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Designation: E 1226 – 00e1

Standard Test Method for

Pressure and Rate of Pressure Rise for Combustible Dusts1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation E 1226; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

e1 NOTE—Paragraph 9.1 was editorially corrected July 2003.


The primary objective for the laboratory determination of the dust deflagration index, KSt, the
maximum pressure, Pmax, and the maximum rate of pressure rise, (dP/dt)max, is the use of these values
for the design of protection systems. These parameters provide a measure of the potential severity of
a deflagration of a combustible dust-air mixture. These parameters are a function of many factors, such
as the turbulence, concentration, and homogeneity of the dust-air mixture; the type, energy, and
location of the ignition source; the geometry of the test vessel; the particle size distribution of the dust;
and the initial temperature and pressure of the tested mixture. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a
standard laboratory test method, the data from which can be referenced against data from large-scale
testing. For information on the sizing of deflagration vents, see NFPA 68.
This test method describes procedures for explosibility testing of dusts in laboratory chambers that
have volumes of 20 L or greater. It is the purpose of this test method to provide information that can
be used to predict the effects of an industrial scale deflagration of a dust-air mixture without requiring
large-scale tests.
1. Scope
1.1 This test method is designed to determine the deflagration parameters of a combustible dust-air mixture within a
near-spherical closed vessel of 20 L or greater volume. The
parameters measured are the maximum pressure and the
maximum rate of pressure rise.
1.2 Data obtained from this test method provide a relative
measure of deflagration characteristics. The data have also
been shown to be applicable to the design of protective
measures, such as deflagration venting (1).2
1.3 This test method should be used to measure and describe
the properties of materials in response to heat and flame under
controlled laboratory conditions and should not be used to
describe or appraise the fire hazard or fire risk of materials,
products, or assemblies under actual fire conditions. However,
results of this test may be used as elements of a fire risk
assessment that takes into account all of the factors that are
pertinent to an assessment of the fire hazard of a particular end

NOTE 1—The evaluation of the deflagration parameters of maximum
pressure and maximum rate of pressure rise can also be done using a 1.2-L
Hartmann Apparatus. Test Method E 789, has been published regarding
this application; however, the use of these data in the design of
deflagration venting and containment systems is not recommended.

1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1 ASTM Standards:
D 3173 Test Method for Moisture in the Analysis Sample of
Coal and Coke
D 3175 Test Method for Volatile Matter in the Analysis
Sample of Coal and Coke
E 789 Test Method for Pressure and Rate of Pressure Rise
for Dust Explosions in a 1.2-Litre Closed Cylindrical
E 1515 Test Method for Minimum Explosible Concentration of Combustible Dusts
2.2 NFPA Publication:
NFPA 68 Guide for Deflagration Venting3

This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E-27 on Hazard
Potential of Chemicals and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E27.05 on
Current edition approved March 10, 2000. Published April 2000. Originally
published as E 1226 – 88. Last previous edition E 1226 – 94e1.
The boldface numbers in parentheses refer to a list of references at the end of
this test method.

Available from National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park,
Quincy, MA 02269.

Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.


