INDIVIDUAL CORRECTION
Better across motor terminals
Preferably 7.5 kW and above
Avoids providing separate control gears for capacitors
Improves starting condition voltage drop reduced at start
I.e. Drop across cables, transformers, buses
Reduces I2 or losses

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INDIVIDUAL CORRECTION

Caution
1. Protective equipment of feeders/ equipments
should be properly set
2. Capacitor size dependent on motor
magnetizing
current.
3. Motor overload trip setting:
OLTA = OLTA * P.F. without capacitors (With
capacitors) (Without capacitors) power factor with
capacitors

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INDIVIDUAL POWER FACTOR


CORRECTION OF MOTORS:

Care necessary in deciding kVAr capacitor in


relation to the magnetizing kVA of the machine.
If rating too high, damage to motor and capacitor.
Motor, still revolving after disconnection from
supply, may act as a generator by self excitation;
produce voltage higher than supply voltage.
If motor switched on again before speed fallen to
80% normal speed, high voltage superimposed on
supply circuits; risk of damaging other equipment
connected in same circuit.

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Capacitor location for motors

Location A
Capacitor installed on incoming side of starter, on
line side of O/L relay
(a) Capacitor size dependent on motor
magnetizing current.
(b) Current to starter not reduced.
(c) Motor overload trip setting same as without the
capacitor.

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Capacitor location for motors

Location B

Capacitor installed on load side of starter, line side


of the O/L relay.
(a) Current to the starter reduced.
(b) Motor overload trip setting is the same as
without
capacitor.
(3) Location D
Capacitor installed on load side of both starter and
motor O/L relay.
(a) Current to starter reduced.
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Capacitance value

Correct size capacitor in kVAr not to exceed 85% of noload magnetizing kVA of machine.
If motor runs, even momentarily, with windings and
capacitor forming a closed circuit, and disconnected
from mains, over-excitation occur if capacitance too
large.
Happens when:
1. Switching off supply to motor.
2. Step changing a star/delta or auto-transformer
starter,
3. Breaker trips, or fuses blow on distribution system
such that: Motors with individual capacitors, or
Group of motors and line capacitor, form closed circuits.

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LOSSES IN A CAPACITOR

Capacitor: two conductors, separated by


a dielectric, energized at opposite polarity.
(i) There is no prefect conductor
(ii) There is no prefect dielectric
All conductors have some resistance
All dielectrics have some conductance

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LOSSES IN A CAPACITOR

Current caused by conductance in capacitor draws


a small power.
Known as dielectric loss
Quality of capacitors depends on the dielectric
loss, generally known as Tan loss.
Power loss = VI Cos or, = VI Tan
When angle between actual and the quadrature
current is extremely small.

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LOSSES IN A CAPACITOR

The conductance in the dielectric is also called as


leakage resistance
The current due to this will cause power flow I.e
I2R Loss
This Dielectric loss = Capacitor rating in kVA *
Tan
This should be kept at a minimum.
The limits as per standards are: 660 V Capacitors:
(i) Mixed dielectric and film capacitors 0.0025
(ii) Paper Dielectric capacitors 0.005
Above 660 V : not exceeding 0.001

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CASE STUDIES

In a large electrochemical industry, P.F. correction


capacitor 4000 kVAr
Dielectric loss = Tan = .002
Total loss = 4000 * 0.002 = 8 kW
Annual energy lost = 7008 kWhr,
Costing Rs. 315360/- (@Rs 4.5/ kWhr)

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CAUTION IN HANDLING CAPACITORS

Some Capacitors may contain


Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) very
dangerous to health
May cause cancer
Should be only buried for disposal

Some may contain Isopropyl biphenyl


These may be disposed by incineration
Always follow EPA (Environmental
Protection Agency) requirements or
Central/ State government regulations.
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Dielectric Losses In Power Cables

The dielectric power factor of cables for voltage of 33


kV and above is of great importance should have very
low value. The dielectric power factor is
loss in dielectric (watt)
volts * amp

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Dielectric Lose In Power Cables

If cable dielectric is perfect, when voltage is applied,


charging current is in leading quadrature. Should not
have in phase component. But actually has small in
phase component; causes dielectric loss, generating
heat.

The dielectric loss in watts per kilometer per phase is:


2f*C*U02 tan 10-6 watt/km per phase
For paper insulated cables the DLA depends on density
of the paper and the contamination in the oil and paper.

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Properties of different type of capacitors


Sl.
No

Details

Mixed Dielectric

100% Polypropylene

Losses

< 2.5 W/ kVAr.

0.5 W/ kVAr

Running
Costs

Higher

1/5th of MD

Life

10 to 15 years

Same

Temp Rise

More

Less

Reliability

Higher temp rise,


lower

More reliable

Size

Very large

Much smaller

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Energy meter and leading power


factor

Most energy meters erratic for leading power factor

CASE STUDIES
In a plant in South Madras 100 kVAr capacitor in
circuit left Weekend with no load:
Meter reads 150 200 units per day
Misleading; Capacitors suspected defective; Replaced;
No improvement
Removed capacitors tested OK
Tariff meter should assure accuracy for leading power
factor
Unnecessarily consumer billed for energy not
consumed but shown as consumption by erratic
energy meter
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Capacitors and Consumer Problems

Many plants high connected load but power


drawn very low
Machines intended for different types of
production
Not all used at one time
Low utilization factor around 0.3 to 0.45
EB insists capacitance value based on connected
load and some thumb rule!
Leads to low leading power factor.
Penalty levied for low power factor!
Field engineers to be educated with correct
method for selection of capacitance, or Listen to
the consumer
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CASE STUDIES

Connected load about 100 HP


Power drawn hardly 25 kW

EB insisted 50 kVAr capacitor


Average power factor goes to 0. Lead
Penalty levied per month for low power factor at 20% I.e
Rs.12,496!
While energy consumed is 13.620 kWhrs costing only
Rs.54,905!
Best way is to install automatic power factor correction relays
and controls. Switches on only required capacitance.
But quite expensive for small industries to afford.

