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**THE FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS OF HYDRODYNAMIC
**

LUBRICATION

Fluid film lubrication is a hydrodynamic phenomenon characterized by a lubricant flowing in the

narrow gap between two closely spaced surfaces. Notes 1 develops, from the fundamental

equations of fluid mechanics – mass and momentum transport of a Newtonian fluid, the classical

equations for motion of a lubricant in a thin film. An order of magnitude analysis reveals that the

pressure does not vary across the film, and hence, one momentum transport equation is not

needed. In addition, the analysis reveals that fluid inertia effects are seldom important in most

thin film lubricant configurations, i.e. those in which the film thickness is orders of magnitude

smaller than the wetted surfaces dimensions. Reynolds numbers for shear type flow and squeeze

film type flow are defined. Applications where thin film fluid inertia effects are important are

noted. Incidentally, abrupt changes in film geometry, like at the inlet and outlet sections of a film

region are a common source for fluid inertia induced pressure drops (or rises).

Nomenclature

C

h

L*

P

p

RB , RJ

Re

**Characteristic film clearance. = RB -RJ, journal bearing radial clearance
**

Film thickness

Characteristic length

Hydrodynamic pressure

P C2

. Dimensionless pressure

U * L*

Bearing and Journal Radii

U *C

. Shear flow Reynolds number

Re*

U *C C

. Modified shear flow Reynolds number

L*

Res

*C 2

, Squeeze film Reynolds number

Vx,Vy, Vz

vx, vy, vz

**Fluid velocities along x, y, z directions
**

V

Vx

V

Dimensionless fluid velocities

, y , z

U*

V* U *

U* , V*

**Characteristic fluid speeds – along & across film thickness V* U* C L*
**

Time

Coordinate system on plane of bearing

x L* , y C, z L* . Dimensionless coordinates

Fluid density

Fluid absolute viscosity

Characteristic frequency for unsteady or transient motions

Journal angular speed (rad/s)

t

x, y, z

x, y, z

*

NOTES 1. THE FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS IN HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION © Dr. Luis San Andrés (2010)

1

and c) conservation (transport) of energy (1 equation). the fluid flow is fully defined by the velocity components V=(Vx. y (U.e.z. Lz) For example.Vy. functions of its thermophysical state. The major characteristic of a lubricant film.e. is that the thickness of the film (h) is very small when compared to its length (L) or to its radius of curvature (R). h=C= (RB – RJ).z.V) surface velocities Vy V Vz Vx U h(x. in journal bearings. b) conservation of linear momentum (3 equations). i. NOTES 1. Vz). Figure 1 depicts an idealized geometry of a fluid film bearing. and the temperature (T) fields. f(P. (h/L) or (h/R) <<< 1. i. THE FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS IN HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION © Dr. In an Eulerian frame of reference.t) z Lx x Lz y h << Lx. the film thickness is approximately equal to the film radial clearance.the pressure (P).Lz y V Vy U Vz h(x.t) Lx Vx x Figure 1. Geometry of flow region in a fluid film bearing (h << Lx . Luis San Andrés (2010) 2 .T). density and viscosity. and which allows a major simplification of its analysis.Fluid flow in a general physical domain is governed by the principles of: a) conservation of mass (l equation).. are in general. where RB and RJ are the radii of the bearing and the journal. The material properties of the fluid.

DB=2 RB DJ=2 RJ In most thin fluid film applications with incompressible liquids. the equations of laminar flow continuity and momentum transport within the film region are: continuity equation: Vx V y Vz 0 x y z (1. The x-axis lies in the direction of the relative motion of the bearing surfaces. Luis San Andrés (2010) (1. As a consequence of the smallness in film thickness.001 = 10-3.3) Vz Vz Vz Vz P (V z ) Vx Vy Vz z x y z t (1.0001=10-4 typically. Schematic view of a cylindrical bearing This assumption allows the prescription of an orthogonal Cartesian coordinate system (x. The characteristic geometrical dimension is either the bearing radius RB or its axial length L.1) momentum transport equations: Vx Vx Vx Vx P Vx Vy (V x ) Vz x x y z t (1. y. THE FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS IN HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION © Dr.2) Vy Vy Vy Vy P Vz (V y ) Vy Vx z y y x t (1. C/RB =0.respectively. For an incompressible.4) with the Laplacian operator 2 2 2 x 2 y 2 z 2 NOTES 1. the effects of the film curvature are negligible on the operation of the thin film bearing. C/RB=0.e. z) on the plane of the lubricant film. and the y-axis is along the direction of the minimum film dimension. across the film thickness. isoviscous Newtonian fluid. while in gas film bearings. i. see Figure 1.5) 3 .

