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ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF SOILS

BASED ON LABORATORY TESTING

Krishna R. Reddy, Ph.D., P.E.
Professor of Civil & Environmental Engineering
Director of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering Laboratory
Tel: (312)996-4755; Fax: (312)996-2426; e-mail: kreddy@uic.edu

Department of Civil and Materials Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago

August 2002

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INTRODUCTION
Soil is one of the most important engineering materials. Determination of soil
conditions is the most important first phase of work for every type of civil
engineering facility. Soil properties are determined by both field and laboratory test
methods. In this course, you will learn several laboratory tests that are very
commonly performed to determine different properties of soils. These properties
are essential for the design of foundation and earth structures.
In this course, different laboratory tests will be conducted to determine the
following important index and mechanical properties of soils:
• Water Content
• Organic Matter (Content)
• Unit Weight (Density)
• Specific Gravity
• Relative Density
• Atterberg Limits
• Grain Size Distribution (Sieve Analysis and Hydrometer Analysis)
• Visual Classification
• Moisture-Density Relationship (Compaction)
• Hydraulic Conductivity (Constant Head Method)
• Consolidation
• Shear Strength
o Unconfined Compression Test
o Direct Shear Test

Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing
Prof. Krishna Reddy, UIC

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In addition to conducting the above tests, the following tests and procedures will be
demonstrated:
• Triaxial Tests: Shear Strength (UU/CU/CD) and Hydraulic Conductivity
• Field Exploration
• Engineering Classification, Boring Logs and Soil Profiles Preparation
Because of the time constraints, several experiments will be combined and the
tentative schedule for each laboratory class during the semester is given below:
Week
1

Assigned Tasks
During this class, you will be given a soil sample obtained
from field. You will be asked to determine the moisture
content and organic content of this soil. Read Experiment 1
and Experiment 2 before coming to the lab.

2

During this class, you will be given a sand sample and a
clay sample (both are relatively undisturbed field samples).
You will be asked to determine unit weight and specific
gravity of these soils. In addition, you will be asked to
determine the relative density of the sand sample. Read
Experiments 3, 4 and 5 before coming to the lab.

3

During this class, you will be given a soil sample obtained
from the field. You will be asked to determine grain size
distribution of this soil by performing sieve analysis as well
as hydrometer analysis. Read Experiment 6 before coming
to the lab.

4

During this class, you will be given a soil sample obtained
from the field. You will be asked to determine Atterberg
limits of this soil. Read Experiment 7 before coming to the

Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing
Prof. Krishna Reddy, UIC

You will be asked to determine undrained shear strength of the soil by conducting unconfined compression test. You will be asked to visually classify these soils. you will be given 10 different soil samples. Read Experiment 11 before coming to the class. Read Experiment 10 before coming to the class. 11 Triaxial Testing Demonstration: UU/CU/CD Shear Strength and Hydraulic Conductivity Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Read Experiment 12 before coming to the class. You will be asked to determine the consolidation properties of this soil using 1-D consolidation test. You will be asked to determine hydraulic conductivity of the soil under specified density using the constant head permeameter test. 8 During this week. 6 During this class. you will be given an undisturbed clay sample. you will be given a sandy soil sample. 9 During this week. you will be given a soil sample obtained from field. 10 During this week. Krishna Reddy. You will be asked to determine shear strength of this soil under specified density by conducting direct shear tests. You will be asked to determine moisture-density relations using either Standard Compaction or Modified Compaction procedures. 7 During this class.3 lab. 5 During this lab. UIC . you will be given a sandy soil. Read Experiment 9 before coming to the class. Read Experiment 8 before coming to the class. you will be given an undisturbed clay sample. Read Experiment 8 before coming to the class.

All raw data and calculations should be appended to the body of the report. The body of each lab report shall consist of no more than three 8-1/2 x 11 pages of typed text. Results Present the results of the lab in this section. I. so be concise! As many figures as deemed necessary can accompany the 3 pages of text in the report body. You will work in teams. Do they seem reasonable? Include analyses of possible errors and any recommendations that you have for improving the test procedure. Procedures Read the ASTM standard for the test(s) you conducted and note any differences between ASTM recommended procedure(s) and the procedure(s) that actually used in the lab. Any text beyond the first three pages shall be disregarded.4 12 Field Exploration Methods-Demonstration 13 Engineering Classification. Introduction Include: (1) brief description of what you did in lab and (2) the purpose of the lab. Remember neatness counts. Discussion Describe your results. Prepare your report according to the format shown below. IV. II. Refer to figures or tables when necessary. Krishna Reddy. III. UIC . Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Boring Logs and Soil ProfilesPractice Examples A short report which details the weekly experiment will be due 1 (one) week after the completion of the lab. but everyone must submit an individual report.

5 V. Tables (in order) . So be concise (this does not mean to omit anything). UIC . pages in length. 2. 1. Conclusions Draw your conclusions and present them in this section. Figures (in order) APPENDIX: NOTES: Include raw data and calculations in Appendix. You must refer to each Table and Figure in the TEXT. Remember that Sections I-V can only be a maximum of three 81/2 x 11 in. . Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Krishna Reddy.

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EXPERIMENT 1
WATER CONTENT DETERMINATION

Purpose:
This test is performed to determine the water (moisture) content of soils. The
water content is the ratio, expressed as a percentage, of the mass of “pore” or
“free” water in a given mass of soil to the mass of the dry soil solids.
Standard Reference:
ASTM D 2216 - Standard Test Method for Laboratory Determination of
Water (Moisture) Content of Soil, Rock, and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures
Significance:
For many soils, the water content may be an extremely important index used
for establishing the relationship between the way a soil behaves and its properties.
The consistency of a fine-grained soil largely depends on its water content. The
water content is also used in expressing the phase relationships of air, water, and
solids in a given volume of soil.
Equipment:
Drying oven, Balance, Moisture can, Gloves, Spatula.

Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing
Prof. Krishna Reddy, UIC

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Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing
Prof. Krishna Reddy, UIC

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Test Procedure:
(1)

Record the moisture can and lid number. Determine and record the
mass of an empty, clean, and dry moisture can with its lid (MC)

(2)

Place the moist soil in the moisture can and secure the lid.
Determine and record the mass of the moisture can (now containing
the moist soil) with the lid (MCMS).

(3)

Remove the lid and place the moisture can (containing the moist
soil) in the drying oven that is set at 105 °C. Leave it in the oven
overnight.

(4)

Remove the moisture can. Carefully but securely, replace the lid on
the moisture can using gloves, and allow it to cool to room
temperature. Determine and record the mass of the moisture can
and lid (containing the dry soil) (MCDS).

(5)

Empty the moisture can and clean the can and lid.

Data Analysis:
(1)

Determine the mass of soil solids.
M

(2)

S

=M

CDS

SC

Determine the mass of pore water.
MW = M

(3)

−M

CMS

−M

CDS

Determine the water content.
w=

Mw
x100
Ms

Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing
Prof. Krishna Reddy, UIC

Krishna Reddy.9 EXAMPLE DATA Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. UIC .

11 0.28g MS = 15.83 MCMS = Mass of can. UIC .11g w= 1.39g.69 MS = Mass of soil solids (grams) 7. w% 14. Group A Project Name: CEMM315 Lab Sample Number: B-1. 0’-2’ Sample Description: Gray silty clay Specimen number 1 2 Moisture can and lid number 12 15 MC = Mass of empty.28 = 1.86 MW = Mass of pore water (grams) 1 . 2002 Tested By: CEMM315 Class. MCDS = 15. MCMS = 16.10 WATER CONTENT DETERMINATION DATA SHEET Date Tested: August 30. and moist soil (grams) 16.8 15.5g MW = 16.43 MCDS = Mass of can. and dry soil (grams) 15.11 7.28 – 7.39 -15. lid.74 w = Water content. 28 12. 2 Example Calculation: MC = 7.AU-1.78g. 5 4. lid. 78 7. 39 13.78 = 7.8% Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. clean can + lid (grams) 7. Krishna Reddy.5 x100 = 14.

Krishna Reddy. UIC .11 BLANK DATA SHEETS Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.

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WATER CONTENT DETERMINATION

DATA SHEET
Date Tested:
Tested By:
Project Name:
Sample Number:
Sample Description:

Specimen number

1

Moisture can and lid number
MC = Mass of empty, clean can + lid (grams)
MCMS = Mass of can, lid, and moist soil (grams)
MCDS = Mass of can, lid, and dry soil (grams)
MS = Mass of soil solids (grams)
MW = Mass of pore water (grams)
w = Water content, w%

Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing
Prof. Krishna Reddy, UIC

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EXPERIMENT 2
ORGANIC MATTER DETERMINATION
Purpose:
This test is performed to determine the organic content of soils. The
organic content is the ratio, expressed as a percentage, of the mass of
organic matter in a given mass of soil to the mass of the dry soil solids.
Standard Reference:
ASTM D 2974 – Standard Test Methods for Moisture, Ash, and
Organic Matter of Peat and Organic Soils
Significance:
Organic matter influences many of the physical, chemical and
biological properties of soils. Some of the properties influenced by organic
matter include soil structure, soil compressibility and shear strength. In
addition, it also affects the water holding capacity, nutrient contributions,
biological activity, and water and air infiltration rates.
Equipment:
Muffle furnace, Balance, Porcelain dish, Spatula, Tongs

Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing
Prof. Krishna Reddy, UIC

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Test Procedure:
(1)

Determine and record the mass of an empty, clean, and dry
porcelain dish (MP).

(2)

Place a part of or the entire oven-dried test specimen from the
moisture content experiment (Expt.1) in the porcelain dish and
determine and record the mass of the dish and soil specimen
(MPDS).

(3)

Place the dish in a muffle furnace. Gradually increase the
temperature in the furnace to 440oC. Leave the specimen in
the furnace overnight.

(4)

Remove carefully the porcelain dish using the tongs (the dish
is very hot), and allow it to cool to room temperature.

Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing
Prof. Krishna Reddy, UIC

15 Determine and record the mass of the dish containing the ash (burned soil) (MPA). MD=MPDS-MP (2) Determine the mass of the ashed (burned) soil. Data Analysis: (1) Determine the mass of the dry soil. Krishna Reddy. OM = MO x100 MD Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.MA (4) Determine the organic matter (content). (5) Empty the dish and clean it. MA=MPA-MP (3) Determine the mass of organic matter MO = MD . UIC .

Krishna Reddy. UIC .16 EXAMPLE DATA Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.

66 MPA = Mass of the dish and ash (Burned soil) (grams) 34.09 x100 = 10. MPDS = 35. UIC .17 10.24 MO = Mass of organic matter (grams) 1. MPA = 34.17 ORGANIC MATTER DETERMINATION DATA SHEET Date Tested: August 30.86 = 1.09 13. 2002 Tested By: CEMM315 Class.29g.06g MD = 35.17% Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. 0’-2’ Sample Description: Gray silty clay Specimen number 1 2 Porcelain dish number 5 8 MP = Mass of empty.39 OM = Organic matter.06 35.86g MO = 12. clean porcelain dish (grams) 23.09 – 10.20 = 10.86 12.03 MPDS = Mass of dish and dry soil (grams) 35. Group A Project Name: CEMM315 Lab Sample Number: B-1.29 36.27 MD = Mass of the dry soil (grams) 12.09g MA = 34.63 MA = Mass of the ash (Burned soil) (grams) 10.20 = 12.2g.23 1.29 – 23. % 10. Krishna Reddy.20 Example Calculation: MP = 23.20 23.AU-1.39g OM = 1.39 12.06 – 23.

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BLANK DATA SHEETS

Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing
Prof. Krishna Reddy, UIC

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ORGANIC MATTER DETERMINATION
DATA SHEET

Date Tested:
Tested By:
Project Name:
Sample Number:
Sample Description:
Specimen number

1

Porcelain dish number
MP = Mass of empty, clean porcelain dish (grams)
MPDS = Mass of dish and dry soil (grams)
MPA = Mass of the dish and ash (Burned soil) (grams)
MD = Mass of the dry soil (grams)
MA = Mass of the ash (Burned soil) (grams)
MO = Mass of organic matter (grams)
OM = Organic matter, %

Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing
Prof. Krishna Reddy, UIC

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EXPERIMENT 3
DENSITY (UNIT WEIGHT) DETERMINATIOM
Purpose:
This lab is performed to determine the in-place density of undisturbed soil
obtained by pushing or drilling a thin-walled cylinder. The bulk density is the ratio
of mass of moist soil to the volume of the soil sample, and the dry density is the
ratio of the mass of the dry soil to the volume the soil sample.
Standard Reference:
ASTM D 2937-00 – Standard Test for Density of Soil in Place by the DriveCylinder Method
Significance:
This test is used to determine the in-place density of soils. This test can
also be used to determine density of compacted soils used in the construction of
structural fills, highway embankments, or earth dams. This method is not
recommended for organic or friable soils.
Equipment:
Straightedge, Balance, Moisture can, Drying oven, Vernier caliper

Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing
Prof. Krishna Reddy, UIC

21 Test Procedure: (1) Extrude the soil sample from the cylinder using the extruder. UIC . (4) Determine and record the moisture content of the soil (w). diameter (D) and mass (Mt) of the soil specimen. (See Experiment 1) Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. (2) Cut a representative soil specimen from the extruded sample. (3) Determine and record the length (L). Krishna Reddy.

22 (Note: If the soil is sandy or loose. Krishna Reddy. UIC . Extrude and weigh the soil sample and determine moisture content) Data Analysis: (1) Determine the moisture content as in Experiment 1 (2) Determine the volume of the soil sample πD 2L V= cm3 4 (3) Calculate bulk density (ρt) of soil M ρ = t t V g cm3 or unit weight γ t = ρ t g (4) Calculate dry density (ρd) of soil ρd = ρt 1+ w g cm 3 or dry unit weight γ d =ρ g d Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. weigh the cylinder and soil sample together. Measure dimensions of the soil sample within the cylinder.

23 EXAMPLE DATA Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Krishna Reddy. UIC .

2%.4 = 102. Mt=125. and moist soil (grams) 13. 10’-12’ Date Tested: September 10.64  15. w% 15.69 MS = Mass of soil solids (grams) 4. UIC .3 d Ib ft 3 (Note: 62.74 w = Water content.28 cm 3 or γ = 1.41cm V= π(3. and dry soil (grams) 12.4 is the conversion factor to convert density in g/cm3 to unit weight in lb/ft3) Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. ST-1.83 MCMS = Mass of can. 2002 Soil description: Gray silty clay Mass of the soil sample (Mt): 125. Krishna Reddy.41 cm Moisture content determination: Specimen number 1 Moisture can and lid number 15 MC = Mass of empty.4 = 118 t 1.28 cm 3 4 ρt = ρd = g 125.2g. 2 Example calculations: w=15.26 ) = 66.41 )2 ( 7.64 × 62.43 MCDS = Mass of can. lid.26 cm Diameter of the soil sample (D): 3. D=3.89 × 62.20 grams Length of the soil sample (L): 7. clean can + lid (grams) 7.89 66. L=7.24 DENSITY (UNIT WEIGHT) DETERMINATION DATA SHEET Sample number: B-1.20 = 1.89 g = 1.26cm.20  cm 3 1+   100  Ib ft 3 or γ = 1.86 MW = Mass of pore water (grams) 0. lid.