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Diesel Generators and Power Factor.

It is believed that average power factor for a DG to


operate is 0.8.
A technically erroneous conclusion.
Alternators rated in Volt Amperes (kVA). To
specify maximum current an alternator can deliver.
Power factor specified to specify engine rating; kW
loading and current loading should not be
exceeded.
Hence, power factor of loads supplied can be
improved closer to unity by capacitors.

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CASE STUDIES

DG set rating:
3 phase, 415 V, 50 Hz, 500 kVA; used for
6000 hours/ Year.
Average load 250 kW at 0.65 PF.
Full load copper loss of the alternator =
12 kW

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What is the saving if PF is improved to 0.93?

Energy conservation by improving power


factor.
Rated Current of Alternator = 695.60 A
Current at 0.65 PF = 535 A
Copper loss at this current = 7.1 kW
Current at 0.93 PF = 374 A
Copper loss at this current = 3.5 kW
Saving in copper losses = 7.1 3.5 kW
= 3.6 kW
For 6000 hour operation = 3.6 * 6000 kWh
or, 21,600 kWh!
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TO CONSERVE ENERGY:

1.

REDUCE LOSSES

2.

CUT DOWN WASTE OF ENERGY

3.

INCREASE EFFICIENCY OF EQUIPMENTS &


SYSTEM

4.

REDUCE PEAKING DEMANDS

5.

INCREASE POWER FACTOR.

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1. Location of power factor correction capacitor banks


** to be near the load d.B, to reduce i2r loss of cables
2. Major power consuming sectors should be as close as
possible to main sub station
3. Capacitor dielectric losses tan

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REDUCE LOSSES
A. Optimal selection of transformers
* At least loading should be between 40% to 60%
B. Selection of cable sizes

* Generous size to reduce i2r loss


* Warm cable means energy loss
C. Selection of piping sizes optimum reduce pressure losses

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REDUCE LOSSES
D. Optimal selection of equipments to work at max. Efficiency

E. Location of compressors, boilers nearer to consumers.


F. Avoid P.R.Vs, Bends & Unnecessary Circuitous Routes.

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Transformer application in transmission


and distribution systems

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Step-Up Transformers
common and vital electrical tools used in
power transmission.
They are usually the first major
transformer in a transmission system and
are often used in various forms
throughout the system.

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Step-Up Transformers

Based on the same formulas of other transformers


but they step up voltages to higher levels while reducing
amperage
and reduces power loss which is proportional to the
square of the current
Step-Up Transformers ideal in long-distance power
transmission use;
by stepping up voltage and reducing current to reduce
energy lost, which is proportional to the square of the
current.

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Step-up transformer

has more turns on the secondary coil than on the


primary coil
the voltage induced in the secondary coil is higher than
the primary coil voltage.
number of turns on the primary coil is NP and
on the secondary coil is NS, and
if the respective voltages are VP and VS,
then NS/NP = VS/VP.
Example: the primary coil 200 turns and secondary coil
2,000 turns
the voltage induced in the secondary coil is ten times
higher than the primary coil voltage
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Generator step up transformers (GSU)

In all nuclear, thermal or hydro electric


power stations, generator transformers
are step-up transformers with deltaconnected LV windings energized by the
generator voltage, while star connected
HV windings are connected to the
transmission lines.

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Generator step up transformers (GSU)

Subject to voltage changes either due to load rejection


or switching operations,
followed by generator over excitation,
must maintain ability to withstand over-loads.
High currents involved requires control of magnetic
field inside the tank to
avoid localized overheating of associated metallic parts.
All of these situations are taken into account during the
design process of the specific units and tested with
state-of-the-art techniques.

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A typical generator step up transformer


Type :Indoor use, gas cooled three phase on-load tap
changing gas insulated transformer
Gas pressure0.5MPa (at 20 deg.C)VoltagePrimary275kV (tap range: +10% -10%,23taps)
Secondary66kV
Tertiary21kV, 90 MVA
CapacityPrimary300MVASecondary300MVA
Impedance voltage22% (at 300MVA BASE)
Noise85dB

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Oil filled transformers


Generally, transformers are filled with insulating oil, to
provide insulation as the clearances in side the tank and
windings are very small.
also serves as a medium for cooling the windings and
core
Since oil provides electrical insulation between internal
live parts, it must remain stable at high temperatures for
an extended period.
To improve cooling of transformers, the oil-filled tank
have external radiators through which the oil circulates
by natural convection.
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Transformer oil properties


The flash point (min) and pour point
(max) are 140 C and 6 C respectively.
The dielectric strength of new untreated
oil is 12 MV/m (RMS) and
after treatment it should be >24 MV/m
(RMS).
The dielectric strength of air is:3 MV/m
(RMS)

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Transformers

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Heat removal from transformers

When transformers are on line,


considerable amount of heat is produced
in the windings and cores due to:
Copper loss in the windings, I2R loss

Magnetic losses:
Eddy current losses in the magnetic core etc
Hysterises loss in the magnetic core etc
This raises the temperature of the transformer
and is dissipated by various cooling methods
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Magnetic loss due to eddy currents

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Eddy Current Losses in the Core

Alternating flux induces an EMF in the core


proportional to flux density and frequency resulting in
circulating currents
Depends inversely upon the resistivity of the material
and directly upon the thickness of the core.
The losses per unit mass of core material, vary with
square of the flux density, frequency and thickness of
the core laminations.
By using a laminated core, (thin sheets of silicon steel
instead of a solid core) path of the eddy current is
broken up without increasing the reluctance of the
magnetic circuit. A comparison of solid iron core and a
laminated iron core is shown in the sketch.

