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+
-

+

-

++

o

12 mA

||
12 mA

12mA

-

-

12mA ^

O

''''~Io
11'210>|

!>~n ~

|

---1------

11> - 4.5m A

-

R1

R 2 = 12

R eq -

>

o
+
+
o
-

2 kW

-o
+
+
-o

-

+

^

+

-

20V

1

+

+

(-

4
- -

5

5

<

3A

+
-

+
-

0

^

>
1

+
-

l

10kW

+
-

s

+

-

6kW

-

+

R

R

3

Vs

s

|

3

+
-

+
+-

3

2.88 Given I"

=

2 mA in the network in Fig. P2.88,

find V.I'

VA
3

v..
..•.

1 kn

Iq

+ VJ1 kfl

-'t
1 kfl

~

-

+

2kf!

.,.
_I

KC,.L""

::.

~,2)C.

1,).. t I~.= I~

VA ::. -2,h - 2-D

|

V2

3

+

-

+
-

+
-

c

s

=

+

=
=

=

-

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
Is

>

R1
12V

Ix

R2

R3

R4

R5

R6
Req = { [[( R5 + R6 )

R4 ] + R3 ]

Req = { [[(8 + 2) 10] + 1]

R2 } + R1

3} + 1

Req = (6 3) + 1 = 3Ω
Is =

12 12
=
= 4A
Req
3

R ' = [( R5 + R6 )

R4 ] + R3 = 6Ω

24 8
⎛ 6 ⎞
= A
Ix = ⎜
⎟(4) =
9 3
⎝3+ 6⎠

Chapter 2: Resistive Circuits

Pr oblem 2.FE-10

3k W

|
-

1
O

2 kW

Vo

6 kW

4 kW

l

2

3

o

3

\/

>
-+

+

Vo
-

>

>
'

'

+ \/

o

+
-

\/

+
-

'

-

+

o \/

+

-

-+

-o
+

o

\/ x

1

\/

'

'''

>

\/

6Vx

'

"

'''

\/

'

^ \/

\/
2

o\/

2

-O

-O

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
⎛ − R2 ⎞
⎛ R ⎞
Vo = ⎜
⎟(4) − ⎜ 2 ⎟(−2)
⎝ 4k ⎠
⎝ 12k ⎠
Vo = −3V
1
− 3 = −1m( R2 ) + m( R2 )
6
5
− m ( R 2 ) = −3
6
R2 = 3.6kΩ

Chapter 4: Operational Amplifiers

Problem 4.FE-1

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
36kΩ
18kΩ

-

V1

+
6kΩ

+
6kΩ

12 kΩ

12kΩ

2V

3V
1V

⎛ 18k ⎞
⎛ 18k ⎞
V1 = −2⎜
⎟(4) + 1⎜
⎟ = −4.5V
⎝ 6k ⎠
⎝ 12k ⎠
⎛ 36k ⎞ ⎛ 36k ⎞
V0 = −V1 ⎜

⎟ − 3⎜
⎝ 6k ⎠ ⎝ 12k ⎠
⎛ 36k ⎞ ⎛ 36k ⎞
V0 = 4.5⎜

⎟ − 3⎜
⎝ 6k ⎠ ⎝ 12k ⎠
V0 = 18V

Chapter 4: Operational Amplifiers

Problem 4.FE-2

Vo

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
if
2Ω

i=0
-

Vo

+

3Ω
4Ω

6V

2V

V1 V2 6 2
+
= + = 2 .5 A
R1 R2 3 4
V0 = −i f R f = −(2.5)(2)
if =

V0 = −5V

Chapter 4: Operational Amplifiers

Problem 4.FE-3

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
The op-amp is a noninverting op-amp.
Rf
A = 1+
R1
R f = ( A − 1) R1

R f = (50 − 1)5k = 245kΩ

Chapter 4: Operational Amplifiers

Problem 4.FE-4

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
R1 = 6kΩ
+
-

+

R2 = 2kΩ

5V
R3 = 1kΩ

8kΩ

Vo

2 kΩ

The 8kΩ and 2kΩ resistors make up a noninverting op-amp.
⎛ 8k ⎞
V1 = ⎜1 +
⎟5 = 25V
⎝ 2k ⎠
Use nodal analysis at node A:
Vo Vo − Vi Vo − 25
+
+
=0
R3
R1
2k

Chapter 4: Operational Amplifiers

Problem 4.FE-5

2

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

Vo Vo − 5 Vo − 25
+
+
=0
1k
6k
2k
6Vo + Vo − 5 + 3Vo − 75 = 0

10Vo = 80
Vo = 8V

Problem 4.FE-5

Chapter 4: Operational Amplifiers

+

_
|

|

|
.

+

.