UIC . Krishna Reddy.25 BLANK DATA SHEETS Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.

and moist soil (grams) MCDS = Mass of can. UIC 1 . Krishna Reddy. clean can + lid (grams) MCMS = Mass of can. lid.26 DENSITY (UNIT WEIGHT) DETERMINATION DATA SHEET Sample number: Soil description: Date Tested: Mass of the soil sample (Mt): Length of the soil sample (L): Diameter of the soil sample (D): Moisture content determination: Specimen number Moisture can and lid number MC = Mass of empty. lid. w% Calculations: Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. and dry soil (grams) MS = Mass of soil solids (grams) MW = Mass of pore water (grams) w = Water content.

and solids in a given volume of the soil. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Krishna Reddy. Standard Reference: ASTM D 854-00 – Standard Test for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer. Balance. Spoon. UIC . Equipment: Pycnometer. Specific gravity is the ratio of the mass of unit volume of soil at a stated temperature to the mass of the same volume of gas-free distilled water at a stated temperature. water. Funnel. Vacuum pump.27 EXPERIMENT 4 SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATION Purpose: This lab is performed to determine the specific gravity of soil by using a pycnometer. Significance: The specific gravity of a soil is used in the phase relationship of air.

28 Test Procedure: (1) Determine and record the weight of the empty clean and dry pycnometer. 10) in the pycnometer. Determine and record the weight of the pycnometer containing the dry soil. to remove the entrapped air. WPS. WP. (4) Apply a partial vacuum to the contents for 10 minutes. UIC . (2) Place 10g of a dry soil sample (passed through the sieve No. (3) Add distilled water to fill about half to three-fourth of the pycnometer. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Krishna Reddy. Soak the sample for 10 minutes.

Krishna Reddy. clean the exterior surface of the pycnometer with a clean. Clean the exterior surface of the pycnometer with a clean. (8) Empty the pycnometer and clean it. WA. Determine the weight of the pycnometer and contents. g = WPS . dry cloth. Determine the weight of the pycnometer and distilled water. Data Analysis: Calculate the specific gravity of the soil solids using the following formula: Specific Gravity. dry cloth. (6) Fill the pycnometer with distilled (water to the mark).29 (5) Stop the vacuum and carefully remove the vacuum line from pycnometer. (7) Empty the pycnometer and clean it. G S = W0 W0 + (W A − WB ) Where: W0 = weight of sample of oven-dry soil.WP WA = weight of pycnometer filled with water WB = weight of pycnometer filled with water and soil Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. WB. UIC . Then fill it with distilled water only (to the mark).

Krishna Reddy. UIC .30 EXAMPLE DATA Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.

09 + (137. clean pycnometer (grams) 37. UIC .40 = 26.61 g. WPS = 63. Group A Project Name: CEMM315 Lab Sample Number: B-1.37 153.61) Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.5’ Sample Description: Gray silty clay Specimen number 1 2 96 37 WP = Mass of empty.37 − 153.09 = 2.61 165. 2002 Tested By: CEMM315 Class.40 54. Krishna Reddy.49 74. SS-1.37 g WO = 63.07 WB = Mass of pycnometer + dry soil + water (grams) 153.61 Pycnometer bottle number Specific gravity (GS) Example Calculation: WP = 37.40 g.76 WA = Mass of pycnometer + water (grams) 137.51 WPS = Mass of empty pycnometer + dry soil (grams) 63. 2’-3.65 26.49 g. WA =137.65 2.09 g GS = 26.70 2.31 SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATION DATA SHEET Date Tested: September 10. WB = 153.49 – 37.

UIC . Krishna Reddy.32 BLANK DATA SHEETS Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.

33 SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATION DATA SHEET Date Tested: Tested By: Project Name: Sample Number: Sample Description: Specimen number 1 Pycnometer bottle number WP = Mass of empty. clean pycnometer (grams) WPS = Mass of empty pycnometer + dry soil (grams) WB = Mass of pycnometer + dry soil + water (grams) WA = Mass of pycnometer + water (grams) Specific Gravity (GS) Calculations: Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. UIC 2 . Krishna Reddy.

surcharge weights. UIC . Standard References: ASTM D 4254 – Standard Test Methods for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density.34 EXPERIMENT 5 RELATIVE DENSITY DETERMINATION Purpose: This lab is performed to determine the relative density of cohesionless. surcharge base-plate handle. free-draining soil. Equipment: Vibrating Table. Mold Assembly consisting of standard mold. expressed as a percentage. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Krishna Reddy. of a given soil depend on the level of compaction. Scoop. of the difference between the maximum index void ratio and the field void ratio of a cohesionless. surcharge base-plate. Significance: Relative density and percent compaction are commonly used for evaluating the state of compactness of a given soil mass. and permeability. The engineering properties. Straightedge. ASTM D 4253 – Standard Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table. such as shear strength. guide sleeves. free-draining soils using a vibrating table. The relative density of a soil is the ratio. Balance. compressibility. to the difference between its maximum and minimum index void ratios. and dial-indicator gage.

Krishna Reddy.35 Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. UIC .

(4) Again fill the mold with soil (do not use the same soil used in step 1) and level the surface of the soil by using a scoop or pouring device (funnel) in order to minimize the soil segregation. Krishna Reddy. (2) Trim off the excess soil level with the top by carefully trimming the soil surface with a straightedge.5 inch to 1 inch above the top of the mold) as loosely as possible by pouring the soil using a scoop or pouring device (funnel). (7) Determine the initial dial reading by inserting the dial indicator gauge holder in each of the guide brackets with the dial gage stem in contact Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Spiraling motion should be just sufficient to minimize particle segregation. UIC . See Photograph on Page 35. (6) Attach the mold to the vibrating table. (5) Place the surcharge base plate on the surface of the soil and twist it slightly several times so that it is placed firmly and uniformly in contact with the surface of the soil. (3) Determine and record the mass of the mold and soil. The sides of the mold may be struck a few times using a metal bar or rubber hammer to settle the soil so that the surcharge base-plate can be easily placed into position and there is no surge of air from the mold when vibration is initiated. Then empty the mold (M1). Remove the surcharge base-plate handle.36 Test Procedure: (1) Fill the mold with the soil (approximately 0.

Obtain six sets of dial indicator readings..37 with the rim of the mold (at its center) on the both sides of the guide brackets. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. The average of these readings is the final dial gage reading. UIC . determine the thickness of the surcharge base-plate. (9) Vibrate the mold assembly and soil specimen for 8 min. (12) Determine and record the mass of the mold and soil (M2) (13) Empty the mold and determine the weight of the mold. (8) Firmly attach the guide sleeve to the mold and lower the appropriate surcharge weight onto the surcharge base-plate. Ri. The average of these twelve readings is the initial dial gage reading.001 in. Also. three on each side of each guide bracket. Tp. Record Ri to the nearest 0. diameter and height) in order to calculate the calibrated volume of the mold. (14) Determine and record the dimensions of the mold (i. Rf. (0. Vc. Krishna Reddy. (10) Determine and record the dial indicator gage readings as in step (7).025 mm). See Photograph on Page 35. See Photograph on Page 35. (11) Remove the surcharge base-plate from the mold and detach the mold from the vibrating table.e.

UIC .38 Analysis: (1) Calculate the minimum index density (ρdmin) as follows: ρ dmin = M S1 V C where Ms1= mass of tested-dry soil = Mass of mold with soil placed loose – mass of mold Vc= Calibrated volume of the mold (2) Calculate the maximum index density (ρdmax) as follows: ρ dmax = M S2 V where Ms2 = mass of tested-dry soil = Mass of mold with soil after vibration – Mass of mold V = Volume of tested-dry soil = Vc – (Ac*H) Where Ac = the calibrated cross sectional area of the mold H = Rf -Ri+ Tp Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Krishna Reddy.

UIC .39 (3) Calculate the maximum and the minimum-index void ratios as follows (use Gs value determined from Experiment 4. ρw=1 g/cm3): e min = ρw G ρ s −1 dmin ρ G emax = w s − 1 ρ dmin (4) Calculate the relative density as follows: emax − e D = d e max − emin [Calculate the void ratio of the natural state of the soil based on ρd (Experiment 3) ρ and ρs=GS*ρw (Gs determined from Experiment 4) as follows: e = s − 1] ρ d Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Krishna Reddy.

UIC .40 EXAMPLE DATA ` Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Krishna Reddy.

e max = − 1 = 0.123 inches_ __14.75 cm cm 3 2 AC = Gs = 2.502 kg = 4502 g π(15. M S2 = 14.40 inches__ __0.29 Kg_ __0.45 cm____ __15. ST-1.53 ) = 2618.65 e= on Experiment − 4 conducted g cm 3 (Based on Experiment − 3 conducted using this soil) 2.61 1. Group A Project Name: CEMM315 Lab Sample Number: B-1.52 = 1.47 × 1.54 . ρ dmax = ρ dmin = = 1.38 − 9.45 ) = 187.74 − 0.88 cm 3 .45) 2 15.878 = 4. V = 2905.75 cm 3 4 g g 4412 4502 .65 − 1 = 0.4 + 0. UIC .65 Dd = 0.123) × 2.50 cm____ __14.88 − (187.88 − 0.1 = 0.61 x 100 = 65% 0.88 2618. Krishna Reddy. H = (0.88 inches__ __0.52 ρd = 1.29 − 9.5 VC = = 2905.65(Based e min = using the soil) 1 × 2.65 .74 − 0.72 1.878 Kg _ __15.41 RELATIVE DENSITY DETERMINATION DATA SHEET Date Tested: September 10. 2002 Tested By: CEMM315 Class.878 = 4.54 Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.412 kg = 4412 g .47 cm 2 .38 Kg__ Calculations: M S1 = 14.54 = 1. 2’-3.72 3 2905.74 1.53 cm 4 π(15.5’ Sample Description: Brown sand Mass of empty mold: Diameter of empty mold: Height of empty mold: Mass of mold and soil (M1): Average initial dial gauge reading (Ri): Average final dial gauge reading (Rf): Thickness of surcharge base plate (TP): Mass of mold and soil (M2): __9.65 1 × 2.

Krishna Reddy.42 BLANK DATA SHEETS Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. UIC .

43 RELATIVE DENSITY DETERMINATION DATA SHEET Date Tested: Tested By: Project Name: Sample Number: Sample Description: Mass of empty mold: Diameter of empty mold: Height of empty mold: Mass of mold and soil (M1): Average initial dial gauge reading (Ri): Average final dial gauge reading (Rf): Thickness of surcharge base plate (TP): Mass of mold and soil (M2): __ ______________ __ ______________ __ ______________ __ ______________ __ ______________ __ ______________ __ ______________ __ ______________ Calculations: Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Krishna Reddy. UIC .

Set of sieves. 152H Hydrometer. Sedimentation cylinder. and it is required in classifying the soil.44 EXPERIMENT 6 GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS (SIEVE AND HYDROMETER ANALYSIS) Purpose: This test is performed to determine the percentage of different grain sizes contained within a soil. Equipment: Balance. Krishna Reddy. Grain size analysis provides the grain size distribution. Beaker. larger-sized particles. Control cylinder. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. and the hydrometer method is used to determine the distribution of the finer particles. Sieve shaker. Timing device. Standard Reference: ASTM D 422 .Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils Significance: The distribution of different grain sizes affects the engineering properties of soil. UIC . The mechanical or sieve analysis is performed to determine the distribution of the coarser. Cleaning brush. Mixer (blender). Thermometer.

45 Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Krishna Reddy. UIC .

Krishna Reddy.46 Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. UIC .

UIC . remember to weigh and record the weight of the bottom pan with its retained fine soil. and add 125 mL of the dispersing agent (sodium hexametaphosphate (40 g/L)) solution. (2) Record the weight of the given dry soil sample. add 125mL of dispersing agent into the control cylinder and fill it with distilled water to the mark. Carefully pour the soil sample into the top sieve and place the cap over it. (2) While the soil is soaking. and assemble them in the ascending order of sieve numbers (#4 sieve at top and #200 sieve at bottom).47 Test Procedure: Sieve Analysis: (1) Write down the weight of each sieve as well as the bottom pan to be used in the analysis. Stir the mixture until the soil is thoroughly wet. (3) Make sure that all the sieves are clean. Krishna Reddy. (4) Place the sieve stack in the mechanical shaker and shake for 10 minutes. place it into a beaker. Let the soil soak for at least ten minutes. Place the pan below #200 sieve. Take the Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. (5) Remove the stack from the shaker and carefully weigh and record the weight of each sieve with its retained soil. In addition. Hydrometer Analysis: (1) Take the fine soil from the bottom pan of the sieve set.

This reading is called the zero correction. After an elapsed time of one minute and forty seconds. Shake the control cylinder in such a way that the contents are mixed thoroughly.) (6) Set the cylinder down and record the time. Krishna Reddy. Then mix the solution for a period of two minutes. (5) Cover the open end of the cylinder with a stopper and secure it with the palm of your hand. A reading less than zero is recorded as a negative (-) correction and a reading between zero and sixty is recorded as a positive (+) correction. until mixing cup is at least half full. very slowly and carefully insert the hydrometer for the first reading. UIC . Then turn the cylinder upside down and back upright for a period of one minute. (3) Transfer the soil slurry into a mixer by adding more distilled water. Insert the hydrometer and thermometer into the control cylinder and note the zero correction and temperature respectively. (The cylinder should be inverted approximately 30 times during the minute.48 reading at the top of the meniscus formed by the hydrometer stem and the control solution. and the release of the Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. if necessary. Add distilled water up to the mark. (Note: It should take about ten seconds to insert or remove the hydrometer to minimize any disturbance. (4) Immediately transfer the soil slurry into the empty sedimentation cylinder. Remove the stopper from the cylinder. The meniscus correction is the difference between the top of the meniscus and the level of the solution in the control jar (Usually about +1).

7 g Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. The sum of these retained masses should be approximately equals the initial mass of the soil sample. 8. (2) Calculate the percent retained on each sieve by dividing the weight retained on each sieve by the original sample mass. UIC . Very gently spin it in control cylinder to remove any particles that may have adhered. (3) Calculate the percent passing (or percent finer) by starting with 100 percent and subtracting the percent retained on each sieve as a cumulative procedure. (8) Take hydrometer readings after elapsed time of 2 and 5. The hydrometer is removed slowly and placed back into the control cylinder. 15.49 hydrometer should be made as close to the reading depth as possible to avoid excessive bobbing). and record this mass as the weight retained on the data sheet. 4 sieve = 9. (7) The reading is taken by observing the top of the meniscus formed by the suspension and the hydrometer stem. A loss of more than two percent is unsatisfactory. Krishna Reddy. 60 minutes and 24 hours Data Analysis: Sieve Analysis: (1) Obtain the mass of soil retained on each sieve by subtracting the weight of the empty sieve from the mass of the sieve + retained soil. 30. For example: Total mass = 500 g Mass retained on No.

7 = 490. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.9 = 98.5/500) X 100 = 7. UIC . percent finer.9 % From this. Hydrometer Analysis: (1) Apply meniscus correction to the actual hydrometer reading.% Retained For No.5 g For the No.9.1. 10 sieve: Quantity passing = Mass arriving .7/500) X 100 = 1.7.9 % % Passing = 100 .1.1 % For the No.3 g The percent retained is calculated as.5 = 450.39. (5) Compute Cc and Cu for the soil.8 g % Retained = (39. 10 sieve = 98.9 . obtain the effective hydrometer depth L in cm (for meniscus corrected reading). use % passing = % Arriving .2 % (Alternatively.7.Mass retained = 490.Mass retained = 500 .50 Mass retained on No.9 = 90. the % passing = 100 .9 = 90.2 %) (4) Make a semilogarithmic plot of grain size vs. 10 sieve = 39.4 sieve: Quantity passing = Total mass . % retained = Mass retained/Total mass = (9.1 . Krishna Reddy.3 . (2) From Table 1.