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Eddy Current Losses in the Core


For reducing eddy current losses, higher
resistivity core material and thinner
(Typical thickness of laminations is 0.35
mm) lamination of core are employed.
This loss decreases very slightly with
increase in temperature.
This variation is very small and is
neglected for all practical purposes.
Eddy current losses contribute to about
50% of the core losses.

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Hysterisis losses
when a magnetic field is applied all the
grains of the magnetic material will orient
in the direction of magnetizing force.
In next half cycle this grains will orient in
opposite direction in the direction of
magnetizing force.
The energy required to change the
orientation of the magnetic grains in the
direction of the magnetic field is lost in
the form of heat. This loss is called
hysterisis loss.

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87

Transformer magnetic core material

CRGO Steel Laminations

Cold Rolled Grain Oriented (CRGO) silicon steels are used for
laminations of the Power Transformers magnetic core.
Properties:
Maximum magnetic induction to obtain high induction amplitude in
an alternating field
Core loss will be independent of the load
CRGO steel sheets core loss is low; result in reduction of the
constant losses.
Low apparent power input (Low hysterisis loss) results in low no
load current
High grade surface insulation
Good mechanical processing properties
Low magnetostriction: results in low noise level

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88

Typical Losses in a 10 MVA Transformer


Losses in 10 000 kVA 110kV/ 7 kV
transformer are
No load loss or Magnetic losses at rated
voltage :10.5 kW
Load loss or copper loss at rated current
at 75oC : 55 kW

Electrical training
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89

CLASSIFICATION OF TRANSFORMERS
According to cooling method and permissible
temperature rise.
OIL IMMERSED TRANSFORMERS.
Type Oil Circulation Cooling method
ONAN Natural
Air Natural
ONAF Thermal Air Blast
OB
ONWF Head Only
Water
OFAN Forced by
Air Natural
OFAF Pump
Air Blast
OFB
OFWF
Water
COMBINATION:
ON/OB

ON/OFN

Symbol
ON
OW
OFN
OFW

ON/OFB
Electrical training
Consultants

ON/OFW.
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90

Oil filled transformers


Double rated transformers and very large
or high-power transformers (with
capacities of thousands of KVA) may also
have
cooling fans, start and stop initiated by
the winding temperature indicators
oil pumps, and
even oil-to-water heat exchangers.
Cooling water pumps

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91

Forced air cooled Oil Natural

Electrical training
Consultants

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92

Forced air cooled Oil Natural

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93

Transformers

Electrical training
Consultants

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94

Heat removal from transformers

When transformers are on line,


considerable amount of heat is produced
in the windings and cores due to:
Copper loss in the windings, I2R loss

Magnetic losses:
Eddy current losses in the magnetic core etc
Hysterises loss in the magnetic core etc
This raises the temperature of the transformer
and is dissipated by various cooling methods
Electrical training
Consultants

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95

Transformer Cooling Methods


Losses in the transformer around 0.5 to 1% of its full
load kW rating, converted in to heat;
temperature of the windings, core, oil and the tank rises.
This heat dissipated from the transformer tank and the
radiator in to the atmosphere.
cooling arrangements helps in maintaining the
temperature rise of various parts within permissible
limits.
Cooling provided by the circulation of the oil.

Electrical training
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96

Typical losses of transformers


Rated

Power
(kVA)

No-load loss(kW)

On-load loss(kW)

6300

9.3

45

8000

11.2

54

10000

13.2

63

12500

15.6

74

16000

18.8

90

20000

22.2

106

25000

26.2

126

31500

31.2

149

40000

37.3

179

50000

44.1

213

63000

52.5

255

75000

59.8

291

68.8

333

90000

Voltage Combination (kV)

60~150

Electrical training
Consultants

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97

Losses comparison : Dry type or


liquid filled

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98

Comparison of Losses: Oil type and


dry type
(Oil Transformer) Losses

Dry Type
Transformer
Losses

KVA

Full Load
(W)

KVA

Full Load
(W)

500

4930

500

10000

750

7900

750

15000

1000

8720

1000

16400

1500

13880

1500

22500

2000

16310

2000

26400

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99

Liquid, resin caste and dry type


Transformers loss comparison
Liquid:

Cast:

Dry:

Load Losses
(kW)

16.38

21.00

18.52

No Load Losses
(kW)

2.66

7.00

7.55

Total Losses
(kW)

19.04

26.07

28.00

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100

Transformer Oil
Forms a very significant part of the
transformer insulation system:
Has the important functions of acting as
an electrical insulation as well as
A coolant to dissipate heat losses.
For small rating transformers heat
removed from the transformer by natural
thermal convection.

Electrical training
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101

Transformer Cooling Methods

For large rating transformers this is not sufficient;


As size and rating increases, losses increase at a faster
rate. oil is circulated by means of oil pumps.
Within the tank the oil is made to flow through the
space between the coils of the windings.
Several different combination of natural, forced, air, oil
cooling methods are employed
choice of transformer cooling method depends on the
rating, size, and location.

Electrical training
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102

Directed oil flow thro windings

Electrical training
Consultants

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103

Power transformer: Name plate details


Make :
Hack bridge Hewittic and Easun Ltd.
Rated voltage
: 110 kV/ 7 kV.
Rated current
: 52.55 A/ 825.76 A
Rated kVA
: 10 000 kVA
Connection:
Primary Delta; Secondary Star
No load loss at rated voltage
:10500W
Load loss at rated current at 75oC
: 55000 W
Imp voltage at rated current at 750C:
8.35%

Electrical training
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104

Allowable temperature Rise


Component

Cooling

Winding
(Measured by Resistance)

Temp Rise Ambient


C
ON,OB,OW
55
Max 45
OFN, OFB
60
Daily Average 30

OFW
Oil
All
(Measured by Thermometer)

65 (Yearly average 30)


45

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105

COOLING MEDIUM -LETTER SYMBOLS


Cooling Medium
Mineral Oil
Synthetic insulation liquid
Gas
Water
Air
Solid Insulant
Natural
Forced

Symbol
O
L
B
W
A
S
N
F
Electrical training
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106

Gas Insulated Power Transformers

Use SF6 Gas as the insulating and cooling medium


instead of insulating oil.
First units produced in 1967.
Several thousand units now in service worldwide.
Transformer applications: GSU, Distribution class units
up to 400 MVA, 345 kV.
Primarily used in substations located in urban
areas (including inside buildings, underground) due
to safety benefits.