Federal Republic of Germany or from American National Standards Institute. for a Dust Deflagration in a 20-L Chamber (1) where: P = pressure. Significance and Use 5. dP/dt. 5.1 Pex—the maximum explosion pressure (above the pressure in the vessel at the time of ignition) reached during the course of a single deflagration test (see Fig.3 The pressure time curve is recorded on a suitable piece of equipment. The maximum values. NY. 3. V = volume. It is reported in bar/s. 4 Available from Beuth Verlag.2 Pmax—the maximum pressure (above pressure in the vessel at the time of ignition) reached during the course of a deflagration for the optimum concentration of the dust tested. 3. It is reported in bar. s.1.3 VDI Standard: VDI-3673 Pressure Release of Dust Explosions4 2. The ignition delay time characterizes the turbulence level prevailing at ignition under the defined test conditions.1.4 (dP/dt)max—maximum value for the rate of pressure increase per unit time reached during the course of a deflagration for the optimum concentration of the dust tested. NOTE 2—Recorder tracings of pressure (absolute) and rate of pressure rise for a typical dust deflagration in a 20-L chamber are shown in Fig.4 ISO Standard: ISO 6184/1 Explosion Protection Systems. 1). t = time. 2. Pmax and ( dP/dt)max for a dust are determined by testing over a large range of concentrations as shown in Fig.6 ignition delay time. m3. 1).E 1226 – 00e1 2. Pmax is determined by a series of tests over a large range of concentrations (see Fig. Part 1. 2). 4. KSt is defined in accordance with the following cubic relationship: KSt 5 ~dP/dt! max V1 / 3 FIG. It is measured at the optimum dust concentration.5 deflagration index. Geneva. bar.0-m3 volume. 2 . P. and Rate of Pressure Rise. It is determined by a series of tests over a large range of concentrations (see Fig. 2 Pmax and (dP/dt)max as a Function of Concentration for a Typical Dust in a 20-L Chamber 3.1 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard: 3. D-1000 Berlin. Switzerland or from ANSI. 1430 Broadway. 4. Terminology 3. 1 Typical Recorder Tracings of Absolute Pressure. 5 Available from ISO Case Postale 56. 20.1. 3. and KSt = bar m/s. NY 10018.1 A dust cloud is formed in a closed combustion chamber by an introduction of the material with air. 4. FIG.1.1 This test method provides a procedure for performing laboratory tests to evaluate deflagration parameters of dusts. 2). td—experimental parameter defined as the time interval between the initiation of the dust dispersion procedure (the time at which the dispersion air starts to enter the chamber) in an experimental apparatus and the activation of the ignition source (see Fig.3 (dP/dt)ex—the maximum rate of pressure rise during the course of a single deflagration test (see Fig. 1. 3. Summary of Test Method 4. 1).1. KSt—maximum dP/dt normalized to a 1. Determination of Explosion Indices of Combustible Dusts in Air5 3. CH-1211.1.2 Ignition of this dust-air mixture is then attempted after a specified delay time by an ignition source located at the center of the chamber.