+

-

6k

K

-T'0

'

"

-

-

'

A^

eq/

eq/

-

'

0

'''

+-

+
-

+
_

+

+
-

-

"

T
-

"

+

+
-

+

+
-

-+

+
-

–+

>

=

-+
+

-+
+

–+

+

-

+

+

2

x

+
-

+
x

-

x

+–

–+

–+

+

–+
+

2

+–

+
-

+
-

=

+
+

+

0

+

-

+
+
-

-

+
-

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:

Problem 5.113

2

Problem 5.113

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:

Problem 5.114

2

Problem 5.114

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:

Problem 5.115

2

Problem 5.115

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:

Problem 5.116

2

Problem 5.116

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:

I'
R1

R2

R4

Voc'

4mA

R3

Use superposition.

R1
(4m)
I '  
 R1  R2  R3 
1k

I' 
(4m)  1mA
1
k

1
k

2
k

'
Voc  I ' R3  (1m)(2k )

Voc'  2V

Problem 5.FE-1

2

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

R2

R1

R4

12V

Voc"

R3

R3
(12)
Voc"  
 R1  R2  R3 
2k

Voc"  
(12)
 1k  1k  2k 
Voc"  6V
Voc  Voc'  Voc"  2  6  8V

R1

R2

R4

R3

RTH

RTH  R1  R2  R3   R4
RTH 

2k (2k )
 1k  2k 
2k  2k

Problem 5.FE-1

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

3

RTH  2k

Voc  8V

RL

PLmax  I L2 RL

R L  RTH for maximum power.
 V
PLmax   oc
 2 RTH
PLmax

2

 RTH

V2
82
 oc 
 8mW
4 RTH 4(2k )

Problem 5.FE-1

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
 Vx 

2k

1k

I

12V

Voc

+
-

2V x

12  2kI  1kI  2V x
V x  I ( 2k )
12  2kI  1kI  2(2kI )
12
I  mA
7
12  2kI  Voc
 12 
12  2k  m   Voc
7 
Voc  8.57V

Problem 5.FE-2

2

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

 Vx 

2k

I1

12V

1k

I sc

I2

+
-

2V x

 12 
I 1     6mA
 2k 

1kI 2  2V x  0

1kI 2  2(2kI1 )  0
I 2  24mA
I 1  I 2  I sc
I sc  6m  (24m)  30mA
Voc 8.57

 285.7
I sc 30m
RL  RTH for maximum power.

RTH 

RTH  285 .7

Voc  8.57V

PLmax 

Problem 5.FE-2

RL

Voc2
(8.57) 2

 64.3mW
4 RTH 4(285.7)

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:

Ix

R1

12V

I
R2

2I x

text

Voc

I  I x  2I x
I  3I x
12  3I x  12 I
12  3I x  12(3I x )
4
Ix  A
13

4
Voc  12 I  12(3I x )  12(3)   11.08V
 13 

Problem 5.FE-3

2

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

Ix
R1

I2
12V

R2

2I x

I sc

text

I sc  I x  I 2  2 I x  3I x  I 2
I2  0A
I sc  3I x
12  3I x

I x  4A
I sc  3(4)  12 A
V
11.08
 0.92
RTH  oc 
12
I sc

RTH  0.92

12

Voc  11.08V

RL

RL  0.92  12  12.92
R L  12.92 for maximum power transfer.

Problem 5.FE-3

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:

2

I'
3

10 A

2

4

Use superposition.
 2 
I'  
(10)  4 A
 2  3

I"
3

2

4

20V

2

Problem 5.FE-4

2

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

20
 4A
5
I  I'  I"
I  4  4
I  0A
I" 

Problem 5.FE-4

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
Use superposition.

4

a
I

2

3

'

12 A

Voc'

b

 4 
I' 
(12)  8 A
2 4
Voc'  I ' (2)  8(2)  16V

Problem 5.FE-5

2

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

a
3

4
12V

2

Voc"

b
 2 
Voc"  
(12)  4V
2 4
Voc  16  4  12V

Problem 5.FE-5

-

S
S

s
s

S
S

t

2.24

/

c

3

t

t

t

3

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
Yes. The capacitors should be connected as shown.

6 F
2 F

4 F

C eq 

6  (6  )
 3 F
6  6

Chapter 6: Capacitance and Inductance

Ceq

Problem 6.FE-1

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
q (t )   i (t ) dt

0 C , t  0

q (t )  6t C , 0  t  1 s
6  C , t  1 s

q (t )
C
0 V , t  0

v(t )  6 x10 6 t V , 0  t  1 s
6 V , t  1 s

v(t ) 

1
C v 2 (t )
2
0 J , t  0

w(t )  18 x10 6 t 2 J , 0  t  1 s
18 J , t  1 s

w(t ) 

Chapter 6: Capacitance and Inductance

Problem 6.FE-2

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
The voltage across the unknown capacitor Cx is (using KVL):
24  8  V x
V x  16V
q  Cv
The capacitors are connected in series and the charge is the same.
q  60  (8)  480  C
q 480 
 30  F
Cx  
v
16