(9) Adjusted percent fines as follows: P = A P×F 200 100 F200 = % finer of #200 sieve as a percent (10) Plot the grain size curve D versus the adjusted percent finer on the semilogarithmic sheet. (7) Calculate corrected hydrometer reading as follows: Rc = RACTUAL . obtain the value of K from Table 2.zero correction + CT (8) Calculate percent finer as follows: P= Rc × a × 100 ws Where WS is the weight of the soil sample in grams. and D is given in mm. Krishna Reddy. (5) Determine the temperature correction CT from Table 3.51 (3) For known Gs of the soil (if not known. assume 2.65 for this lab purpose). UIC . (4) Calculate the equivalent particle diameter by using the following formula: D=K L t Where t is in minutes. (6) Determine correction factor “a” from Table 4 using Gs. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.

1 1.035 7.2 1.4 55 12.6 10.7 9.5 60 11.3 7.8 1.4 1.029 8.7 1.2 10.015 12.3 1.024 10.1 10.6 6.018 11.4 Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.0 45 13.001 16.9 7.2 50 13.2 44 14.4 10.8 1.52 Table 1. L (cm) Reading 1.0 57 11.5 36 15.038 6.027 9.3 1.011 13.3 43 14.0 1.0 1.4 7.9 52 12.032 7.0 33 15.5 1.4 1. Krishna Reddy.1 32 16.8 7.9 1.3 8.6 1. Values of Effective Depth Based on Hydrometer and Sedimentation Cylinder of Specific Sizes Hydrometer 151H Actual Effective Hydrometer Depth.003 15.1 8.6 1.000 16.0 1.5 . UIC Effective Depth.2 1.2 56 12.6 9.8 6.5 48 13.033 7.5 1.3 1.9 1.5 54 12.005 15.004 15.8 46 13.9 10.002 15.6 7.025 9.4 1.2 1.008 14.9 58 11.4 1.9 9.6 8.3 49 13.2 11.0 6.1 1.7 59 11.030 8.037 6.019 11.017 11.0 1.009 13.6 1.3 1.023 10.022 10.5 1.1 1.2 1.012 13.1 9.0 1.2 9.0 51 12.016 12.026 9.7 1.031 8.4 8.8 40 14.2 1.5 42 14.020 11.2 38 15.014 12.7 53 12.7 1.006 14.1 7.007 14. L (cm) Reading 16.8 8.3 31 16.7 41 14.6 35 15.1 7.010 13.7 10.013 12.8 1.028 8.0 39 14.8 34 15.5 1.9 8.8 1.7 47 13.3 37 15.4 9.021 10. L (cm) 11.9 1.034 7.9 Actual Hydrometer Reading 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Hydrometer 152H Actual Effective Hydrometer Depth.036 6.7 1.039 5.

01283 0.01404 0.65 2.01342 0. Values of k for Use in Equation for Computing Diameter of Particle in Hydrometer Analysis Temperature o Specific Gravity of Soil Particles C 2.01319 0.01199 0.01365 0.01297 0.01372 0.01188 0.01230 0.01286 0. UIC .01327 0.01195 0.01327 0.01244 0.01309 0.01435 0.01358 0.01421 0.01439 0.53 Table 2.01353 0.01312 0.01391 0.01505 0.50 2.01208 0.01357 0.01165 0.01381 0.01492 0.01204 0.01399 0.01297 0.01289 21 22 23 24 25 0.01374 0.01246 0.01359 0.01342 0.01218 0.01344 0.01414 0.01396 0.01408 0.01338 0.01457 0.01291 0.01474 0.01462 0.01386 0.45 2.01376 0.01212 0.01443 0.01456 0.01421 0.01431 0.01486 0.55 2.01339 0.01425 0.01272 0.01258 0.01510 0.01239 0.01323 0.01356 0.01255 0.01279 0.01217 0.01267 0.01321 0.70 2.01325 0.01321 0.01342 0.01328 0.01382 0.01264 0.01229 0.01369 0.01253 0.01232 0.01317 0.01337 0.01264 0.01438 0.01269 0.01301 0.0394 0.01361 0.01365 0.01307 0.01191 0.01258 0.01291 0.01261 0.01182 0.75 2.01249 0.01312 0.01178 0.01397 0.01374 0.01312 0.01162 0. Krishna Reddy.01282 0.01467 0.01290 0.01378 0.01201 0.01511 0.01414 0.01356 0.01305 0.01256 0.01269 0.01481 0.01276 0.01348 0.01449 0.01149 Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.01215 26 27 28 29 30 0.01388 0.01403 0.85 16 17 18 19 20 0.01417 0.01306 0.01334 0.01349 0.01175 0.01235 0.01294 0.01332 0.80 2.01276 0.01243 0.01304 0.01277 0.01236 0.01273 0.01298 0.60 2.01221 0.

80 Table 4.02 2.50 -0. Krishna Reddy.80 0.96 2.98 2.55 1.60 1.00 2.65 +2.50 1.70 +1. Temperature Correction Factors CT Temperature factor CT o C 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 1.50 +3.90 -0.97 2.75 0.54 Table 3.00 +1.70 0. Correction Factors a for Unit Weight of Solids Unit Weight of Correction Soil Solids.85 0.04 Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. factor g/cm3 a 2.00 +2.30 0.99 2.01 2.70 -0.20 +0.05 +3.40 +0.10 -0.65 1.00 +0. UIC .30 +1.

55 EXAMPLE DATA Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Krishna Reddy. UIC .

0 7.2 1. C = c 0.23 166.46 23.0 75.7 * Percent passing=100-cumulative percent retained.4 46.92 101.77 36. 5’ Visual Classification of Soil: Brown Clayey to silty sand.1 0. UIC mm mm mm .106 93. Container+Dry Soil: 722. ST-1.0.0 Total Weight= 523.5_ 46.58 139.8 60 0.25 __ (0.5 20 0. trace fine gravel Weight of Container: 198.19 231.25 × 0.84 97.5 40 0.0 17.4_ 44.15 184.5 7.96 40.1 Pan --- 70.68 42.46 114.27 135. From Grain Size Distribution Curve: % Gravel= % Sand= % Fines= C u = 9.4 63.6 67.425 98. of Dry Sample: 523.1 200 0.075 90.3 gm Wt.1_ D10= 0.017 )2 0.25 = 0.002____ D30= 0.13 49. 25 91.0 83. Krishna Reddy.15 91.0 44.96 138.5 90.002 0. 0 99. 2002 Tested By: CEMM315 Class.017___ D60= .56 Grain Size Analysis Sieve Analysis Date Tested: September 15.002 Unified Classification of Soil: SC/SM_ Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Group A Project Name: CEMM315 Lab Sample Number: B-1.19 301.5 10 2.12 10.5 gm Wt. 2’-3.9 44.1 8.9 9.75 116.4 140 0.0 4.58 = 125.8 gm Sieve Number Diameter (mm) Mass of Empty Sieve (g) Mass of Sieve+Soil Retained (g) Soil Retained (g) Percent Retained Percent Passing 4 4.

01326 0. Hydr.6 0. 0 gm Zero Correction: +6 Meniscus Correction: +1 Date 09/15 09/16 Time 4:06 PM Elapsed Time (min) 0 Temp.3 1.1 8.8 6:22 136 23 22 23 12. 2002 Tested By: CEMM315 Class.01490 +1.3 4:10 4 25 40 41 9.57 Hydrometer Analysis Test Date: September 15.6 4:22 16 25 32 33 10.3 1.4 19.7 1.01326 0. Rc % Finer P % Adjusted Finer PA 0 +1. Rdg. 03029 +1.4 1.3 1. Corr.3 1.3 47.7 34 14. UIC .3 86. 018 27.01366 0.01094 +1.01326 0. 018 4:40 34 25 28 29 11.3 71.3 65.7 0.9 31.01326 D mm CT from Table 3 a from Table 4 Corr.8 4:08 2 25 42 43 9.4 20.8 28.3 42. 018 37.5 0.9 5:24 PM 1518 22 15 16 13. Ra Hyd.3 55. 018 - - - 1.01356 0.00771 +1.6 4:14 8 25 37 38 10.02054 +1. O C 25 Actual Hydro.1 1.9 0.3 1. 018 4:07 1 25 47 48 8. 018 32.3 23.6 24. 018 9.02844 +1. Group A Hydrometer Number (if known): 152 H Specific Gravity of Solids: 2. Krishna Reddy.00411 +0.01326 0.1 0. 018 35.2 0.00130 +0.3 75.5 0.1 37. 018 16.01326 0.56 Dispersing Agent: Sodium Hexametaphosphate Weight of Soil Sample: 50. Rdg.9 33.01326 0.1 0.4 Unified Classification of Soil: SC/SM Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. for Meniscus L from Table 1 K from Table 2 55 56 7.6 0.

100.mm 1.100 GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. UIC 0 1000.001 58 .000 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 PERCENT FINER 0.000 GRAIN SIZE .000 10.010 0.000 0. Krishna Reddy.

Krishna Reddy.59 BLANK DATA SHEETS Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. UIC .

Krishna Reddy.75 10 2.84 40 0. UIC .106 200 0.075 Pan --- Mass of Empty Sieve (g) _____gm _____gm _____gm Mass of Sieve+Soil Retained (g) Soil Retained (g) Percent Retained Percent Passing Total Weight= * Percent passing=100-cumulative percent retained. 25 140 0.425 60 0. From Grain Size Distribution Curve: % Gravel= _______ D10= ________ mm % Sand= _______ D30= ________ mm % Fines= _______ D60= mm Cu= ______________ Unified Classification of Soil: __ CC= ________ ________ Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. 0 20 0. Container+Dry Soil: Wt. of Dry Sample: Sieve Number Diameter (mm) 4 4.57 Grain Size Analysis Sieve Analysis Date Tested: Tested By: Project Name: Sample Number: Visual Classification of Soil: Weight of Container: Wt.

Ra Hyd. UIC CT from Table 3 a from Table 4 Corr. Rc % Finer P % Adjusted Finer PA . O C Actual Hydro. for Meniscus _________ _________ L from Table 1 K from Table 2 D mm Unified Classification of Soil: Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Krishna Reddy. Hydr. Rdg. Corr. Rdg.58 Hydrometer Analysis Test Date: __________ Tested By: __________ Hydrometer Number (if known): _________ Specific Gravity of Solids: _________ Dispersing Agent: _________ Weight of Soil Sample: _________gm Zero Correction: Meniscus Correction: Date Time Elapsed Time (min) Temp.

001 Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.100 10 Grain Size (mm) 1 0.01 0.1 0. Krishna Reddy.g. excel) 0 1000 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percent Passing 59 . UIC Note: You can plot your data on this graph or generate similar graph using any graphics program (e..

Krishna Reddy. is used occasionally. A Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. and Plasticity Index of Soils Significance: The Swedish soil scientist Albert Atterberg originally defined seven “limits of consistency” to classify fine-grained soils.) The Atterberg limits are based on the moisture content of the soil. Standard Reference: ASTM D 4318 .) diameter threads without crumbling. The plastic limit is the moisture content that defines where the soil changes from a semi-solid to a plastic (flexible) state. in percent. UIC . the liquid and plastic limits. called the shrinkage limit. The shrinkage limit is the moisture content that defines where the soil volume will not reduce further if the moisture content is reduced. (A third limit. in percent. but in current engineering practice only two of the limits. The liquid limit is the moisture content that defines where the soil changes from a plastic to a viscous fluid state. The liquid limit (LL) is arbitrarily defined as the water content. at which a soil can no longer be deformed by rolling into 3. Plastic Limit. at which a pat of soil in a standard cup and cut by a groove of standard dimensions will flow together at the base of the groove for a distance of 13 mm (1/2 in. are commonly used.Standard Test Method for Liquid Limit. The plastic limit (PL) is the water content.) when subjected to 25 shocks from the cup being dropped 10 mm in a standard liquid limit apparatus operated at a rate of two shocks per second.2 mm (1/8 in.60 EXPERIMENT 7 ATTERBERG LIMITS Purpose: This lab is performed to determine the plastic and liquid limits of a finegrained soil.

and these Atterberg limits are also used to classify a fine-grained soil according to the Unified Soil Classification system or AASHTO system. UIC . Wash bottle filled with distilled water. Equipment: Liquid limit device. Flat grooving tool with gage. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.61 wide variety of soil engineering properties have been correlated to the liquid and plastic limits. Drying oven set at 105°C. Spatula. Glass plate. Balance. Krishna Reddy. Porcelain (evaporating) dish. Eight moisture cans.

Krishna Reddy. UIC .62 Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.

The point on the cup that comes in contact with the base should rise to a height of 10 mm. Thoroughly mix the soil with a small amount of distilled water until it appears as a smooth uniform paste. and record the respective weights and can numbers on the data sheet. (2) Weigh four of the empty moisture cans with their lids. and then pulverized. air-dried. Assume that the soil was previously passed though a No. 40 sieve. Cover the dish with cellophane to prevent moisture from escaping. UIC . Krishna Reddy. (3) Adjust the liquid limit apparatus by checking the height of drop of the cup. The block on the end of the grooving tool is Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.63 Test Procedure: Liquid Limit: (1) Take roughly 3/4 of the soil and place it into the porcelain dish.

then go directly to step eight and do not record the number of drops. Place the soil into a moisture can cover it. Use extreme care to prevent sliding the soil relative to the surface of the cup (See Photo C). record the number of drops on the data sheet. The tool should remain perpendicular to the surface of the cup as groove is being made. (6) Make sure that the base of the apparatus below the cup and the underside of the cup is clean of soil. Krishna Reddy. otherwise. The sample should include the soil on both sides of where the groove came into contact. UIC . Squeeze the soil down to eliminate air pockets and spread it into the cup to a depth of about 10 mm at its deepest point. from edge to edge of the soil pat. (4) Place a portion of the previously mixed soil into the cup of the liquid limit apparatus at the point where the cup rests on the base. record its Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Immediately weigh the moisture can containing the soil. The soil pat should form an approximately horizontal surface (See Photo B). If the number of drops exceeds 50. (7) Take a sample. (5) Use the grooving tool carefully cut a clean straight groove down the center of the cup.) (See Photo D). using the spatula. Turn the crank of the apparatus at a rate of approximately two drops per second and count the number of drops. Practice using the cup and determine the correct rate to rotate the crank so that the cup drops approximately two times per second.64 10 mm high and should be used as a gage. N. it takes to make the two halves of the soil pat come into contact at the bottom of the groove along a distance of 13 mm (1/2 in.

Add a small amount of distilled water to increase the water content so that the number of drops required to close the groove decrease. and record the respective weights and can numbers on the data sheet. Use sufficient pressure to roll the mass into a thread of uniform Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Place the soil remaining in the cup into the porcelain dish. and eight for at least two additional trials producing successively lower numbers of drops to close the groove. (2) Take the remaining 1/4 of the original soil sample and add distilled water until the soil is at a consistency where it can be rolled without sticking to the hands. One of the trials shall be for a closure requiring 25 to 35 drops. seven. (8) Remix the entire soil specimen in the porcelain dish. (9) Repeat steps six. Roll the mass between the palm or the fingers and the glass plate (See Photo G). Remember to use the same balance for all weighing. UIC . Determine the water content from each trial by using the same method used in the first laboratory. Clean and dry the cup on the apparatus and the grooving tool. and place the can into the oven. remove the lid. Leave the moisture can in the oven for at least 16 hours. Plastic Limit: (1) Weigh the remaining empty moisture cans with their lids. (3) Form the soil into an ellipsoidal mass (See Photo F).65 mass. Krishna Reddy. and one trial for a closure requiring 15 to 25 drops. one for closure between 20 and 30 drops.