6) where L* is a characteristic length and C is a characteristic film thickness.and where (Vx. v y . Dimensionless equations of motion An analysis of the relative magnitude of each term in the equations of motion determines their relative importance on the flow mechanics.e. in journal bearings U*=RJ where is the journal angular speed in rad/s.7) where U* is a characteristic fluid speed. Luis San Andrés (2010) 4 .8) Multiplying this expression by (L*/U*) gives vx x V L vy vz * * 0 U C y z * (1. i. For example. U* U* V* (1.9) Thus. * is a characteristic frequency for unsteady or transient motions of the bearing surfaces. typically the sliding velocity of the runner surface. Dimensionless fluid film velocities follow as vx Vy Vx V . unit value. Vy.10) for all terms in the dimensionless continuity equation to be of the same order. Substitution of the dimensionless variables into the continuity equation (1) renders the following expression U* vx V* vy U* vz 0 L* x C y L* z (1. NOTES 1. i. respectively. y y C. Note that the dimensionless variables above are of order (1). Vz ) are the fluid velocity components. and (. P is the hydrodynamic pressure. THE FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS IN HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION © Dr. Define dimensionless spatial coordinates and time as x x L* . z z L* t * (1.e. vz z . the characteristic cross-film velocity (V* ) must be defined as V* L* C 1.e. The order of magnitude analysis enables further simplifications adequate to model fluid flows in thin film geometries. i. µ) correspond to the material fluid density and absolute viscosity. V* U * U* C L* (1.

4) renders the momentum equations in the plane of motion. For hydrodynamic thin films. z) directions. y) directions.15) NOTES 1. reduce to: vx vx vx vx p vx2 Res Re* vx vy vz y z x y2 x (1.14) and the momentum equation across the film. Thus. Substitution of the dimensionless coordinates and variables into the momentum equations (1.14) vz vz vz vz p vz2 Res Re* vx vy vz y z z y2 x (1. the cross film velocity Vy <<< ( Vx.13) U* C2 vz vz vz p vz2 C2 2vz 2vz C2 vz vy vz * vx y z z y 2 L2* x 2 z 2 L* x (1. z) directions. the momentum transport equations in the plane of motion. Luis San Andrés (2010) 5 . This also means that small changes in the cross-film velocity Vy causes large variations in the fluid velocities along the (x. Vz) is much smaller than the other two flow velocities in the plane of the fluid flow. (x.11) Thus. as: vx vx p vx2 C2 2vx 2vx U* C2 vx C2 vx * vy vz vx L* x y z x y 2 L2* x 2 z 2 (1. and inversely proportional to the film thickness squared. the surface sliding speed. (y) direction.12) Note that the product (U*L*/C2) is a characteristic pressure proportional to the fluid viscosity. (x. the dimensionless pressure (p) is defined according to p PC2 U * L* (1. THE FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS IN HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION © Dr. as: vy vy p C2 vy2 C4 2vy 2vy U* C2 C2 vy C2 C2 vy * vy vz vx L2* L* L2* x y z y L2* y 2 L4* x 2 z 2 (1.15) The smallness of (C/L*)<<1 (gap to length ratio) permits to disregard the flow terms of order (C/L*)2 and higher in the equations above.2) thru (1.vx vy vz 0 x y z (1.