Chapter 6: Capacitance and Inductance

Problem 6.FE-3

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
2 mH

Leq

3mH

3mH

6mH

12mH

9mH

Leq  [ [(3m  9m) 12m] 6m 3m]  2m
Leq  [ [(12m) 12m] 6m 3m]  2m

Leq  [ 6m 6m 3m]  2m
Leq  [ 3m 3m]  2m
Leq  1.5m  2m
Leq  3.5mH

Chapter 6: Capacitance and Inductance

Problem 6.FE-4

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
di(t )
v(t )  L
dt
di(t )
 20te  2t (2)  20e  2t  20e  2t  40te  2t
dt

v(t )  10m 20e  2t  40te  2t
0 V , t  0
v(t )  
2t
 2t
0.2e  0.4te V , t  0

Chapter 6: Capacitance and Inductance

Problem 6.FE-5

2

3

c

\/

i(t)

i(t)

\/

t

____

____

.

(

-

)

-

n

^

>

0

|

:

-

C

C

^ i(t)

3

-

-

2

o
o

-

-

c

-

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Note: Please go to next page to see the graph on Output Voltage vs Time

^ i L (0+)

-

=

2

R2

-

-

-

-

- -

-

>
i(t)

-

Note: Please go to next page to see the graph on Output Voltage vs Time

-

12V

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:

8k

6 k

vc (0)

6k

12V

6 k

R' 

12k (6k )
 4k
12k  6k

8k

12V

R '  4 k

Chapter 7: First- and Second- Order Transient Circuits

v c ( 0 )

Problem 7.FE-1

2

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

 4k 
v c ( 0 )  
 (12)  4V
 4 k  8k 

The t  0 circuit:

6k

vc (t )

6k

vc (t) 12k x i c (t)  0
dv (t )
ic (t )  C c
dt
dv (t )
vc (t )  12k (100 ) c
0
dt
dvc (t ) 1

vc (t )  0
dt
1.2
1
r
0
1.2
1
r
1.2
vc (t )  Ae

t
1.2

vc (0)  4V
A4
vc (t )  4e

t
1. 2

V, t  0

vc (2)  0.756V

Problem 7.FE-1

Chapter 7: First- and Second- Order Transient Circuits

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
Find the initial condition:

12k

4k

12 k

12V

v0 (0)

vo (0)  0V

The t  0 circuit:

Chapter 7: First- and Second- Order Transient Circuits

Problem 7.FE-2

2

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

R3  4k

R1  12k

R 2  12 k

v0 (t )

12V

R 3  4 k

R1  12k

R 2  12 k

voc

12V

voc 

R2
12k
(12) 
(12)  6V
R1  R2
12k  12k

R1  12k
R 2  12 k

R3  4k

RTH

RTH  ( R1 R2 )  R3
RTH 

Problem 7.FE-2

12k (12k )
 4k  10k
12k  12k

Chapter 7: First- and Second- Order Transient Circuits

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

3

RTH  10k

100 F

voc  6V

v0 (t )

10k x i(t) o v (t)  6
dv (t )
ic (t )  C o
dt
dv (t )
RTH C c  v o (t )  voc
dt
v
dv o (t )
1

v o (t )  oc
RTH C
dt
RTH C
1
0
r
RTH C
1
r
RTH C
The natural solution is:
t

von (t )  Ae RTH C
t

von (t )  Ae 10 k (100  )  Ae t
The forced solution is:
vo f (t )  k

dv o f (t )
dt

0

1

0

k

RTH C
k  voc
vo f (t )  6V

voc
RTH C

vo (t )  6  Ae  t
vo (0)  0V
0  6 A
A  6

Chapter 7: First- and Second- Order Transient Circuits

Problem 7.FE-2

4

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

vo (t )  6  6e  t V , t  0
vo (1)  6  6e 1

vo (1)  3.79V

Problem 7.FE-2

Chapter 7: First- and Second- Order Transient Circuits

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
Find the initial condition:
12 k

v c (0  )

12V

6k

 6k 
v c ( 0)  
(12)  4V
 6k  12k 
The t  0 circuit:

vc (t )

6k

Chapter 7: First- and Second- Order Transient Circuits

Problem 7.FE-3

2

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

vc (t )  6kic (t )  0
dv (t )
ic (t )  C c
dt
dv (t )
vc (t )  6k (100  ) c
0
dt
dvc (t ) 1

vc (t )  0
dt
0.6
1
r
0
0.6
1
r
0.6
t

vc (t )  Ae 0.6

vc (0)  4V
A4
t

vc (t )  4e 0.6 V , t  0
t

0.5(4)  4e 0.6
t

1
 e 0.6
2
1 t
ln 
2 0.6
t  0.6 ln
t  0.416 s

Problem 7.FE-3

1
2

Chapter 7: First- and Second- Order Transient Circuits

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
Find the initial condition:

i L (0)

2

2

10V

i L ( 0 ) 