Section VIII. 8.1 Prior to handling a dust material. In sieving the material.8 The vessel should be designed and fabricated in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.3 The values obtained by this testing technique are specific to the sample tested and the method used and are not to be considered intrinsic material constants. the sample may be ground or pulverized or it may be sieved. This chamber has been calibrated as described in Section 10. and storage of chemical ignitors must be followed. Sample drying is equally complex due to the presence of volatiles. 8. 5. 8. Therefore. 7. use. 6 MNL 32 — ASTM Manual on Test Sieving Methods is available from ASTM Headquarters. 9.6 9. 8. the toxicity of the sample and its combustion products must be considered. the use of the deflagration indices based on this test method for the sizing of deflagration vents may not be possible. it should be recognized that the test results may not represent the most severe dust deflagration possible. 3 . lack of or varying porosity (see Test Methods D 3173 and D 3175).3 To achieve this particle fineness ($95 % minus 200 mesh). 6.5 Examples of other test chambers that have not yet been calibrated are listed in Appendix X2. If a high-voltage spark circuit is used. materials consisting of a mixture of chemicals may be selectively separated on sieves and certain fibrous materials which may not pass through a relatively coarse screen may produce dust deflagrations.4 An example of a chamber and specific procedures that have been found suitable are shown in Appendix X1. Any process change resulting in a higher fraction of fines than normal or drier product than normal may increase the explosion severity. Federal. spherical or cylindrical (with a length to diameter ratio of approximately 1:1) in shape.2 Before initiating a test. 8.2 The apparatus must be capable of dispersing a fairly uniform dust cloud of the material. 9.E 1226 – 00e1 preparation. NOTE 4—It may be desirable in some cases to conduct dust deflagration tests on materials as sampled from a process because process dust streams may contain a wide range of particle sizes or have a well-defined specific moisture content.4 If chemical ignitors are used as an ignition source. a physical check of all gaskets and fittings should be made to prevent leakage. 7. Appropriate safety precautions must be taken if the material has toxic or irritating characteristics.1 The equipment consists of a closed steel combustion chamber with an internal volume of at least 20 L. and Test Units 9. a very strong ignitor may overdrive a 20-L chamber. it presents an electric shock hazard and adequate interlocking and shielding must be employed to prevent contact. and local regulations for the procurement. 7. A grounded. ISO 6184/1. eye protection must be worn at all times. When handling these ignitors.2 The data developed by this test method may be used for the purpose of sizing deflagration vents in conjunction with the nomographs published in NFPA 68.6 In assembling the electrical circuitry for this apparatus.and KSt-values with a 5000 or 10 000-J ignitor but not with a 2500-J ignitor in a 20-L chamber. Conshohocken. However. 100 Barr Harbor Drive. 8. such as the rapid introduction of expanding gases resulting from combustion in connected piping or operations where hybrid mixtures (combustible dusts and combustible gases or vapors) are encountered. due to the possible accumulation of fines at some location in a processing system. Apparatus 7. it is recommended that the test sample be at least 95 % minus 200 mesh (75 µm). A maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) of at least 15 bar is recommended. state. Interferences 6. 7. 8. Hygroscopic materials must be desiccated. Safety Precautions 8. 8. 7. standard wiring and grounding procedures must be followed.4 The moisture content of the test sample should not exceed 5 % in order to avoid test results of a given dust being noticeably influenced.7 The operator should work from a protected location in case of vessel or electrical failure. If a dust has measurable (nonzero) Pmax. ASTM lists many methods for moisture determination in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards. NOTE 5—There is no single method for determining the moisture content or for drying a sample.4 For hard-to-ignite dusts with low KSt-values. This information is generally obtained from the manufacturer or supplier. W. When a material is tested in the as-received state.5 All testing should initially be conducted with small quantities of sample to prevent overpressurization due to high energy material. Tests using this apparatus should be conducted in a ventilated hood or other area having adequate ventilation.3 The pressure transducer and recording equipment must have a combined response rate greater than the maximum measured rates of pressure rise.2 Tests may be run on an as-received sample. and sensitivity of the sample to heat. Sampling. as discussed in E1515 and Ref 2.1 In certain industrial situations where extreme levels of turbulence may be encountered. each must be dried in a manner that will not modify or destroy the integrity of the sample. or VDI 3673.3 All enclosures containing electrical equipment should be connected to a common ground. this may be an overdriven system.1 It is not practical to specify a single method of sampling dust for test purposes because the character of the material and its available form affect selection of the sampling procedure. Ignition by electrostatic discharge must be considered a possibility. Test Specimens. it is recommended that the dust be tested with a 10 000-J ignitor in a larger chamber such as a 1-m3 chamber to determine if it is actually explosible. the operator must verify that there is no selective separation of components in a dust that is not a pure substance. safety in handling and use is a primary consideration. conductive tabletop is recommended for 9. 5. Generally accepted sampling procedures should be used as described in MNL 32. NOTE 3—The operator should consider the thermal stability of the dust during any grinding or pulverizing. 5. In this case. PA 19428. Shielded cables should be used.