The following flow parameters appear in equations (1.e. Hence. regardless of the fluid inertia (or turbulent) character of the flow. p=ƒ(x. the ratio between fluid inertia (advection) forces and viscous-shear forces. NOTES 1. Re > 12 for steady flow film bearing as will be demonstrated in later developments in these notes. U * C Fluid inertia effects in thin film flows are of importance only in those applications where both Reynolds numbers are larger than ONE1.e. U * C Res * C 2 (18) is the squeeze film Reynolds number denoting the ratio between temporal fluid inertia forces * U * C due to transient motions and viscous-shear forces. i. (Res. Luis San Andrés (2010) 6 .e. Re*. Re*=Re (C/L*).14-15). In most practical applications handling mineral oils. t) only. i. Thus.16) This equation shows that the fluid pressure is uniform or constant across the film thickness. one can assume effectively the fluid is inertialess or purely viscous. As noted earlier. This number denotes U *2 .19) Note that in hydrodynamic journal bearings. i. 1 In actuality. reduces to: 0 p y (1. y direction.001=10-3 (1. Re U* C (17) Re is the flow Reynolds number based on the characteristic speed (U*). then Res= Re* Classical lubrication is based on the assumption that fluid inertia effects are negligible. And. the film thickness to length ratio (C/L*) in thin film flows is typically very small. THE FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS IN HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION © Dr. Re*) 0. fluid inertia terms are to be retained for flows with Reynolds numbers of the order: Re > (L*/C) x 1 > 1.and the momentum equation for fluid motions across the film. 000 for (C/L*) = 0. Res >> 1. z.e. i. * = and U*=RJ.

The example bearing is a 3 inch diameter (2RJ) journal and the clearance to radius ratio (C/RJ) is 0. Equations (1. Recall that the shear flow Reynolds number is Re=U*C/µ= RJC/µ= RJC/. Two rotational speeds of 1. in dimensional form given as: continuity (mass conservation): Vx V y Vz 0 x y z (1. isolating regions of high and low pressures in a typical compressor or pump. The Re magnitudes reported reveal that bearing applications with mineral oils and air do not need to include fluid inertia effects. z.000 rpm. have larger radial clearances than load supporting fluid film bearings.22) with P=ƒ(x. Luis San Andrés (2010) 7 . R134a refrigerant and cryogenic fluids show large Reynolds numbers at a speed of 10. the thin film laminar flow of an incompressible. THE FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS IN HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION © Dr.Thus. z) –momentum transport: P 2V x 0 x y2 (1. and isoviscous fluid is governed by the following equations. i.000 and 10. NOTES 1. t).000 rpm. process fluid applications using water.7 and 1. For example.000 rpm (=104. and future applications (currently in the works) will operate at speeds close to 200 krpm! Incidentally. in water neck-ring and interstage seals in pumps. Note that current bearing applications using process liquids to replace mineral oils may operate at speeds well above 10. R/C ~ 250. the operating speed of cryogenic turbopumps ranges from 25 krpm – 110 krpm.20) (x. where =/ is the fluid kinematic viscosity.000.001.047 rad/s) are noted in the table.22) establish a quasi-static balance of pressure forces equaling viscous shear forces. Incidentally. inertialess. Table 1 shows the Reynolds numbers (Re) for a typical journal bearing application operating with different fluids. process gas and liquid annular seals.21) P 2V z 0 z y 2 (1. However. a typical value for journal bearings. This means that time is just a parameter in inertialess thin film flows. and thus fluid inertia effects are of importance even at relatively low rotational speeds (~1. Note also that the time coordinate disappears from the governing equations.e.000 rpm and higher). Re < 1.21) and (1.