10
 5A
2

Chapter 7: First- and Second- Order Transient Circuits

Problem 7.FE-4

2

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

5A

voc

2

1A

1 2

2

3

2

3

6A

voc

2
voc  6   4V
3

2

2

Problem 7.FE-4

RTH

2

Chapter 7: First- and Second- Order Transient Circuits

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

RTH  2 2  2  1 2 

2

3

RTH 

2

3

voc  4V

3

iL (t )

4H

di L (t ) 2
 i L (t )  4
dt
3
di L (t ) 1
 i L (t )  1
dt
6
1
r 0
6
1
r
6
4

t

i Ln (t )  Ae 6
i L f (t )  k

di L f (t )

0
dt
1
0 k 1
6
k 6
i L f (t )  6

i L ( 0 )  5 A
t

i L (t )  6  Ae 6
56 A
A  1
t

i L (t )  6  e 6 A, t  0

Chapter 7: First- and Second- Order Transient Circuits

Problem 7.FE-4

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
Find the initial condition:
i L (0)

3
1

12V

i L ( 0 ) 

12
 3A
4

Chapter 7: First- and Second- Order Transient Circuits

Problem 7.FE-5

2

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

L

iL (t )

R1
R2
Vs

di L (t )
 R1  R2 i L (t )  Vs
dt
V
di L (t ) R1  R2
i L (t )  s

dt
L
L
R1  R2
0
r
L
R  R2
r 1
L
L

i Ln (t )  Ae
i Ln (t )  Ae

 R R 
 1 2  t
 L 
5
 t
3

i L f (t )  k
di L f (t )

0
dt
5
0 k  4
3
12
k
5

i L (0  )  3 A
5

 t
12
i L (t )   Ae 3
5
3  2. 4  A
A  0. 6

i L (t )  2.4  0.6e

Problem 7.FE-5

5
 t
3

A, t  0

Chapter 7: First- and Second- Order Transient Circuits

)A

>

-

l

ll

Y

Z

-

t

-

-j26.53W

"

2

o

x
x

-

-

-

-

-

_

o

o

"
_

o

)

"

-

j

-

>

o

x

-

o

o

''

2W

o

o

6

o

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

+

i

]

AC ANALYSIS

***************************************************************************************************************************

FREQ

IM(V_PRINT1)

4.000E+02

6.058E+00

IP(V_PRINT1)
-1.361E+01

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:

2

j1

120V

+
40 V

 j1

1

V0
-

j1

+
80 A

2

 j1

1

V0
-

Problem 8.FE-1

2

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

Z 

2( j1)
 0.4  j 0.8
2  j1
I0
j1

80  A

Z

1

0.4  j 0.8
80  1.6  j 4.8 A
I 0  
 0.4  j 0.8  1  j1 
V0  1.6  j 4.81  5.06  71.6V

Problem 8.FE-1

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:

text

2I x

1

V1
I1

 j1

2

V2

V0

I2

120V

20 A

Ix

Problem 8.FE-2

2

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

V2  120V
V
Ix  1
 j1
2I x  I x  I1  0
 V  V
V  120
2 1   1  1
0
1
  j1   j1
2V1  V1   j1V1  j1(120)  0
 j1(120)
V1 
 1.2  j 3.6V
3  j1
KCL at node 0:
2 I x  I 2  20  0
 V  V  V0
2 1   2
 20  0
2
  j1 
 1.2  j 3.6  120  V0
 
2
 20  0
2
  j1 
V0  30.88.97V

Problem 8.FE-2

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:

I

2

j 2

 j1

I1
120V

2V0

I2
+

4

V0

-

I1  I  I 2
I  I1  I 2
KVL around the left loop:
120  2 I 1  j 2 I  2V0
V0  4I 2
(2  j 2) I 1  (8  j 2) I 2  120
KVL around the right loop:
2V0   j 2 I  j1I 2  4 I 2
j 2 I 1  (4  j1) I 2  0

Problem 8.FE-3

2

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

Two equations and two unknowns:
(2  j 2) I 1  (8  j 2) I 2  120
j 2 I 1  (4  j1) I 2  0
It follows that:
I 1  4.2445 A

I 2  2.06  30.96 A
V0  4( 2.06  30.96)
V0  8.24  30.96V

Problem 8.FE-3

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
Z c is small at midband.
Vx
5k
5

Vs 5k  1k 6

V0
 6k (12k ) 
 40 x10 3 
  160
Vx
 6k  12k 
V0  V x  V0
  
Vs  Vs  V x

 5
   160  133.33
 6

Problem 8.FE-4

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:

Is
60V
Zeq

(1  j1)(1  j3)
 3  1.58  18.43  3  4.53  6.34 
1  j1  1  j 3
60
Is 
 1.32456.34 A
4.53  6.34

Z eq 

Problem 8.FE-5

2

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

3

 j 1

Io
j 3

1

60 V

1

KVL around the outer loop:
60  3(1.32456.34)  I 0 (1  j1)
I 0  1.4832.92 A

Problem 8.FE-5

-

c

>

I2

>I

4

-

>

-I

I

1

>

3

-

supplied

W

>I

-

-

O
|

39

2 x

1
2

\/

|

2

2

2

2

Unknown
element

.