) The thread shall be deformed so that its diameter reaches 3.66 diameter by using about 90 strokes per minute. break the thread into several pieces. add soil to the can from the next trial (See Step 6). taking no more than two minutes. then cover it. (6) Repeat steps three. Krishna Reddy. Remember to use the same balance for all weighing. remove the lid. Determine the water content from each trial by using the same method used in the first laboratory. Immediately weigh the moisture can containing the soil. kneading and re-rolling until the thread crumbles under the pressure required for rolling and can no longer be rolled into a 3. Leave the moisture can in the oven for at least 16 hours. (A stroke is one complete motion of the hand forward and back to the starting position. four. Knead and reform the pieces into ellipsoidal masses and re-roll them.2 mm diameter thread (See Photo H).2 mm (1/8 in. gathering together. (4) When the diameter of the thread reaches the correct diameter. If the can does not contain at least 6 grams of soil. and five at least two more times. UIC . and place the can into the oven. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Continue this alternate rolling. (5) Gather the portions of the crumbled thread together and place the soil into a moisture can. record its mass.).

Draw the best-fit straight line through the plotted points and determine the liquid limit (LL) as the water content at 25 drops. (2) Plot the number of drops. (on the log scale) versus the water content (w). Plastic Limit: (1) Calculate the water content of each of the plastic limit moisture cans after they have been in the oven for at least 16 hours. UIC .67 Analysis: Liquid Limit: (1) Calculate the water content of each of the liquid limit moisture cans after they have been in the oven for at least 16 hours. PL. and plasticity index to the nearest whole number. Krishna Reddy. Check to see if the difference between the water contents is greater than the acceptable range of two results (2. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. omitting the percent designation.6 %). Report the liquid limit. PI=LL-PL. plastic limit. N. (2) Compute the average of the water contents to determine the plastic limit. (3) Calculate the plasticity index.

UIC . Krishna Reddy.68 EXAMPLE DATA Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.

28 7. Krishna Reddy. and moist soil (grams) MCDS = Mass of can.17 24.8 + 15.58 25. UIC . lid.1 = 15.83 27.2 + 15.39 15.69 4.78 16. and moist soil (grams) MCDS = Mass of can. SS-1. 8’-10’ Sample Description: Grayey silty clay Liquid Limit Determination Sample no.27 0.43 12 . Group A Project Name: CEMM315 Lab Sample Number: B-1.60 2.87 25.1 MC = Mass of empty.69 ATTERBERG LIMITS DATA SHEETS Date Tested: September 20. 11 14.56 27. of drops (N) Plastic Limit Determination Sample no. and dry soil (grams) MS = Mass of soil solids (grams) MW = Mass of pore water (grams) w = Water content.23 28.31 29. clean can + lid (grams) MCMS = Mass of can.16 21. Moisture can and lid number MC = Mass of empty.2 13 15.10 4.22 24.16 23.79 1.23 20. and dry soil (grams) MS = Mass of soil solids (grams) MW = Mass of pore water (grams) w = Water content.86 0.43 21.8 15.43 5.02 0.5 1. lid. lid.69 31 29 20 14 1 2 3 7 7.74 15.8 14 7.0 3 Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.40 5.03 0.83 13. clean can + lid (grams) MCMS = Mass of can.90 3.27 28. w% Plastic Limit (PL)= Average w % = 14. 2002 Tested By: CEMM315 Class.03 1.62 30. w% No. 1 2 3 4 Moisture can and lid number 11 1 5 4 22. lid.06 23.73 24.39 22.

70 LIQUID LIMIT CHART Water Content. N From the above graph. of Blows. Krishna Reddy. Liquid Limit = 26 Final Results: Liquid Limit = 26 Plastic Limit = 15 Plasticity Index =11 Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. w% 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 No. UIC 30 35 .

71 BLANK DATA SHEETS Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Krishna Reddy. UIC .

of drops (N) Plastic Limit Determination Sample no. w% No. 1 2 3 1 2 3 Moisture can and lid number MC = Mass of empty. w% Plastic Limit (PL) = Average w % = Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. lid.72 ATTERBERG LIMITS DATA SHEETS Date Tested: Tested By: Project Name: Sample Number: Sample Description: Liquid Limit Determination Sample no. clean can + lid (grams) MCMS = Mass of can. UIC 4 . Moisture can and lid number MC = Mass of empty. and moist soil (grams) MCDS = Mass of can. and dry soil (grams) MS = Mass of soil solids (grams) MW = Mass of pore water (grams) w = Water content. Krishna Reddy. clean can + lid (grams) MCMS = Mass of can. lid. and moist soil (grams) MCDS = Mass of can. lid. lid. and dry soil (grams) MS = Mass of soil solids (grams) MW = Mass of pore water (grams) w = Water content.

UIC 50 . of Blows. Krishna Reddy.73 LIQUID LIMIT CHART Water Content. w% 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 10 20 30 40 No. N Final Results: Liquid Limit = Plastic Limit = Plasticity Index = Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.

Examples of fine-grained soils are silts and clays. Examples of coarse-grained soils are gravels and sands. as soon as a ground is identified as gravel. engineer can immediately form some ideas on the nature of problems that might be encountered in a tunneling project. In contrast. Standard Reference: ASTM D 2488 .Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual . Procedures for visually identifying these two general types of soils are described in the following sections. For example. Equipment: Magnifying glass (optional) Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.74 EXPERIMENT 7 VISUAL CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS Purpose: Visually classify the soils.Manual Procedure) Significance: The first step in any geotechnical engineering project is to identify and describe the subsoil condition. a soft clay ground is expected to lead to other types of design and construction considerations. it is useful to have a systematic procedure for identification of soils even in the planning stages of a project. UIC . Krishna Reddy. Therefore. Soils can be classified into two general categories: (1) coarse grained soils and (2) fine grained soils.

UIC . Identify the major soil constituent (>50% by weight) using Table 1 as coarse gravel. rounded. coarse sand. b. subrounded) using Figure 1 and Table 2. Krishna Reddy.0 to 10% by weight Little . Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.75 Identification Procedure: a. subangular. some clay) d. medium sand. brown. brownish gray). If the major soil constituent is sand or gravel: Identify particle distribution. c.30 to 50% (Examples: trace fine gravel. Well-graded soil consists of particle sizes over a wide range.20 to 30% And . Identify the color (e. Estimate percentages of all other soil constituents using Table 1 and the following terms: Trace . fine sand. gray. or fines. Identify particle shape (angular. odor (if any) and texture (coarse or fine-grained) of soil. Poorly graded soil consists of particles which are all about the same size. little silt. fine gravel.10 to 20% Some . Describe as well graded or poorly graded.g.

The dense silt has a tendency for volume increase or dilatancy due to shear stresses. Describe the strength as none. During dilatancy test.76 e. The reaction is rapid. silty soil has a high permeability. Krishna Reddy. Then observe the reaction during shaking. Plasticity (or Toughness) Test: Roll the samples into a thread about 1/8" in diameter. In clay. (c) whether it can be molded back into a coherent mass. in other words. Fold the thread and reroll it repeatedly until the thread crumbles at a diameter of 1/8". and (d) whether it is tough Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Now on squeezing. (b) whether it can support its own weight. Moreover. perform the following tests: Dry strength test: Mold a sample into 1/8" size ball and let it dry. shear stresses are applied on the densified silt. slow or none according to the test results given in Table 3(b). So the water disappears from the surface. no shiny surface. If the major soil constituents are fines. Note (a) the pressure required to roll the thread when it is near crumbling. vibration densifies the silt and water appears on the surface. no reaction. high or very high depending on the results of the test as shown in Table 3(a). medium. we see no change. so the water moves quickly. low. Dilatancy Test: Make a sample of soft putty consistency in your palm. squeezing (by closing hand) and vigorous tapping. Test the strength of the dry sample by crushing it between the fingers. UIC .

Krishna Reddy. angular. rounded. soil symbol (if major constituent is fine-grained). plasticity (if major constituent is fine-grained). saturated. Describe the plasticity and toughness according to the criteria in Tables 3(c) and 3(d). saturated. determine soil symbol based on Table 4. trace coarse to fine sand. A low to medium toughness and non-plastic to low plasticity is the indication that the soil is silty. trace medium to fine sand. Based on dry strength. moisture content. some silt. minor constituents. f. UIC .77 during kneading. well graded. trace clay. CL. trace silt. trace fine sand. ML. Examples of coarse-grained soils: Soil 1: Brown fine gravel. moist. g. moist. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Record visual classification of the soil in the following order: color. Identify moisture condition (dry. some coarse to fine sand. wet or saturated) using Table 5. Examples of fine-grained soils: Soil A: Brown lean clay. Soil B: Gray clayey silt. medium plasticity. poorly graded. dilatancy and toughness. Soil 2: Gray coarse sand. dry. otherwise the soil is clayey. particle distribution and particle shape (if major constituent is coarse-grained). trace clay. major constituent. non-plastic.

Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Record all information on the attached forms.78 Laboratory Exercise: You will be given ten different soil samples. Krishna Reddy. Visually classify these soils. UIC .

10 Sieve) 0.075 mm (No.75 mm (No.42 mm (No. (19 mm) – 3 in. 200 Sieve) Rocksalt Sugar.10 Sieve) – 4. Grain Size Distribution Soil Constituent Size Limits Familiar Example Boulder 12 in. 200 Sieve) – 0. 40 Sieve) Less than 0.75 mm (No. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. (76 mm) Orange or Lemon Fine Gravel 4. Krishna Reddy.4 Sieve) – ¾ in. (305 mm) or more Larger than basketball Cobbles 3 in (76 mm) -12 in (305 mm) Grapefruit Coarse Gravel ¾ in. (19 mm) Grape or Pea Coarse Sand Medium Sand Fine Sand* Fines 2 mm (No.42 mm (No. UIC . 4 Sieve) 0. 40 Sieve) – 2 mm (No.0075 mm (No. table salt Powdered Sugar - *Particles finer than fine sand cannot be discerned with the naked eye at a distance of 8 in (20 cm).79 Table 1.

Particles have nearly plane sides. Krishna Reddy. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Criteria for Describing Shape of Coarse-Grained Soil Particles Description Angular Subangular Subrounded Rounded Criteria Particles have sharp edges and relatively plane sides with unpolished surfaces.80 Figure 1. UIC . Shape of Coarse-Grained Soil Particles Rounded Subrounded Angular Subangular Table 2. but have rounded edges. but have well-rounded corners and edges. Particles have smoothly curved sides and no edges. Particles are similar to angular description.

The dry specimen cannot be broken with finger pressure. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Criteria for Describing Dilatancy of a Soil Sample Description None Slow Rapid Criteria There is no visible change in the soil samples. The dry specimen breaks into pieces or crumbles with moderate finger pressure. The dry specimen crumbles into powder with some pressure form fingers. Water quickly appears on the surface during shaking and quickly disappears upon squeezing. UIC . Specimen will break into pieces between thumb and a hard surface.81 Table (3a). The dry specimen cannot be broken between the thumb and a hard surface. Water slowly appears and remains on the surface during shaking or water slowly disappears upon squeezing. Criteria for Describing Dry Strength Description None Low Medium High Very High Criteria The dry specimen ball crumbles into powder with the slightest handling pressure. Krishna Reddy. Table (3b).

A mass can be formed when the sample is drier than the plastic limit Note: The plastic limit is the water content at which the soil begins to break apart and crumbles when rolled into threads 1/8” in diameter. The thread is easy to roll and little time is needed to reach the plastic limit. Substantial pressure is needed to roll the thread to near the plastic limit. UIC . Criteria for Describing Soil Plasticity Description Non-plastic Low Criteria A 1/8” (3-mm) thread cannot be rolled at any water content. The mass crumbles when it is drier than the plastic limit.82 Table (3c). Krishna Reddy. The thread and mass are very stiff. Table (3d). to reach High the plastic limit. The thread and mass are weak and soft. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. rolling and kneading the sample. The thread can be rerolled and reworked several times before reaching the plastic limit. Medium The thread cannot be re-rolled after the plastic limit is reached. Moderate pressure is needed to roll the thread to near the plastic limit. Considerable time is needed. The thread and mass have moderate stiffness. Criteria for Describing Soil Toughness Description Low Medium High Criteria Only slight pressure is needed to roll the thread to the plastic limit. The thread is difficult to roll and a cohesive mass cannot be formed when drier than the plastic limit.

83 Table 4. Identification of Inorganic Fine-Grained Soils Soil Symbol Dry Strength Dilatancy Toughness ML None or Low CL Medium to High None to Slow Medium MH Low to Medium None to Slow Low to Medium CH High to Very High None High Slow to Rapid Low or thread cannot be formed Note: ML = Silt. MH = Elastic Soil. The terms ‘lean’ and ‘fat’ may not be used in certain geographic regions (midwest). CH = Fat Clay (high plasticity clay). Krishna Reddy. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. CL = Lean Clay (low plasticity clay). UIC .

a clear absence of moisture Soil is damp. Krishna Reddy.84 Table 5. dusty. water is visible when sample is squeezed Water is easily visible and drains freely from the sample Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Criteria for Describing Soil Moisture Conditions Description Dry Moist Wet Saturated Criteria Soil is dry to the touch. soil may begin to retain molded form Soil is clearly wet. slight moisture. UIC .

UIC .85 EXAMPLE DATA Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Krishna Reddy.

86 VISUAL SOIL CLASSIFICATION DATA SHEET Soil Number: Classified by: Date: 1. Soil A RES 09-29-02 Color brown__ Odor none__ Texture Coarse_ Major soil constituent : gravel Minor soil constituents: Sand. fines Approx. UIC . % by Type weight gravel sand fines 6. some sand. 2. Moisture Condition: well graded subrounded____ dry___ Classification: Brown gravel. 5. 60 30_ _10_ For coarse-grained soils: Gradation: Particle Shape: 7. 4. For fine-grained soils: Dry Strength Dilatancy Plasticity Toughness Soil Symbol 8. 3. well graded. trace fines. subrounded. Krishna Reddy. dry Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.

little fine gravel. Moisture Condition: dry___ Classification: Gray sand. UIC . dry Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Soil B RES 09-27-02 Color gray__ Odor none__ Texture _coarse___ Major soil constituent: __sand___ Minor soil constituents: gravel. For fine-grained soils: Dry Strength Dilatancy Plasticity Toughness Soil Symbol 8. fines Approx. Krishna Reddy. 80 15 5 For coarse-grained soils: Gradation: Particle Shape: poorly graded rounded 7. poorly graded. 3. trace fines.87 VISUAL SOIL CLASSIFICATION DATA SHEET Soil Number: Classified by: Date: 1. 4. rounded. 5. 2. % by Type weight sand fine gravel fines 6.

2. CL Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. UIC . For fine-grained soils: Dry strength Dilatancy Plasticity Toughness Soil Symbol Moisture Condition: high none medium medium CL moist___ Classification: Gray silty clay. medium plasticity. % by Type weight Fines Fine Sand 6. Soil C RES 09-29-02 Color gray__ Odor none__ Texture fine-grained_ Major soil constituent : fines Minor soil constituents: Fine Sand Approx. 5. 95 5_ __ For coarse-grained soils: Gradation: Particle Shape: 7.88 VISUAL SOIL CLASSIFICATION DATA SHEET Soil Number: Classified by: Date: 1. trace fine sand. Krishna Reddy. 4. 8. moist. 3.

UIC .89 BLANK DATA SHEETS Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Krishna Reddy.