6 Dust deflagration data in the 1-m3 chamber at Basel. 1000 g/m3 etc. 11. In many cases the Pmax and (dP/dt)max values are not found at the same concentrations. 10. This effective ignition delay time. Fig. open a valve to vent pressure from the chamber. The value of Pex. 60. Samples used for standardization should provide a wide range of KStvalues.12 If it is indicated that the optimum concentration for (dP/dt)max or Pmax is less than 250 g/m3.1 Pressure and rates of pressure rise are determined from pressure-time records. 11.11 It is recommended that an initial concentration of 250 g/m3 be tested (see 9. 1).2 %.4 The calibration and standardization procedure for a chamber will normally involve varying the dispersion procedure (especially the dispersion and delay time) so that the measured data are comparable to those from the 1-m3 chamber. for a test at a given 11. Open the chamber. This concentration may be systematically increased by an equivalent of 250 g/m3 (for example. 10.10 After the test.8 Actuate the timing circuit to conduct the test. can be obtained in accordance with Fig. 1. Pex and ( dP/dt)ex.2 Inspect equipment to be sure it is thoroughly cleaned and in good operational condition. (125. A minimum of five different dust samples are required over each of the following three KSt ranges: 1–200. remove residue and thoroughly clean the chamber and dispersion system. 1 is a typical record from which these values are obtained. 36 % volatility). 10. 11. Pmax = 7. they are fixed for future testing. 11. it is permissible to reduce the number of standardization dusts tested in these ranges.0 bar KSt = 95 bar m/s NOTE 9—The (dP/dt)max and Pmax values are normally obtained in the 500 to 1250-g/m 3 range.9 bar KSt = 157 bar m/s Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal: Pmax = 7.) until curves are obtained for both (dP/dt)ex and Pex that clearly indicate an optimum value has been reached (see Fig. 2). 201–300. 500.5 Average measured values from three calibrated 20-L chambers for lycopodium dust (the reticulate form. such as a storage oscilloscope or highspeed chart recorder. . NOTE 8—The dust sample is automatically dispersed through a dispersion system in the chamber.3 Ensure that the oxygen content of the dispersion air is 20. 10. at least one standard dust should be retested periodically to verify that the dispersion and turbulence characteristics of the chamber have not changed. The detailed procedures specific to each chamber are listed in the corresponding appendix. turbulence of ignition. The explosion data. the desired normal pressure in the chamber of 1 bar absolute will be reached prior to initiation of the deflagration test.6 Seal chamber.3 In cases where the test apparatus will not be used to determine deflagration indices of dusts within certain dust classes. Lycopodium clavatum. Calculation 12. the tested concentration may be halved.E 1226 – 00e1 11.1 The objective of this test method is to develop data that can be correlated to those from the 1-m3 chamber (described in ISO 6184/1 and VDI 3673) in order to use the nomograms (see 5. 11. is the length of time between the first pressure rise due to dust dispersion and the moment normal pressure has been reached in the chamber and ignition is activated (see Fig. Dust deflagration data for other dusts measured in the 1-m3 chamber are listed in Refs (3). sample age. and >300 bar m/s.2). td. The deflagration is then initiated when a defined ignition delay time has elapsed. 750.50 % minus 325 mesh. Calibration and Standardization 10. The Pmax value for each dust must agree to within 610 % with the 1-m3 value and the KSt value must agree to within 620 %. (4).) can affect the test results. etc. 10. Pmax (dP/dt)max KSt = 7. 4 . uniformity of dispersion. Higher or lower oxygen content will affect the Pmax and K St values. 11. NOTE 7—The oxygen content of some synthetic air cylinders may range from 19 to 26 %. 11. 11. 11. It has been determined that a reduction of up to 15 % in Pmax will result if the operating temperature in the chamber rises to this range. Once the specific dispersion procedures (that produce data comparable to those from the 1-m3 chamber) have been determined.5 Place ignition source in the center of the apparatus. 11. 10. the test vessel to be used for routine work must be standardized using dust samples whose KSt and Pmax parameters are known in the 1-m3 chamber.7 In addition to the initial calibration and standardization procedure.28-µm) are: NOTE 6—A high frequency of operation (20 to 40 explosions per day) can increase the operating temperature in some chambers to approximately 40 to 50°C.0 bar (dP/dt)max = 555 bar/s KSt = 151 bar m/s Data were obtained from two calibrated 20-L chambers for Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal dust (.7 Partially evacuate chamber so that after addition of dispersing air.80 % minus 200 mesh. Two additional test series are run at the concentrations where the maximums were found and at one concentration on each side of the maximums.9 The pressure time curve is recorded on a suitable piece of equipment.95 6 0. a natural plant spore having a narrow size distribution with a mean diameter of .2). The length of this time defines the degree of turbulence and in many cases the concentration of the dust dispersed in the chamber at the moment of ignition.4 Place a weighed amount of dust in the storage chamber or main chamber according to detailed instructions in the appendixes. all valves must be closed.1 These general procedures are applicable for all suitable chambers.2 Because a number of factors (concentration. 11. Switzerland are: lycopodium: Pmax = 6. 30 g/m3) until the optimum value is obtained. Procedure 12.0 bar = 430 bar/s = 117 bar m/s 10.