.

.

.

-

.

.

.

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
From the power triangle:
Qold  Pold tan  old

Qold  120k tan 45  120k var
S old  (120k  j120k ) VA  17045 kVA
S new  Pold  jQnew

 new  cos 1 (0.95)  18.19
Qnew  Pold tan  new
Qnew  120k tan 18.19  39.43k var
S new  120k  j 39.43k VA
S new  126.3118.19 kVA
S cap  S new  S old   j80.57 kVA
Qcap   CV 2
 80.57 k  2 60(C )(480 2 )
C  928 F

Chapter 9: Steady – State Power Analysis

Problem 9.FE-1

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
T

Vrms 

1 2
v (t ) dt
T 0

Vrms 

2
3
1
4

1 2
2
2
2
  1 dt   2 dt   1 dt  0 dt 
4 0
1
2
3

Vrms 
Vrms 

1 1
2
3
t 0  4t 1  t 2  0
4
1
1  (8  4)  (3  2)  1.22V
4

Chapter 9: Steady – State Power Analysis

Problem 9.FE-2

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
2

 j1
j 2

ZTH

Z TH  2  j1  j 2  0.4  j1.2
*
Z L  Z TH
 0.4  j1.2

Chapter 9: Steady – State Power Analysis

Problem 9.FE-3

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
36k
Vs
12k
1.414
Vs 
 10 V rms
2
36k
10  30 V rms
V0  
12k
V0  

Chapter 9: Steady – State Power Analysis

Problem 9.FE-4

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
T

I rms 

1 2
i (t ) dt
T 0

I rms 

1
2

1 2
2
  t dt   (2) dt 
2 0
1

I rms 

1 1

 (8  4)  1.47 A

2 3

2
P  I rms
R  (1.47) 2 ( 4)  8.64 W

Chapter 9: Steady – State Power Analysis

Problem 9.FE-5

.

.

.
.

.

.

-

-

A

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

o

.

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

&

-

-

-

-

-

Ideal
1:1

1:2

Ideal

j

.

.

1:4

Ideal

2:1

.

.

.

.

.

.

o

o

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:

M
4

24 0V

I1

 j 5
j 8

j 2

I2

5

k=0.5

M  k L1 L2  1H
240  I 1 (4  j 2)  j 2 I 2
 j 2 I 1  (5  j 3) I 2  0
I 1  4.92  19.75 A

I 2  1.6939.29 A
240
Z1 
 4.8819.75
4.92  19.75

Chapter 10: Magnetically Coupled Networks

Problem 10.FE-1

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:

48 n 2 

j 32n 2 

 j 2

R L  3

V2

Z TH  3 for maximum power transfer.
Reflecting the primary into the secondary:
Z TH  48n 2  j 32n 2  j 2  3
48n 2  j32n 2  j 2  3
1
if n  :
4
Z TH 

48
 32

 j   2   3
16
 16

Chapter 10: Magnetically Coupled Networks

Problem 10.FE-2

2

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

3

I
RL  3

300V

300
 50 A
6
1
1
PL  I M2 RL  (5) 2 (3)  37.5W
2
2
I 

Problem 10.FE-2

Chapter 10: Magnetically Coupled Networks

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:

1k

+
+

5k

Vs

4V x
100

Vx

10 k

Voc

-

 5  4
Voc   Vs  
x10 4 

 6  100

1k
+
Vs

5k

Vx

4V x
100

10 k

I sc

-

 5  4 
I sc   Vs  

 6  100 
Find Rout of the amplifier:
5
V x  Vs
6

Chapter 10: Magnetically Coupled Networks

Problem 10.FE-3

2

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

 5  4

x10 4 
 Vs  
V
6  100
  10k
Rout  oc  
I sc
 5  4 
 Vs  

 6  100 
16a 2  10k
a  25

Problem 10.FE-3

Chapter 10: Magnetically Coupled Networks

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
Z1 

ZL
 2 2 (1  j1)  4  j 4
n2

1200
 11.7711.31 A
6  j2  4  j4
I
I2  1
n
I 2  23.5411.31 A
I1 

Chapter 10: Magnetically Coupled Networks

Problem 10.FE-4

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
I1 

V1
Z1

ZL
n2
N
n 2 2
N1
10  j10
Z1 
 2.5  j 2.5
22
1200
I1 
 24  j 24 A
2.5  j 2.5
I
24  j 24
I2  1 
n
2
I 2  12  j12 A  16.97  45 A
Z1 

Chapter 10: Magnetically Coupled Networks

Problem 10.FE-5

\

-

I aA

>

.