3 2.4 30.5 inch) fluid Air Thick oil ISO VG 32 Light oil ISO VG 3 Water Liquid hydrogen Liquid oxygen Liquid nitrogen R134 refrigerant Absolute viscosity (µ) -5 lbm-ft. The same phenomenon also occurs U U at the leading edge of a bearing pad in high speed tilting pad bearings.163 158.8 705. RJ =38.588 7.075 10. However. is lost or recovered.000 rpm Re at 10. and may not thickness be relevant within the thin film flow domain. Sudden pressure losses are typical at the recess edges of a recess of pocket in a hydrostatic bearing and at the inlet section of an annular pressure seal.6 1.2 847.7 929.191 0.93 1.1 mm (1.052 7.Table 1.30 Re at 1. fluid inertia effects may also be of great importance at the inlet to the film and discharge from the film sections in a typical pad bearing or seal application.3 10.7 23 2.0 9.000 rpm 15. Note that the importance of fluid inertia effects may be restricted only to the inlet and Pressure drop/rise at sudden changes in film discharge sections. A sudden pressure recovery is also quite typical at P P the discharge plane of a 2 P ~ ½ U pressurized annular or labyrinth seal.942 8.2 794.14 71.8 50. NOTES 1. Importance of fluid inertia effects on several fluid film bearing applications.5 323 120 64 1. a fraction of the dynamic pressure head.23 1. Depending on the flow conditions upstream of a sudden contraction or a sudden enlargement.1 711.216 0.88 5.76 1.s x 10 1. THE FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS IN HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION © Dr.682 Kinematic viscosity () Kinematic viscosity () ft2/s x 10-6 centistokes 165.477 9.07 98.93 13. (c/R)=0.001.296 Other fluid inertia effects The analysis above addressed to the importance of fluid inertia effects within the thin film flow domain.179 0.06 1. Luis San Andrés (2010) 8 .00 0.47 13. typically given as (½U2).32 2.

.

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This feature can help minimise inventory costs and reduce the potential for product misapplication. They are also used in some critical hydraulic.ca. . they exhibit the required properties to function as low pressure hydraulic and circulating oils as long as the proper viscosity is selected. They possess very good resistance to foaming and separate readily from water. the information contained herein is subject to change without notification. Features Good Oxidation Resistance Very Good Rust and Corrosion Protection Effective Water Separation Advantages and Potential Benefits Helps reduce critical deposit formation Improves oil life Improves equipment life Provides increased precision long-term Resists emulsion formation Keeps moisture out of critical lubrication areas Allows easy removal of moisture from system reservoirs Applications · · · · · · High speed spindle bearings in machine tools and equipment where high speeds and fine clearances are involved Precision grinders. lathes.Mobil Velocite Oil Numbered Series EXAMPLE Spindle and Hydraulic Oils Product Description The Mobil Velocite Oil Numbered Series oils are premium performance products primarily designed for the lubrication of high-speed spindles in machine tools. or by contacting Lubricants and Petroleum Specialties. Technical Help Desk. laboratory equipment.imperialoil. jig borers and tracer mechanisms For sleeve type spindle bearings having greater clearances. low viscosity base oils and additives that impart good resistance to oxidation and protection from rust and corrosion. Due to continual product research and development. Additional health and safety information on this product can be found on the Material Safety Data Sheet. the choice of viscosity depends on the relation between clearance and spindle speed Low pressure hydraulic systems where appropriate viscosity is selected Air line oilers (Mobil Velocite Oil No. Typical properties may vary slightly. circulation systems and air line oilers where the appropriate viscosity grade is selected. Features & Benefits The Mobil Velocite Oil Numbered Series provide exceptional lubrication of close-tolerance bearings which helps keep the bearings running cool and helps maintain the precision required by many of today's critical machine tools. etc. Although the Mobil Velocite Oil Numbered Series oils were designed for spindle bearings. © 2003 Imperial Oil. They are formulated from select high-quality. 10) For some sensitive instruments such as telescopes. which is available on line at www. 1-800-268-3183.