Electrical training
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107

Gas insulated transformers


Space is becoming an important consideration.
This has resulted in:
large-scale substations to be tucked away underground
in overpopulated urban areas
incombustible and non-explosive , large-capacity gas
insulated transformers for accident prevention and
compactness of equipment.
In line with this requirement, several types of largecapacity gas insulated transformer have been developed.

Electrical training
Consultants

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108

Gas insulated transformers


The gas-forced cooling type was available for up to
approximately 60MVA,
gas insulated transformer with higher ratings are liquid
cooled.
Disadvantage: complex structure for liquid cooling.
certain manufactures began development of gas forced
cooling type transformer,
TOSHIBA has delivered 275kV-300MVA gas cooled and
gas insulated transformer,
its structure is as simple as the oil immersed type and is
the largest capacity gas insulated transformer in the
world.

Electrical training
Consultants

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109

Gas insulated transformers


Since heat capacity of SF6 gas is much smaller than that of
insulating oil, the following measures are taken into
account.
1. Raise the SF6 gas pressure to 0.5MPa
2. Produce as large flow as possible by optimizing the
layout of gas ducts in the windings
3. Develop high capacity gas blower with high reliability
4. Apply highly thermal-resistant insulating materials to
raise the limit of winding temperature rise

Electrical training
Consultants

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110

Sulfur Hexa Fluorine Gas (SF6)


Physical properties
About five times heavier than air, density 6.14kg /m3.
Colorless, odorless and non-toxic.
Speed of sound propagation about three times less than
in air, at atmospheric pressure. Hence interruption of
arc less loud in SF6 than in air.
Dielectric strength on average 2.5 times that of air,
Increasing pressure, increases the dielectric strength
Around 3.5 bar, SF6 has the same strength as
transformer oil.
Becomes liquid at - 63.2C and in which noise
propagates badly.

Electrical training
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111

Gas insulated transformer

Electrical training
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112

Gas insulated substation

Gas insulated transformer does not need conservator,


Height of transformer room reduced.
It has non-flammability and non tank-explosion
characteristics
No need for fire fighting equipment in transformer
room.
So gas insulated transformer, gas insulated shunt reactor
and GIS control panels installed in the same room.
The substation is a fully SF6 gas insulated substation

Electrical training
Consultants

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113

Natural-cooled type SF6 gas-insulated


transformer

Electrical training
Consultants

Kavoori
114

Forced-gas-circulated, natural-air-cooled type


SF6 gas-insulated transformer

Electrical training
Consultants

Kavoori
115

Forced-gas-circulated, forced-air-cooled type


SF6 gas-insulated transformer

Electrical training
Consultants

Kavoori
116

Energy conservation and


transformers
The transformer efficiency is maximum
when loaded at 45-50% of its rated
capacity
Selection of transformers for an industry
Select two transformers of each rating for
the full load of the plant.
In normal times, run them in paralleleach will be loaded to its 50% capacity, ie.
At its maximum efficiency area.

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117

TRANSFORMER LOSSES
Constant loss or no load loss- does not depend
upon load condition : about 1kW per 500 kVA
Copper losses - proportional to load condition
During lean periods, one transformer can be cut
out of service - saves about 24 units per day i.e.
Rs. 48/- per day per 500 kVA capacity
Diagram - transformer losses

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118

TRANSFORMER LOSSES

The higher the transformer capacity, the higher the


constant losses

The idle loss of a 5000 kVA transformer is 10 kW!


By prudent switching of transformers, this loss can be
reduced.

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119

TRANSFORMER LOSSES
Constant loss or no load loss- does not depend
upon load condition : about 1kW per 500 kVA
Copper losses - proportional to load condition
During lean periods, one transformer can be cut
out of service - saves about 24 units per day i.e.
Rs. 48/- per day per 500 kVA capacity
Diagram - transformer losses

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120

TRANSFORMER LOSSES
Transformer Load Losses- Model calcuations.
KAVOORI CONSULTANTS, CHENNAI.
Energy audit
M/s. *************************** Ltd
Table No.
Transformer Load Losses, at the present loading condition:
Transformers with Off Load Tap Changer
Make
Bharat Bijlee
k.V.A.
H.V.
L.V.
Imp % ge Units
Rating
2000
11000
433
6.25
No load loss
3.3 kWs
Full lload loss at temperature, oC
75
19.8 kWs
Full lload loss at Operating temperature, oC
31.9
17.05
Full load current, L.T.
2669.9 Amps
Full load current, H.T.
175.16 Amps
Cost of electrical energy
5.95 Rs.
No of transformers in Parallel
2
Single transformer in service
Two transformers in service
Load
Losses, in kW
Losses, in kW
%ge Load No Load
Load
Total
No Load
Load
Total
At an operating temperatur of
31 oC
10.00%
3.3
0.17
3.47
6.6
0.04
6.64
20.00%
3.3
0.68
3.98
6.6
0.17
6.77
30.00%
3.3
1.53
4.83
6.6
0.38
6.98
40.00%
3.3
2.73
6.03
6.6
0.68
7.28
50.00%
3.3
4.26
7.56
6.6
1.07
7.67
60.00%
3.3
6.14
9.44
6.6
1.53
8.13
70.00%
3.3
8.35
11.65
6.6
2.09
8.69
80.00%
3.3
10.91
14.21
6.6
2.73
9.33
90.00%
3.3
13.81
17.11
6.6
3.45
10.05
100.00%
3.3
17.05
20.35
6.6
4.26
10.86
o