-

>
3

-

AN

AN

-

an

PF

36

o

A

/

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:

I  6 A rms
VR  84.85V rms
VL  84.85V rms

R

VR

L 

I
VL
I

84.85
 14.14
6

84.85
 14.14
6

Z load  14.14  j14.14 
2

S 3  3 I Z load
S 3  36  14.14  j14.14 
2

S 3  2.1645 kVA

Chapter 11: Polyphase Circuits

Problem 11.FE-1

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:

Z   12  j12 
Finding the equivalent per-phase wye:
Z Y  4  j 4  5.6645
V AB  230 V rms

V AN 

I aA 

230
3

V AN
ZY

 132.79V rms

132.79
 23.5 A rms
5.66

P3  3 V AN I aA cos Z  3(132.79)(23.5) cos 45  6.62kW

Chapter 11: Polyphase Circuits

Problem 11.FE-2

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
24  j18
 8  j 6
3
 6  j 4

ZY1 
ZY 2

V AB  208V rms

V AN 

208

 120V rms
3
1200
I aN 1 
 12  36.87 A
8  j6
1200
I aN 2 
 16.64  33.69 A
6  j4
I aA  I aN 1  I aN 2  28.63  35.02 A rms

Chapter 11: Polyphase Circuits

Problem 11.FE-3

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
S 3  2430 kVA  20784.61  j12000 VA
P3  20.78kW
P1  6.93kW

Chapter 11: Polyphase Circuits

Problem 11.FE-4

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
By use of the power triangle:
S 2  P2  Q2

Q  S 2  P2

Q  (100k ) 2  (90k ) 2
Q  43.59k var

Chapter 11: Polyphase Circuits

Problem 11.FE-5

|

-

4w

)

2

-

l

-

/

)

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

/
-

-/

-

4

4

4

.
.

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:

0 

1
LC

1
1m(10  )

 10,000

s

1
1
 Z ( j 0 ) 
  60
  60  90V
V0 ( j 0 )  120 c
 60

2

 10,000(10  )90 
  0 C90 

Chapter 12: Variable – Frequency Network Performance

Problem 12. FE-1

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:

0 

BW 

1
LC

1
20m(50  )

 1000

s

R
 200
L
s

R  200(20m)  4

Chapter 12: Variable – Frequency Network Performance

Problem 12. FE-2

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
1
1
V0
ZC
jC
RC

 Gv ( j )
1
1
VI Z C  R
 R j 
jC
RC
at DC, Gv=1=0dB
at 3dB down,  



1
RC

1
 200
s
(5k )(1 )

  2f
f 

 31.83  32 Hz
2

Chapter 12: Variable – Frequency Network Performance

Problem 12. FE-3

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:

0 
L

1
LC

 1000

s

1
1

 100mH
2
 0 C (1000) 2 (10  )

BW 

R
 100
L
s

R  100m(100)  10

Chapter 12: Variable – Frequency Network Performance

Problem 12. FE-4

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:

f  8 Hz ,  1  16

s

1
  j 2 k
jC
1
1
j C
RC
Gv ( j 1 ) 

1
1
 R j 
jC
RC
ZC 

For f=8Hz and 1=16
V0
ZC
 j 2000
 G v ( j 1 ) 

 0.707  45
VS
Z C  R 2000  j 2000
Gv ( j16 )  0.707  45

fC 

1
1

 7.96  8 Hz
2RC 2 (2k )(10  )

Chapter 12: Variable – Frequency Network Performance

Problem 12. FE-5

s

s

u

C
C
C

S

S

C

C

S

C

S

C
t

l

C

S

sC

C

S

C

C

S

C

S

C

C

S

__________________________

l

+

+

+

+

+

-

-

+

+

+

-

+

+

+

+

+

-

+

+

+

s

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

-

+

+

-

-

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

l

l

+

+

+

+

2

+

+

l

+

+

+

+

u

A

V

<

A,

V

V

|

A

I2

A

A

|

A

V

A

A

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:

V0 ( s ) 

12
12

s ( s  3s  2) s ( s  2)( s  1)

V0 ( s ) 

A
B
C

s s  2 s 1

2

12
A
B
C
 

s( s  2)( s  1) s s  2 s  1
let s=-1
12  C (1)(1)
C  12

let s=-2
12  B (2)(1)
B6
let s=0
12  2 A
A6

6
6
 12

s s  2 s 1
v0 (t )  6  6e 2t  12e  t u (t ) V

V0 ( s ) 

Chapter 13: The Laplace Transform

Problem 13.FE-1

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
V0 ( s ) 

120
s( s  10)( s  20)

V0 ( s ) 

A
B
C

s s  10 s  20

120
A
B
C
 

s( s  10)( s  20) s s  10 s  20

let s=0
120  A(10)(20)
3
A
5
let s=-10
120  B(10)(10)
6
B
5
let s=-20
120  C (20)(10)
3
C
5
3
6
3

5  5
V0 ( s )  5 
s s  10 s  20

3
3 6

v0 (t )    e 10t  e 20t  u (t ) V
5
5
5

Chapter 13: The Laplace Transform

Problem 13.FE-2

2

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

3
3 6

v0 (100m)    e 10 (100m )  e  20 (100 m ) 
5
5
5

v0 (100m)  0.24V

Problem 13.FE-2

Chapter 13: The Laplace Transform

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
V0 ( s ) 