kg/L Precautions MOBIL VELOCITE is manufactured from high quality petroleum base stocks. © 2003 Imperial Oil.Specifications & Approvals Mobil Velocite Oil Numbered Series meets or exceeds the following industry specifications: Cincinnati Machine P-62 Cincinnati Machine P-45 No 6 No 10 X - X No 6 10 No 10 22 10. mgKOH/g Copper Strip Corrosion. ASTM D 97 Flash Point. the information contained herein is subject to change without notification.62 0. Additional health and safety information on this product can be found on the Material Safety Data Sheet. ASTM D 92 Density @ 15ºC. or by contacting Lubricants and Petroleum Specialties. which is available on line at www. Proc A. good personal hygiene and careful handling should always be practiced. Avoid prolonged contact to skin.862 Typical Properties Mobil Velocite Oil Numbered Series ISO VG Viscosity. ASTM D 665 Pour Point.0 2. ASTM D 445 cSt @ 40ºC cSt @ 100ºC Total Acid Number.844 22. Technical Help Desk.0 0. Note: This product is not controlled under Canadian WHMIS legislation. The Mobil logotype and the Pegasus design are trademarks of Exxon Mobil Corporation. 3 hrs @ 100ºC. ingestion or vapour inhalation. ºC. ASTM D 4052. or one of its subsidiaries.imperialoil.1 1A Pass -30 212 0.06 1A Pass -15 180 0. Due to continual product research and development.ca.0 4. As with all petroleum products. ASTM D 974. ºC. . Please refer to our Imperial Oil Material Safety Data Sheet for further information. Typical properties may vary slightly. 1-800-268-3183. carefully blended with selected additives. splashing into the eyes. ASTM D 130 Rust Characteristics.

meet or exceed the requirements of major steam and gas turbine builders. The exceptional performance of one series of oils which make up this family. ExxonMobil is comprised of numerous affiliates and subsidiaries. Their performance in service is also recognized to provide very long charge life. advantages and potential benefits of the product are shown below: ExxonMobil Lubricants & Specialties All products may not be available locally. Responsibility for local action and accountability remains with the local ExxonMobil-affiliate entities. to simulate the severity of the latest generation turbine designs in advancing Mobil DTE 790 formulation technology. the information contained herein is subject to change without notification. and good air release properties which is critical for hydraulic control mechanisms. Due to continual product research and development. The performance features of Mobil DTE 790 Series oils translate into excellent equipment protection.com. Our research scientists use this information.exxonmobil. along with specially chosen additives to provide exceptional oxidation stability and deposit control which results in superb equipment protection. with reduced downtime and extended oil charge life. very high quality. . in the appropriate grade. and high resistance to deposit formation and filter plugging. A review of the features. Mobil DTE 790 Series oils are based on proprietary. The exceptional oxidation stability performance of Mobil DTE 790 oils has resulted in outstanding performance in even the most severe.Premium Performance Turbine Oils EXAMPLE Product Description Mobil DTE 790 Series lubricants are premium performance turbine oils that are engineered to meet the requirements of the most severe steam turbine designs and operation. Features & Benefits The Mobil DTE family of products is well known and highly regarded worldwide based on their outstanding performance and the R&D expertise and the global technical support which stand behind the brand. Mobil DTE 790 Series oils. This reputation is exemplified by the very high percent of nuclear turbine operators who choose Mobil DTE 790 lubricants. All rights reserved. contact your local sales office or visit www. Mobil DTE 790 lubricants also exhibit excellent water separability. Nothing in this document is intended to override or supersede the corporate separateness of local entities. which is exemplified by exceptional color stability. These products have an outstanding reputation for equipment reliability and avoiding unscheduled downtime. Typical Properties may vary slightly. has made it the choice of steam turbine operators around the world for many decades. Mobil. in excess of conventional turbine oils. hydrotreated base stocks and selected additives which provide outstanding resistance to oxidation and chemical degradation over time. While primarily engineered for steam turbine service. or ExxonMobil. highly reliable operation and long oil charge life. resistance to emulsion formation and anti-foaming characteristics which provides efficient operation. a key factor in assessing oil stability in some regions of the world. For Mobil DTE 790 Series oils this work has resulted in a formulation based on a special hydrotreated basestock. For more information. © 2001 Exxon Mobil Corporation. many with names that include Esso. and largest capacity steam turbine applications. Close contacts with steam turbine designers worldwide is the key factor in our understanding of the challenges for the lubricant in the most advanced designs. along with proprietary tests. with maximum oil charge life. Mobil DTE 790 Series. Mobil DTE 790 Series oils also find application in non-geared gas turbine service. reliable operation.