At an operating temperature of
10.00%
20.00%
30.00%
40.00%
50.00%
60.00%
70.00%
80.00%
90.00%
100.00%

3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.3

0.19
0.77
1.72
3.07
4.79
6.90
9.39
12.26
15.52
19.16

3.49
4.07
5.02
6.37
8.09
10.20
12.69
15.56
18.82
22.46

65.00

19.16

6.6
6.6
6.6
6.6
6.6
6.6
6.6
6.6
6.6
6.6

0.05
0.19
0.43
0.77
1.20
1.72
2.35
3.07
3.88
4.79

Energy management

6.65
6.79
7.03
7.37
7.80
8.32
8.95
9.67
10.48
11.39

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121

Transformers efficiency v.s. load

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122

TRANSFORMER LOSSES
2000 kVA, 6600 /433 Volts Transformer. Total Losses
Single, Two in parallel operation.
o
(Operating temperature
C)
55

35.00
30.00

Total losses in kW
(Load + No Load)

25.00
20.00

Single Transformer

15.00

Two transformers parallel

10.00
5.00
0.00
1

10

11

12

Transformer load in fraction of full load.

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123

TRANSFORMER LOSSES
Constant loss or no load loss- does not depend
upon load condition : about 1kW per 500 kVA
Copper losses - proportional to load condition
During lean periods, one transformer can be cut
out of service - saves about 24 units per day i.e.
Rs. 48/- per day per 500 kVA capacity
Diagram - transformer losses

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Transformer efficiency VS. Load


100.00

99.50

Percentage efficiency

99.00

98.50
2000 kVA transformer

98.00
2500 kVA Transformer

23500 kVA Transformer

97.50

500 kVA Transformer

97.00

96.50
0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

Load, fraction of the rating

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125

TYPICAL EDDY CURRENT LOSS FACTORS FOR


OIL-FILLED TRANSFORMERS
Transformer size oil
filled transformer
Up to 1 MVA

Eddy current loss


factor
1%

1 MVA TO 5 MVA
Greater than 5 MVA

1 to 5 %
9 to 15%

126

SELECTION OF CABLE SIZE

CONSIDER, SAY, A BULK LOAD OF 207 HP + 5 kW


CONNECTED BY 1000 M OF CABLE FROM THE SUB
STATION.
Cable selected was 3-1/2 * 240 sq.Mm aluminum
conductor p.V.C insulated armored cables
I2r loss in the cable = 7626 w

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127

SELECTION OF CABLE SIZE

If a 3-1/2 * 300 sq.Mm cable is used, the loss will be only


6100 w
Difference in loss of power
= 1525 w
Difference in loss of energy
in one year
= 13,360 units
cost saved @ Rs. 3 = Rs. 40,000/- unit

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128

Power distribution systems

Power Factor Improvement Capacitors Location


Assume a sectional load of 155 kW located at about
1000m from the main substation and connected by an
aluminum cable of size d * 240 sq.mm cable.

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129

Power Factor Improvement Capacitors Location

DC resistance of the cable 0.125/km


load of the remove section 155 kW
power factor of the load = 0.8

Consider the power factor capacitor at this main


substation bus.
Current drawn by the load at 0.8 pf = 240a
Power loss in the cable = 2702 * 0.125 = 9.082 kW

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Power Factor Improvement Capacitors


Location

If the power factor correction capacitor is


connected at the load section distribution board:
For a corrected power factor (of say 0.97)
The current drawn will be 222.3 a power loss in the
cable for this current = 222.3 * 0.125 = 6.177 kW

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131

Power Factor Improvement Capacitors


Location
Saving in power loss= 9.082 - 6.177= 2.905 kW or 3 kW

Saving in one year of operation


= 3 * 24 * 365 = 26,680 kW
Energy cost saved per year
= 26,280 * 3 = Rs. 78,840/to minimize the power loss and save energy and its
cost, always locate capacitors at the section using
maximum power, as close as possible to the respective
substation panel.

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Load location - Cable losses

Suppose the sub-station is close by and only 100


m cable is used.
Loss in cable = 610 w
Energy saving in one year = 48,092 kWhr

Cost of energy saved @ Rs. 1.4/kWhr


= Rs. 1,44,000/To minimize power loss and save energy and its
cost always locate the section using maximum
power as close as possible to the main
substation.

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133

ENERGY UTILIZATION EFFICIENCY


IN HARMONIC ENVIRONMENT

SHRI. K.R. GOVINDAN,


KAVOORI CONSULTANTS,
New No: 22, JANAKIRAM STREET, WEST
MAMBALAM, CHENNAI 600 033.
PH:24846139.
134

POWER UTILIZATION

All alternating current equipments and


power distribution systems and elements
Designed to work from a power source with voltages
of 50 HZ frequency and a sinusoidal waveform
Their behavior, energy utilization efficiency and other
characteristics are much affected when supplied with
distorted wave forms.
Incandescent lamps, heaters, etc draw current
proportional to the voltage following sinusoidal
waveform
Hence these loads are called linear loads
135

POWER DRAWN BY A LINEAR RESISTIVE


LOAD

Both current and voltage rise and fall together


Hence current is in phase with the voltage
The power drawn at any instant is I X V
during a negative half cycle, voltage and current
are negative
Since the power is the product of voltage and
current it becomes positive
Hence a positive power is drawn thorough out the
cycle
136

POWER UTILIZATION

All alternating current equipments and


power distribution systems and elements
Designed to work from a power source with voltages
of 50 HZ frequency and a sinusoidal waveform
Their behavior, energy utilization efficiency and other
characteristics are much affected when supplied with
distorted wave forms.
Incandescent lamps, heaters, etc draw current
proportional to the voltage following sinusoidal
waveform
Hence these loads are called linear loads
137