12( s  2)
s ( s  1)( s  3)( s  4)

lim v 0 (t )  lim sV0 ( s )
t 

s 0

lim v 0 (t )  lim

12( s  2)
( s  1)( s  3)( s  4)

lim v0 (t )  lim

12(2)
 2V
(1)(3)(4)

t 

t 

s 0

s 0

Chapter 13: The Laplace Transform

Problem 13.FE-3

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
2s
V0 ( s ) 
( s  1) 2 ( s  4)

V0 ( s ) 

A
B
C

s  4 s  1 ( s  1) 2

2s
A
B
C

2
s  4 s  1 ( s  1) 2
( s  4)( s  1)
let s=-1
2(1)  C (1  4)
2
C
3
let s=-4
2(4)  A(4  1) 2
8
A
9
let s=0
0  A  B (1)(4)  4C
8
B
9
8
8
2

3
V0 ( s )  9  9 
s  4 s  1 ( s  1) 2
8
2 
 8
v0 (t )   e  4t  e t  e t  u (t ) V
9
3 
 9

Chapter 13: The Laplace Transform

Problem 13.FE-4

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
s 2 X ( s )  6sX ( s )  8 X ( s ) 

X (s) 

2
( s  2)( s  4)( s  3)

X (s) 

A
B
C

s2 s4 s3

2
s3

2
A
B
C

( s  2)( s  3)( s  4) s  2 s  4 s  3
let s=-3
2  C (3  2)(3  4)
C  2
let s=-4
2  B(4  2)(4  3)
B 1
let s=-2
2  A(2  3)(2  4)
A 1
X (s) 

1
1
2

s2 s4 s3

Chapter 13: The Laplace Transform

Problem 13.FE-5

2

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

x(t )  e 2t  e 4t  2e 3t u (t )

Problem 13.FE-5

Chapter 13: The Laplace Transform

V(s)

1

s

\/

(s)

(s)

)

-

3

(s)

(s)

(s)

(s) =

(s) =

(s)

(s)

(s)

(s)

(s)

A

A

(s)

(s)

(s) =

(s)

(s) =

(s)

(s)

A

(s)

(s) =
(s) =
(s)

(s)

(s)

(s)

(s) =

(s) =

(s) =

(s)

(s)

(s)

(s) =

(s)

(s)

(s)

(s) =

(s)

(s)

(s)

(s) =

(s)

(s)

-

(s) =
(s) =

(s) =

(s)

l

(s)

-

(s) =

(s) =

(s)

(s)

A

A

(s) =

(s)

(s) =

(s) =

(s) =

(s)

(s)

(s) =

(s)
(s) +

(s)

-

|

)

(s)

(s) =

(s) =

(s)

(s)

(s)

.
.

.

(s)

)

Using Thevenin's Theorem:

(s)

(s)

(s)

(s)

(s)

-

-

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
v f (t )  K 1
2 r 2  4r  4  0
r 2  2r  2  0
2 48
r
 1  j1
2
v n (t )  K 2 e  t cos t  K 3 e  t sin t

v(t )  K 1  K 2 e  t cos t  K 3 e  t sin t

Chapter 14: Application of the Laplace Transform To Circuit Analysis

Problem 14.FE-1

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
4
I ( s)  2 sI ( s )  2 I ( s )
s
4

V s ( s )    2 s  2 I ( s )
s

V0 ( s )  2 I ( s )
V (s)
I (s)  0
2
4
 V ( s) 
Vs ( s )    2 s  2  0 
s
 2 
V0 ( s )
s
 2
Vs ( s ) s  s  2
Vs ( s ) 

Chapter 14: Application of the Laplace Transform To Circuit Analysis

Problem 14.FE-2

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:

 s4 
 I s (s)
I 0 ( s)  
s4 3

s

I 0 (s)
s( s  4)
 2
I s (s) s  4s  3

Chapter 14: Application of the Laplace Transform To Circuit Analysis

Problem 14.FE-3

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
KVL:

4s
4

  s   2  I (s)
s
s 1 

I (s) 

4s 2
( s 2  1)( s 2  2 s  4)

2

Chapter 14: Application of the Laplace Transform To Circuit Analysis

Problem 14.FE-4

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
KVL: Vs ( s )  4 I ( s)  2 sI ( s )
Vs ( s )  (2 s  4) I ( s )
V0 ( s)  2 sI ( s)
V (s)
I (s)  0
2s
V s ( s )  ( 2 s  4)

V0 ( s )
2s

V0 ( s )
s

Vs ( s ) s  2

Chapter 14: Application of the Laplace Transform To Circuit Analysis

Problem 14.FE-5

l

-

-

bn = 0

-

.
l.

-

-

-

-

-

-

(s)

(s)

-

(s) =
(s) =

(s) =

(s)
(s)
(s)

(s)

o (s)

(s) =

(s)
(s)

-

(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)

(s)
(s)

(s)
(s)

(s)
(s)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

)

-

)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.