Due to continual product research and development. Electric power generation by industrial users. . ring-oiled bearings of geared and direct-connected turbines. contact your local sales office or visit www. or ExxonMobil. Mobil.Features Superb oxidation. Typical Properties may vary slightly. All rights reserved. reducing pump replacement Applications Mobil DTE 790 Series lubricants are premium performance turbine oils engineered to meet the requirements of: circulation systems of direct-connected steam turbine and gas turbines. the information contained herein is subject to change without notification. hydraulic control systems of turbines.exxonmobil. Specific applications include: · · Electric power generation by utilities. including nuclear plants. non-geared 797 798 X X X X X L-TD 32 797 X X X X X L-TD 46 798 X X ExxonMobil Lubricants & Specialties All products may not be available locally. such as paper mills Specifications & Approvals Mobil DTE 790 Series meets or exceeds the following industry specifications Alstom Power Sweden MAT 812101 Alstom Power Sweden MAT 812102 GEC Alstom NBA P 50001 GE GEK 28143-A GE GEK 46506-D GE GEK 27070 DIN 51515-1 Mobil DTE 790 Series has the following builder approvals Alstom Power HTGD 90 117. For more information. many with names that include Esso. chemical and color stability Excellent water seperability and foam control Very good air release properties Advantages and Potential Benefits Extended oil charge life and reduced oil changeout costs Reduced filter plugging and equipment fouling for reduced downtime and maintenance costs High level of turbine system reliability and reduced unanticipated downtime Improved operating efficiency and reduced operating expenses Avoids erratic operation and pump cavitation.com. Nothing in this document is intended to override or supersede the corporate separateness of local entities. non-geared Siemens TLV 9013 04. ExxonMobil is comprised of numerous affiliates and subsidiaries. © 2001 Exxon Mobil Corporation. Responsibility for local action and accountability remains with the local ExxonMobil-affiliate entities.

4 110 -30 221 0. Responsibility for local action and accountability remains with the local ExxonMobil-affiliate entities. or ExxonMobil.86 5500 Pass Pass 15 1A 20/0 2 Pass Pass 20 1A 20/0 3 Health & Safety Based on available information. Typical Properties may vary slightly. or one of its subsidiaries. This product should not be used for purposes other than its intended use. Distilled Water Sea Water Water Seperability. ASTM D 2270 Pour Point.1 5. 797 32 798 46 30. The Mobil logotype. ml/ml Air Release. ASTM D 943. ASTM D 1401. contact your local sales office or visit www.3 6. min. 3 hrs @ 100º C Foam Test. If disposing of used product. ASTM D 92 Density @15º C. Due to continual product research and development. to 3 ml emulsion @ 54º C Copper Strip Corrosion. take care to protect the environment. Min. For more information.8 106 -30 232 0. ASTM D 3427. many with names that include Esso. ºC. . the information contained herein is subject to change without notification. ASTM D 97 Flash Point.Typical Properties Mobil DTE 790 Series ISO Viscosity Grade Viscosity. ºC. ASTM D 130. this product is not expected to produce adverse effects on health when used for the intended application and the recommendations provided in the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) are followed.85 6500 44. or via the Internet. Mobil. ASTM D 1298. MSDS's are available upon request through your sales contract office. ASTM D 665. the Pegasus design and Delvac are trademarks of ExxonMobil Corporation. Nothing in this document is intended to override or supersede the corporate separateness of local entities. 50º C. © 2001 Exxon Mobil Corporation.com. ASTM D 892.exxonmobil. ASTM D 445 cSt @ 40º C cSt @ 100º C Viscosity Index. ExxonMobil is comprised of numerous affiliates and subsidiaries. All rights reserved. Hours to 2 NN Rust Prevention. ExxonMobil Lubricants & Specialties All products may not be available locally. Seq I Tendency / Stability. kg/l TOST.

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