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Transient Multiphase

Flow Simulator

_USER
MANUAL

VER S ION 5

OLGA ® - at the heart of production.

be dynamic

Enabling reliable and efficient flow of production fluids
Transient Multiphase Flow Simulator

OLGA 5.0

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Table of Contents

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 1
1.1

General Information............................................................................................... 2

1.2

Potential Applications ............................................................................................ 4

INPUT DESCRIPTION AND PROGRAM EXECUTION ................................................. 8
2.1

General Input Structure ....................................................................................... 10

2.2

Process Equipment ............................................................................................. 20

2.3

Special Options ................................................................................................... 66

2.4

Program Execution ............................................................................................ 132

2.5

Restrictions and Limitations............................................................................... 133

INPUT FILE DESCRIPTION....................................................................................... 139
3.1

Input Data Syntax .............................................................................................. 141

3.2

Input Statements Overview ............................................................................... 146

3.3

Keyword Descriptions........................................................................................ 152

FLUID PROPERTIES, COMPRESSOR, AND PUMP DATA FILES .......................... 370
4.1

Fluid properties file ............................................................................................ 374

4.2

Compressor data file ......................................................................................... 389

4.3

Pump Data Files ................................................................................................ 391

4.4

Wax table file ..................................................................................................... 395

OUTPUT DESCRIPTION............................................................................................ 396
5.1

Printed Output ................................................................................................... 397

5.2

Plot files ............................................................................................................. 406

5.3

Restart Files ...................................................................................................... 406

REFERENCES ........................................................................................................... 407
6.1

Referenced papers ............................................................................................ 408

6.2

Non-referenced papers describing the OLGA model: ....................................... 411

6.3

Non-referenced papers describing applications of the OLGA model: ............... 411

APPENDIX A
Complete list of Output Variables ............................................................................... 417
APPENDIX B
List of Units and Conversion Factors.......................................................................... 449

Chapter 1: Introduction

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
1.

INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................2
1.1 General Information ......................................................................................2
1.2 Potential Applications ...................................................................................4
1.2.1 Pipeline Design .................................................................................5
1.2.2 Pipeline Operation.............................................................................5
1.2.3 Safety Analysis..................................................................................6

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1.

Chapter 1: Introduction

INTRODUCTION

1.1 General Information
OLGA was originally developed as a dynamic one dimensional modified two fluid
model for two-phase hydrocarbon flow in pipelines and pipeline networks, with
processing equipment included. Later, a water option was included which treats
water as a separate liquid phase.
OLGA was originally based on the computer program OLGA 83, developed by IFE
in 1983 for the Norwegian State Oil Company, Statoil.
Since 1984, OLGA has been improved continuously due to the experimental database from the large scale two-phase flow laboratory at SINTEF and extensive use
and numerical testing at IFE and in the oil companies involved. In the later years,
more two-phase and three-phase field data have become available for the testing of
OLGA.
The dynamic capability of OLGA is its most important feature. Multiphase flow is a
dynamic phenomenon and should be modelled as such. This dramatically increases
the range of applicability compared with steady state models. OLGA is capable of
dynamic simulation of pipeline networks with process equipment such as
compressors, pumps, heat exchangers, separators, checkvalves, controllers and
mass sources/sinks.
OLGA has full network capability, that is, it handles both diverging and converging
networks. Complete topside process systems can therefore be simulated, e.g., a
system where several flowlines are connected to one manifold, which is connected
to parallell separators that have compressor trains, separator trains and water
drains further downstream.
Computing a transient multiphase flow situation with a dynamic model requires
increased CPU-time expenditure compared with ordinary steady state models. The
additional time dimension also increases the amount of output produced by the
code. The dynamic feature of the program imposes additional requirements on the
user, compared with steady state models, but the results of the transient program
are significantly more useful in design of the pipeline and its attendant facilities than
steady state methods.
A steady state pre-processor is also included in OLGA, where the steady state
conservation equations are solved. Although it may be used independently, it is
mainly intended as a generator of initial values for dynamical simulations.
OLGA is a modified two-fluid model, i. e. separate continuity equations for the gas,
liquid bulk and liquid droplets are applied; these may be coupled through interfacial
mass transfer. Only two momentum equations are used; one for the continuous
liquid phase and one for the combination of gas and possible liquid droplets. The
velocity of any entrained liquid droplets in the gas phase is given by a slip relation.
One mixture energy equation is applied; both phases are at the same temperature.
This yields six conservation equations to be solved: three for mass, two for
momentum, and one for energy.

Chapter 1: Introduction

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With the water option, continuity equations for bulk water and water droplets are
added. The bulk water velocity is obtained from a correlation for water velocity
relative to the average liquid bulk velocity.
Two basic flow regime classes are applied; distributed and separated flow. The
former contains bubble and slug flow, the latter stratified and annular mist flow.
Transition between the regime classes is determined by the program on the basis of
a minimum slip concept combined with additional criteria.
To close the system of equations, boundary and initial conditions are required. The
specification of initial conditions is a fundamental difference between transient and
steady state model where these are not required. The user decides, and later
specifies in the input, whether the simulation is to start with an empty, filled, or shutdown pipeline, or from full production. The steady state initial pre-processor in
OLGA can be used to provide reasonable initial values. In addition, the restart
capability may be used to start with data saved from a previous simulation.
The boundary conditions define the interface between the pipeline system and its
surroundings. There are several options available, but basically either flow rate or
pressure must be specified at each pipeline inlet and outlet boundary.
Due to the numerical solution scheme, OLGA is particularly well suited for
simulating rather slow mass flow transients. The semi-implicit time integration
implemented allows for relatively long time steps, orders of magnitudes longer than
those of an explicit method (which would be limited by the Courant Friedrich Levy
criterion based on the speed of sound). This is important for the simulation of very
long transport lines, where typical simulation times in the range of hours to several
days will require long time steps, to have efficient run times.
The necessary fluid properties (gas/liquid mass fraction, densities, viscosities,
enthalpies etc.) are normally assumed to be functions of temperature and pressure
only, and have to be supplied by the user as tables in a special input file. Thus, the
total composition of the multiphase mixture is assumed to be constant both in time
and space for a given branch. The user may specify different fluid property tables for
each branch, but has to ensure realistic fluid composition when several pipeline
branches merge into one. It is also possible to perform a simulation using
compositional tracking, where the compositional data is provided in a separate feed
file and the code calculates the fluid properties internally. This means that the total
composition may vary both in time and space, and that no special consideration is
needed for a downstream branch.
The purpose of this manual is to assist the user in the preparation of the input data
for an OLGA simulation. Chapter 2 gives an overview of the required and the
optional input to OLGA. It also describes in some detail, the different modules for
simulating process equipment, slugtracking and water as a separate phase. A
detailed description of all input data and the required fluid property tables can be
found in chapters 3 and 4. The output is described in chapter 5.
The user is also advised to examine the input variable definitions in the comment
records in the sample cases given in the appendices.
The sample cases presented in appendices are intended to illustrate important
program options, but they can also serve as benchmark during program installation.

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Chapter 1: Introduction

OLGA comes in a basic version with a number of optional modules. These modules
are the Water module, the Slugtracking module, the Bundle module, the Soil
module, the FEMTherm module, the Multiphase pumps module, the Corrosion
Module, the Advanced Well module, the Wax Deposition module, the MEG Tracking
module, the Compositional Tracking module, the Complex Fluid module, the Tuning
module, and the Server module. In addition there is a number of additional programs
like the OLGA GUI and the FEMThermViewer for preparation of input data and
visualisation of results. These are available to the user according to the user's
licensing agreement with Scandpower Petroleum Technology. The modules are
described in the following chapters.

1.2 Potential Applications
The dynamic multiphase flow model in OLGA has a wide range of applications. The
model is basically verified against data from the SINTEF Multi-Phase Flow
Laboratory, IFE’s small/medium size high density flow loops, and field data, in
addition to small scale laboratory data. The applied numerical method makes it
particularly well suited for simulation of flow transients. This was also the original
motivation for the development of the model: available steady state models are of
very limited use for the design engineer who is considering two-phase fluid
transportation in pipelines.
An important example of an unstable flow situation of great practical importance is
the occurrence of slug flow. Two types of slug flow are recognised in OLGA;
hydrodynamic or "normal" slug flow, and terrain induced slug flow. The terrain
induced slugs are created by the accumulation of liquid at low points in the pipeline,
in dips or bends, and may be many orders of magnitude longer than the slugs
occurring in hydrodynamic slug flow. Slugs represent a serious challenge to the
design and operations of the receiving process equipment. The OLGA slugtracking
module can follow the growth or decay of each individual slug.
Some highly relevant applications of OLGA are briefly presented below. The
discussion that follows is based on experience from the use of OLGA in the oil and
gas industry during the last years.
Typical systems that OLGA may be applied to, are:
- Oil and natural gas flowlines or transportation lines
- Wet gas or condensate pipelines
- Well stream from a reservoir
- LNG/ LPG/ NGL pipelines
- Dense phase pipelines
- Network of merging and diverging pipelines
- Artificial lift and other mass source injections
- Pipelines with process equipment
- Single phase gas or liquid
- Small diameter pipelines with various fluids
- Laboratory experiments
- Topside process systems

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Three major fields of application are pipeline design studies, operational studies
and safety analysis.
Chapter 6 contains a list of papers describing the OLGA model and its applications.
1.2.1 Pipeline Design
OLGA is a powerful instrument for the design engineer who is considering different
concepts for fluid transportation in pipelines, e.g. oil and gas from a subsea
production well. The dimensions and layout of a pipeline must be optimised under
given restrictions. The limiting conditions may be the available total pressure drop, a
time varying field production rate, a minimum temperature that has to be avoided
(e.g. due to the formation of hydrates), a flow regime that gives high pipe corrosion
or erosion, an outlet receiving capacity limitation or the occurrence of terrain
induced slugs.
For example, in a flow capacity study, an undersized pipe will give a prohibitively
high pressure drop, and a critical erosional velocity may be reached at some point in
the pipeline. Conversely, if the diameter is too large, terrain slugging might occur. A
possible suppression of terrain slugging can be studied with available process
equipment in OLGA, such as chokes, compressors, check valves, etc. If terrain
slugging is allowed, OLGA can indicate the transients the system must withstand
(e.g. the value of the largest pressure peak) and the required capacity of the outlet
slug catcher. Thermal calculations may help when making decisions regarding pipe
material and wall thickness, and whether the pipe will have to be insulated or buried
at the sea bottom.
Simulation of different pipe network configurations is also possible. OLGA may be
used in the design of merging flow lines from different production wells with different
fluids into a manifold that is connected to several multiphase transport lines.
1.2.2 Pipeline Operation
OLGA can be of great assistance in defining the operational strategies of a multiphase flow system. Consequences of changes in operating conditions are difficult to
foresee but can be predicted with OLGA. Some typical events during operation of oil
and gas pipelines that can be simulated with Olga, are discussed below.
Pipeline shut-down
If the flow in a pipeline for some reason has to be shut down, different procedures
may be investigated. The dynamics during the shut-down can be studied as well as
the final conditions in the pipe. The liquid content is of interest as well as the
temperature evolution in the fluid at rest since the walls may cool the fluid below a
critical temperature where hydrates may start to form.
Pipeline start-up
The initial conditions of a pipeline to be started is either specified by the user or
defined by a restart from a shut-down case. The start-up simulation can determine
the evolution of any accumulated liquid slugs in the system. A start-up procedure is
often sought whereby any terrain slugging is minimised or altogether avoided. The
slugtracking module is very useful in this regard.