K St. within 20 % at KSt = 100 bar·m/s. 12. source. explosion pressure 5 .1 dust explosion.4 The Pmax and (dP/dt)max for the ignition source by itself must be established in the apparatus.2 The reported values for P max and (dP/dt)max are the averages of the highest values (over the range of concentrations) for each of the three test series (see Table X1.1 Report the following information: 13. maximum rate of pressure rise. 13. rounded to the nearest integer. 1A) or the highest value on the rate of pressure rise trace (Fig. and Rate of Pressure Rise.8 and X1.1.7 Test chamber used and any deviation from the normal procedure. 3). Variation between tests should not exceed 610 %.1. as shown in Fig.1.3 If a low dP/dt is obtained.2 The highest dP/dt and P values are compared for each of the three test series (see Table X1.2.1. including type of dust. V. it is important that the dP/dt measurement is not taken from the ignition source but from the dust-air mixture itself (see Fig. 12. 12. P. 14. of the asreceived and as-tested material. and within 10 % at KSt = 300 bar·m/s. The highest value may not occur at the same concentration for each of the three test series.3 Moisture or volatile content. (dP/dt)max or Deflagration Index.4. and 13.4. dP/dt. or both. 12.2. 3 Typical Recorder Tracings of Absolute Pressure.1 Time between the onset of dust dispersion and the electrical activation of the ignition source gives the ignition delay time.1. 2).11 and X1. KSt: 14. and previous history. 12.3 14.2 Reproducibility—Duplicate measurements at different laboratories should agree to within 30 % at KSt = 50 bar·m/s. td.2).1.2 Reproducibility—Duplicate measurements at different laboratories should agree within 10 %. no statement on bias can be made. code numbers.2 Particle size distribution of the sample as received and as tested. The value of (dP/dt) ex for a given test is the maximum slope of the pressure trace (Fig. using the cubic relationship (see 3.4 Maximum pressure.4. is calculated from (dP/dt) max and the chamber volume.E 1226 – 00e1 13. These values should not vary more than one concentration interval between test series.4 Verification of Measurements: 12. if a corrected maximum pressure is calculated (as in X1. the tests should be repeated. 1B). They are from X1.2). 13.6). and within 10 % at KSt = 300 bar·m/s. Pmax: 14.2 Bias—Because the values obtained are relative measures of deflagration characteristics. if applicable.12 and Table X1. 20 % at KSt = 100 bar·m/s. 13. forms. 14.6 Type and energy of the ignition source.1.1.1. 14. Curves showing these data may also be included (see Fig.1.1. this can also be listed.1 Precision—The following criteria should be useful for judging the acceptability of results. for a Weak Dust Deflagration in a 20-L Chamber Using a 5000-J Ignitor 15.2 Maximum Rate of Pressure Rise.1 Repeatability—Duplicate measurements should agree within 5 %. 1A. 14. 13.1. Precision and Bias 14. If the variation is greater.1. FIG. 14. is the highest deflagration pressure (absolute) minus the pressure at ignition (normally 1 bar).4.1 Repeatability—Duplicate measurements should agree to within 30 % at KSt = 50 bar·m/s. 13.1. Keywords 15.1 Maximum Pressure.5 KSt value.1 Complete identification of the material tested.9). Report concentration. 12. a weak deflagration may have occurred.3 The deflagration index. This maximum pressure is the measured value. Under these conditions. and the concentrations at which these occur. 13.1.1.