-

.
-

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

- -

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
By observation, the waveform has odd symmetry. Therefore, an = 0 for all n due to
odd symmetry.

Chapter 15: Fourier Analysis Techniques

Problem 15.FE-1

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
By observation, the waveform has half-wave symmetry. Therefore, bn =0 for n even
due to half-wave symmetry and bn is nonzero for n odd.

Chapter 15: Fourier Analysis Techniques

Problem 15.FE-2

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
 j 
Vs (n )
V0 (n )  
 1  j 
V0 (0)  0

 j 2  30

 0 
V0 ( )  

1
2
j


V0 ( )  8.5426.57V
 j 4  30


0 
V0 (2 )  

1
4
2
j


V0 (2 )  4.6314.04V
 j 6  30

 0 
V0 (3 )  
1
6
3
j



V0 (3 )  3.149.46V
 j8  30


V0 (4 )  
0 
1
8
4
j



V0 (4 )  2.377.13V
v0 (t )  8.54 cos (2t  26.57)  4.63 cos(4t  14.04)  3.14 cos(6t  9.46)  ... V

Chapter 15: Fourier Analysis Techniques

Problem 15.FE-3

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:

I (n ) 

Vs
2  jn3.77

20
 10 A
2
1060
I1 
 2.34  2.05 A
2  j 3.77
445
I3 
 0.35  34.97 A
2  j11.31
i (t )  10  2.34 cos(377t  2.05)  0.35 cos(1131t  34.97) A

V I
P  VDC I DC   n n cos( vn   in )
2
n 1
10(2.34)
4(0.35)
P  20(10) 
cos(45  34.97)
cos(60  2.05) 
2
2
P=205.61 W
I DC 

Chapter 15: Fourier Analysis Techniques

Problem 15.FE-4

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
2

a0 

4

1
1
10 dt    2 dt

40
42

1
10t 02  1   2t 42
4
4
1
1
a 0  (20)   2(4)  (2)(2)
4
4
a 0  4V
a0 

Chapter 15: Fourier Analysis Techniques

Problem 15.FE-5

<

2

|

-

.

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:

I1  2 A , I 2  0
I 1  y11V1  y12V2
I 2  y 21V1  y 22V2
1
1
V1  V2  2
14
21
1
1
 V1  V2  0
21
7
21V1  14V2  588
 V1  3V2  0
V1  36V
V2  12V

Chapter 16: Two-Port Networks

Problem 16.FE-1

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:

I 1  y11V1  y12V2
I 2  y 21V1  y 22V2
y11V1  y12V2  0
V1  

y12
V2
y11

 y

I 2  y 21   12 V2   y 22V2
 y11 

 y y

I 2  V2  21 12  y 22 
 y11

V2
y11

I 2  y 21 y12  y11 y 22
1
14

 9
  1   1   1  1 
       
 21  21   14  7 

Z TH 

Z TH

Chapter 16: Two-Port Networks

Problem 16.FE-2

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
I
y11  1
V1

V2  0

3
V1
3
 56 
S
V1
56
2
V1
14   2 V
1
4
56
2
 V1
2
1
 56   S   S
V1
56
28

V V
I2  2

4
y 21 

I2
V1

V2  0

0

16

3
16
16
4
V  3 V2   V2  V2
16
28
7
4
3
4
0  V2
V1  V
1
7

  V2
I1 
16
16
28
1
 V2
I1
1
y12 
 28   S
V1 V 0
V2
28

16 8 

1

Chapter 16: Two-Port Networks

Problem 16.FE-3

2

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

4
V2  V2
V V
3
7

 V2
I2  2
4
4
28
3
V2
I
3
y 22  2  28 
S
28
V2
V2

Problem 16.FE-3

Chapter 16: Two-Port Networks

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
The 3 and 9 are in series.
9(12) 36

9  12 7
12
4
I
( I1 )  I1
12  9
7
4

 12
V2  3I  3 I 1   I 1
7  7
12
I1
V
12
 7
 
z 21  2
I1 I 0
I1
7
z11 

2

3
3
1
I
I2  I2
(I 2 ) 
3  18
21
7
 1  12
V1  12 I  12 I 2   I 2
7  7
12
I2
V1
12
 7
 
z12 
I 2 I 0
I2
7
1

z 22 

3(18) 18
 
3  18 7

Chapter 16: Two-Port Networks

Problem 16.FE-4

Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, 9/E

1

SOLUTION:
h11  2 4   8 

28

3

4
I 1 
42
2
I 2   I1
3
I2  

I
h21  2
I1
I2 

V2  0

2
I1
3 2
I1
3

V2
V
 2
24 6

I
h22  2
V2

I1  0

V2
1
 6  S
V2 6

V  2
V1  4 I 2  4 2   V2
 6  3
2
V2
V1
2
 3

h12 
V2 I 0
V2
3
1

Chapter 16: Two-Port Networks

Problem 16.FE-5