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Chapter 1: Introduction

In a network case a strategy for the start-up procedure of several merging flow lines
could be particularly important.
Change in production
Sometimes the production level or type of fluid will change during the lifetime of a
reservoir. The modification of the liquid properties due to the presence of water, is
one of the important effects accounted for in OLGA.
A controlled change in the production rate or an injection of another fluid are
important cases to be simulated. Of particular interest is the dynamics of network
interactions e.g. how the transport line operation is affected by flow rate changes in
one of several merging flowlines.
Process equipment
Process equipment can be used to regulate or control the varying flow conditions in
a multi-phase flow line. This is of special interest in cases where slugging is to be
avoided.
The process equipment simulated in OLGA includes critical- and subcritical chokes
with fixed or controlled openings, checkvalves, compressors with speed and antisurge controllers, separators, heat exchangers, pumps and mass sources and
sinks.
Pipeline pigging
OLGA can simulate the pigging of a pipeline. A user specified pig may be inserted in
the pipeline in OLGA at any time and place. Any liquid slugs that are created by the
pig along the pipeline can be followed in time. Of special interest is the
determination of the size and velocity of a liquid slug leaving the system ahead of a
pig that has been inserted into a shut-down flow line.
Hydrate plugs
A simple model for hydrate plug growth and release is included in OLGA. Based on
user specified hydrate formation rate as a function of fluid temperature and other
characteristic hydrate data, the growth, the release, and the transport of hydrate
plugs can be simulated.
Drilling
Both conventional and underbalanced drilling (UBD) can be simulated in OLGA. A
drilling path must be predefined, and then the drilling operation with reservoir
interactions and varying penetration rate is performed. The Underbalanced
Interactive Transient Training Simulator (UBitTS) is a stand-alone tool delivered by
Scandpower Petroleum Technology that is specially adapted for simulating and
visualising this operation.
1.2.3 Safety Analysis
Safety analysis is an important field of application of OLGA. OLGA is capable of
describing propagation of pressure fronts. For such cases the time step can be
limited by the velocity of sound across the shortest pipe section.

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OLGA may be useful for safety analysis in the design phase of a pipeline project,
such as the positioning of valves, regulation equipment, measuring devices, etc.
Critical ranges in pipe monitoring equipment may be estimated and emergency
procedures investigated.
Consequence analysis of possible accidents is another interesting application. The
state of the pipeline after a specified pipe rupture or after a failure in any process
equipment can be determined using OLGA.
Simulations with OLGA can also be of help when defining strategies for accident
management, e.g. well killing by fluid injection.
Finally it should be mentioned that the OLGA model is well suited for use with
simulators designed for particular pipelines and process systems. Apart from safety
analysis and monitoring, such simulators are powerful instruments in the training of
operators.

...1 Input file 1/General Rules ......2....................2...3 Input Data Dependency.....89 ...................48 2....................65 2.........................9 Input file 7/Hydrate Curve Data ...........2......1.................................................2..................................44 2..............................13 2...................15 2....................11 2......................................................1 Reservoir inflow .............................14 2.........1 Case information and execution modes ...........1...............4 Boundary and initial conditions ....................................2......................3.................................53 2..............................76 2.......................79 2.............................................................4.......10 2......53 2.....................1...................................3..............................................6 The complex viscosity model ...............5 Pipe Upsets .....2......................1..........2..20 2.2..2 Auxiliary information ....................................................4 The Advanced Well Module.......................1........................19 2............................3.......5 Input file 3/Restart ..................1.................................................1.............16 2......................................................1 Slug/Pig Tracking Module.........87 2...............................57 2...........2..................................19 2..............3......8 Input file 6/Wax Data .......................1 Slug Statistics .....................................................7 Output options ..........................................3.........................3 Geometrical system definition...........71 2....................86 2.................10 Pumps ....................................20 2.................................................................2....................................................15 2......................1 Gas-water simulations ...............................................................................................5 Compositional model ..........................3 Controllers ..........................3 High pressure displacement pumps (pump battery) .................................................................4 Bit nozzles .........................................3 Special Options ........2..................................1...............................1..........4.......2................................5 Mass Sources.. INPUT DESCRIPTION AND PROGRAM EXECUTION....................1 Separator...............4.....17 2...........................44 2..........2...................1..19 2......................................3.2 Compressor ................1................................4...............7 Heat Exchanger................2...................65 2............................................2 Input File 1/Data Structure............................3...........19 2.........53 2....86 2.........................3......................2....1........................................................................2 Process Equipment ............3............................................Page 8 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution CHAPTER 2 INPUT DESCRIPTION AND PROGRAM EXECUTION 2..................1.......................1..................................................................................1.............75 2..........................2...................9 Valves..26 2.......................................6 Plug or Pig ...........8 Check Valve .............2...............................................1...........................................4 Leak...............2 The Water Module ................................6 Process equipment .............3 Well Description .10 2...........2..........................4.10 2.......................3.......10 2........2 Drilling option .......1 General Input Structure..................................................71 2.......1.............................17 2.................................................................................................................................7 Input file 5/Pump Data .............3.....33 2..................4...................79 2..................20 2..13 2.................................3.6 Input file 4/Compressor Data............................................4 Description of Input file 2/ Fluid Properties....................82 2....................................................

3..............3................................................................113 2.......3...120 2....................................9 The FEMTherm module ............3................................8 Gas Lift Valve (GLV)....120 2.................91 2....................................3..........1 Black Oil Correlations ..5..4 Array Size Limitations.......................5 Restrictions and Limitations ..14........................................5...........................................................................................2 Two-Phase Model Limitations ................5...................................................10 Corrosion Module ...3................................3.....133 2.............................1 The compositional model in OLGA .........................121 2............................7 Bundled pipelines (Bundle Module)......132 2.........................................109 2...98 2......3.....................3 Steady State Processor.............................................................133 2.............13...................132 2...4 Program Execution ....3............................................................................1 Thermally driven natural/free convection in the axial direction .............................................1 Fluid Properties ...........136 .................3....14 The Black Oil module .........................125 2........Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 9 2......104 2...................91 2....14..3..................3.....................................................135 2............3.........13 The Compositional Tracking module...4.............6.......................................................................134 2........95 2.1 Core Requirements .............13.....................8 Soil Module........................3........3....................14..3.......................95 2.................132 2..........................5 The Complex Fluid Module ............................................................12 The MEG tracking module.................3............................102 2............107 2........2 Thermodynamic properties .......................................4........118 2........................................3 User input to the compositional model ........................1 The slurry plug extension ..................................................3..........................................135 2...........2 PVT routine package ..........3 Vital Numerical Recommendations .103 2...1 Limitations and recommendations .................................13........................5............................................................133 2........121 2.......................6 Standard conditions in OLGA.....................................................4......5 Input/Output Limitations .......3....3...............................................................5.7 Mud Property Table ......................2 OLGA execution ...............................................5...................132 2.................6 Thermal Computations .................3 How to use the Black Oil Module.100 2.......9..5....4.......130 2...................3.131 2.......................11 Wax Deposition Module ...............................124 2..4..

operational conditions. output variables etc. 1. Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution INPUT DESCRIPTION AND PROGRAM EXECUTION 2. The program execution is described in section 2. A data group consists of a keyword name followed by a list of keys with the appropriate data.2.dat 2. 4.inp). The data in input file 1 is read according to the syntax rules presented in section 3. Case information and execution modes Auxiliary information Geometrical system definition Boundary and initial conditions Compositional model Process equipment Output options . The first file (input file 1) contains the data particular to a given case such as geometry. Some keywords work as switches and require no data: program options are then determined by the keyword only.. 4. Most of the files have default extensions that are applied when the files are generated in the OLGA GUI etc. 4. 5.1 General Input Structure The input system of OLGA consists of seven files. 6 and 7 are optional. the compressor data are given in input file 4. 7. 6. The input data are organised in groups of similar physical contents. the wax data are given in input file 6. The user may abbreviate the keywords as long as the keyword can be uniquely defined.1.. 2. The input files 2. If a compressor is simulated. Input file 1 and 2 are always required while files 3. An exhaustive description of the input is given in chapter 3.2 Input File 1/Data Structure The input is presented in six parts. 6 and 7 are referenced in the main input file (1). simulation1. Up to 60 characters are used to specify keywords. and if a pump is simulated the pump characteristics are given in input file 5. 3. 2. and if formation of hydrates is to be detected. 5. The third file (input file 3) is a restart file that is used to continue a previous calculation. If wax deposition is simulated. The following is an overview of the input files. a hydrate curve can be given in input file 7. Ex: %read geometryl.Page 10 2. The second (input file 2) contains the fluid property tables or the compositional data (for compositional tracking).1 Input file 1/General Rules The default extension of this file is inp (e.1. but the code will accept other extensions. 3. 5.g. It is possible to include a data file into the case data input file using a READstatement preceded by a (%) sign.3.

and initial. date and other relevant identification. no energy exchange with pipe walls.and post processing of data and number of phases to be simulated. 2. and compressor and pump characteristics. Keep time step small enough to keep error of pressure integration below a certain limit. A number of different calculation options can be selected. pre.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 11 2. These options can be ON or OFF for any section or position in the system. title of simulation. Temperatures must be specified with the INITIAL keyword statement. .2. a.1. steady-state. OPTIONS specifies options for temperature calculation. b. INTEGRATION is used to specify start and end time of a simulation and limits for time step control. author. Five different temperature options are available. DTCONTROL specifies the options for time step control. Two options are available. TEMPERATURE = ADIABATIC Adiabatic flow is assumed. 1. HYDRATECHECK is used to give information on possible formation of hydrates. TEMPERATURE = OFF No temperatures are calculated.1 Case information and execution modes Case information and execution mode for a particular simulation is specified using the following keywords: CASE DTCONTROL FILES HYDRATECHECK INTEGRATION OPTIONS RESTART CORROSION SLUGTRACKING PIGTRACKING WAXDEPOSITION WATEROPTIONS SHUTIN TUNING FLUID DRILLINGFLUID ENDCASE CASE is used for identification of a case by defining project name. Keep time step less than a theoretical limit for mass flow stability (CFL). FILES specifies auxiliary data files for fluid properties. max. min.

The TUNING keyword may be used for tuning certain parameters in the OLGA model to optimise for specific sets of measured data or for sensitivity studies.3. and for writing to the restart file produced by the current case. DRILLINGFLUID defines a drilling fluid. ENDCASE defines the end of input file 1. the flow regime will always be stratified/annular and some nonphysical flow regime flipping can be avoided. Note: TUNING should be applied with great care. some numerical oscillations can arise. it also specifies timepoints for (writing data to) and reading data from the restart file. as the validation and verification of the OLGA model may not be valid for such cases. 5. The thermal transient in the wall materials is neglected. Optionally. heat conduction and heat storage in pipe wall and heat transfer on outer pipe wall surface. the keyword SHUTIN can be used during the shutdown period. .3. In order to reduce such oscillations. Further description in chapter 3 (3. TEMPERATURE = FASTWALL An overall heat transfer coefficient is calculated from wall data and is used for wall heat transfer calculations.20). This module is described in section 2. 4. This module is described in section 2.3. the keyword WATEROPTION can be used to specify the three-phase flow options available.Page 12 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution 3. Within a user defined time period.1. This module is described in section 2.11. In case the three phase option is selected under OPTION. CORROSION specifies the use of the corrosion module. In the case that the WATEROPTION is selected. This keyword is available both in batch and server mode.3.56). This module enables simulation of nonNewtonian fluids. The water module is described in section 2. WAXDEPOSITION specifies the use of the wax deposition module. SLUGTRACKING and PIGTRACKING specifies the use of the slugtracking module. TEMPERATURE = WALL Calculation of heat transfer between fluid and inner pipe wall surface. FLUID specifies the use of the module. TEMPERATURE = UGIVEN A user specified overall heat transfer coefficient is used for calculating heat exchange between fluid and ambient conditions. A simulation can be a continuation of a previous case.3.2. The tuning parameters available are described in the TUNING section in chapter 3 (3.3.10. RESTART specifies the name of the restart file that contains the data from the previous case. particularly during shutdown simulations.