Color _________________ Odor _________________ Texture __________________ Major soil constituent: ___________ Minor soil constituents: __________ Type _________ _________ ________ 6. 5. Krishna Reddy. 3. Moisture Condition: ____________ Classification: Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. % by weight _______ _______ ________ For coarse-grained soils: Gradation: Particle Shape: ___________ ___________ 7. 4. Approx. UIC . For fine-grained soils: Dry Strength __________ Dilatancy __________ Plasticity __________ Toughness __________ Soil Symbol __________ 8. 2.90 VISUAL SOIL CLASSIFICATION DATA SHEET Soil Number: _______________ Classified by: ________________ Date: ________________ 1.

the test is also known as the Proctor test. The mold is filled with three equal layers of soil. There are two types of compaction molds used for testing. and each layer is subjected to 25 drops of the hammer. The compactive effort is the amount of mechanical energy that is applied to the soil mass. Two types of compaction tests are routinely performed: (1) The Standard Proctor Test. and some examples include tamping. UIC . Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.333 ft3 (2123 cm3). Each of these tests can be performed in three different methods as outlined in the attached Table 1. In the Standard Proctor Test. vibration. the soil is compacted by a 5. The Modified Proctor Test is identical to the Standard Proctor Test except it employs. and static load compaction. and (2) The Modified Proctor Test. The smaller type is 4 inches in diameter and has a volume of about 1/30 ft3 (944 cm3).5 lb hammer falling a distance of one foot into a soil filled mold. Krishna Reddy.91 EXPERIMENT 9 MOISTURE-DENSITY RELATION (COMPACTION) TEST Purpose: This laboratory test is performed to determine the relationship between the moisture content and the dry density of a soil for a specified compactive effort. and the larger type is 6 inches in diameter and has a volume of about 1/13. kneading. therefore. R. and uses five equal layers of soil instead of three. If the larger mold is used each soil layer must receive 56 blows instead of 25 (See Table 1). Proctor in 1933. Several different methods are used to compact soil in the field. a 10 lb hammer falling a distance of 18 inches. This laboratory will employ the tamping or impact compaction method using the type of equipment and methodology developed by R.

3/8” <30% Retained on 3/4” Sieve ≤ 20% Retained on No. Volume of 6” diameter mold = 2123 cm3 (verify these values prior to testing) Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.4 3/8” Sieve ¾” Sieve Sieve No.4 ≤ 20% Retained on 3/8” Sieve >20% Retained on No.4 3/8” Sieve ¾” Sieve 4” DIA 4” DIA 6” DIA 4” DIA 4” DIA 6” DIA 3 3 3 5 5 5 25 25 56 25 25 56 Volume of 4” diameter mold = 944 cm3 .4 Sieve >20% Retained on No. use soil passing Mold No. UIC . of blows/layer Note: Modified Proctor ASTM 1557 Method A Method B Method C Method A Method B Method C ≤ 20% Retained on No.3/8” <30% Retained on 3/4” Sieve Sieve No. Krishna Reddy. of Layers No.4 Sieve >20% Retained on No.4 ≤ 20% Retained on 3/8” Sieve >20% Retained on No.92 Table 1 Alternative Proctor Test Methods Standard Proctor ASTM 698 Material For test sample.

Compacting at water contents higher than (wet of ) the optimum water content results in a relatively dispersed soil structure (parallel particle orientations) that is weaker. In general. resistance to shrinkage. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. and imperviousness of the soil. The optimum water content is the water content that results in the greatest density for a specified compactive effort. most engineering properties. UIC . The soil compacted lower than (dry of) the optimum water content typically results in a flocculated soil structure (random particle orientations) that has the opposite characteristics of the soil compacted wet of the optimum water content to the same density.Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56. more ductile. stiffness. less pervious.000 ft-lbs/ft3 (2.93 Standard Reference: ASTM D 698 . and less susceptible to swelling than soil compacted dry of optimum to the same density. more susceptible to shrinking.400 ft-lbs/ft3 (600 KN-m/m3)) ASTM D 1557 .Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12. Krishna Reddy. will improve by increasing the soil density. An extremely important task of geotechnical engineers is the performance and analysis of field control tests to assure that compacted fills are meeting the prescribed design specifications. such as the strength. and the water content.700 KN-m/m3)) Significance: Mechanical compaction is one of the most common and cost effective means of stabilizing soils. Design specifications usually state the required density (as a percentage of the “maximum” density measured in a standard laboratory test). softer.

Drying oven. Balance. Manual rammer. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. #4 sieve. Straight Edge. UIC . Trowel. Krishna Reddy.94 Equipment: Molds. Moisture cans. Graduated cylinder. Extruder. Mixing pan.

95 Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Krishna Reddy. UIC .

5 seconds per Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. For the 4-inch mold take approximately 10 lbs. The drops should be applied at a uniform rate not exceeding around 1. place some soil in the mold and compact the soil in the number of equal layers specified by the type of compaction method employed (See Photos D and E). (2) Determine the weight of the soil sample as well as the weight of the compaction mold with its base (without the collar) by using the balance and record the weights. (4) Measure out the water.96 Test Procedure: (1) Depending on the type of mold you are using obtain a sufficient quantity of air-dried soil in large mixing pan. add it to the soil. Remember that a gram of water is equal to approximately one milliliter of water. UIC . (3) Compute the amount of initial water to add by the following method: (a) Assume water content for the first test to be 8 percent. Krishna Reddy. and then mix it thoroughly into the soil using the trowel until the soil gets a uniform color (See Photos B and C). The number of drops of the rammer per layer is also dependent upon the type of mold used (See Table 1). and for the 6-inch mold take roughly 15 lbs. (b) Compute water to add from the following equation: water to add (in ml) = (soil mass in grams )8 100 Where “water to add” and the “soil mass” are in grams. (5) Assemble the compaction mold to the base. Pulverize the soil and run it through the # 4 sieve.

add 2 percent more water based on the original sample mass. (8) Weigh the compacted soil while it’s in the mold and to the base. (10) Place the soil specimen in the large tray and break up the soil until it appears visually as if it will pass through the # 4 sieve. (Note: For the last layer. a peak Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Krishna Reddy. UIC . Fill the moisture cans with soil and determine the water content. the test point must be repeated. and add more soil after about 10 drops if it appears that the soil will be compacted below the collar joint. and re-mix as in step 4. Replace small bits of soil that may fall out during the trimming process (See Photo F). Repeat steps 5 through 9 until.) (7) Carefully remove the collar and trim off the compacted soil so that it is completely even with the top of the mold using the trowel. (6) The soil should completely fill the cylinder and the last compacted layer must extend slightly above the collar joint.97 drop. Determine the wet mass of the soil by subtracting the weight of the mold and base. Try to avoid rebound of the rammer from the top of the guide sleeve. and the rammer should provide uniform coverage of the specimen surface. If the soil is below the collar joint at the completion of the drops. (9) Remove the soil from the mold using a mechanical extruder (See Photo H) and take soil moisture content samples from the top and bottom of the specimen (See Photo I). watch carefully. and record the mass (See Photo G). based on wet mass.

Krishna Reddy. (5) On the same graph draw a curve of complete saturation or “zero air voids curve”. (2) Compute the wet density in grams per cm3 of the compacted soil sample by dividing the wet mass by the volume of the mold used. Analysis: (1) Calculate the moisture content of each compacted soil specimen by using the average of the two water contents. (3) Compute the dry density using the wet density and the water content determined in step 1. Use the following formula: ρ ρ = d 1+ w where: w = moisture content in percent divided by 100. The values of dry density and corresponding moisture contents for plotting the curve can be computed from the following equation: ρ 1   × 100 w sat =  w − G ρ s   d or ρd = ρw 1   w +    100 Gs  Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. (4) Plot the dry density values on the y-axis and the moisture contents on the x-axis. UIC .98 value is reached followed by two slightly lesser compacted soil masses. and ρ = wet density in grams per cm3. Draw a smooth curve connecting the plotted points.

. Standard Proctor.7 (assumed) ρw=1.89 18 1.96 16 1.70 if not given) ρw = density of water in grams per cm3 (approximately1 g/cm3) wsat = moisture content in percent for complete saturation. Krishna Reddy.g. UIC .22 10 2.82 (6) Identify and report the optimum moisture content and the maximum dry density.04 14 1. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Method A) on data sheet.99 where: ρd = dry density of soil grams per cm3 Gs = specific gravity of the soil being tested (assume 2.13 12 2. Example Calculations: Gs=2. Make sure that you have recorded the method of compaction used (e.0 g/cm3 Assumed wsat% Calculated ρd (g/cm3) 8 2.

Krishna Reddy.100 EXAMPLE DATA Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. UIC .

52 MS = Mass of soil solids (grams) 3. w% 15.0 MCDS = Mass of can.9 3A 5 7.78 11.62 MW = Mass of pore water (grams) 0.41 10.Sample no.9 12. clean can + lid (grams) Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.Sample no. 2’-6’ Visual Classification of Soil: Gray silty clay.60 2.84 3.35 0.6 Water content . Moisture can number .92 MS = Mass of soil solids (grams) 2.7 2. clean can + lid (grams) 1A 1 7.5 3B 6 7.70 9.40 0. 1 10.7 12 .29 0.Sample no.4 0.84 10. lid.83 2A 3 7.3 10.70 2. 2002 Tested By: CEMM315 Class.1 4B 8 7. low plasticity.78 1B 2 7.24 0.Lid number 4 Compacted Soil . UIC 6A 6B . and moist soil (grams) 11.0 17.Sample no. 1 10.71 2B 4 7.33 MCDS = Mass of can. lid. lid.48 10.71 11 .27 MW = Mass of pore water (grams) 0. 2 3 MC = Mass of empty.3 16.05 10.02 9. trace fine sand. 1 17. 5 6 4A 7 8.101 Moisture-Density (Compaction) Test Data Sheets Test Method: Standard Proctor.24 2.81 10.30 0.98 2.5 13.53 w = Water content.1 11 . Krishna Reddy.Lid number MC = Mass of empty. Group A Project Name: CEMM315 Lab Sample Number: Bag-1. CL Water Content Determination: 1 Compacted Soil . Moisture can number .32 2. and moist soil (grams) 11.39 w = Water content.35 0.9 8.65 MCMS = Mass of can.7 5B 10 7. lid. and dry soil (grams) 11.9 MCMS = Mass of can.75 10.85 2. and dry soil (grams) 10. w% 7. moist. Method A (ASTM 698) Date Tested: October 05.2 10.1 Water content .3 11. 1 10.6 5A 9 7.40 0.

87 g/cm3 Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.86 1. UIC 20 .2 1788.2 1. w% 10 12 14 16 18 Actual average water content.8 15.2 3721.0 3782. (g/cm ) 1.0 11.8 1.894 2.102 Density Determination: Mold Volume=944 cm3 1 2 3 4 5 w = Assumed water content. w% Optimum Moisture Content = 13. ρd .959 1.0 6 (Gs=2.2 3909.615 1.61 Compacted Soil . w% 8.5 3715.4 1. (g/cm ) 1.2 1933 1933 1976.4 Zero Air Voids Curve 2.2 1524.6 1.71 1.Sample no.0 0 5 10 OMC 15 Water Content.50 1.69 1.65 17 3457. Krishna Reddy. ρ .5 1782.0 12.0 1849. Mass of compacted soil and mold (grams) Mass of mold (grams) Wet mass of soil in mold (grams) Dry Density.093 1.1 % Maximum Dry Density = 1.7 assumed) ρ dm ax 1. g/cm3 2.2 2.888 3 Dry density.2 2176 2149 2082 3 Wet density.

103 BLANK DATA SHEETS Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. UIC . Krishna Reddy.

Water content .104 Moisture-Density (Compaction) Test Data Sheets Test Method: Date Tested: Tested By: Project Name: Sample Number: Visual Classification of Soil: Water Content Determination: Compacted Soil . lid.Lid number MC = Mass of empty. Water content .Lid number MC = Mass of empty. clean can + lid (grams) MCMS = Mass of can. and moist soil (grams) MCDS = Mass of can.Sample no. and dry soil (grams) MS = Mass of soil solids (grams) MW = Mass of pore water (grams) W = Water content.Sample no. clean can + lid (grams) MCMS = Mass of can. Krishna Reddy. UIC 6A 6B . 4 4A 5 4B 5A 6 5B Moisture can number . w% Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. w% Compacted Soil .Sample no. lid. and moist soil (grams) MCDS = Mass of can. and dry soil (grams) MS = Mass of soil solids (grams) MW = Mass of pore water (grams) W = Water content. lid.Sample no. 1 1A 2 1B 2A 3 2B 3A 3B Moisture can number . lid.

ρ .2 2. (kg/m ) 3 Dry density.Sample no. ρd .4 2.2 1. Krishna Reddy. UIC 25 .6 1. w% Actual average water content.8 1.0 1. (kg/m ) 2.0 5 10 15 20 Water Content. w% Mass of compacted soil and mold (grams) Mass of mold (grams) Wet mass of soil in mold (grams) 3 Wet density. w% Optimum Moisture Content = _________________ % Maximum Dry Density = ___________________ g/cm3 Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. 1 2 3 4 5 6 w = Assumed water content.6 Dry Density (g/cm3) 2.4 1.105 Density Determination: Volume of mold= Compacted Soil .

Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. UIC .). etc. and (2) the falling head test method. Krishna Reddy. The constant head test method is used for permeable soils (k>10-4 cm/s) and the falling head test is mainly used for less permeable soils (k<10-4 cm/s). the calculation of the seepage rate from waste storage facilities (landfills. This property is necessary for the calculation of seepage through earth dams or under sheet pile walls. ponds.Standard Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant Head) (Note: The Falling Head Test Method is not standardized) Significance: Permeability (or hydraulic conductivity) refers to the ease with which water can flow through a soil. There are two general types of permeability test methods that are routinely performed in the laboratory: (1) the constant head test method. Standard Reference: ASTM D 2434 .106 EXPERIMENT 10 PERMEABILITY (HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY) TEST CONSTANT HEAD METHOD Purpose: The purpose of this test is to determine the permeability (hydraulic conductivity) of a sandy soil by the constant head test method. and the calculation of the rate of settlement of clayey soil deposits.

Scoop. Watch (or Stopwatch). Thermometer. Tamper.107 Equipment: Permeameter. Balance. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Filter paper. 1000 mL Graduated cylinders. Krishna Reddy. UIC .

108

Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing
Prof. Krishna Reddy, UIC

109
Test Procedure:
(1)

Measure the initial mass of the pan along with the dry soil (M1).

(2)

Remove the cap and upper chamber of the permeameter by
unscrewing the knurled cap nuts and lifting them off the tie rods.
Measure the inside diameter of upper and lower chambers. Calculate
the average inside diameter of the permeameter (D).

(3)

Place one porous stone on the inner support ring in the base of the
chamber then place a filter paper on top of the porous stone (see
Photo C).

(4)

Mix the soil with a sufficient quantity of distilled water to prevent the
segregation of particle sizes during placement into the permeameter.
Enough water should be added so that the mixture may flow freely
(see Photo B).

(5)

Using a scoop, pour the prepared soil into the lower chamber using a
circular motion to fill it to a depth of 1.5 cm. A uniform layer should be
formed.

(6)

Use the tamping device to compact the layer of soil. Use
approximately ten rams of the tamper per layer and provide uniform
coverage of the soil surface. Repeat the compaction procedure until
the soil is within 2 cm. of the top of the lower chamber section (see
Photo D).

Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing
Prof. Krishna Reddy, UIC

110
(7)

Replace the upper chamber section, and don’t forget the rubber
gasket that goes between the chamber sections. Be careful not to
disturb the soil that has already been compacted. Continue the
placement operation until the level of the soil is about 2 cm. below the
rim of the upper chamber. Level the top surface of the soil and place
a filter paper and then the upper porous stone on it (see Photo E).

(8)

Place the compression spring on the porous stone and replace the
chamber cap and its sealing gasket. Secure the cap firmly with the
cap nuts (see Photo F).

(9)

Measure the sample length at four locations around the circumference
of the permeameter and compute the average length. Record it as the
sample length.

(10)

Keep the pan with remaining soil in the drying oven.

(11)

Adjust the level of the funnel to allow the constant water level in it to
remain a few inches above the top of the soil.