Unity power factor


Voltage, current and power wave forms

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138

POWER DRAWN BY

A LINEAR INDUCTIVE LOAD


Induction motors also draw current proportional to
voltage
Since current drawn is inductive, lags the voltagebut still follow sinusoidal waveform
Same hold good for capacitors, but current leads
the voltage
In phase or out of phase, the current drawn is
proportional to the voltage
Hence these are also linear loads

139

POWER UTILIZATION
INDUCTIVE LOAD

Though current follows voltage waveform, the peak


and the zero value of the current is displaced by an
angle from the peak and zero point of voltage
waveform
With respect to the instantaneous voltage value,
the current value becomes a function of the Cos of
the angle (between voltage and current)
Hence power at any instant is equal to Voltage X
Current X Cos of the angle between them

140

LINEAR INDUCTIVE LOAD

141

POWER UTILIZATION INDUCTIVE LOADS

If the load is totally inductive like a reactor or a


induction coil the current drawn lags the voltage by
90 degrees
Since power is the product of instantaneous
voltage and current, its frequency is double of the
voltage frequency
It also passes through the negative half of the cycle
Since the negative half and the positive half of the
waveform are identical I.e. positive power and
negative power, total power drawn by the load is
zero
142

POWER UTILIZATION INDUCTIVE LOADS

No net power flows

143

POWER CONTROL
In the past, a resistance or an auto transformer
was employed to regulate power
It controls the peak value of the voltage applied
But still the voltage follows a sinusoidal waveform
but with lesser amplitude
Since power is a product of voltage and current,
the power follows sinusoidal waveform
With reduction in peak value the power drawn is
also reduced
But, involves wastage of power in the controlling
element

144

LINEAR POWER CONTROL

1. Line voltage, 2. Controlled voltage


145

SOLID STATE POWER CONTROL

To eliminate the losses in the controlling elements.


Solid state or thyristor controls employed.
These follow different technique to control power
Chops off a portion of the wave so that the volume
of power to the load is reduced
Now the current is not following the voltage
waveform; it is like interrupted impulses of current
This is a non sinusoidal distorted waveform

146

SOLID STATE CONTROL OF POWER


DISTORTS WAVEFORM

147

HARMONICS AND ENERGY LOSS

Harmonic currents are just circulating in the


network
They do not contribute to the power delivered
But causes I2R losses
In addition the magnetic effect of harmonics
creates other problems which also results in
considerable losses
Alternating current passing though a conductor
sets up alternating magnetic field.
Create varying magnetic field around the conductor

148

HARMONICS AND ENERGY LOSS


SKIN EFFECT
Center of the conductor enveloped by more varying
magnetic flux than on the outside.
They push the current to the periphery of the conductor as
the center is subjected to higher intensity of magnetic field
This concentration at surface is the skin Effect
Increases conductor effective resistance
This is more pronounced if the conductors are associated
with magnetic material as the flux density is much higher

149

HARMONICS AND ENERGY LOSS


CONDUCTORS, CABLES ETC.
SKIN EFFECT
These effects are proportional to the frequency
of the alternating current
Hence very high for higher frequency harmonic
currents
Since effective area of cross section is
reduced, higher resistance offered to the
current flow
Very high I2R losses are involved
For closely placed conductors another factor
comes in to play I.e.Proximity Effects

150

HARMONICS AND ENERGY LOSS


CONDUCTORS, CABLES ETC.
PROXIMITY EFFECT

Conductor halves in close proximity cut by more


Flux than the remote halves.
Current distribution not even throughout the
Cross-section,
Greater portion carried by remote halves.
When currents are in opposite directions,halves in
closer proximity carry more current.
Overall effect- increase in effective resistance.

151

EFFECTIVE AREA OF CONDUCTORS


FOR HARMONIC CURRENTS
Cross sectional area of a round conductor
available for conducting DC current
DC resistance

Cross sectional area of the same conductor


available for conducting normal-frequency AC
AC resistance

Cross sectional area of the same conductor


available for conducting high-frequency AC
AC resistance

152

HARMONICS AND ENERGY LOSS


CONDUCTORS, CABLES ETC.

Proximity effect decreases with increase


In spacing between cables.

At certain harmonics the combined effect results


in twice the I2R loss
A.C/D.C resistance
ratio

Frequency

Harmonic of 50 Hz

1.01

50

1.21

250

1.35

350

1.65

550

11
153

HARMONICS AND INDUCTION MOTOR


When the power supplied to the stator of the motor
contains harmonics,
The stator winding affected by skin effect
The rotor is severely affected, as the conductors are
subjected to magnetic field of varying frequencies.
1.5 Hz to 300 Hz.
In the motor the rotating magnetic field developed by
the fundamental frequency voltage only develop
necessary torque delivers shaft power

154

HARMONICS AND INDUCTION MOTOR

With motor designed for 3% slip, the rotor currents


have a frequency of 1.5Hz;
The rotor is designed to have the reactance and
DC resistance nearly equal at this frequency to get
optimum efficiency.
But, different types of Rotating Magnetic fields are
setup by individual harmonic currents
While fields created by forward magnetic fields
subtract on the rotor field, negative ones added up
to the rotor field

155

HARMONICS AND INDUCTION MOTOR


5th harmonic creates 250 Hz frequency while 11th and
13th pair together to induce 500 Hz in the rotor
These high frequency harmonics snow balls the skin
effect and the rotor I2R loss becomes very high
The rotor have currents at 6,12,18,12 etc times the
stator frequency
High frequency means higher eddy current and
hysterisis loss
The negative torques will affect the shaft horse power;
some times create very bad vibration
At certain level the efficiency drops down about 10%

156

HARMONICS AND INDUCTION MOTOR

Harmonic fields rotating relative to each other


produce torque pulsations
Needs re-examination of torsional characteristics of
entire shaft system
Leakage flux set up in stator and rotor end windings
added to the losses
With skewed rotor bars, high frequency produce
substantial iron loss;
Depends upon amount of skew and iron loss
characteristics