2. the flow rate can be specified as a function of pressure difference between the reservoir and the well inflow section.2. CV. That is.2. Should the user wish to use another unit than those predefined. temperature. For the specification of the geometrical network with pipes and pipe walls the following keywords are applied. flow.) are defined at section boundaries. This is achieved by using the keyword UNIT. fluxes. where branches are coupled together A staggered spatial mesh is applied. Such a table can be specified using the keyword TABLE. mass flows.2. Keyword Description NODE Defines terminal and merging nodes. flow variables (velocities. Each branch starts and ends at a node.3. 2. a table can be defined for specifying the flow performance.6 (outside): section boundaries Fig. Basically.3. (refer to Fig. 1 2 1 3 2 4 3 5 4 6 5 1.2 Auxiliary information For valves and wells.5 (inside) : section volumes 1.1 Pipeline discretisation Each pipe in the system can have a pipe wall consisting of layers of different materials. 2. the discharge coefficient.1. . There are three different types of nodes: • Terminal (free end) nodes. can be specified as a function of the valve opening and for a well.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 13 2. while pressure. For fluid properties and compressor characteristics the selection of units is limited to SI or BRITISH units. phase fraction. where boundary conditions must be specified • Split nodes. etc. mass. pressure. The user can. etc. OLGA works with SI units.1. are average values in section volumes. where branches split • Merge nodes. Each branch consists of a sequence of pipes and each pipe is divided into sections. geometry of the branch and fluid name for that branch. however.…. the possibility exists to define such a unit for any of the possible physical quantities. select from a given number of units for different physical quantities for both input and output. For a valve.2. These sections correspond to the spatial mesh discretisation in the numerical model.….1). BRANCH Defines start and end node. energy etc.3 Geometrical system definition The OLGA model accepts a network of diverging and converging branches.

radial discretisation and material for each layer can be specified.2. CROSSSECTION Defines what lines. MATERIAL Different wall materials with name and properties can be specified. 2.Page 14 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution GEOMETRY Defines name and starting point for a particular sequence of pipes. Parameters used for calculating heat transfer must also be specified. bundles. inner surface roughness. necessary boundary conditions must be specified. WALL Different pipe walls with name. Further are specified discretisation. fluid and wall properties) to be used with the bundle module.1. ANNULUS Defines the configuration of pipes that are bundled together and have thermal interaction. PIPE Specifies name and end point or length and elevation of a pipe. SHAPE Describes the external contour of a material. POSITION A number of positions with names can be defined for later reference. CROSSOVER Defines coupling of bundle lines. . COVER Modifies properties of cells in a soil group by specifying that the cell is in the sea or contains another material. and wall name. diameter. All points in the system where mass flow into or out of the system can occur must be specified. LINE Defines a bundle line (dimensions. Initial conditions must also be either specified or calculated. GRID Specifies a grid that can be used to define a SOIL group. branches and shapes that belong to a cross section. REROUTE The outlet of a branch can be re-routed from one node to another during a simulation. All pipes defined by keyword PIPE directly thereafter belong to the same geometry. BITNODE Specifies the branches that connect at the drilling bit for drilling simulation BUNDLE Defines which lines belong to a bundle and which OLGApipes it covers. SOIL Defines a soil group by selecting a grid and main material.4 Boundary and initial conditions For the solution of the flow equations.

values for pressure. position and flow characteristics.1. However. keywords that define calculation options and feeds (fluids) can be defined. open or closed condition is specified. temperature and mass fractions are specified. The following keywords are defined: Keyword Description COMPOPTIONS Specifies the different options used in the PVT routines for calculating material properties and flashing terms in the compositional module. The source flow can be given by a time series or determined by a controller. LEAK Defines the position for a leak in the system with leak area and back pressure. HEATTRANSFER Definition of the heat transfer parameters. 2. 2.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 15 The following keywords can be used to specify the flow of mass and energy into and out of the pipeline system: Keyword Description BOUNDARY For each terminal node. The following keywords are defined: Keyword Description . and data necessary for calculating the mass flow into or out of the system. For an open node. These are marked with an *.5 Compositional model For the use of compositional tracking. FEED Defines a feed and its components with belonging mole fractions. they can be included in the input for subsequent dynamic simulations. WELL Defines a well with name. It should be notified that the steady state pre-processor ignores some of the process equipment. Various types of process equipment can be simulated.6 Process equipment In order to obtain a realistic simulation of a pipeline system.2. position.2. SOURCE Defines mass source with name. INITIAL Defines initial values for flow conditions in the system for the case when no steady state calculation is performed.2. A description of the different process modules can be found in section 2. it is normally required to include some process equipment in the simulation.1.

PLUG* Defines name.1. PRINTINPUT Specifies the printing of input data. position and allowed flow direction for a check valve. resulting in correction factor for the wall roughness. PROFILE Defines variable names and time intervals for writing of data to the profile plot file. . HEATEXCHANGER Defines name. starting position and characteristic data for a pig or a hydrate plug. COMPRESSOR* Defines name. type. position and characteristic data for a separator. Keyword Description OUTPUT Defines variable names. SETPOINTVARIABLE Alternative way of defining controlled variables. CHECKVALVE* Defines name. TOOLJOINT Defines internal and external pipe upsets in the flow path. VALVE Defines name.2. position and operating characteristics of a compressor. 2. fluid properties and compressor data may be printed.7 Output options The user can control the output by the use of the following keywords. position and values for local pressure loss coefficients. controlled variable(s) and characteristic data for a controller. position and characteristic data for a heat exchanger. SEPARATOR Defines name. PLOT Defines variable names and time intervals for writing of data to the OLGA viewer file. CONTROLLER Defines name. position and time for printed output. TREND Defines variable names and time intervals for writing of data to the trend plot file. position and characteristic data for a choke or a valve. In addition to printing of different input data in an edited form. PUMP* Defines name. type and characteristic data for a pump. LOSS Defines name.Page 16 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution BITNOZZLE Defines pressure loss through the drill bit nozzles.

13. Any reference to information given in another keyword statement requires that this keyword statement has already been specified. and .1. The latter option. Any keyword statement appearing before a RESTART statement will not be recognised. The following table lists keywords that are always required (R). Any change in input data in a restart run must be specified after the RESTART statement.3. is described in section 2.tab. For definition of time points for writing to restart file. while the rest of this section describes the option with pre-calculated tables.ctm for a feed file. all keyword statements containing dimensioned quantities using the units specified in a UNIT statement must be given after the UNIT statement. For example. Further dependency between input data are specified in section 3. KEYWORD STATEMENT WITHOUT RESTART WITH RESTART R R R O** R O* R R Case information and execution modes ENDCASE FILES INTEGRATION RESTART Geometrical system definition NODE BRANCH GEOMETRY MATERIAL PIPE WALL R R R O R O - Boundary conditions BOUNDARY R O Output options OUTPUT R O * ** If a PVT table file is not specified in a restart.4 Description of Input file 2/ Fluid Properties OLGA requires the necessary fluid properties. The default extension of a file with precalculated tables is .1. defined in Chapter 4.3 Input Data Dependency The keyword statements with corresponding key values may be given in an arbitrary order with the following basic limitation. optional (O) or not allowed (-). Keywords that are optional both with and without restart are not listed. e. a specific GEOMETRY name can be referred to in a BRANCH statement before it is defined. if the keyword UNIT is specified. The keyword statements that belong to the geometrical system definition cannot be changed in a restart run. or as component data in a feed file where fluid properties are calculated internally in the code.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 17 2. 2. and a CONTROLLER name can be referred to in the INTEGRATION statement before it is defined.. There are some exceptions to this limitation. . to be given as pre-calculated tables in a special input file. OLGA will apply the same file as used in the simulation restarted from. compositional tracking.g.

oil and water (if 3-phase): - densities partial derivatives of densities w. The fluid property tables that are supplied as input to OLGA are usually generated from a PVT package. In this case.t. phase densities and phase density partial derivatives. They define a significant part of the model of the system to be simulated.r. The fluid properties required for each phase. typical low pressure laboratory air water experiments may be simulated by attaching the proper air-water data file. Unphysical fluid properties are often the reason for unrealistic simulation results. The latter are important in dynamic cases since they determines the "stiffness" of the system and thereby the tendency to develop terrain slugs and the size and frequency of such slugs. different fluid properties are allowed in each of the pipeline branches.Page 18 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution In the case of a pipeline network. . The fluid properties represent a key input to OLGA. pressure and temperature viscosities heat capacities at constant pressure and composition enthalpies thermal conductivities entropies (optional for critical flow model) Also required are: - gas mass fraction water vapour mass fraction in the gas phase equilibrium free water mass fraction surface tension between each pair of phases The program itself accepts any fluid provided the tables conform to the specified format in Chapter 4. however. Among properties that frequently cause wrong simulation results when they are out of range are viscosities. For this reason the user should carefully examine the fluid property tables to ensure consistency and avoid unphysical values. gas. Another rough consistency check is that the heat capacity at constant pressure should not deviate too much from the change in enthalpies with the temperature in the tables. For example. It is recommended to make 3D plots of the fluid properties in order to check if something is very wrong with the data. It should be checked that properties of the non-existing phase have physically realistic values. Another important aspect is the occurrence of a single phase region for at least a part of the pressure and temperature range. In this case a different correlation for the void fraction in liquid slugs should be applied and this is achieved by using the OPTION-keyword setting the key parameter SLUGVOID = AIR. the user must specify fluid property data for a realistic composition in the merging branch. As a rule of thumb the pressure derivative of the densities of each phase should correspond to typical values of the inverse of isothermal sound velocities squared. Different programs that determine the fluid properties from equilibrium calculations of a given hydrocarbon composition often differ in results and they may even fail to converge to the correct solution at certain conditions. The reason is that the non-existing phase may actually occur for such pressure and temperature combinations due to slip effects or phase separation.

a wax data file is required. .1. 2. and if negative values are encountered a constant is added to all enthalpy values (for all phases) so that the table values become positive.1.6 Input file 4/Compressor Data If a compressor is simulated. 2. The reason for giving the characteristics as function of reduced values is to obtain one table for several inlet conditions (pressure.7 Input file 5/Pump Data If a pump is simulated.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 19 When running OLGA. the user can specify from what timepoint to continue a previous case. and restart of production.1. checked for unrealistic values and if necessary modified before the simulation starts.1. to intentionally subdivide a large job into steps or to simulate a series of major events such as a start. Optionally. temperature) instead of having one table for each inlet condition. By default this is done at each printout time as specified with the keyword OUTPUT. only. a compressor data file is required.5 Input file 3/Restart The default extension of this file is . the complete state from a previous run is recovered and the run may continue with modifications given in the keyword statements that follow after the RESTART keyword. The pump data file contains the pump characteristics and is described in more detail in section 2. to the restart file.8 Input file 6/Wax Data If wax deposition is simulated.rsw. To avoid problems with negative enthalpy values the tables are checked.10 and in chapter 4. stop. a pump data file can be given. Enthalpies can have different zero point depending on the PVT-tool used for the calculations. This is done by specifying the keyword RESTART. 2. The wax data file contains a table with the properties of the wax forming components and is described in more detail in chapter 4. The file contains tables of the compressor characteristics as a function of reduced rotational speed RPM and reduced inlet massflow. The code also contains a default set of pump data tables that can be used if the pump data file is not given. If such modifications are made. The file is by default rewound before any write operation. The program will always dump the values of the variables necessary to continue the simulations except the fluid property tables. In a restart case the program reads the restart file and execution may continue where the previous case stopped. so it contains the values at one particular time. a warning will be written to the print out file and for standard output. the user can specify timepoints for writing data to the restart file and turn off the rewinding of the file before writing data.2. the PVT-data are. see chapter 4. 2. to some extent. The RESTART feature may be used in three different ways: to continue an incomplete previous run. Optionally. A message about this is written to the output file.