GmbH. X1. NY 13478. 7 Available from Adolph Kühner AG.E 1226 – 00e1 APPENDIXES (Nonmandatory Information) X1.6 L) by means of the outlet valve and a perforated annular nozzle. The outlet valve is opened and closed pneumatically by means of an auxiliary piston. X1. with a volume of 20 L and designed for a continuous operating pressure of 30 bar. Sobbe. Federal Republic of Germany or from Cesana Corp. the measured values from the two pressure sensors are digitized with a high degree of resolution and stored in a read/write memory. Switzerland. P.2 The test chamber is a hollow sphere made of stainless steel. NY 13478. X1.2 Schematic of the Siwek 20-L Apparatus X1.. Detailed drawings concerning the 20-L sphere. This evacuation of the 20-L sphere by 0. CH-4127. Subsequently. A water jacket serves to remove the heat generated by the deflagration as to maintain thermostatically controlled test temperatures.1 Siwek 20-L Apparatus 6 . and displayed on the screen together with the course of pressure versus time.1. the ignition delay time. The stored curves can also be recorded slowly on a normal y/t-recorder. (7). for dust testing. X1. X1. and the recording are controlled automatically. and related time diagrams. Box 182.6 Evaluation System—In the evaluation unit. firing in the horizontal plane and in opposite directions. td. or Cesana Corp. (6). results in the desired starting pressure (1 bar) for the test. Therefore. Verona. Postfach 140128. and the pilot-activated outlet valve are shown in Figs.6 bar together with the air contained in the dust storage chamber (+20 bar. 30 % barium nitrate. the dust is dispersed into the sphere from a pressurized dust storage chamber (V = 0. and 30 % barium peroxide.7 Additional details of the apparatus and its calibration relative to the 1-m3 chamber can be found in Refs (5).2). The degree of turbulence is mainly a function of the ignition delay time.4 bar absolute. Verona. the pressure data are evaluated by the microcomputer. with a delay time of less than 10 ms. 0.6 L). X1. PO Box 182. FIG.5 Ignition Delay Time. Each ignitor contains 1.2. X1.4 Ignition Source—The standard ignition source is two pyrotechnic ignitors8 with a total energy of 10 000 J (5000 J each). X1. FIG. X1. has been standardized for the 20-L sphere to td = 606 5 ms. which is the time between the onset of dust dispersion and the activation of the ignition source (see Fig.1 Fig. For testing. Dinkelbergstrasse 1. the perforated annular nozzle.6. X1. the ignition.2 is a schematic of the test apparatus.1 Survey—The Siwek 20-L apparatus including the explosibility test chamber and associated instrumentation is shown in Fig. This source is initiated by a 1-A electric fuse head. The ignitors are placed in the center of the 20-L sphere. X1.2 General Description: X1.3 Pre-evacuation—Prior to dispersing the dust.2.. the 20-L sphere is partially evacuated to 0. Birsfelden.3 An alternative to the perforated annular nozzle is the rebound nozzle shown in Fig.5. associated instrumentation. O. D-4600 Dortmund-Derne.2 g of the following composition: 40 % zirconium metal. SIWEK 20-L APPARATUS X1. As a 8 The chemical ignitors are available commercially from Fr. point by point. (td)—The inlet and outlet valve.2. td.1. X1. The most important part numbers are listed in Table X1. X1. Beylingstrasse 59.3-X1.

X1.4 Perforated Annular Nozzle With Dimensions in Millimetres safeguard against spurious measurements (auto-check). 7 . the system uses two independent pressure measuring channels.3 Siwek 20-L Sphere FIG. X1.E 1226 – 00e1 FIG.

7.2 To obtain results equivalent to the 1-m3 vessel. corrected 5 1. the values for Pex> 5.5 bar. this Pex value must be corrected.9 Correction of the Explosion Pressure. Subsequently.5 Bar—Due to the small test volume.2).8. P max and (dP/dt)max. the maximum values for the pressure and the rate of pressure rise are not observed. X1. with the pyrotechnic ignitors alone. the pressure effect caused by the pyrotechnic ignitors must be taken into account in the range of P ex< 5. X1.3 For the data. The KStis calculated from the above mean by use of the following cubic relationship: Pex. X1. the maximum pressure and the maximum rate of pressure rise are determined. two further test series have to be carried out. (dP/dt) max] have clearly been covered.E 1226 – 00e1 FIG. the influence of the pyrotechnic ignitors will be more and more displaced by the pressure effect of the deflagration itself. Starting with a dust concentration of 250 g/m3 (5 g/20 L).7 Practical Determination of Deflagration Data: X1. It is therefore necessary to compare the X1. In the first series.3 Numerous correlation tests between the 1-m 3 vessel and the 20-L sphere have shown that the following equation can be utilized for this correction: X1. X1. measured! 2 1. Typical values for pyrotechnic ignitors of E = 10 000 J are approximately 8 . X1. 3 and Fig.8).8 Correction for Explosion Pressures Exceeding 5.5 Bar: X1.7.7.5 bar are slightly lower than in the 1-m3 vessel.8. X1. testing is to be continued with higher concentrations (>1500 g/m3) until these maximum values have been clearly passed. the concentration is either increased in steps of 250 g/m3 or decreased by 50 % of the previous value.2 If within this first test series. with rising Pex. until the maximum values for the explosion data [Pmax.8. Correction values can be taken from the diagram in Fig. Pex< 5. as shown in Fig.1 Because of the cooling effect from the walls of the 20-L sphere. it may happen that the rate of pressure rise of the pyrotechnic ignitors is higher than that of the deflagration itself. 2. But during a dust deflagration.65 bar X1. A blind test. X1. the means from the maximum values of each series are reported (see Table X1. Comparisons of pressure/time recordings pressure curve of the test with the pressure curve of the pyrotechnic ignitors (see Fig. ~dP/dt!max V1 / 3 5 K St @ bar/s] [m3#1 / 3 5 [ bar m/s] X1. will give a pressure of approximately 1 bar if 10 000 J are used.10 Mild Dust Deflagration—If a dP/dt of less than 150 bar/s is encountered.3 ~Pex.7.5 Outlet Valves show also that the pressure drop after the explosion is much faster in the 20-L sphere.1 The investigations must cover a wide range of concentrations.