157

HARMONICS AND INDUCTION MOTOR

Case Study:
Test on a 15 kW motor at full out put
With 50 Hz fundamental sinusoidal voltage loss at
full load = 1303 Watts
With Quasi-square wave voltage 1600 Watts
Losses up by 23%

158

HARMONICS AND TRANSFORMER

Transformers essentially comprises of current


carrying conductors encircled by iron core
Hence harmonics effects results in:
Higher eddy current and hysterisis losses
Skin effects due to harmonic current
High copper losses
This effect more important for converter
transformers
Filters do not neutralize harmonic current in these
transformers; due to higher losses develop
unexpected hot spot in tanks

159

NO LOAD CURRENT OF A STAR/STAR


TRANSFORMER
HARMONIC RESOLUTION

Harmonic analysis of peaked no load current wave of i0 = 100 sin + 31.5 sin
5+
160

HARMONICS AND TRANSFORMER


Third harmonics-Important for power transformers;
circulation of triplen zero sequence current in delta
windings
These extra currents over heat the windings
The RMS value of pure sine wave is 0.707 of peak
value
340 V peak value has an RMS voltage of 240
But this ratio is not true for a distorted waveform
RMS value is the measure of the heat generated
by an equivalent DC current
Hence, heat produced by harmonics are much
higher

161

THIRD HARMONICS IN PHASE WITH


FUNDAMENTAL

162

THIRD HARMONICS OUT OF PHASE WITH


FUNDAMENTAL

163

Third harmonics phase relation ship

164

HARMONICS AND POWER FACTOR

Since harmonic currents are neither in phase nor


follow supplied voltage they do not deliver any
power
In a pure sinusoidal waveform the displacement
angle between the current and the voltage decides
the power factor, known as displacement power
factor or apparent power factor
This does not hold good in case of harmonic
currents as they do not have any such angular
relation
Hence power factor is kW/Volts X Ampere
Actually this is the true power factor in a circuit
which has harmonic currents
165

HARMONICS AND TRANSFORMER


The losses in a transformer are a combination of
1.
Excitation (No load loss) I.e. Eddy current,
hysterisis, stray losses
2.
Load losses mainly due to I2R loss in the
conductor
3.
Both the losses increase as the square of the
frequency but does not contribute to the power
transfer
4.
Heats transformer; increases the temperature
resulting in premature failure apart from wasting
energy!

166

DERATING FACTOR FOR TRANSFORMERS

167

HARMONICS AND INSULATED CABLES


A cable is essentially a conductor surrounded by an
insulation
These two components create losses;
The conductor develops I2R loss due to the current
flow
If the current passing through contains higher
harmonics this loss is increased due to the
increased skin and proximity effects as shown
earlier

168

HARMONICS AND INSULATED CABLES

The insulation is subjected to dielectric loss


This loss is
= 2 f C U02 tan 10 -6 (watt/km per phase)
For a specified design,
C and U02 are constant; therefore, loss is
proportional to the frequency

Higher the harmonics higher the losses

169

BALANCED LOAD
Neutral Current

5A

5A

0A

5A

5A

5A

R
Y
B

170

BALANCED LOAD WITH THIRD HARMONICS


Neutral Current

5A

10A

15A

5A

5A

5A

R
Y
B

171

THIRD HARMONICS AND NEUTRAL CURRENTS

172

ELECTRICAL FAILURE MECHANISM

All protective systems are based on Current2 & Time


Rarely Mechanical Damage.

Resistance

Current 2

Power
Loss

Energy
Loss

Heat

Time
Insulation
Failure

Temperature

ELECTRICAL FAILURE
Power loss is proportional to the square of
the current;
Immaterial, whether the current is in
phase with voltage or of fundamental
frequency
Harmonic currents are no exception to this;
They do not deliver power, but circulate in
the system, contributing to energy loss.
result: higher temperature

ELECTRICAL FAILURE

Most of the protective schemes are based on this,


I.e. I2t, resistance being almost constant.
But added disadvantage with harmonics is
They increase the resistance also, by skin and
proximity effects.

Hastens failure, reduce useful life

CAPTIVE POWER GENERATORS AND


HARMONICS
Generators for large lighting installations:
discharge lamps with inductive chokes etc generate
30% 3rd harmonics
If generated voltage contains 3% harmonics, with
harmonic loads, waveform may worsen
Even in a well balanced three phase lighting system
20% 3rd harmonic may exist in each phase.
3rd harmonics are of additive nature; in the neutral it
will be 60%..
will heat up the machines and neutral conductors
but the fundamental current may be zero

CAPTIVE POWER GENERATORS AND


HARMONICS

Eg: A carefully balanced 250 kVA fluorescent lighting


load in a warehouse.
fed from the public utility - 13% of full load line current
observed in the neutral
fed from 320 kVA stand by generator - current
increases to 250 Ampere (72% full load current)
due to high third harmonic content in the generator
output waveform
The solution was to replace 11/12 pitch of the stator
winding by 2/3 pitch
The neutral current was below than the value when
supplied from the utilities

CAPTIVE POWER GENERATORS AND


HARMONICS
Sizing generators for non linear loads:
Simple rules of the thumb is to oversize the
standard generators for the load to be catered
Some allow 50% non linear loads
But, manufacturers should be given full information
of non linear loads while ordering
The crux of the problem - one of the generating
impedance
Current harmonics of non linear loads are constant
do not depend upon the power supply

CAPTIVE POWER GENERATORS AND


HARMONICS

But voltage distortion is a direct function of


generating impedance
The stator pitch configuration have varying
reactance for each harmonics
Hence evaluating the voltage distortion for all
harmonics individually is necessary
These distorted voltages affect the performance of
AVRs affecting their stability
PMG excitation system has improved this situation
The power to the AVR is constant irrespective of
generated output