Severe velocity oscillations developed.2. and pig/plug. otherwise. compressor with controlled bypass. They are modelled as (fictitious) pipe sections (one per separator) each separator with a user defined length and inner diameter.9 Input file 7/Hydrate Curve Data If the possible formation of hydrate is simulated.25. Technically the program accepts process equipment anywhere along the pipeline. it was found that the amplification of a flow controller had to be reduced when the liquid flow rate was increased and many droplets were created in the riser. in particular in connection with controller actions. Both the normal drain valve and the emergency drain valve have finite opening and closing time. pumps with recycle and bypass flow. the time step is automatically adjusted if any strong transient is occurring in the process equipment. if the separator . The normal drain opening is governed by the control system while the emergency drain just opens and closes.Page 20 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution 2. The process equipment in OLGA is not intended as a tool in the design of a process system. The single train separators are equipped with normal and emergency drains. The user must. An example is shown in section 3. Single train separator: Please observe that for a network case. 2. however. The main purpose of including process equipment has been to give more realistic boundary conditions for multi-phase transport lines. controlled mass source. critical and subcritical chokes and valves.2 Process Equipment The following is a description of the models of the process equipment available in OLGA. The single train separators follow the flow in one of the separator outlets. heat exchanger. The two separator types are described in more detail below. 2. The hydrate curve consists of pairs of temperatures and pressures. The user does not need to consider time step changes due to process equipment. leak. check valve. However. For example. a hydrate curve file is required.3. the single train separator should not be positioned in the first section of the branch immediately downstream of a junction node. for example the effectiveness of the separators must be given and the heat exchangers are idealised heat sinks. A particular motivation has been to study the influence of a process system (and its control algorithms) on particular multi-phase phenomena such as terrain slugging in the pipeline-riser system. given by the user. The setting of control parameters such as amplification and integral time might be improved with better knowledge of the conditions in the transport line. whereas the multi train separators follow all the outlets in different pipelines. The available components are: two and three phase separators.1.1 Separator The process equipment includes single train and multi train separators. assure a sensible coupling of the process equipment as interactions may lead to instabilities.

2. only two phase separator is allowed. Model description and user guidelines: Fig. Valves: The separator has the following types of valves attached (not all of them are used for all input modes): (1) Normal oil drain valve with a subcritical flow model (2) Emergency oil drain with a subcritical flow model (3) Water drain with a subcritical flow model (4) Gas outlet: The valve model is used with either subcritical or critical flow The valves can be referred to (defined in keyword VALVE). PC Gas Gas Oil Water LC Oil LC Water Fig. Therefore specifications of controller reference labels for the normal oil drain valve. It is also possible to mix the gas and oil downstream of the separator. If the water option is not used.e. Separator type: The separator may be horizontal or vertical. 1.2 An illustration of a three-phase train separator 3. The actual option is determined by the keyword TRAIN. Pipeline downstream of single train separator: The pipeline may continue from the gas side of the separator or from the normal oil drain. If the valves are defined through the keyword VALVE. 2. The valve openings (areas) are controlled by the controller system.2 shows the schematic of a three phase single train separator in OLGA. two-phase or three-phase. the controllers’ labels are specified . In the latter case the two pipes between the separator and the mixing point are treated (numerically) as singular flow restrictions and they are not defined within the regular pipe model (i.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 21 level drops below a critical value. all drains close immediately to prevent situations that OLGA cannot handle numerically. normal water drain valve and the gas outlet valve are required. they have no volume). or be defined in the SEPARATOR keyword directly (in which case the valve models are the same as in VALVE). 2.

Levels used by a single train separator: A single train separator needs specification of 3 different levels if it is a two phase separator. emergency oil drain and water drain. the gas and liquid fraction in the flow through the gas outlet is determined by the gas mass to liquid mass ratio in the separator. (2. the liquid pressure drop equation (eq. There is no controller for the emergency valve (only governed by the levels specified below). RESETHOLDUP RESETLEVEL The liquid level below which the oil emergency drain starts to close. That is. LLOILHOLDUP/LLOILLEVEL and LLWATHOLDUP/ LLWATLEVEL do not affect the specified valve openings. REMARKS: If TRAIN = GAS the separator will be treated as a normal section if the liquid holdup becomes larger than 0.Page 22 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution in VALVE.001. . LLWATHOLDUP LLWATLEVEL The water level below which the water drain rate starts to decrease. For the water drain.(2. The opening time is given in the input as STROKETIME. The oil flow (liquid flow if two-phase separator) through the oil drain is set to zero when the oil level drops below LLOILLEVEL or the bulk liquid fraction is less than 0. REMARKS: There can be no gas valve if a compressor is located at the separator gas outlet (the boundary succeeding the separator section). HHWATHOLDUP HHWATLEVEL The water level above which water will be drained together with oil. The gas pressure drop equation (eq.995.74)) is used for the gas outlet.001. These levels are given either as phase fractions or as level heights. but controls the drain rates from the separator directly. If valve sizing tables are used. the water flow is set to zero when the water level drops below LLWATLEVEL or when the bulk water volume fraction is less than 0. That is. LLOILHOLDUP LLOILLEVEL The liquid level below which the oil drain rate starts to decrease. the drain rates are scaled down in order to avoid too low holdup (see remark below) in case the controllers are not properly defined. and 5 if it is a three phase separator since separate water and oil drains are used. The closing time is given in the input as STROKETIME. The levels are: Keyword Description HHOILHOLDUP HHOILLEVEL The maximum liquid level allowed before the oil emergency drain starts to open. 4.73)) is used for oil drain.

That is.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 23 If TRAIN = OIL the separator will be treated as a normal section if the liquid holdup drops below 0. In this case the gas outlet is treated as if TRAIN = GAS and the oil outlet as if TRAIN = OIL. The flow through the gas outlet is treated as described for TRAIN = GAS when the liquid holdup becomes larger than 0. If TRAIN = MIX the gas and oil are mixed downstream of the separator.2) where Ksw is the time constant for separating water from oil.eff0. The oil volume fraction in the water drain is determined by the following relation for separation efficiency: eff o = 1 − K so Trsp (2. the water above this limit is assumed to be drained together with the oil and the separation efficiency for separating water from oil is modified as follows: .995. no liquid carryover in the gas outlet. the gas and liquid fraction in the flow through the oil outlet is determined by the gas mass to liquid mass ratio in the separator. the gas-liquid separation efficiency is equal to one. The water volume fraction in the oil drains is determined by an equation similar to the one above: eff w = 1 − K sw Trsp (2. If the water level is above a certain limit. The user can. specify a constant gas-liquid separation efficiency by the key EFFICIENCY in the keyword SEPARATOR. For three phase flow the liquid droplet volume fraction is distributed to water and oil droplet volume fractions according to the water and oil volume fractions in the settled liquid in the separator. b) Oil in water drain. HHWATHOLDUP or HHWATLEVEL.005. c) Water in oil drains. The gas-liquid separation efficiency is defined as one minus the volume fraction of the liquid droplets in the gas outlet stream. 5. The oil volume fraction in the water drain is then 1 . Separation efficiencies a) Liquid carryover in gas outlet. The liquid droplet volume fraction in the gas stream is then equal to one minus the value assigned to EFFICIENCY. however. In this case the pipe model must include at least one complete OLGA PIPE downstream the separator.1) where Kso is the time constant for separating oil from water and Trsp is the residence time which is defined as the separator liquid volume / liquid volume flow into the separator. that is. By default.

and all the outlets are followed in different pipelines. see Fig. b) In a situation with capacity limitation of the separator normal drain. Two-phase separators have a gas outlet. The split node must have the same number of outgoing branches as the number of separator outlets.3.3: . Separator controllers Guidelines for choosing controller parameters are given in section 2. If liquid hold-up in the separator exceeds HHOILHOLDUP or HHOILLEVEL. the drain valve opening is controlled by the drain flow subcontroller. a liquid outlet and an emergency outlet. Normal drain flow is the input variable to the subcontroller. a single controller for separator level is recommended.One subcontroller controls the separator level. an override controller is recommended. At normal operation. In addition. Liquid level in the separator is then the input variable to the controller.3) where Hof is the ratio of the water layer height above the limit to the liquid height above the same limit. The separator normal drain valves are governed by the control system. . Multi train separator: The multi train separators are equipped with predefined outlets. the separator must be positioned in the last section of an incoming branch to a split node. an optional outlet for flare is available for both separators. 2. .2.Page 24 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution  K  eff w = 1 − sw (1 − H of ) + (1 − eff o )H of  T  rsp   (2. In order to simulate more than one outlet flow. Two applications of controllers are recommended: a) In a situation with no capacity limitation of the separator normal drain. For three-phase separators the liquid flow is divided into an oil outlet and a water outlet. The water volume fraction in the oil stream is then 1-effw. 6. where liquid level in the separator is the input variable to the subcontroller. whereas in situations where the liquid flow through the normal drain exceeds the capacity of the normal drain. the drain valve opening is controlled by the level controller. the emergency drain starts to open and remains open until liquid hold-up decreases below RESETHOLDUP or RESETLEVEL.The other subcontroller controls the liquid flow through the normal drain.

Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 25 flare outlet (optional) gas outlet gas oil oil outlet w at w ater outlet em ergency outlet Fig. and the flow out of each outlet is followed in different branches. 2. Fig. Branches must be assigned to the following outlets for a two-phase separator • Gas outlet • Oil outlet • Emergency outlet • (Flare outlet) . 2. 2. If the water option is not used.4 The multi train separator is positioned at the last section of an incoming branch. Separator type: The separator may be horizontal or vertical. 2. Model description and user guidelines: 1. only two-phase separators are available. two-phase of three-phase.3 An illustration of a three-phase multi train separator. Pipelines downstream of multi train separators The multi train separators have a set of predefined outlets.4 shows how the multi train separator is modelled in OLGA SEP Fig.

Pressure increase and derivatives of pressure increase are calculated from the pressure characteristics and are used for setting new coefficients in the momentum .2. The compressor characteristics and the surge volume flow are given in the form of tables.Page 26 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution For a three-phase separator. 6. Levels used by a multi train separator The separator levels are controlled by the valves and controllers in the outlet branches. using the VALVE keyword. The compressor surge volume flow is the lowest volume flow the compressor can operate on without being unstable.2. as OLGA cannot handle recirculation directly. All valves must be defined on the outgoing branches. 5. and a sink out of the section downstream of the compressor. HHOILLEVEL. LLOILLEVEL and RESETLEVEL (and the corresponding HOLDUP keys) are not allowed for the multi train separators. The keys INITOILLEVEL and INITWATLEVEL are used to calculate initial oil and water level in the separator. 4. Compressor data needed for the model are found by linear interpolation in the compressor tables. the following outlets are defined • Gas outlet • Oil outlet • Water outlet • Emergency outlet • (Flare outlet) 3. There must be one set of tables for each compressor. the water level limit for when the water will be drained together with the oil can be specified in the separator keyword. Separator controllers Guidelines for choosing controller parameters are given in section 2.3. Valves The multi train separators have no internal valves. HHWATHOLDUP or HHWATLEVEL The other level keys LLWATLEVEL. as the controllers are connected to valves. Note that a valve may be positioned at the first section boundary of an outgoing branch from a split node. Moreover. See above description for single train separators.2 Compressor The compressor is described by compressor characteristics that give the pressure and temperature increase over the compressor as a function of flow through the compressor and the rotational speed of the compressor. and all valves are defined outside the separator. Separation efficiencies The models for separator efficiencies are the same for single train and multi train separators. The multi train separator has no internal controllers. In the model the compressor is represented as a flow dependent and rotational speed dependent pressure jump and energy source. 2. Any recirculation around the compressor is treated by a source into the section upstream of the compressor.