3 X1.2 X1.2 The accuracy of the KSt values shows a marked decrease towards lower values (see Table X1. In the upper range (KSt > 400 bar m/s).3.2 X1. 80 − 100 bar/s.4 X1. X1. vacuum) Ball valve (thermostat circuit) Perforated annular nozzle Bottom flange Top cover Bayonet ring for fast opening Top flange for wide opening Manometer with transfer diaphragm Pressure hose Dust storage chamber Cover of dust storage chamber Outlet valve Electromagnetic valve Type 123 Electromagnetic valve Type 122 Vacuum manometer Safety switch Tube bend Threaded bend Coupler Cap Valve body Disk Base-plate Face O-rings Rings FIG.E 1226 – 00e1 TABLE X1.2 X1. the average of duplicate tests obtained by each of several laboratories never differed by more than 10 %.12. when pyrotechnic ignitors are used as the ignition 9 .2 X1.3 X1.2 X1.4 X1.6 Rebound Nozzle.2 X1.1 This is valid for the 1-m3 vessel as well as the 20-L sphere. the tangent may be drawn only 50 ms after ignition. Number Part Number X1.3 X1.2 X1.2 X1.11 Standard Deviation: X1. it is similar to that of the P max.2 X1.2 X1.2 X1.4 2 7 15 24 28 31 32 33 38 40 41 44 50 53 55 56 69 70 71 123 132 1 2 3 10 1 6 7 9 60–64 65–66 Nomenclature Ignition leads Pyrotechnic ignitors Measuring flange Sight glass Protective disk Ball valve (venting. Pmax can be determined with an accuracy of 65 %.2 X1.11.4 X1.4 X1.2 X1. X1.2 X1. With Dimensions in Millimetres source. X1. Thus. the average of duplicate tests obtained by each of several laboratories never differed by more than the values indicated in Table X1.2 X1.2 X1. X1. Pmax—For Pmax.12 Reproducibility: X1.2 X1.4 X1.2 X1.2 X1. which is independent of the deflagration velocity.2 X1.3 X1.11.3). X1.1 Maximum Deflagration Pressure.12. It can be assumed that the pressure rise caused by the pyrotechnic ignitors is terminated after about 50 ms.2 X1.1 Listing of Drawings and Main Parts for the Siwek 20-L Apparatus Fig.2 KSt − value—For KSt.

9 dP/dt [bar/s] 341 324 359 . E = 10 000 J Concentrations [g/m3] Explosion data Series 1 Series 2 Series 3 A 250 Pex [bar] 6.E 1226 – 00e1 TABLE X1.5 bar 1250 Pex dP/dt 7.8 8.2 + 8.2 Example for the Determination of P max and (dP/dt) A max NOTE 1—20-L Apparatus.02m3)1/3 = 102 bar m/s.1 + 8.1 bar.2 7. (dP/dt)max = (389 + 369 + 377)/3 = 378 bar/s.0)/3 = 8.2 7.9 7.0 6.1 7.4 7. FIG.3 7.1 500 dP/dt [bar/s] 242 281 266 Pex [bar] 8.9 1000 dP/dt [bar/s] 340 369 355 The maximum values for each series are underlined: Pmax = (8.7 Correction for P 10 ex< 5.5 389 346 377 Pex [bar] 7.6 7. and KSt = (378 bar/s) (0. X1.8 8.0 750 dP/dt [bar/s] 300 342 323 Pex [bar] 7.