CAPTIVE POWER GENERATORS AND


HARMONICS

Designing generators with specific winding pitches


and low reactance is not quite commercially viable
Hence practical solution is to derate the standard
industrial generators
Some reputed manufacturers select a 0.12 p.u.
subtransient reactance as a good practical solution
The basics; 6 pulse VFD motor drive with 26%
current distortion

CAPTIVE POWER GENERATORS AND


HARMONICS
POWER FACTOR:
Conventional power factor is Watts/Volt amp is =
Cosine of the angle between current and voltage
This is really a displacement power factor
But with harmonic currents, power factor as Cos
does not hold good
Because there are many harmonic currents flowing in
the circuit
If the total RMS value of the current is taken into
consideration, the power factor value may become
worse

CAPTIVE POWER GENERATORS AND


HARMONICS

The power drawn is a function of the fundamental


current only
Harmonic current increase the total RMS current
without increasing the power
Discrepancy arise between ammeter reading and
voltmeter reading
Standard power factor meter measures
displacement power factor only
They may show a unity power factor while infact
the real power factor may be as low as 0.70

ELECTRICAL FAILURE MECHANISM

All protective systems are based on Current2 & Time


Rarely Mechanical Damage.

Resistance

Current 2

Power
Loss

Energy
Loss

Heat

Time
Insulation
Failure

Temperature

ELECTRICAL FAILURE
Power loss is proportional to the square of
the current;
Immaterial, whether the current is in
phase with voltage or of fundamental
frequency
Harmonic currents are no exception to this;
They do not deliver power, but circulate in
the system, contributing to energy loss.
result: higher temperature

ELECTRICAL FAILURE

Most of the protective schemes are based on this,


I.e. I2t, resistance being almost constant.
But added disadvantage with harmonics is
They increase the resistance also, by skin and
proximity effects.

Hastens failure, reduce useful life

CAPTIVE POWER GENERATORS AND


HARMONICS
Generators for large lighting installations:
discharge lamps with inductive chokes etc generate
30% 3rd harmonics
If generated voltage contains 3% harmonics, with
harmonic loads, waveform may worsen
Even in a well balanced three phase lighting system
20% 3rd harmonic may exist in each phase.
3rd harmonics are of additive nature; in the neutral it
will be 60%..
will heat up the machines and neutral conductors
but the fundamental current may be zero

CAPTIVE POWER GENERATORS AND


HARMONICS

Eg: A carefully balanced 250 kVA fluorescent lighting


load in a warehouse.
fed from the public utility - 13% of full load line current
observed in the neutral
fed from 320 kVA stand by generator - current
increases to 250 Ampere (72% full load current)
due to high third harmonic content in the generator
output waveform
The solution was to replace 11/12 pitch of the stator
winding by 2/3 pitch
The neutral current was below than the value when
supplied from the utilities

CAPTIVE POWER GENERATORS AND


HARMONICS
Sizing generators for non linear loads:
Simple rules of the thumb is to oversize the
standard generators for the load to be catered
Some allow 50% non linear loads
But, manufacturers should be given full information
of non linear loads while ordering
The crux of the problem - one of the generating
impedance
Current harmonics of non linear loads are constant
do not depend upon the power supply

CAPTIVE POWER GENERATORS AND


HARMONICS

But voltage distortion is a direct function of


generating impedance
The stator pitch configuration have varying
reactance for each harmonics
Hence evaluating the voltage distortion for all
harmonics individually is necessary
These distorted voltages affect the performance of
AVRs affecting their stability
PMG excitation system has improved this situation
The power to the AVR is constant irrespective of
generated output

CAPTIVE POWER GENERATORS AND


HARMONICS

Designing generators with specific winding pitches


and low reactance is not quite commercially viable
Hence practical solution is to derate the standard
industrial generators
Some reputed manufacturers select a 0.12 p.u.
subtransient reactance as a good practical solution
The basics; 6 pulse VFD motor drive with 26%
current distortion

CAPTIVE POWER GENERATORS AND


HARMONICS
POWER FACTOR:
Conventional power factor is Watts/Volt amp is =
Cosine of the angle between current and voltage
This is really a displacement power factor
But with harmonic currents, power factor as Cos
does not hold good
Because there are many harmonic currents flowing in
the circuit
If the total RMS value of the current is taken into
consideration, the power factor value may become
worse

Lamp Characteristics: efficacy, life and colour rendering index.


Lamp type

Previous
coding

ILCOS coding

Lamp
efficacy
(lumens/
Watt)

Quoted lamp life


(hours)

Colour rendering Index


compared to Inc lamp

Tungsten
filament

GLS

10 to 18

1000 to 2000

100

Tungsten
halogen

TH

HS

15 to 25

2000 to 4000

100

High pressure
mercury

MBF

QE

30 to 60

14000 to 25000

47

Low pressure
mercury
(fluorescent)

MCF

FD (tubular)
FS (compact)

65 to 95
65 to 95

6000 to 15000
8000 to 10 000

11

Metal halide

MBI

65 to 85

6000 to 13000

Low pressure
sodium

SOX

LS

70 to 150

11000 to 22000

High pressure
sodium

SON

55 to 120

12000 to 26000

XF

70 to 80

60000

Induction

Energy management

23

Kavoori Consultants

192

CAPTIVE POWER GENERATORS AND


HARMONICS

The power drawn is a function of the fundamental


current only
Harmonic current increase the total RMS current
without increasing the power
Discrepancy arise between ammeter reading and
voltmeter reading
Standard power factor meter measures
displacement power factor only
They may show a unity power factor while infact
the real power factor may be as low as 0.70

CONCLUSION
Harmonics are created in a power system by the
consumer and also by the supplier
But major portion by consumer
Harmonics creates lot of problems, destroys
equipments
All energy efficient equipments essentially creates
harmonics;
These result in added energy losses
Hence harmonics are to be limited
While selecting energy efficient equipments these
points are to be given greater attention

194