5 T1 288 K (−) is normalised inlet pressure (−) is normalised inlet temperature 0.4) . The compressor speed and the recirculation around the compressor are governed by the control system. 2.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 27 equations. Temperature increase is calculated from the temperature characteristics and is used for setting new coefficients in the energy equation. (2.5 n  p2 . π=  Θ 0. 0. θ= GΘ δ n Θ 0. It is assumed that during operation the control system keeps the compressor within the bounds of validity of the characteristics. Compressor pressure step evaluation The compressor pressure characteristics give compressor pressure ratio as a function of reduced rotational speed and reduced mass flow. In addition.5 (kg / s) (r / min) is reduced mass flow is reduced rotational speed Fig. The surge volume flow calculated from the compressor tables is used as set point for the controller that controls the recirculation around the compressor.5  = f G p1  δ Θ  where π p1 p2 G = = = = (-) is the pressure ratio (N/m2) is the inlet pressure (N/m2) is the outlet pressure (kg/s) is the mass flow δ= p1 ⋅ 10 5 Pa 1013 . the compressor speed is limited by a user specified range.5 shows a typical compressor characteristic diagram.

the compressor speed is necessary.Page 28 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Fig. The temperature resulting from this balance is used for calculating fluid properties. Compressor temperature calculation In order to calculate gas temperatures.nmin) u + nmin (2.5 Compressor characteristic diagram The pressure increase over the compressor is calculated from the compressor pressure characteristics. Polytropic compression is assumed. and u is the signal from the control module. n = (nmax . The speed is governed by the control system and is limited by a user specified range. the power required for compression to an outlet pressure p2 is: . u is in the range from 0 to 1.5) where n is the compressor speed. the power supplied by the compressor. where u equal to 1 means that the compressor speed is at its maximum. The enthalpy source due to the compressor is: H c = PWc W i ∆z (2. The range is normally determined by the speed range in the compressor tables. For an inlet at pressure P1 and a density of ρ1. while the compressor outlet temperature is only used for informative purposes. 2. PWC. is added as an enthalpy source to the enthalpy balance for the pipe section following a compressor boundary.6) where W is the mass flux through the compressor and ∆z is the section length of the section downstream the boundary where the compressor is located. For calculation of the operating point.

The recirculation is between two neighbouring sections with a compressor on the common boundary.8) The compressor temperature characteristics are also given in the form of tables. The recirculation flow is treated as a source into the section volume ahead of the compressor boundary. temperature and the polytropic exponent n is: T2  p 2  =  T1  p1  n −1 n (2.5 (2. and the temperature ratio is found by linear interpolation.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 29 n −1     1 n  p2 n   − 1 PWc = p1   ρ1 n − 1  p1    (2. and a source out of the section volume after the compressor boundary. 2.5    G δ  surge 1. . see Fig.9) Calculation of surge volume flow The surge flow is in the form of tables.5.013 ⋅ 10 5  ρ j −1  288    T   j −1  0. Only gas is allowed to flow in the recirculation loop. see Fig. 2.6. Reduced surge mass flow as a function of compressor speed is found by linear interpolation. The flow is controlled by a choke with the choke opening governed by the control system. since OLGA cannot handle recirculation directly.9). The surge volume flow is used as set point for the anti surge controller (ASC) that controls the recirculation around the compressor.7) The relation between pressure ratio. with reduced surge mass flow as a function of reduced compressor speed.10) Recirculation flow modelling Recirculation flow around a compressor is modelled as a set of negative and positive sources. n − 1 ln (T2 T1 ) = n ln ( p 2 p1 ) (2. For a compressor located at boundary j the surge volume flow is calculated as follows: Qsurge = p j −1  Θ 0. The polytropic factor (n-1)/n is calculated from pressure ratio and temperature ratio using equation (2. preventing unstable compressor operation.

crit is critical pressure difference (2. D is the diameter of the section with the source.crit = p − p crit = p 1 −    γ + 1     where  cp  cv γ is specific heat ratio     πcrit is critical pressure ratio p is the pressure in the section it is flowing out of ∆pch.13) (2. rg is the gas density in the section it is flowing out of (section after the compressor). the critical one is used.6 Recirculation loop The pressure drop across the restriction is equal to the pressure difference between the section downstream and upstream of the compressor.12) where the positive sign relates to a positive source. and the negative sign relates to a negative source. The pressure drop over the restriction is: 4  D  W2  ∆p ch = 0.5 D  Cd  0   D 2 (2. The recirculation flow is restricted by the critical pressure difference.Page 30 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Fig. γ. Specific heat ratio of 1. the critical pressure difference is used for calculating the recirculation flow.3 is used. Critical pressure difference is based on single phase gas flow with constant specific heat ratio. For critical flow through the controlled choke. γ p  γ + 1  γ −1 = π crit =  p crit  2  γ   γ −1   2    ∆p ch. For subcritical flow through the controlled choke the pressure difference between the section upstream and downstream of the compressor is used in equation 2. If the pressure difference between the section upstream and downstream of the compressor is higher than the critical one.5C  D  0  ρg −2 d (2.14) . W is the mass flux.11) Solving for W: W = ± (2 ρ g ∆p ch ) 0. 2. and Do is the orifice diameter of the controlled choke.12.

17) where u is the signal from the control module. H rec . g = (hg − ∆hhex ) ∆hhex = hg − h hgsp Wrec. The energy extracted through the heat exchanger is limited by the heat exchanger capacity. The orifice opening of the controlled choke is governed by the control system.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 31 The energy leaving the section downstream of the compressor and entering the section upstream of the compressor through the recirculation loop is calculated as follows. The heat exchanger is modelled as an ideal heat loss.16) sp g is specific gas enthalpy based on the desired heat exchanger outlet temperature and pressure in the section where the source is entering.max u 0. The compressor may be positioned at any section boundary except at the outlet boundary of the pipeline. Wrec. The orifice is calculated as: D0 = D0. g = hg Wrec . the temperature of the recirculation source entering the section upstream of the compressor has to be specified. ∆hhex is specific enthalpy decrease in the heat exchanger. The aim of the heat exchanger is to extract energy to obtain a desired heat exchanger outlet temperature. In this case. and is in the range from 0 to 1. Critical flow calculations are based on single phase gas flow with a constant specific heat ratio of 1. .g is the mass flux based on the section area of the section with a source and ∆z is the section length of the section with a source. g ∆z (2. g ∆z (2.15) hg is the specific gas enthalpy in the compressor downstream volume. Restrictions and assumptions Only gas flows in the recirculation loop. the recirculation flow is set to zero. A heat exchanger may also be included in the recirculation loop. In that position the controlled bypass is unrealisable since it is defined as going from the downstream section to the upstream section.3. The control module also takes care of the stroke time of the controlled choke. If the pressure in the section upstream of the compressor exceeds the pressure in the section downstream of it. u equal to 1 means that the controlled choke is fully open. The energy source entering the upstream section in a situation with a heat exchanger in the recirculation loop is calculated as: H rec .5 (2.

select always security factor > 1. are specified by the user. A short stroke time for the recycle valve should also be selected. These two parameters determine the operating range of the compressor and they must be within the rpm range of the compressor tables. AMP1 and AMP2. A typical value for security factor is from 1.1 to 1. and maximum rpm. The anti surge security factor.Page 32 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution It is recommended that a separator is located upstream of the compressor in order to avoid liquid flow through it. and the absolute value of AMP1 should be higher than the corresponding absolute value of AMP2 in order to rapidly open the recycle valve and to impose an inertia to close it again. determines the anti surge control line. the compressor model works with liquid phase present but the results make no sense. The ASC should be configured as a PI controller. . A security factor of 1. equal to zero. Numerically. and AMP2 if the inlet is greater than the surge flow.2 means that the control valve in the recirculation loop starts to open at a compressor inlet flow that is 20% higher than the surge flow specified in the compressor tables. MAXRPM. Both AMP1 and AMP2 have to be negative. Select also the controller initial output signal Uo. To protect the compressor against surge conditions. MINRPM. AMP1 is used if the inlet flow to the compressor is less than the surge flow. SECURITYFACTOR.3. Compressor minimum rpm. The ASC is a kind of non-linear controller that have two amplification factors.

The main function of the control system is to maintain process parameters within specified bounds by controlling process equipment parameters like valve settings and compressor speed.Changing production levels .Flow control .Compressor speed control .Pressure control .Pressure release system These requirements were taken into account when the types of controllers implemented in the control system were chosen.Manual operator actions . There are three main types of controllers available for the control of process equipment: .19) . the control system plays an important role during situations like: . etc.3 Controllers The control system has been included to simulate the actions of a real control system as applied on a multiphase pipeline and typical downstream processing equipment.18) (2.Receiving pigs .Emergency shutdown system .2.Level control .ESD and PSV controllers A controller can be switched between these types and sub-types by setting the controller mode (subkey MODE).Anti surge control (for compressors) . level.Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controllers . Typically.Start-up/shut-in of production .Manual controllers .Closing/opening of wells .Damping of terrain slugging .Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 33 2. Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) Controller A PID controller may be mathematically formulated as:  1 u = K c  e +  τi t ∫ edt + τ 0 d de   + bias dt  e = (x − x stp ) where: x τ u = input process parameter (pressure.) = time constant = output signal from controller (2.Pressure release Operating modes of the kind mentioned above typically require units for: .

Time constants τd P controller 0.Page 34 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution o = initial value Subscripts: stp i d = set point (or reference point) = integral = derivative The amplification factor Kc is a dimensioned quantity. By using this general formula. Input process parameter is liquid level in the separator and the output signal from the controller is used to control the opening of a drain valve. τ d can be given in tabular form as a function of the error signal e. simpler controllers as P and PI controllers can be defined by giving proper values to the time constants in the PID formula. The controller may alternatively have flow. a pressure controller etc. Single PID controller The single PID controller consists of one standard PID controller. Note that the controllers referred to as subcontrollers must be type PID.0 Time constants for P. 2.7 Single PID controller used as a level controller Override controller The override controller unit uses two or three subcontrollers. The minimum signal from .0 PD controller > 0. τ i. pressure etc. KC.0 PI controller 0. 2.20) NORMRANGE For non-linear controllers. this controller formula will be frequently referred to as a standard PID controller. PI and PD controllers τi 109 < 108 109 In the following. the program will calculate Kc using the range given with the following expression: K c = input amplificat ion factor (2. LC Fig. as input signal. The table below shows time constants for simpler controllers. If the option with normalised amplification factor is used. There is only one process input parameter to the controller.7) and it is then called a level controller. A typical application of the controller unit in a process module is to control a separator level (Fig. and is then called a flow controller.

Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 35 the subcontrollers is selected as the final output signal from the unit. the speed is controlled by the suction pressure controller. the speed is controlled by the high pressure controller. In normal operation. Here one of the subcontrollers is controlling the flow downstream of the control valve (choke) while the other two are controlling the pressures upstream and downstream of the control valve. 2. and the other is controlling the pressure downstream of the second compressor stage.9 Triple PID controller used as flow regulator . 2. In situations where the pressure downstream of the control valve approaches the maximum operating pressure (setpoint for downstream pressure subcontroller).8 Double PID controller used as a turbine speed controller Here one of the subcontrollers is controlling the suction pressure before the first compressor stage. In situations where the pressure upstream of the control valve approaches the minimum operating pressure (set-point for upstream pressure subcontroller). Fig. the valve is controlled by the flow subcontroller. but in situations where the outlet pressure approaches the maximum operating pressure. 2. the valve is controlled by the low-pressure subcontroller. LO W SELEC T FC PC PC Fig. Fig. the valve is controlled by the highpressure subcontroller. 2. In normal operation.8. A typical application of the controller unit in a process module is shown in Fig.9 shows a typical application of the override controller with three subcontrollers in a process module.

22) Where 1 PM = Tav Sn Sn-1 Cp Cp. the setpoint is calculated differently: 1   S n = S n −1 +  C P − (C P . the setpoint of the secondary controller is determined by the output of the primary controller: S = S min + C p ( S max − S min ) (2.10 Cascade controller Two types of cascade controllers exist. normal and extended.Page 36 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Cascade controllers As illustrated below in Fig.min Cp.Ps| ≤ Cswitch (2. C = C1 if |PM .max + C P . For the normal cascade controller. The difference between the two is how the setpoint of the secondary controller are determined.Ps| > Cswitch (2. here the drain valve.23) t n −Tav .tn-1) moving averaged of the primary controller variable P .max Ps ∆t PM tn ∫ Pdt (2. 2. a cascade control uses two controllers with the output of the primary controller changing the setpoint of the secondary controller.min ) PM − PS C∆t 2   (2. 2.25) setpoint of the secondary controller at the current time point setpoint of the secondary controller at the previous time point output from primary controller minimum of output from primary controller maximum of controller output from primary controller setpoint of the primary controller numerical time step (tn . The output of the secondary controller regulates the control device.24) C = C2 if |PM .10.21) Where S the setpoint of the secondary controller Smin minimum setpoint Smax maximum setpoint Cp output from the primary controller For the extended cascade controller. Fig.