(12)

Connect the flexible tube from the tail of the funnel to the bottom outlet
of the permeameter and keep the valves on the top of the
permeameter open (see Photo G).

(13)

Place tubing from the top outlet to the sink to collect any water that
may come out (see Photo G).

Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing
Prof. Krishna Reddy, UIC

Connect the funnel tubing to the top side port (see Photo H).1000 mL using the graduated cylinder. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. (22) Remove the pan from the drying oven and measure the final mass of the pan along with the dry soil (M2). (19) Measure the time it takes to fill a volume of 750 . (21) Repeat step 17 and 18 with different vertical distances. Krishna Reddy. and then measure the temperature of the water. Repeat this process three times and compute the average time. and T. close the control valve.111 (14) Open the bottom valve and allow the water to flow into the permeameter. and average temperature. (20) Measure the vertical distance between the funnel head level and the chamber outflow level. respectively (see Photo I). average volume. (15) As soon as the water begins to flow out of the top control (deairing) valve. (16) Close the bottom outlet valve and disconnect the tubing at the bottom. Q. UIC . (18) Allow adequate time for the flow pattern to stabilize (see Photo I). and record the distance as h. letting water flow out of the outlet for some time. (17) Open the bottom outlet valve and raise the funnel to a convenient height to get a reasonable steady flow of water. Record the values as t.

As temperature increases viscosity decreases and the permeability increases. From Table 1 obtain the viscosities and compute K20. D= inside 4 diameter of the permeameter) h = hydraulic head difference across length L. The coefficient of permeability is standardized at 20°C. and the permeability at any temperature T is related to K20 by the following ratio: K 20 =K η Tη T 20 Where: ηT and η20 are the viscosities at the temperature T of the test and at 20°C. respectively. (2) The viscosity of the water changes with temperature. UIC .112 Analysis: (1) Calculate the permeability. or it is equal to the vertical distance between the constant funnel head level and the chamber overflow level. in cm of water. L = length of specimen in centimeters t = time for discharge in seconds Q = volume of discharge in cm3 (assume 1 mL = 1 cm3) A = cross-sectional area of permeameter (= π 2 D . using the following equation: QL K = T Ath Where: KT = coefficient of permeability at temperature T. Krishna Reddy. cm/sec. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.

Krishna Reddy.113 (3) Compute the volume of soil used from: V = LA. UIC . (4) Compute the mass of dry soil used in permeameter (M) = initial mass final mass: M = M1-M2 (5) Compute the dry density (ρd) of soil M ρ = d V Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.

99862 0.99708 0.99802 0.114 Table 1.00914 0.99844 0.01005 0.00000 0.99880 0.99780 0.00936 0.01567 0.99897 0.99757 0. Properties of Distilled Water (η = absolute) Temperature o C 4 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 *Poise = Density (g/cm3) 1.00836 0. 99568 Viscosity (Poise*) 0.00874 0.00894 0.00818 0.99682 0.01056 0.00801 dyne ⋅ s g = cm ⋅ s cm2 Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.99627 0.01111 0.00855 0.01030 0.99733 0.00958 0. UIC . 99598 0.99823 0. Krishna Reddy.99655 0.00981 0.01083 0.

115 EXAMPLE DATA Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Krishna Reddy. UIC .

D = 6.4 g Volume of Soil Specimen (V) = 846. ST-10.144 0.4 cm Final Dry Mass of Soil + Pan (M2) = 865.142 Average K20= 0. h (cm) Elapsed Time. UIC .6 g Dry Mass of Soil Specimen (M) = 809.116 HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY TEST CONSTANT HEAD METHOD DATA SHEET Date Tested: October 10.149 0. Q (cm3) Water Temp.0 g Length of Soil Specimen.139 cm/sec Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.149 0. L = 17 cm Diameter of the Soil Specimen (Permeameter)..130 0. Group A Project Name: CEMM315 Lab Sample Number: B-1. t (seconds) Outflow Volume.137 0. Initial Dry Mass of Soil + Pan (M1) = 1675. dry.157 0.48 g/cm3 Trial Number Constant Head. 2002 Tested By: CEMM315 Class. Krishna Reddy.137 0. 8’-10’ Visual Classification: Brown medium to fine sand. T (°C) KT cm/sec K20 cm/sec 1 2 3 4 30 50 60 70 84 55 48 38 750 750 750 750 22 22 22 22 0. poorly graded. subrounded.9 cm3 Dry Density of Soil (ρd) = 1.

Krishna Reddy.117 BLANK DATA SHEETS Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. UIC .

UIC KT K20 . t (seconds) Water Outflow Temp. D = _____________ cm Final Dry Mass of Soil + Pan (M2) = _________________ g Dry Mass of Soil Specimen (M) = _____________________ g Volume of Soil Specimen (V) = ___________________ cm3 Dry Density of Soil (ρd) = __________________ g/cm3 Trial Number Constant Head.. Krishna Reddy. h (cm) Elapsed Time. Q 3 (cm ) (°C) 1 2 3 4 Average K20= ______________________ cm/sec Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. T Volume. L = _________________ cm Diameter of the Soil Specimen (Permeameter).118 HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY TEST CONSTANT HEAD METHOD DATA SHEET Date Tested: Tested By: Project Name: Sample Number: Visual Classification: Initial Dry Mass of Soil + Pan (M1) = __________________ g Length of Soil Specimen.

and load plate).0001 inch = 1. Estimates of this type are of key importance in the design of engineered structures and the evaluation of their performance. water reservoir. Clock. Equipment: Consolidation device (including ring. In addition.119 EXPERIMENT 11 CONSOLIDATION TEST Purpose: This test is performed to determine the magnitude and rate of volume decrease that a laterally confined soil specimen undergoes when subjected to different vertical pressures. UIC . Sample trimming device. This data is useful in determining the compression index. porous stones. Dial gauge (0. Significance: The consolidation properties determined from the consolidation test are used to estimate the magnitude and the rate of both primary and secondary consolidation settlement of a structure or an earthfill. Moisture can. Metal straight edge. glass plate. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Filter paper. the recompression index and the preconsolidation pressure (or maximum past pressure) of the soi. Standard Reference: ASTM D 2435 . Krishna Reddy.0 on dial). From the measured data.Standard Test Method for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils. the data obtained can also be used to determine the coefficient of consolidation and the coefficient of secondary compression of the soil. the consolidation curve (pressure-void ratio relationship) can be plotted.

UIC . Krishna Reddy.120 Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.

generally thin-walled Shelby tube. It is important to keep the cutting tool in the correct horizontal position during this process.121 Test Procedure: (1) Weigh the empty consolidation ring together with glass plate. Remove the final portion with extreme care. (6) Turn the ring over carefully and remove the portion of the soil protruding above the ring. Rotate the ring and pare off the excess soil by means of the cutting tool so that the sample is reduced to the same inside diameter of the ring. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. (5) As the trimming progresses. cut the soil surface flush with the surface of the ring. (4) Cut approximately a three-inch long sample. Using the metal straight edge. press the sample gently into the ring and continue until the sample protrudes a short distance through the bottom of the ring. (3) Extrude the soil sample from the sampler. Krishna Reddy. Determine the initial moisture content and the specific gravity of the soil as per Experiments 1 and 4. respectively (Use the data sheets from these experiments to record all of the data). Place the sample on the consolidation ring and cut the sides of the sample to be approximately the same as the outside diameter of the ring. (2) Measure the height (h) of the ring and its inside diameter (d). Be careful throughout the trimming process to insure that there is no void space between the sample and the ring. UIC .

Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. (12) With the toggle switch in the down (closed) position. (11) Adjust the dial gauge to a zero reading. Place the filter papers between porous stones and soil specimen. (10) Being careful to prevent movement of the ring and porous stones. (8) Weigh the specimen plus ring plus glass plate. Fill the water reservoir with water until the specimen is completely covered and saturated. (9) Carefully remove the ring with specimen from the Saran-covered glass plate and peel the Saran from the specimen surface. UIC . open the valve (by quickly lifting the toggle switch to the up (open) position) and start the timing clock. Krishna Reddy. and carefully cut the other end in a similar manner. (13) Simultaneously. place the load plate centrally on the upper porous stone and adjust the loading device. turn the ring over again.5 tsf (tons per square foot).122 (7) Place the previously weighed Saran-covered glass plate on the freshly cut surface. Press very lightly to make sure that the stones adhere to the sample. on the top and bottom surfaces of the test specimen. Center the porous stones that have been soaking. set the pressure gauge dial (based on calibration curve) to result in an applied pressure of 0. Lower the assembly carefully into the base of the water reservoir.

and quickly disassemble the consolidation device and remove the specimen.0. Krishna Reddy. 2. Analysis: (1) Calculate the initial water content and specific gravity of the soil.0 tsf and unloading pressures of 8.5 tsf) (16) At the last elapsed time reading. (The specimen will tend to absorb water after the load is released. and place the specimen in the previously weighed moisture can. (19) Carefully remove the specimen from the consolidation ring. being sure not to lose too much soil. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. once again. Quickly but carefully blot the surfaces dry with paper toweling. UIC . 8. record the final consolidation dial reading and time.0. 1.0. weigh them together. and 16.0. Place the moisture can containing the specimen in the oven and let it dry for 12 to 18 hours.0.123 (14) Record the consolidation dial readings at the elapsed times given on the data sheet. 4. 4.) (17) Place the specimen and ring on the Saran-covered glass plate and.0.0 and 0. (18) Weigh an empty large moisture can and lid. 2. (15) Repeat Steps 11 to 13 for different preselected pressures (generally includes loading pressures of 1.0. release the load. (20) Weigh the dry specimen in the moisture can.

See example data. calculate compression index. Plot log pressure versus void ratio.124 (2) For each pressure increment. Also calculate the coefficient of secondary compression based on these plots. Based on this plot. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. and the coefficient of consolidation (cv) using Casagrande’s logarithm of time fitting method. (4) Summarize and discuss the results. D50. (3) Calculate the void ratio at the end of primary consolidation for each pressure increment (see example data). D100. recompression index and preconsolidation pressure (maximum past pressure). Krishna Reddy. construct a semilog plot of the consolidation dial readings versus the log time (in minutes). UIC . Determine D0.

Krishna Reddy.125 EXAMPLE DATA Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. UIC .

UIC . Ms Final moisture content of specimen.9 g = 6.7 cm = 31.50 g = 208.4 g = 19.5 % = 2. Hi Area of specimen. A Mass of specimen + ring Initial moisture content of specimen. wi (%) Specific gravity of solids. Krishna Reddy. Gs = Floating type = 465. 2002 Tested By: CEMM315 Class.3 g = 229.172 cm2 = 646. Group A Project Name: CEMM315 Lab Sample Number: GB-08-ST-13’-15’ Visual Classification: Gray silty clay Before test Consolidation type Mass of the ring + glass plate Inside diameter of the ring Height of specimen.8 g = 170.27 % Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.126 Consolidation Test Data Sheets Date Tested: October 05.2 g = 14.5 g = 59.3 cm = 2.5 g = 149. wf = 636.67 After test Mass of wet sample + ring + glass plate Mass of can Mass of can + wet soil Mass of wet specimen Mass of can + dry soil Mass of dry specimen.

933 cm A × ρ w 31.7-0.792 H f − Hs Hs = 2.792 = = 0.7 − 1. Hs = 149.2 g Mass of solids in specimen.172 × 1 M wf A× ρw = 21. Σ∆H (Σ∆H for all pressures – see t vs Dial Reading plots) =0.195*149.443 .792 = 0.933 H wi = × 100 H i − H s 2.683 cm 31.257 = 2. Krishna Reddy.094 g Mass of water in specimen after test. eo = Void ratio after test.09 M wi = = 0.29 g Height of solids.172 × 1 Change in height of specimen after test.7 % Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.Σ∆H = 2.1.127 Calculations =149.2 = 21. Mwf (g) = wf x Ms = 0. Hwi = Height of water after test. Si = 0. Mwi = wi x Ms = 0. Ms (Mass of dry specimen after test) Mass of water in specimen before test. Hf = Hi .67 × 1 (same before and after test and note ρw = 1 g/cm3) Height of water before test.172 × 2.2 Ms = = 1.3617 1.443 cm Void ratio before test. UIC .792 cm A × G s × ρ w 31. ef = H i − H s 2.792 =102.7 − 1.2 = 29.29 = 0.257 cm Height of specimen after test.506 Hs 1.1427*149.792 Degree of saturation before test. Hwf = 29.

6 pcf) Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.683 × 100 2.08% Dry density before test.77 g/cm3 H i × A 2. ρd = 149.7 × 31. Sf = H wf Hf −Hs = 0.792 =105. Krishna Reddy.172 =(110.443 − 1. UIC .128 Degree of saturation after test.2 Ms = = 1.

1 0.1 0.4 442.5 258 258.5 0.5 120 442.06 0.4 444.5 441.25 0.25 0.3 446.4 445.5 44 472.1 0.15 0.5 1 2 4 8 15 30 60 120 time 0 0.5 2 461.5 0.5 30 447 60 444.25 18 0.5 0.5 27 42 46 58 79 81 85 86 loading=2 tsf (unloading) time dail reading 0 496 0.1 13 0.5 60 471.1 0.4 120 446.5 446.25 0.Settlement Data (1 unit on dial guage = 0.5 262.5 1 2 4 8 15 30 60 120 loading=1/8 tsf dail reading 0 0 0 0 time 0 0.0001 inches) time 0 0.5 257 257.5 930 440.5 488 490.5 495.3 445.5 1 2 4 10 15 31 60 121 240 562 loading=1 tsf dail reading 0 6 8 11.5 479.5 8 493 15 492.5 486 488 496 loading=1 tsf (reloading) time dail reading loading=1/2 tsf time dail reading 0 0 0.5 947 500 Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.1 0.1 496 0.5 1 2 4 8 15 30 60 440.4 446.5 456.5 8 454 15 450.25 496 0.4 445.4 0 0.5 297 299 300 303 303.25 0.5 140 492.5 283 286 292.5 304 loading=1/2 tsf (unloading) time dail reading 0 470.5 2 486.25 0.25 0.5 70 492.5 25 1 34 2 40 4 54 8 77 15 90 30 126 60 144.5 446.2 441.5 15 474.5 time 0 0.1 442.25 492.5 256 256. Krishna Reddy.5 1 2 4 8 15 30 60 442.5 30 492.5 1 2 4 8 15 30 60 128 240 335 390 678 1380 1520 loading= ¼ tsf dail reading 0 0 0 0 loading=2 tsf dail reading 255 255.5 0 0.5 0.5 440.9 443.5 loading=2 tsf (reloading) time dail reading loading=4 tsf (reloading) time dail reading 0 0.1 0.5 1 2 4 8 17 30 108 446.5 8 477.5 473.5 218 470.1 445.5 0.5 481 485.06 469.8 442 442.6 441.1 492.25 0.129 Table 1: Time .5 130 160 300 162 1380 169 time 0 0.5 492 1 490.9 446.5 4 481.3 1 2 4 8 15 30 60 120 290 395 1230 loading=4 tsf dail reading 313 319 328 336 357 375 398 428 453 464 472.5 465.7 441 441.6 449.5 466 1 464.5 215 492.5 4 458.5 110 443. UIC .1 0.5 1 495 2 494 4 493.5 loading=1 tsf (unloading) time dail reading 0 492.5 15 20.4 442.

1 0. UIC . Krishna Reddy.130 time 0 0.5 850 860 867 time 0 0.25 0.25 0.5 1060 1063 Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.1 0.5 631.5 1052.5 816 836.1 0.5 580 604 619.25 0.5 1 2 4 8 15 30 60 127 205 228 loading=8 tsf dail reading 500 510 518 528 542 561.8 640 642 651 652 time 0 0.5 1 2 4 8 15 30 50 76 138 240 loading=32 tsf dail reading 867 877 893 908 928 953 983 1012 1027 1040 1047.5 1 2 4 8 15 30 60 115 loading=16 tsf dail reading 652 672 687 702 727 754 800.