2 A partial list of other chambers used for dust testing is cited in Footnotes 11 through 16 with additional information given in Refs (8).8 Mild Dust Explosion TABLE X1. 14 Proctor and Gamble 20-L chamber. 10 X2. (11). MD.E 1226 – 00e1 FIG. For more information. 13 Union Carbide 26-L chamber. MO. X1. see Refs 9 and 10. OTHER DUST EXPLOSIBILITY TEST CHAMBERS HAVING A VOLUME OF AT LEAST 20 L X2. For more information.11 . see Ref 7.3 Standard Deviation in the 20-L Apparatus KSt d 50 100 200 300 $400 30 20 12 10 5 X2. see Ref 8. (9).10. 9 20-L chamber designed by Hercules. (10).2).14 have not yet completed the calibration process (see 10.1 The chambers9. Cumberland. Blue Springs. 11 .12. Fike 20-L Dust Explosion Vessel manufactured by Fike Metal Products. Rosemont. Details of the chambers and test procedures will be added as each is calibrated as in Section 10. IL. 11 Bureau of Mines 20-L Dust Explosibility Test Chamber. 12 20-L chamber manufactured by Safety Consulting Engineers.13. For more information.

Vol 56. pp. L. (6) Siwek. (2) Cashdollar.. 1981. NY. and the risk of infringement of such rights. Winterthur. EFCE.E 1226 – 00e1 REFERENCES (1) Bartknecht.. 154–163. or through the ASTM website (www. PO Box C700. Fabrication and Use of a 20 Litre Spherical Dust Testing Apparatus. R. Hauptverband der Gewerblichen Berufsgenossen schaften e. 12 . NY. NY. R. R. A Method for Characterizing Dust Deflagration Behavior for Application to Vent Relief Design.. pp. Watermann and Schütz. Cesana. August 1984. and Chatrathi. p. pp. R. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights. (9) Chippett.” Loss Prevention and Safety Promotion in the Process Industries. E.” AICHE Loss Prevention. (4) Bischoff. Vol 87. K.. (e-mail). Particulate Science and Technology. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co. are entirely their own responsibility. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards. 100 Barr Harbor Drive. 1304. Protection.. R. “Experimental Methods for the Determination of the Explosion Characteristics of Combustible Dusts. R. PA 19428-2959. and Hertzberg. (10) Cocks. Vol 14. W. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. 1977. Switzerland. Dust Explosions. This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International. G. pp. (8) Cashdollar. 596–602. (7) Siwek. 610-832-9555 (fax). L. Hopf. United States. E. Operating Instructions for the 20-L Apparatus. Review of Scientific Instruments. (5) Siwek. Proctor and Gamble.. 1980. 1985. Forschungsbericht Staubexplosionen: Brenn und Explosions-Kenngrössen von Stauben.. S. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee. Vol 3. Appendix F. 3rd revised edition. 1985. M. Birsfelden. New York. Peter. “Minimum Explosible Dust Concentrations Measured in 20-L and 1-m3 Chambers.v. ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard. OH. Cincinnati. Explosions: Course. (3) Field. or service@astm. Internal Report. This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and if not revised. C. which you may attend. at the address shown below. West Conshohocken. Basel. G. Vol 3. Bonn Federal Republic of Germany. (11) Cocks. C. either reapproved or withdrawn. Ciba-Geigy. and Britton. Prevention. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at 610-832-9585 (phone). C. 1982. Switzerland... 1981. R. 1980. K. 1993.astm.” Combustion Science and Technology.. 159–177. A. Switzerland.... and Meyer. L. “Fabrication and Use of a 20-L Spherical Dust Testing Apparatus. and Meyer. (20-L Laboratory Apparatus for the Determination of the Explosion Characteristics of Flammable Dusts). 157–171. Adolf Künher. SpringerVerlag. “20-L Explosibility Test Chamber for Dusts and Gases. 20-L Laborapparatur für die Bestimmung der Explosions Kenngrösser brennbarer Stä Basel-Winterthur Engineering College.