The pressure drop over the drain valve will be larger. which means that the setpoint for the ASC unit is not constant.2 means that the set point for the ASC unit is 20% higher than the surge flow). Thus it gives a better control on the liquid level and a smoother liquid drain rate. The ASC unit uses a standard PID controller formula except that it allows for two different controller amplifications (AMP1 and AMP2) that are necessary when operating on a non-linear control algorithm.6 and Fig. In essence. The purposes of a cascade control loop are: (1) To reduce the effects of some disturbances.5. 2.e. In this way the recycle valve can be opened rapidly while an inertia is imposed when it is closed again. so the liquid flow will increase.11. With the cascade control loop. Anti surge controller (ASC) The main purpose of the ASC unit. COMPRESSOR (i. The high amplification factor could give excessive compensation. With a single level controller. This can be achieved by choosing a high amplification factor for the ASC and selecting a recycle valve with a short stroke time. the drain flow rate will not be corrected until the increased drain flow decreases the liquid level. .Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Tav C C1 C2 Cswitch Page 37 user defined (moving) averaging time period constant that can take two different values user defined constant user defined constant user defined constant PM is not updated during the time that the secondary controller is made inactive through the SELECTOR option. the flow controller (secondary controller) will immediately see the change in the flow rate and correct the valve opening to return the drain flow rate to the setpoint set by the level controller. The surge flow at different RPM's. For the level control as illustrated above. AMP1 is used when the deviation parameter (e) is negative (left of anti surge control-line in the compressor performance map) and AMP2 when it is positive. a security factor of 1. suppose the separator pressure increases. 2. But the ASC must also be capable of managing a situation where the compressor inlet or discharge is closed. An ASC should be able to open the recirculation valve very fast to prevent a dangerous surge condition. the controller shall apply one level of amplification and integral action to a positive error input signal and a different level of amplification and integral action to a negative error input signal. which would cause the recirculation valve to hunt between open and closed position and aggravate the surge due to pressure and flow pulsation. The surge flow increases with increasing RPM. The anti surge control-line is the set-point for the ASC unit and is calculated by multiplying the compressor surge flow at different RPM's with a constant security factor specified by the user through the compressor input group. Thus the separator pressure disturbs both the liquid level and the liquid drain rate. Therefore it is necessary to have a controller that can operate on a non-linear control algorithm. Fig. (2) To improve the dynamic performance of the control loop. 2. see Fig. is specified in the compressor data file. is to prevent a compressor from operating to the left of the Surge Line in a compressor performance map.

Then the controller selects the other subcontroller. 2. is a gamma densitometer used for measuring the local liquid volume fraction. . and using this sub-controller until the low (or high) variable limit is reached. 2. The controller operates as a kind of hysteresis controller. and keeps it until the high (or low) variable limit is reached. The controller algorithm is best described by an example: Fig.Page 38 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution By using a large AMP1 and a (corresponding) small AMP2. Fig. selecting the signal from one of the sub-controllers.12 Separator using SELECTOR controller to control the liquid outlet valve. 2. at some distance from it. Upstream of the separator. Gamma densitometer HOLC LC Fig. the anti surge control valve is forced to a rapid opening whereas the closing operation is more relaxed. The separator has liquid and gas valves attached to it.11 shows the ASC application. Fig. in addition to an emergency liquid drain valve.11 Anti Surge Controller SELECTOR controller A SELECTOR controller is a controller that uses two sub-controllers that are selected based on the value of selected variables relative to low and high limits of these variables.12 shows a system consisting of a pipeline with a separator. In addition there is a separator inlet valve having a fixed opening. 2.

or both. The variables and their low and high limits are given as input to OLGA. depending on opening mode. This means that for normal operation we have a moderately fast PID level controller. Pressure safety valve (PSV) controller The controller will compare one or more variables (normally pressure) at a selected position with a setpoint. As soon as any of the variables becomes less than or greater than the setpoint value. Emergency shutdown controller The controller will monitor one or more variables (normally pressure). Manually operated controller To simulate the actions of an operator. The operation is back to normal. 2) If the separator liquid level reaches a given high level. Our control structure for the separator liquid outlet valve will then be: Normal operation: 1) Slow separator liquid level controller used to control the liquid outlet valve. As long as the liquid level is below a given value we want the controller to act slowly / moderately fast. or the time averaged gamma densitometer signal becomes higher than a given limit. If any one of the variable values becomes higher than or . of the sub-controllers are PID controllers the integral term of the nonacting controller can be saved (interlocked). or still be integrated. a slug is expected to arrive. the fast separator liquid outlet valve controller takes over. Transient operation: 1) The fast liquid valve controller that is controlled by the separator liquid level is acting.g. a valve). This will be determined in the input to OLGA by the user. a controller signal activates a valve that will close within a certain time. the slow / normal separator liquid level controller starts controlling the liquid outlet valve. a manual operator controller (TYPE = MANUAL) has been included. In addition. If one. the ESD valve will open again when all of the controlled variables become greater or less than the reset value. When the time averaged signal from the meter reaches a certain limit. 2) If the separator liquid level drops below a given low limit. If a liquid slug arrives we want the level control on the separator liquid outlet to be faster to prevent the level from increasing to very high levels. The manual controller issues a control signal to a device (e. which is taken directly from a user specified time series. If reset value is specified. a gamma densitometer is placed at some distance from the separator inlet. We also want this to trigger a faster operation of the separator liquid valve. reset to zero.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 39 We want to control the separator level by controlling the liquid level in the separator with a level PID controller. There is no restriction on the number of variables that can be used for switching between the two sub-controllers. and for transient operation (when a slug arrives) we have a fast PID operation.

and if the derivative term in the controller equation were included this would result in oscillations in the controller output. This situation is taken care of by passing all output from the controllers through an actuator filter that computes a 'real' output (as observed by the devices) according to the rule: U = MIN ( U.Page 40 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution less than the setpoint. Normally the operating range is from 0 to 1. The user specifies minimum and maximum controller output signal. the user specified stroke time or the time required for opening the valve. τd and τi. which is not desirable. Actuator time of controlled device There are no restrictions on the rate of change of the controller output from a PID controller as defined by Eq. since there is usually quite a lot of noise on the input process signal. Kc. an output of 0 from a controller operating on a valve means that the valve is closed. We have the following relation between the symbols used in this description and the OLGA input variables in the CONTROLLER keyword: Kc = AMPLIFICATION = DERIVATIVECONST = INTEGRALCONST bias = BIAS x = VARIABLE xstp = SETPOINT τd τi Note that the stroke-time of the controller valve (defined through STROKETIME) does not directly influence the controller output as discussed here.. whereas an output of 1 means that the valve is fully open. PID controller example Three parameters are at our disposal for tuning a PID controller. The output from the controller frequently changes faster than the device is capable of following. the controller will open a selected PSV-valve. That . These two parameters determine the operating range of the controller. U > U old (2.is output signal from the controller The actuator time is in the case of a controlled valve. This results in rapid oscillations in the derivative of the signal.18). However. U old .. This could be the valve defined as a source valve. the opening and closing speed of the controller valve is limited by the stroke-time. for petroleum applications τd is rarely used (τd = 0). U < U old (2. this valve is closed again. However. If all of the variables become greater or lower than the reset value.is previous output signal from the controller .∆t / t act ).e. i.is the time step .27) or where tact ∆t Uold U .is the actuator time .26) U = MAX ( U. (2. U old + ∆t / t act ). Umin and Umax.

The change in the liquid volume fraction in the vessel (β) is given by dβ Qin − Qout = dt V (2. .30) Where f(t) is a disturbance that the control system should compensate for. if the stroke-time is given as 100 s the opening of the valve will at maximum change by 1% per second. the error (e) is defined as liquid volume fraction minus the volume fraction at the setpoint.28) where Qin [m3/s] is the liquid volume flow into the vessel.18) the following differential equation is obtained Q K dβ Qmax K c d 2β = − max c − β + f (t ) 2 V dt Vτ i dt (2.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 41 is.33) Kc must be positive for τp and ζ to be real numbers. The flow out of the vessel can be written Qout = Qmax u (2. For the current case.29) where Qmax is the maximum flow when the controller is fully open. 2. Level control A typical application of a level controller is shown in the Fig. and the derivative time constant is set to zero.7. The figure below shows the performance of control loop for different damping constants for a step disturbance at t = 0 (f(t) has a step increase).32) and the damping coefficient ζ = 0.31) we get the time constant of the control loop τp = Vτ i Qmax K c (2. This could for instance be that the setpoint of the level control is changed.5 Q max K c τ i V (2. Taking the time derivative of the above two equations with the use of the control equation (2. Casting it into the standard form d 2β dβ τ + 2ζτ p + β = f (t ) dt dt 2 p (2. Qout [m3/s] is the liquid volume flow out of the vessel and V [m3] is the volume of the vessel.

2. 2. Size the drain valve so that it can deliver Qmax = two times the normal drain rate for the pressure difference between separator pressure and backpressure of the drain valve.34) where: F = flow rate (mass or volumetric flow rate) Fmax = max flow rate through the fully open valve at the given pressure drop u = output signal from controller Taking the time derivative of the above equation and using the control equation (2. Flow control Assuming constant upstream and downstream pressure over the valve.7 1 setpoint 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Time. one may use the following procedure to select the parameters for level control: 1. one can see that a damping coefficient from 0. (t/τp) Fig.7 will give satisfactory results for level control. Therefore. the flow rate can be written as: F = Fmax u (2.5 and 0.3 0.18) we obtain  dF 1  dF = Fmax K c  + F  + f (t ) dt  dt τ i  (2.36) .7.2 0. From this figure.35) or (1 − Fmax K c ) dF − dt Fmax K c τi F = f (t ) (2.13 Response of level control to step disturbance.5 0.Page 42 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Response Response of level to a level controller ζ = 0.5-0.4 0. Set Kc < 2 and choose τi (the integral time constant) to make the damping coefficient between 0.

τp can be selected from the above chart.2 1 response 0. Size the valve so that it can deliver maximum flow rate = 2 times the designed value for the same pressure drop over the valve. Kc must be negative.8 0. 90% of the set point. adjust the upstream or downstream pressure so that the difference is at least 0.g. If the pressure difference is less than e. 2. the faster the response goes to the setpoint. When τp has been chosen τi is found from the definition of τp. 2. 0. 5. the same τp can be obtained for a different τi.2 bar. Response flow to a step change for flow controller 1.6 0. Fmax . By choosing a different A.4 0. Set K c = 4.2 bar. The shorter the time constant.14 Response of flow control to step disturbance. One could use the following procedures to select the controller parameters for flow control. This is considered a convenient pressure drop over a valve being used for flow control.37) Fig.14 shows the response of the flow to a step change in for example setpoint (f(t) has a step increase). depending on how fast you want the flow rate to reach e.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 43 For the solution to be stable. Estimate the upstream and downstream pressure over the control valve at the design flow rate. 3. A with A ranging from 1 to 10. 1.g. The time constant of the solution is τp = ( Fmax K c − 1)τ i Fmax K c (2.2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time (t/τp) Fig. 2.

