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Settlement of Shallow Foundations

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**Pre--Consolidation Pressure
**

Pre

Oedometer test to get Cc

and Cs values

void ratio

**is the maximum
**

vertical

effective stress

the soil element

has ever been

subjected to

preconsolidation pressure

p’

log

v’

Primary Consolidation

Expulsion of water from soils accompanied by

increase in effective stress and strength

Amount can be reasonably estimated in lab, but

rate is often poorly estimated in lab

Only partially recoverable

05 e log (t2 / t1) .Secondary Compression Creep phenomenon No pore pressure change Commences at completion of primary consolidation c /Cc c = 0.

Terminology for Consolidation • Preconsolidation stress (pressure) The maximum effective stress which has been applied to an element of soil • Overconsolidated A soil is called overconsolidated (OC) if: Current Effective Stress < Preconsolidation Stress • Normally consolidated A soil is called normally consolidated (NC) if: Current Effective Stress = Preconsolidation Stress .

© 2004 Brooks/Cole Publishing / Thomson Learning™ Consolidation Settlement Calculation av = 1/6( t +4 m+ b) .

SETTLEMENT CALCULATIONS Vs. CONSOLIDATION STATUS Normally consolidated Overconsolidated 0+ average < p Overconsolidated 0< p< 0+ av = Cc Hc = 1+ 1+e e0 log 0+ Cs Hc = 1+ 1+e e0 log 0+ Cs Hc log 1+e 1+ eo average 0 average 0 p 0 Cc Hc + log 1+e 1+ e0 0+ av p .

EXAMPLE 2 .

5 – 9.84 kPa = 1/6( t +4 m+ b) Use the 2:1 stress distribution method av .5X(17.81) = 52.SOLUTION 2 Normally consolidated 0= Cc Hc = 1+ 1+e e0 log 0+ average 0 2.81) + 1.5X16.25X(16 – 9.5 + 0.

SOLUTION 2 .2:1 METHOD = (qXBXL (qXBXL))/(B+Z (B+Z)(L+Z )(L+Z ) .

45 kPa b = (150X1X2) /(1+4.SOLUTION 2 At the top of clay layer.25) = 13.5) = 8.. ..25)(2+3.39 kPa t av = 1/6( t +4 m+ b) = 14. z = 2m = (150X1X2) /(1+2)(2+2) = 25 kPa m = (150X1X2) /(1+3.53 kPa Check Boussineq stress distribution .5)(2+4.

3.25m and 4.5m M= B/z and N = L/z .I Find I at z = 2m.SOLUTION 2: BOUSSINESQ Case 1 b a c d O e For Point O: use 4 X Oabc B= 0.5m and L = 1m Corner O: z = q.

. I av 1/6( = t +4 m+ b) = = 13.. av Use the 2:1 Method in this case .For z = 2m.5 kPa < 14.5m. I For z = 4. I For z = 3.25m.53 .

9 mm average 0 .SOLUTION 2 Cc Hc = 1+ 1+e e0 log 0+ = 46.

divide the Clay layer into several smaller sub-layers and calculate average for each sub-layer Total settlement is the sum of the settlements of sub-layers .PRIMIARY CONSOLIDATION SETTLEMENT If Clay layer is thick.

5 m × 3 m (B × L) in plan using Boussinesq .Example 3 Determine the primary consolidation settlement of a foundation measuring 1.

Cs =0.07 p =200 kPa .Example 4 Determine the primary consolidation settlement of the same foundation as in Example 3 if the Clay is overconsolidated Overconsolidated clay .

Solution 4 Overconsolidated 0+ average < p Cs Hc = 1+ 1+e e0 log 0+ average 0 Settlement = 47mm X Cs/Cc = 47mm X 0.27 = 12 mm .07/0.

RATE OF Consolidation SETTLEMENT In saturated soils rate of settlement depends largely on how fast the water drains away In Clays rates of settlement are slower than in sands Consolidation theory allows you to calculate rate of settlement .

RATE OF CONSOLIDATION footing footing permeable permeable H = Clay thickness z=H/2 Flow Flow permeable z=H impermeable Z is the Length of longest drainage path .

It is used for continuous footings.Modulus of Subgrade Reaction The modulus of subgrade reaction is a conceptual relationship between soil pressure and deflection that is widely used in the structural analysis of foundation members. mats… The basic equation to compute modulus of subgrade reaction is: K= in KN/m3 etc… .

Modulus of Subgrade Reaction .

Bearing Capacity using the Pressuremeter .

Bearing Capacity using the Pressuremeter .

Bearing Capacity using the Pressuremeter .

Bearing Capacity using the Pressuremeter Homogeneous soil .

Bearing Capacity using the Pressuremeter Heterogeneous soil .

Bearing Capacity using the Pressuremeter .

Settlement using the Pressuremeter .

Settlement using the Pressuremeter .

Settlement using the Pressuremeter .

Settlement using the Pressuremeter – Heterogeneous Soil .

Settlement using the Pressuremeter – Heterogeneous Soil .

Bearing Capacity using CPT .

Bearing Capacity using CPT .

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