0153 in 100 120 140 D100 = 159 160 180 0.1 1 10 100 1000 Time (min) Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. UIC 10000 .0001 in) 40 60 80 t50=10 min ∆Η = 0.008 in 220 230 240 250 260 0.0001 in) 190 200 210 t50 = 11.5 2 2 Dail Reading (x 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 Time (min) Consolidation Test (ASTM D 2435) Sample: GB-08-ST-13'-15' Pressure = 1 tsf 170 180 Dail Reading (x 0.01 0.5 min ∆H = 0. Krishna Reddy.131 Consolidation Test (ASTM D 2435) Sample: GB-08-ST-13'-15' Pressure = 1/2 tsf 0 D0 = 8 20 D 50 = D +D 0 100 = 8 + 159 = 83.

Krishna Reddy.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 100 1000 10000 Time (min) Consolidation Test (ASTM D 2435) Sample: GB-08-ST-13'-15' Pressure = 4 tsf 300 320 340 Dail Reading (x 0.1 1 10 Time (min) Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.0001 in) 260 270 280 t50 = 30 min ∆H = 0.3 min ∆H = 0.0156 in 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 0. UIC .01 0.0001 in) 360 380 t50 = 3.01 0.0048 in 290 300 310 320 0.132 Consolidation Test (ASTM D 2435) Sample: GB-08-ST-13'-15' Pressure = 2 tsf 240 250 Dail Reading (x 0.

01 0.1 1 10 Time (min) 100 1000 10000 Consolidation Test (ASTM D 2435) Sample: GB-08-ST-13'-15' Pressure = 1 tsf (Unloaded) 495 Dail Reading (x 0.9 min ∆H = 0. UIC 10000 .5 493 492.00035 in 494 493.5 t50 = 1.5 492 0.1 1 10 Time (min) 100 1000 Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Krishna Reddy.00203 in t50 = 3.0001 in) 496 495.5 min 480 475 470 465 0.133 Consolidation Test (ASTM D 2435) Sample: GB-08-ST-13'-15' Pressure = 2 tsf (Unloaded) 497 496.5 495 494.0001 in) 490 485 ∆H = 0.01 0.5 Dail Reading (x 0.

00018 in t50 = 1. UIC 10000 .134 Consolidation Test (ASTM D 2435) Sample: GB-08-ST-13'-15' Pressure = 1/2 tsf (Unloaded) 480 475 Dail Reading (x 0.01 0.5 442 442.01 0.5 441 ∆H = 0.0001 in) 440.0029 in 455 450 445 440 435 430 0.0 min ∆H = 0.2 min 441.1 1 10 100 1000 Time (min) Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.5 443 0. Krishna Reddy.1 1 10 Time (min) 100 1000 10000 Consolidation Test (ASTM D 2435) Sample: GB-08-ST-13'-15' Pressure = 1 tsf (Reloaded) 440 Dail Reading (x 0.0001 in) 470 465 460 t50 = 6.

0001 in) 455 465 t50 = 2.0043 in 475 485 495 505 0.4 min ∆H = 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 Time (min) Consolidation Test (ASTM D 2435) Sample: GB-08-ST-13'-15' Pressure = 4 tsf (Reloaded) 445 Dail Reading (x 0.135 Consolidation Test (ASTM D 2435) Sample: GB-08-ST-13'-15' Pressure = 2 tsf (Reloaded) 442 Dail Reading (x 0.6 min ∆H = 0.0001 in) 443 444 t50 = 0.1 1 10 100 1000 Time (min) Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.01 0.00038 in 445 446 447 448 0. UIC 10000 . Krishna Reddy.01 0.

Krishna Reddy.01 0.0001 in) 540 560 t50 = 3.0 min ∆H = 0.0 min 750 770 790 810 830 850 870 0.136 Consolidation Test (ASTM D 2435) Sample: GB-08-ST-13'-15' Pressure = 8 tsf 500 520 Dail Reading (x 0.0143 in 580 600 620 640 660 0.1 1 10 Time (min) Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 100 1000 10000 Time (min) Consolidation Test (ASTM D 2435) Sample: GB-08-ST-13'-15' Pressure = 16 tsf 650 670 690 Dail Reading (x 0.0001 in) 710 730 ∆H = 0.02 in t50 = 2.01 0. UIC .

0001 in) 910 930 t50 = 3.01 0.0 min 950 ∆H = 0.137 Consolidation Test (ASTM D 2435) Sample: GB-08-ST-13'-15' Pressure = 32 tsf 850 870 890 Dail Reading (x 0.0192 in 970 990 1010 1030 1050 1070 1090 0. UIC 10000 . Krishna Reddy.1 1 10 100 1000 Time (min) Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.

04328 0.28 0.09678 1.52154 0.06299 1.01929 1.31 0.37 .52218 0.52290 0.02401 1.0029 0. H v = H − H s − Σ∆H and e = i t 50 Hs ( ) Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.83E-02 1.0281 0.32 0.72E-03 1.02167 1. Krishna Reddy.30 0.04415 0.01E-03 4.45 0.34 0.04570 0.03842 0.0233 0.23E-02 1.04132 0.008 0.002 0.5 1 2 4 2 1 0.01971 1.197 × .0002 0.58E-02 1.02135 0.02439 1.52312 0.44 0.45 0.00835 0.07758 0.0437 0.5 277.02775 0.01964 1.4 3 2 3 8 173 254 310 496 493 472 441 443 446 504 660 869 159 254 301 362 492.04943 0.51172 0.4 446.5 457 441.3 1.02457 1.04825 0.5 336 494.04675 0.45 0.52518 0.49E-02 8.98541 0.51713 0.0001 0 100 graph) graph) t 50 (min) 0 0.0386 0.44 0.6 2.45E-03 4.25 482.09645 ∆H Σ ∆H* H** Hd** 0.48 0.31 0.44 0.40 0.52323 0.0043 0.98E-02 2.0153 0.05758 0. UIC Coefficient of consolidation Hv*** Cv (in2/min)*** 5.55 467.96621 0.5 577 760.5 1 2 4 8 16 32 10 11.04769 1.47 0.03360 0.26 e*** 0.31 0.32 0.2 0.51805 0.05770 0.03489 1.03969 1.02 0.32 0.52438 0.5 30 3.52371 0.5 (tsf) 0.5 444.76E-02 2.00541 0.5 6 1.33 0.81E-03 1.03898 0.69E-02 0.0004 0.138 Table 2: Analysis of Consolidation Test Data Time for 50% D0 D100 Pressure Hj = D50 * D50 = consolidation (from (from (D +D )*0.0004 0.50722 (from graph) 0.0192 * Σ∆H for applied pressure = Σ∆H of all previous pressures + ∆H under applied pressure H j ∆H j ** H = ± and H j = H i ± ∆H j−1 (.52593 0.5 489 650 861 1060 83.5 442 442.0156 0.0048 0.9 3.45 0.54E-02 9.5 472.5 0.47 0.42 0.07605 0.0153 0.32 0.60E-02 2.5 213.5 964.04335 0.for Loading and + for Unloading) dj 2 4 2 Hd Hv *** C v = 0.0143 0.33 0.04446 0.

43 0.45 Cr=0.49 0.37 0.39 0.013 0.139 Consolidation Test (ASTM D 2435) Sample: GB-08-ST-13'-15' Void Ratio vs Log Pressure Pc=3.013 Preconsolidation pressure (Pc) or Maximum past pressure (σvmax) = 3.5 tsf 0.54x10-2 to 9.47 Void Ratio 0.5 tsf Coefficient of consolidation (Cv)= 1.41 Cc=0.01x10-3 in2/min (depends on the pressure) Coefficient of secondary compression (Cα) = 0. UIC .35 0. Krishna Reddy.001 (It is the slope of time vs settlement curve beyond the end of primary consolidation) Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.1 1 10 100 Pressure (tsf) Final Results: Compression Index (Cc) = 0.11 0.11 Recompression Index (Cr) = 0.

Krishna Reddy. UIC .140 BLANK DATA SHEETS Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.

A Mass of specimen + ring Initial moisture content of specimen. UIC .141 Consolidation Test Data Sheets Date Tested: Tested By: Project Name: Sample Number: Sample Description: Before test Consolidation type Mass of the ring + glass plate Inside diameter of the ring Height of specimen. wf = = = = = = = Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Ms Final moisture content of specimen. Gs = = = = = = = = After test Mass of wet sample + ring + glass plate Mass of can Mass of can + wet soil Mass of wet specimen Mass of can + dry soil Mass of dry specimen. wi (%) Specific gravity of solids. Krishna Reddy. Hi Area of specimen.

ρd = Ms Hi × A H wi = Hi − Hs H wf Hf −Hs = = Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Krishna Reddy. Hf = Hi . Hwi = Height of water after test. UIC . ef = Hi − Hs = Hs H f − Hs Hs = Degree of saturation before test. Hwf = M wi = A× ρw M wf A× ρw == Change in height of specimen after test.Σ∆H = Void ratio before test. Sf = Dry density before test. Hs = Ms = A × Gs × ρ w (same before and after test and note ρw = 1 g/cm3) Height of water before test. Σ∆H (Σ∆H for all pressures – see t vs Dial reading plot) = Height of specimen after test. Mwi Mass of water in specimen after test. Ms (Mass of dry specimen after test) = wi x Ms= Mass of water in specimen before test. eo = Void ratio after test.142 Calculations = Mass of solids in specimen. Mwf (g) = wf x Ms= Height of solids. Si = Degree of saturation after test.

1 0. Krishna Reddy.1 0.0001 inch = 1.143 Time .5 1 2 4 10 15 30 60 120 240 LOADING = _____ tsf ELAPSED DIAL TIME. min READING 0 0. UIC .25 0.Settlement Data Conversion: 0.25 0.25 0.0 on dial reading (confirm this before using) LOADING = _____ tsf ELAPSED DIAL TIME.5 1 2 4 10 15 30 60 121 240 LOADING = _____ tsf ELAPSED DIAL TIME. min READING 0 0. min READING 0 0.1 0.5 1 2 4 10 15 30 60 120 240 Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.

H v = H − H s − Σ∆H and e = i t 50 Hs ( ) Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.5 (tsf) 0. Krishna Reddy.0001 0 100 graph) graph) t 50 (min) ∆H (from graph) * Σ ∆H* Σ∆H for applied pressure = Σ∆H of all previous pressures + ∆H under applied pressure H j ∆H j ** H = ± and H j = H i ± ∆H j−1 (.144 Analysis of Consolidation Test Data Time for 50% D0 D100 Pressure Hj = D50 * D50 = consolidation (from (from (D +D )*0.197 × .for Loading and + for Unloading) dj 2 4 2 Hd Hv *** C v = 0. UIC H** Hd** Coefficient of consolidation Hv*** Cv (in2/min) e*** .

because it is required whenever a structure is dependent on the soil’s shearing resistance. UIC . finding the bearing capacity for foundations. a plot of the maxi mum shear stresses versus the vertical (normal) confining stresses for each of the tests is produced. f may be determined.e. In this laboratory. From the plot. a straight-line approximation of the Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope curve can be drawn. From the plot of the shear stress versus the horizontal displacement. the shear strength can be computed from the following equation: s = s tan f Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. and calculating the pressure exerted by a soil on a retaining wall. for cohesionless soils (c = 0). the maximum shear stress is obtained for a specific vertical confining stress. The shear strength is needed for engineering situations such as determining the stability of slopes or cuts. The shear strength is one of the most important engineering properties of a soil.Standard Test Method for Direct Shear Test of Soils Under Consolidated Drained Conditions Significance: The direct shear test is one of the oldest strength tests for soils. a direct shear device will be used to determine the shear strength of a cohesionless soil (i. angle of internal friction (f)).158 EXPERIMENT 13 DIRECT SHEAR TEST Purpose: This test is performed to determine the consolidated-drained shear strength of a sandy to silty soil. After the experiment is run several times for various vertical-confining stresses. Standard Reference: ASTM D 3080 . Krishna Reddy. and.

UIC . Balance. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Krishna Reddy. Load and deformation dial gauges.159 Equipment: Direct shear device.

Krishna Reddy.160 Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. UIC .

a porous stone. vertical displacement gage and shear load gage) to zero. UIC . Compute 15% of the diameter in millimeters. (3) Carefully assemble the shear box and place it in the direct shear device. and take the horizontal displacement gauge. and then back out the gap screws. vertical Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. and a top plate (with ball) on top of the sand (5) Remove the large alignment screws from the shear box! Open the gap between the shear box halves to approximately 0. (7) Complete the assembly of the direct shear device and initialize the three gauges (Horizontal displacement gage.025 in. and then close bleeder valve and apply the load to the soil specimen by raising the toggle switch. Then place a porous stone and a filter paper in the shear box. (9) Start the motor with selected speed so that the rate of shearing is at a selected constant rate.161 Test Procedure: (1) Weigh the initial mass of soil in the pan. (4) Place the sand into the shear box and level off the top. (6) Weigh the pan of soil again and compute the mass of soil used. (2) Measure the diameter and height of the shear box. using the gap screws. Place a filter paper. (8) Set the vertical load (or pressure) to a predetermined value. Krishna Reddy.

and the vertical (Normal) stress sv.162 displacement gage and shear load gage readings. (Note: Record the vertical displacement gage readings. or the horizontal displacement reaches 15% of the diameter. if needed). Analysis: (1) Calculate the density of the soil sample from the mass of soil and volume of the shear box. and sv = normal vertical stress (3) F Calculate shear stress (τ) using t = h A Where Fh= shear stress (measured with shear load gage) (4) Plot the horizontal shear stress (τ) versus horizontal (lateral) displacement ?H. (5) Calculate the maximum shear stress for each test. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Record the readings on the data sheet. (10) Continue taking readings until the horizontal shear load peaks and then falls. sv = Nv A Where: Nv = normal vertical force. Compute the sample area A. UIC . Krishna Reddy. (2) Convert the dial readings to the appropriate length and load units and enter the values on the data sheet in the correct locations.

and determine the angle of internal friction (f) from the slope of the approximated Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope.163 (6) Plot the value of the maximum shear stress versus the corresponding vertical stress for each test. Krishna Reddy. UIC . Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.

9 cm Soil Volume: 119.65 g/cm3 Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.9 cm3 Initial mass of soil and pan: 1000. 2002 Tested By: CEMM315 Class.18 g Density of soil (?): 1. UIC .17 cm2 = 4.83 in 2 Shear Box Height: 4.164 DIRECT SHEAR TEST DATA SHEET Date Tested: August 30. 2’-4’ Visual Classification: Brown uniform sand Shear Box Inside Diameter: 6.82 cm Mass of soil: 279.AU-10. Group A Project Name: CEMM315 Lab Sample Number: K-3. Krishna Reddy. g Final mass of soil and pan: 720.3 cm Area (A): 31.

5 23 23.047 2.3 4.248 1.527 11.262 2.019 0.076 0.5 15 17 19 20 22 22.082 1.439 6.144 0.152 0.5 25 25.33 7.636 10.648 1.355 2.986 2.416 2.057 0.597 9.121 12.785 10.5 28 25 Horizontal Shear Force (lb) 0 5.488 10.1215 0.675 11.029 0.201 2.044 0.07 0.064 1.385 2.973 12.137 0.740 1.142 5.107 0.933 11.539 2.033 6.270 11.5 129 137 145 152 160 179 Horizontal Displacement (in) 0 0.8 5 7 8 13.231 5.170 2.063 0.16 0.27 psi Horizontal Dial Reading (0.863 1.355 .036 0.179 Load Dial Reading 0 4 4.893 10.084 0.963 8.145 0.01 0.1 0.002 9.508 2.31 1.113 1.409 9.478 2.051 0.165 Direct Shear Test Data Displacement rate: _______ Normal stress: 2.091 0.129 0.379 5.5 26 27 27. Krishna Reddy.126 1.379 11.232 2.001 in) 0 10 19 29 36 44 51 57 63 70 76 84 91 100 107 114 121.379 Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. UIC Shear Stress (psi) 0 1.