Mass sources where mass flows.4. and it is always located in the middle of the section. a kind of SELECTOR controller.5 Mass Sources Two types of mass sources are allowed. The leak flow is always limited to critical flow. there will be no backflow if section pressure is lower than the backpressure. For subcritical leak flow. 1. Only one leak per section is allowed. The manual and external signal modes are not applicable for ESD and PSV controllers since these are either fully open or fully closed (except when opening or closing). see chapter 2. 0 ≤ u s ≤ 1 (2. the flow rate is governed by the difference between the internal and the external pressures. 2.Page 44 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Controller mode During a simulation run it can be convenient to change the controller mode. source temperature and mass fractions for gas and water are tabulated functions of time. With this exception.. For three phase flow it is assumed no flashing of water across the leak.2. For critical leak flow. that is. the flow rate is governed by the conditions in the pipe and the leak area only. switch a PID controller to manual mode (MANUAL) or make it inactive (FREEZE) before switching back to normal mode (AUTOMATIC).38) where us = controller signal Leaks can be placed anywhere along the pipeline.4 Leak Leaks or pipe ruptures can be simulated. This can be done by specifying a list of time points where the mode should change. and the leak area is controlled by the control system. all controller modes can be used for all controller types. It is also possible to set the mode so the output signal of the controller is equal to the output signal of another controller (EXTSIGNCONTROLLER). A leak or a pipe rupture is described as a negative mass source (mass out of the pipeline). A leak can also be used to simulate a gas lift valve (GLV).2. e. The orifice area is governed by a controller. .3. Controlled mass sources where mass flow is calculated from a flow equation for flow through an orifice. 2. The leakage flow area is calculated from: Aleak = π 4 u s DLEAK 2 . It is possible to route the flow through the leak to any pipe section in any branch by using the subkey TOPOSITION. Both subcritical and critical flow is described in OLGA. the conditions in the pipe and the leak area. that is. that is.8. in which case backflow is allowed. the free water flow rate is the same upstream and downstream the leak. Backflow is not allowed. 2.g. The fifth mode is a kind of CASCADE controller where the setpoint is set equal to the output signal of another controller (EXTSETPCONTROLLER).

GLR. Both subcritical and critical flow is described. the upstream conditions and the flow area.39) where us = controller signal The following equations show how the total mass flow is calculated in OLGA depending on specified keyword values. volume of gas divided by volume of oil at standard condition Gas liquid ratio.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 45 Fig. GOR. For subcritical flow the flow rate is governed by the difference between the internal and external pressures. volume of water divided by volume of liquid at standard condition Gas oil ratio. 2. The orifice area is calculated from: π 2 Asova = ⋅ DSOVA ⋅ u s . If two phase flow is used. All equations are based on three-phase flow. becomes equal to gas oil ratio. The pressure difference determines the direction of flow in or out of the pipe. The external pressure and temperature are constant or given as a specified time series. Symbols used in the equations are given in the list below: m& ρ Water cut. The source valve has finite opening and closing time (stroke time) specified by the user.15 An illustration of a controlled mass source A controlled mass source can be negative (mass out of the pipeline) or positive (mass into the pipeline). becomes equal to zero and gas liquid ratio. For critical flow the flow rate is governed by the flow area and the upstream conditions only.0 ≤ u s ≤1 4 (2. wc. water cut. volume of gas divided by volume of liquid at standard condition Volume flow Mass flow Density Indexes: tot ST g o liq w * Total At standard condition Gas phase Oil phase Liquid phase (water + oil) Water phase Equivalent phase wc GOR GLR Q . The flow area of the controlled mass source is governed by the control system.

are known.43) If WATERCUT. use: ST PHASE = LIQUID and STDFLOWRATE = Qliq ST m& tot = Qliq ( wcρ wST + (1 − wc ) ρ oST + GOR(1 − wc ) ρ gST ) (2. GOR and volume flow of water at standard condition. If WATERCUT.41) If WATERCUT. GLR and volume flow of liquid at standard condition. Qliq . It is necessary that the properties at standard condition are included in the PVT table. Q gST . QwST . use: PHASE = WATER and STDFLOWRATE = QwST m& tot = QwST ( ρ wST + 1 − wc ST 1 − wc ST ρ o + GOR( )ρ g ) wc wc (2.Page 46 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution The density in the equations below is taken from the PVT table. are known. Qliq . GOR and volume flow of oil at standard condition.42) If WATERCUT. are known. are known. Q gST . use: PHASE = GAS and STDFLOWRATE = Q gST m& tot = Q gST ( ρ gST + wc 1 1 ρ oST + ( ) ρ wST ) GOR GOR 1 − wc (2. GOR and volume flow of liquid at standard condition. QoST . use: PHASE = GAS and STDFLOWRATE = Q gST m& tot = QgST ( ρ gST + wc ST 1 − wc ST ρo + ρw ) GLR GLR (2. use: PHASE = OIL and STDFLOWRATE = QoST m& tot = QoST ( ρ oST + GORρ gST + wc ρ wST ) 1 − wc (2. are known. GOR and volume flow of gas at standard condition. use: ST PHASE = LIQUID and STDFLOWRATE = Qliq ST m& tot = Qliq ( wcρ wST + (1 − wc ) ρ oST + GLRρ gST ) (2. are known.40) ST If WATERCUT. GLR and volume flow of gas at standard condition.44) ST If WATERCUT.45) .

and the total mass flow will be given from the following equation on condition that GOR or GLR is greater then 1010 (infinitely in OLGA) m& tot = Qg*ST ρ g*ST (2.value from the PVT table Gas mass fraction at standard condition .50) If GOR or GLR is less than 1010 the total mass flow will be calculated from the equations described earlier for PHASE=GAS with Q gST = Q g*ST and ρ gST = ρ g*ST . and the mol weight of the total flow. use: PHASE=GAS. GLR and volume flow of oil at standard condition.46) If WATERCUT.47) Specified GOR or GLR will shift the values of gas mass fraction in the PVT table with use of the following equation (2 phase) GG P . STDFLOWRATE= Q g*ST and MOLWEIGHT= M W The density of the equivalent gas at standard condition will then be calculated from ideal gas law. are known.48) where GG P . QwST .T − RS ST ) (2.T GG ST GHLST RS P .T = GG ST + (GG ST + GHLST )( RS P . GLR and volume flow of water at standard condition. are known.value from the PVT table RS = GG GG + GHL (2.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 47 If WATERCUT. are known. use: PHASE = WATER and STDFLOWRATE = QwST m& tot = QwST ( ρ wST + 1 − wc ST 1 ρ o + GLR( ) ρ gST ) wc wc (2. Q g*ST . use: PHASE = OIL and STDFLOWRATE = QoST m& tot = QoST ( ρ oST + GLR( wc 1 ) ρ gST + ρ wST ) 1 − wc 1 − wc (2. .calculated from given GOR or GLR Oil mass flow at standard condition .calculated from given GOR or GLR Gas mass fraction at given pressure and temperature .49) If the equivalent gas volumetric flow rate at standard condition. QoST . M W .T RS ST Gas mass flow at given pressure and temperature Gas mass flow at standard condition .

g. Type of pig/plug Four types of pig or plug can be simulated: SHORT Single pig normally used for cleaning the pipeline.2.g. If there are sources or chokes upstream of the pig launch section. meaning that the liquid is not smeared out in horizontal pipes. The advantage of using PIGTRACKING is that the liquid in front of the pig is tracked. HYDRATE A plug formed due to hydrate formation. it may be necessary to modify the input for the sources or chokes during the injection period due to compression of the upstream pipe that would follow. A pig or the growth and subsequent release of a hydrate plug can be simulated. Wall friction force due to contact between pig and pipe wall. The pig train movements are calculated for a single pig in the pig train. NOTE that the PLUG is more robust than the PIGTRACKING. 2. HEAVYSSH Long pig train simulated as a short pig. E.Page 48 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Note: There are limitations on how much you can change the GOR/GLR when using a PVT table. One can check the source input by plotting the volume flow rates through the source at standard conditions (e. A plug is a flow obstruction due to hydrate formation. May be used in combination with the wax module for removing wax layers on the inner pipe wall. LONG The pig type LONG is used to simulate pigging operations where a train of pigs is sent into the pipeline with spaces between the pigs filled with pigging fluid. QGSTSOUR). the average temperature of the pigging fluid is calculated. The friction force due to the pigging fluid within the pig train is calculated by the code automatically and is added to the friction force due to pig movement. Note that the plug/pig as described in the model does not occupy any volume in the pipe. The pigging fluid is introduced into the launching section as oil. ( Fo − f w U p )]⋅sign(U p ) (2. if a source using default GOR/GLR has no gas at the in-situ conditions.6 Plug or Pig There are two ways to simulate a pigging scenario. The wall friction force is calculated by: Fw =max[0. either by use of the PLUG keyword (as described below) or by use of the PIGTRACKING keyword (see special options). one cannot give a lower GOR/GLR for this source.0. Removal of gas that is not present is impossible. Friction forces acting on pig Two types of friction forces are modelled: 1. This option is only available for participants of the SSH project. During the period when the pigging fluid is being injected into the pipeline.51) . In addition. the flow at the left boundary of the pig launch section is set to zero. A pig is a mechanical device for internal cleaning or inspection of a pipe.

and the wall friction factor. Up. increases due to less contact area between the pig and pipe wall. In cases where the pig has no through-flow. If WXYIELDSTRESS is set to –1. η is the pig efficiency and Φ is a pig form factor. which is modelled as follows: Fwbf = C ⋅ τ y (ϕ ) ⋅ L ⋅ π ⋅ d ⋅η ⋅ (1 − Φ ) (2. The yield stress equation is as follows /21/: τ y (ϕ ) = 1. ϕ is the porosity. The static force. an internal model is used for the yield stress. d is the inner diameter of the pipe.52) where Fwbf is the breaking force. may be controlled by the user through the WAXDEPOSITION keyword. if wax layer yield stress measurements or estimates are available. This is approximated by the wall friction factor fw. L is the wax layer thickness. C = 1 implies that the wax layer shear surface is normal to the wall. An estimate for the wax plug/wall friction effects is found by OLGA by using the following procedure: .53) Fwpf represents the wall friction force from a wax plug forming in front of the pig. C = 1. The wall friction force decreases as the pig velocity.25 ⋅ 10 6 ⋅ (1 − ϕ ) 4 [Pa ] (2. The porosity. This force is also used as the static friction between the pig and the pipe wall. angle with the wall. The pig starts to move only after the force due to the pressure difference over the pig becomes greater than the static friction Fo. τ y is the yield stress of the wax layer which is a function of porosity ϕ . This will have an effect on the rheological properties of the fluid near the pig. Fo. The constant may also be used to tune the yield stress. fw.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 49 Fo represents the friction force when the pig starts to move. must be specified by the user through keys STATICFORCE and WALLFRICTION. sub-key WAXPOROSITY. The following parameters may be given by the user through the PLUG keyword: C: WXBRFCOEF τ y : WXYIELDSTR η : WXRMEFF Φ : PGWXFORMFAC The constant C may be used to take into account the effective shear surface orientation. C is a constant with default value = 1. Fwbf represents the wax layer breaking force. ϕ . as there is an indication that this model matches fluids with high suspended wax concentration at low shear rates somewhat better.4142 may be interpreted as an effective shear surface forming a 45 deg. An older version of the Casson-type rheology model was chosen. a slurry or plug with high wax content is assumed to build up in front of the pig.

together with a user given wax plug porosity. dvx/dy the shear rate. Finding a wax plug friction length by applying a search along the pipeline for a relatively large suspended wax fraction gradient. and: D = 42. If there is full flow through the pig (LEAKAGEFACTOR = 1). If there is no leakage. The keys are as follows: WPYIELDSTRESS WPPLASTVISC In the transition from non-newtonian to newtonian turbulent flow (Hedstrøm number between 1000 and 2000). . Φ wax the volume fraction of precipitated wax. The yield stress and plastic viscosity is then fed into the Bingham related equations for calculation of frictional force on the pig/wax plug.e.Page 50 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution 1. a splining method has been used to smooth between the friction factors calculated using the Darby and Melson formula /22/ (applied for Hedstrøm number > 2000) and Haaland’s formula /23/ (applied for Hedstrøm number < 1000). as described above for yield stress for the wax wall film. the full calculated wax plug length is used. WPPOROSITY. 2. The Pedersen/Rønningsen effective viscosity model may be used to find yield stress and plastic viscosity for a given suspended wax fraction: η = η liq exp(DΦ wax ) + EΦ wax ∂v x ∂y + FΦ 4wax ∂v x ∂y where ηliq is the oil viscosity [mPa s] not considering precipitated wax. The wall shear stress for the wax plug is calculated by using standard correlations for Bingham plastics /22/ and the 1999 version of the Pedersen/Rønningsen effective viscosity model /21/. Yield stress is found by using the numerator in the last term above. to 500 1/s. The standard Bingham correlations are used to calculate the shear stress as a function of average velocity.7 F = 1. standard scheme is applied) by a factor which is depending on the pig leakage factor. The wax plug length is scaled between pure wax accumulation in front of the pig and no such accumulation (i.3 E = 99. overriding the internal model. dvx/dy.25 × 109 The plastic viscosity [mPa s] is found by setting the shear rate. The wax plug yield stress and plastic viscosity may also be given by the user. Due to maximum limits on the effective viscosity. the wax plug friction length is zero. the wax plug shear stress is taken as the maximum of the yield stress and the calculated shear stress from the Bingham friction calculations. limited by the accumulated amount of wax stripped from the wall.