056 0.148 0.127 0.991 20.101 0.011 0.166 Direct Shear Test Data Normal stress: 4.5 20 23 25.599 4.83 4.5 29 31.0045 0.031 21.037 0.232 2.077 0. Krishna Reddy.5 60 61.309 13.5 16.646 15.428 17.648 1.517 7.894 10.385 2.556 1.567 13.506 4.846 3.094 0.368 Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.963 8.5 62 Horizontal Shear Force (lb) 0 6.854 9.5 18.13 4.55 psi Horizontal Dial Reading (0.774 22. UIC Shear Stress (psi) 0 1.210 18.136 0.5 33 36 39 42 44 48 49 54 56.768 3.082 0.5 57.022 18.062 0.507 19.832 1.955 2.044 0.537 16.448 9.352 4.017 0.121 0.522 3.001 in) 0 4.5 15.05 0.62 .219 22.031 3.60 2.785 11.527 12.330 7.023 0.77 1.155 Load Dial Reading 0 8 12 13.141 0.4 3.754 2.07 0.215 3.5 11 17 23 30 37 44 50 56 62 70 77 82 88 94 101 108 115 121 127 136 141 148 155 Horizontal Displacement (in) 0 0.755 14.31 1.115 0.047 2.030 0.088 0.108 0.557 8.291 4.734 21.

5 109 115 122 128 133 138 142 Horizontal Displacement (in) 0 0.706 10.586 21.082 0.319 17.052 14.707 3.131 16.244 5.039 0.01 0.461 3.142 Load dial Reading 0 16 22 27 31 34 36 41 41.109 0.937 5.1015 0.913 18.584 3.908 3.85 25.228 27.034 0.801 2.18 22.99 20.061 0.16 14.094 0.82 psi Horizontal Dial Reading (0.071 22.128 0.60 Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.5 43 45 47 50 54 56 58 61 63 67 72 75 78 82 83 83 Horizontal Shear Force (lb) 0 8.646 16.665 23.167 Direct Shear Test Data Normal stress: 6.858 5.119 28.972 13.338 3.26 4.605 28.021 0.279 16.383 4.337 26.088 0.568 4.133 0.488 11.725 17.115 0.005 0.891 4.042 0.307 28.723 2.170 2.92 5.92 .051 0.138 0.804 19.13 4.001 0.068 0.001 in) 0 1 5 10 15 21 28 34 39 42 51 61 68 74 82 88 94 101.612 5.690 4.122 0.015 0.428 5. Krishna Reddy.028 0.37 3.074 0. UIC Shear Stress (psi) 0 1.031 3.478 2.

08 0.6 psi 2 Normal Stress = 2.27 psi 1 Normal Stress = 4.55 psi Normal Stress = 6.1 0.12 0.168 Horizontal Shear Stress (psi) 7 5.14 0. UIC 8 0.9 psi 6 5 4.18 0.16 Horizontal Displacement (in) 8 7 Shear Stress (psi) 6 5 ϕ = 45 4 ο 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Normal Stress (psi) Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Krishna Reddy.06 0.04 0.7 psi 4 3 2.82 psi 0 0 0.2 .02 0.

Krishna Reddy. UIC .169 BLANK DATA SHEETS Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.

Krishna Reddy.170 DIRECT SHEAR TEST DATA SHEET Date Tested: Tested By: Project Name: Sample Number: Visual Classification: Shear Box Inside Diameter: Area (A): Shear Box Height: Soil Volume: Initial mass of soil and pan: Final mass of soil and pan: Mass of soil: Density of soil (?): Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. UIC .

Krishna Reddy. UIC Shear Stress (psi) .001 in) Horizontal Displacement (in) Load Dial Reading Horizontal Shear Force (lb) Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.171 Direct Shear Test Data Displacement rate: _______ Normal stress: _______psi Horizontal Dial Reading (0.

172 Direct Shear Test Data Normal stress: _________ psi Horizontal Horizontal Dial Reading Displacement (0.001 in) (in) Load Dial Reading Horizontal Shear Force (lb) Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. UIC Shear Stress (psi) . Krishna Reddy.

173 Direct Shear Test Data Normal stress: _______ psi Horizontal Horizontal Dial Reading Displacement (0. UIC Shear Stress (psi) . Krishna Reddy.001 in) (in) Load dial Reading Horizontal Shear Force (lb) Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.

UIC 20 9 10 .Horizontal Shear Stress (psi) 174 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Horizontal Displacement (in) 20 18 Shear Stress (psi) 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Normal Stress (psi) Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Krishna Reddy.

This is expressed as: Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. The undrained shear strength (su) of clays is commonly determined from an unconfined compression test. whichever occurs first during the performance of a test. when the undrained shear strength is basically equal to the cohesion (c). the undrained shear strength (su) is necessary for the determination of the bearing capacity of foundations. UIC . In addition. Krishna Reddy.145 EXPERIMENT 12 UNCONFINED COMPRESSION (UC) TEST Purpose: The primary purpose of this test is to determine the unconfined compressive strength. in this test method. The undrained shear strength (su) of a cohesive soil is equal to one-half the unconfined compressive strength (qu) when the soil is under the f = 0 condition (f = the angle of internal friction). etc. According to the ASTM standard. the unconfined compressive strength (qu) is defined as the compressive stress at which an unconfined cylindrical specimen of soil will fail in a simple compression test. which represents undrained conditions. The most critical condition for the soil usually occurs immediately after construction.Standard Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soil Significance: For soils. Standard Reference: ASTM D 2166 . which is then used to calculate the unconsolidated undrained shear strength of the clay under unconfined condi tions. dams. or the load per unit area at 15% axial strain. the unconfined compressive strength is taken as the maximum load attained per unit area.

as time passes. given by s = c + s‘tan f . Sample trimming equipment. Load and deformation dial gauges. Moisture can. c’ and ϕ’ are drained shear strength parameters. s = total pressure. Balance.u). and u = pore water pressure. The determination of drained shear strength parameters is given in Experiment 14 Equipment: Compression device. and the intergranular stress increases. must be used. Where s‘ = intergranular pressure acting perpendicular to the shear plane.146 su = c = qu 2 Then. the pore water in the soil slowly dissipates. so that the drained shear strength (s). UIC . Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. and s‘ = (s . Krishna Reddy.

(3) Measure the exact length of the specimen at three locations 120° apart. Average the measurements and record the average as the diameter on the data sheet. Cut a soil specimen so that the ratio (L/d) is approximately between 2 and 2. UIC .5. respectively. Where L and d are the length and diameter of soil specimen. and then average the measurements and record the average as the length on the data sheet. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Krishna Reddy.147 Test Procedure: (1) Extrude the soil sample from Shelby tube sampler. and then make the same measurements on the bottom of the specimen. (2) Measure the exact diameter of the top of the specimen at three locations 120° apart.

(5) Calculate the deformation (∆L) corresponding to 15% strain (ε). (6) Carefully place the specimen in the compression device and center it on the bottom plate. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Adjust the device so that the upper plate just makes contact with the specimen and set the load and deformation dials to zero. Determine the water content as in Experiment 1. (7) Apply the load so that the device produces an axial strain at a rate of 0. (10) Remove the sample from the compression device and obtain a sample for water content determination. (8) Keep applying the load until (1) the load (load dial) decreases on the specimen significantly. and then record the load and deformation dial readings on the data sheet at every 20 to 50 divisions on deformation the dial. or (3) the deformation is significantly past the 15% strain that was determined in step 5. UIC . (9) Draw a sketch to depict the sample failure.5% to 2.0% per minute. Strain (e) = ∆L Lo Where L0 = Original specimen length (as measured in step 3).148 (4) Weigh the sample and record the mass on the data sheet. (2) the load holds constant for at least four deformation dial readings. Krishna Reddy.

w%. compute the specimen stress. See the example data. e = (4) Computed the corrected area. s c = ?L L 0 A 0 1− e P A' (Be careful with unit conversions and use constant units). su = c (or cohesion) = qu/2. (Confirm that the conversion is done correctly. UIC . Krishna Reddy.149 Analysis: (1) Convert the dial readings to the appropriate load and length units. A' = (5) Using A’. Be sure that the strain is plotted on the abscissa. and enter these values on the data sheet in the deformation and total load columns. (8) Draw Mohr’s circle using qu from the last step and show the undrained shear strength. (7) Plot the stress versus strain. (6) Compute the water content. Show qu as the peak stress (or at 15% strain) of the test. particularly proving dial gage readings conversion into load) (2) π 2 Compute the sample cross-sectional area A = × (d) 0 4 (3) Compute the strain. Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. See example data.

UIC . Krishna Reddy.150 EXAMPLE DATA Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.

clean can + lid (grams) MCMS = Mass of can.9 Water content (w%) = 25.78 = 616.151 UNCONFINED COMPRESSION TEST DATA SHEET Date Tested: August 30. and dry soil (grams) MS = Mass of soil solids (grams) MW = Mass of pore water (grams) W = Water content. Krishna Reddy.29)2 × 14.98 g/cm3 616. 2002 Tested By: CEMM315 Class.9 cm3 4 1221. Moisture can number .9   1 +  100   Area (A0) = Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.6 45. 8-10 A 15. lid.4 Wet density = = 1.29) = 41.57 g/cm3 25..29 cm Length (L0) = 14.74 cm2 4 p Volume = × ( 7. lid. and moist soil (grams) MCDS = Mass of can.98 Dry density (?d) = = 1.5 23. medium plasticity. 8’-10’ Visual Classification: Brown silty clay. Group A Project Name: CEMM315 Lab Sample Number: ST-1. moist CL. Sample data: Diameter (d) = 7. UIC .78 cm Mass = 1221.7 39.9 6. w% ST-1.4 g Table 1: Moisture Content determination Sample no.94 p × ( 7.9 % 1.Lid number MC = Mass of empty.2 25.

Krishna Reddy.054 0. Proving Ring No: 24691.061 0.062 Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof.591 18.598 2553.126 Load (KN) Stress (kPa) 0.189 23.347 3592.650 69.966 42.873 17.666 1683.814 43.839 3.309 61. Load Dial: 1 unit = 0.223 1936.516 52.018 4.398 4.2 140 26 1.108 0.642 71.856 68.096 45.811 80.000 56.011 0.786 21.472 10.864 79.024 42.338 32.971 44.495 52.570 41.068 0.205 27.343 3.368 2.149 10.060 4.5 500 93 5 550 102 5.152 Table 2: Unconfined Compression Test Data (Deformation Dial: 1 unit = 0.131 126.533 45.428 45.018 6.855 13.706 3.541 0.119 8.610 65.107 46.007 24.129 0.714 2132.945 20.369 0.081 0.498 29.178 631.179 12.909 41.750 1305.090 70.721 4.016 36.428 6.752 42.238 17.659 43.196 17.017 0.841 3045.381 30.044 0.757 80.644 10.148 10.6 80 19 0.088 0.014 0.035 20.473 52.012 8.434 2399.209 33.039 49.089 6.314 0.366 53.5 900 160 9 950 166 9.393 266.176 0.353 1.020 0.339 1571. UIC .426 47.135 0.853 41.502 12.030 0.796 41.356 14.203 0.406 0.189 0.958 2694.122 0.649 51.831 50.353 43.939 63.051 0.634 59.532 14.762 68.413 60.855 40.037 0.316 44.044 1431.5 400 74 4 450 84 4.817 75.505 43.095 0.600 56.625 7.237 2329.931 68.473 757.074 5.806 47.457 42.943 57.282 3578.163 50.300 3213.4 60 12 0.218 1.2 40 9 0.691 2.115 0.939 14.222 53.286 44.442 80.896 48.247 70.080 505.045 3.766 7.710 76.047 0.164 47.928 1810.539 71.4 160 29 1.285 2834.606 44.347 72.413 5.3154 lb) Sample Deformation Load Dial Deformation Dial Reading Reading ∆L (mm) 0 0 0 20 4 0.005 0.612 2932.656 78.851 406.687 336.454 46.422 1178.994 6.000 1.196 42.442 8.10mm.138 42.768 898.736 5.568 63.950 50.003 8.786 364.008 0.001 0.295 168.383 3.058 0.262 2.5 600 112 6 650 120 6.034 0.446 44.785 5.954 3508.135 0.012 0.331 37.517 2020.454 70.050 43.103 3129.271 0.004 0.380 3564.959 11.694 43.149 0.496 3283.000 0.027 0.298 41.604 42.976 2245.081 42.177 35.722 65.009 0.041 0.660 3367.240 73.5 300 54 3 350 64 3.947 1.551 66.315 70.095 1038.007 0.030 2.134 69.677 0.949 463.101 0.162 0.312 42.856 3409.254 42.812 0.041 45.128 44.751 6.768 45.8 100 21 1 120 24 1.571 8.271 49.344 26.765 46.000 1.825 11.201 43.064 0.126 38.792 48.074 0.083 1.5 700 129 7 750 138 7.003 0.410 11.885 16.900 43.024 0.5 1000 171 10 1100 182 11 1200 192 12 1300 202 13 1400 209 14 1500 217 15 1600 223 16 1700 229 17 1800 234 18 1900 240 19 2000 243 20 2200 250 22 2400 253 24 2600 255 26 2800 256 28 3000 254 30 Strain (ε) % Corrected Load Strain Area A' (lb) 0.796 9.739 41.000 0.527 47.8 200 36 2 250 45 2.202 9.184 3550.5 800 144 8 850 152 8.6 180 33 1.658 9.353 7.622 294.

Krishna Reddy.153 SAMPLE: ST-1.0 KPa Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. UIC 25 .0 KPa Cohesion (c) = 36. 8'-10' 80 Axial Stress (kPa) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 Axial Strain (%) From the stress-strain curve and Mohr’s circle: Unconfined compressive strength (qu) = 72.

UIC .154 BLANK DATA SHEETS Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Krishna Reddy.

and moist soil (grams) MCDS = Mass of can. lid.155 UNCONFINED COMPRESSION TEST DATA SHEET Date Tested: Tested By: Project Name: Sample Number: Visual Classification: Sample data: Diameter (d) = Length (L0) = Mass = Table 1: Moisture Content determination Sample no.Lid number MC = Mass of empty. clean can + lid (grams) MCMS = Mass of can. Krishna Reddy. w% Area (A0) = Volume = Wet density = Water content (w%) = Dry density (?d) = Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. and dry soil (grams) MS = Mass of soil solids (grams) MW = Mass of pore water (grams) W = Water content. lid. Moisture can number . UIC .

3154 lb) Sample Deformation Load Dial Deformation Dial Reading Reading ∆L (mm) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 Strain (ε) % Corrected Load Strain Area A' (lb) Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. Proving Ring No: 24691. UIC Load (KN) Stress (kPa) .156 Table 2: Unconfined Compression Test Data (Deformation Dial: 1 unit = 0.10mm. Load Dial: 1 unit = 0. Krishna Reddy.

157 180 Axial Stress (kPa) 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 15 Axial Strain (%) 100 90 Shear Stress (kPa) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Normal Stress (kPa) From the stress-strain curve and Mohr’s circle: Unconfined compressive strength (qu) = Cohesion (c) = Engineering Properties of Soils Based on Laboratory Testing Prof. UIC 20 25 . Krishna Reddy.