It is assumed that the gravity effect of a wax plug is taken care of by the standard scheme. Leakage due to slip between the pig and the film around the pig. one can neglect the effects of gravity and pressure gradient on the flow of the fluid film around the pig. The volumetric flux flowing from behind the pig to ahead of the pig is calculated by ( U pl = c pl ) |( ∆ P pig )|/ ρ sign( ∆ P pig ) (2. 3. 2. however. The standard wall friction will. Through the relative leakage opening Aleak/Apipe by the keyword LEAKOPENING. Cpl is then defined by I =0. When the pig is moving. the average film velocity is .Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 51 3.5F pig C pl2 Fpig is given by keyword LEAKDPCOEFF. w − M p ⋅ cos ϕ ⋅ g AH (2. Leakage due to pressure drop over the pig.55) ∆Ppig is the pressure difference across the pig ∆Ppig = FP . Note that the standard scheme for wall friction is always applied. Specify Cpl directly through keyword LEAKFACTOR. 2.54) Leakage For a short pig. Through the pressure loss coefficient Fpig. as the wax plug itself is not present in the model except as an “effective friction length”.56) There are three ways to specify the leakage factor Cpl that will override the default value: 1. regardless of the wax plug friction length. This force is calculated by the following equation: F v = ( f 1|U p |+ f 2 U 2p ) sign( U p ) (2. 2. Assuming laminar flow. Fluid friction due to viscous shear of fluid film in the gap between the pig and the pipe wall. two different leakage types are modelled: 1. When the gap between the pig and pipe wall is very narrow. flow of the fluid film around the pig results in a viscous force. normally be insignificant compared to the friction generated by the “virtual” wax plug. The resulting frictional force is applied directly on the pig. The pressure loss coefficient is measured by letting the fluid flow past a pig that is fixed to the pipe wall.

58) where D is the pipe diameter and Dp is the pig diameter. The total volumetric leakage flow rate is divided into oil. Gh2o is the free water rate available for forming hydrate. By default.61) . For a hydrate plug. Growth rate of hydrate plug The hydrate growth rate is calculated by the following equation dM p = C h G h2o sign( T h .T f ) dt (2. By default. the gap between the pig and pipe wall is equal to 2 times the pipe roughness. The free water rate is calculated by G h2o = G w + U h M w A (2.D2p  2   D2  (2. For other flow regimes. and gas phase as follows: For stratified flow.59) The user can override the default value for Cpl by specifying the leakage factor in the same way as for the short pig. the phase flow rates are calculated according to the wetted perimeters of the individual phases. Th is the hydrate temperature and Tf is the fluid temperature. water. the leakage factor is calculated by C pl =  D2 .D2p 4 (2. For the long pig. only leakage due to pressure difference over the plug is allowed.57) The volumetric flow rate is then Q fl = V f π D2 .Page 52 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Vf = 1 Up 2 (2.60) where Ch is the growth coefficient. no gas leakage is allowed and the total leakage is divided into water and oil in proportion to the water and oil hold-up. Hydrate PLUG Initiation of hydrate plug The user initiates a hydrate plug by specifying the initial mass and length of the hydrate plug. Users can override the default by specifying the pig diameter with the key DIAMETER. no leakage is allowed.

2. there can be a negative flow of liquid and positive flow of gas through the check valve.9 Valves Valves can be inserted anywhere in the pipeline. Uh mixing velocity. and no description of the real heat transfer process is included. An upper limit of the heat source is also specified.Slugtracking . They remain closed until the pressure difference across them is sufficiently large to give flow in the desired direction. The heat exchanger is an idealised heat sink. New wax mass transfer term for stripping of wax layer by pig An additional term is included in the standard shear related wax transport term (solid wax mass transport between bulk and wall) for the section where a pig is located: M& pig = − U pig ⋅ m wxw ⋅ A ⋅η [kg/s] (2. A heat source/sink is estimated that will give the specified fluid temperature for a particular section..2.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 53 where Gw is the water mass flow rate. consistent with the energy equation in OLGA.62) where M& pig is the solid wax mass transport rate for a control volume to the wall (thus the negative sign for wax stripping).Water/threephase . CD (keyword VALVE). and the average wax related variables are updated accordingly for the static control volume/section where the pig is located. Upig is the pig velocity [m/s]. It is rather a way of specifying a temperature at the heat exchanger outlet. 2. A is the cross-sectional pipe area [m2] and η is the pig wax removal efficiency [-].Compositional tracking . the following modules cannot be used: . They close if the total volume flow is in the wrong direction. and A the pipe cross-sectional area. . mwxw is the average wax mass on the wall per control volume [kg/m3]. either as a part of the pipeline section where the compressor is situated or as a part of the recirculation loop which is external to the pipeline.2. The flow model for calculating valve flow can either be a choke flow model or a valve flow model.7 Heat Exchanger A heat exchanger can be used alone or be included in an anti surge recirculation loop around a compressor.MEG tracking 2.8 Check Valve Check valves can be inserted anywhere in the line. NOTE! When using the wax module and the plug module in combination. Choke The choke model is defined in OLGA by using a discharge coefficient. This transfer term is added to the downstream local control volume for the pig. 2. e. Mw water mass in a unit of pipe volume.g.

The choke flow rate is limited to critical flow. The choke area can also be fixed at maximum choke diameter.65) Friction and gravity forces are here neglected. β. 2. Integrating this equation from choke upstream conditions to the throat.Page 54 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution The choke model describes the effects of both subcritical and critical chokes.l or d α. The choke opening may be controlled by the control system.x) U l ) A (2.64) Cd discharge coefficient A pipe flow area Ao choke (orifice) flow area Wtot total mass flux Uf velocity. by a predefined timeseries or be fixed.16 An illustration of the use of a choke The choke pressure loss as a function of flow rates is for a subcritical case calculated according to: ∆ pch = 1 (ORF) W tot ( α U g + β U l + γ U d ) 2 (2. the expansion of gas into the narrow throat is accounted for. This equation is solved for throat pressure assuming a given massflow. A subcritical choke is represented through its pressure drop as a function of flow rates and choke opening. For single phase liquid. The choke has finite opening and closing time (stroke time) specified by the user.  A ORF =   Ao ⋅ C d 2   − 1  (2.63) where ORF = choke pressure loss coefficient. liquid bulk.Pthroat (2. an equation between throat pressure and massflow is obtained. the choke area is then given by a timeseries. Fig.66) .dP = G d ( x U g + (1 . With the estimated pressure difference over the choke: ∆ PV = Pupstream . The flow rate through a critical choke is governed by the upstream conditions and the choke opening (choke flow area). Note that it is possible to simulate a choke without a controller. and droplets For a two-phase or single-phase gas case. gas. γ the volume fractions. The flow equation is written in a simplified form . phase f = g.

max = π Do2 4 (2.72) The integration is performed by two steps.70) In the case of a fixed choke the choke flow area is constant A0 = A0. Two options are available for calculating the critical flow through a choke: 1. 0 ≤ us ≤ 1 where Ao. critical flow conditions are used.69) In the case of an uncontrolled choke the choke flow area is varied according to the time tables of the relative choke area: Ao = AROR⋅ Ao .67) This equation implicitly accounts for gas expansion from upstream conditions to throat conditions.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 55 a choke pressure loss coefficient. Which option should be used is chosen through the keyword input.0 ≤ AROR≤1 (2. the entropy values in the fluid file will be used. In the case of a controlled choke the choke area is varied according to the controller signal us : A0 = us A0. ORF. If the Frozen model is chosen the mass transfer in the choke is zero and the quality in the choke is equal to the upstream quality (homogenous frozen critical flow model). Mass transfer due to isentropic expansion from the upstream pressure to the throat pressure is considered (Henry-Fauske) /3/. adiabatic expansion of gas. from P1 to P2 at T1 and from T1 to T2 at P2. If the Henry-Fauske model is used and entropy values are given in the fluid property tables file (with the word ENTROPY in the heading of the fluid file).71) If the gas velocity in a choke exceeds the critical velocity. Otherwise.68) (2. . the entropy changes will be calculated from enthalpy.max . mass fraction and density by integrating the following equation from the upstream condition (1) to the throat conditions (2): 2 ∫ ds = ∫ 1 2 1 1 T dh − ∫ 2 1 V T dp (2.max . is calculated.5 ⋅ Wtot ⋅ (αU g + βU l + γU d ) (2.max (2. ORF = ∆Pv 0. 2. No mass transfer (Frozen).

73) will produce a relation between Cv and ORF. is specified in keyword VALVE. OLGA converts the Cv value for liquid to the variable ORF used in equation (2. The CV table entry is used for Cg values . Cg/Cv (-) If PHASE = GAS is specified in keyword VALVE.74) where Qm ρg p1 Cg ∆P Cf = = = = = = Mass flow rate (lb/hr. regardless if the flow is gas.63). No table for two-phase flow can be given. the pressure drop and the critical flow rate are calculated using the choke model. the critical flow rate (even two-phase-flow) will be calculated using the critical choke model in OLGA. an equivalent choke opening is determined that gives the same ORF. the flow calculation will be based on the gas sizing equation. Rewriting equation (2. or multiphase flow. with the maximum flow rate interpreted as the critical flow rate for the valve. The valve model is quite similar to the choke model. The sizing coefficients are tabulated as functions of the relative valve opening. Water = 1. The mixture density is used in the calculation. the pressure drop and critical flow rate is calculated by equation (2.06 ( ρ g p1 ) 0.) Gas density (lb/ft3) Upstream pressure (psi) Gas sizing coefficient (lb/hr / (psi × lb/ft3)1/2) Pressure drop (psi) Coefficient ratio. The pressure drop through a valve is calculated as follows: Liquid sizing equation: Q = Cv ∆P / G (2. TWO or THREE. If a gas valve sizing table is given. the pressure drop and critical flow rate are calculated according to a valve sizing equation. It is possible to give a table representing the valve sizing coefficients either for gas flow or for liquid flow. near incompressible gas flow and two-phase flow. Gas sizing equation: Q m = 1.5     C g sin   C f  p1   deg (2.0. However. If a liquid sizing table is given. The liquid sizing table should be used for liquid flow. Setting CD = 1. Pressure difference across the valve (psi) If PHASE = LIQUID. liquid.74).Page 56 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Valve The valve model is defined in OLGA by using a table (keyword TABLE) that contains Cv versus opening.5  3417  ∆p  0.) Valve sizing coefficient (gal/min / psi 1/2) Specific gravity (-).63) to the form used for equation (2. Once the choke opening area is calculated.73) where Q Cv G ∆P = = = = Flow rate (gallons/min.

liquid mixture. The user can choose the recycle flow as gas only. A common multiphase transportation system with pump is shown in Fig. The critical flow rate is obtained by setting the sine-term equal to one.3.3. A valve can be located anywhere in a pipeline except at the inlet boundary to a branch connected to a merging node. as illustrated in Fig.17. Each of the characteristics is assigned a label. 2. and a bypass flow line. The pump battery model is used for drilling applications. The centrifugal pump and the displacement pump are modelled with a recycle flow line. and the bypass flow out of section J-1 and into section J. The upstream density is used in the calculation.10 Pumps There are four pump models in OLGA: the centrifugal pump. the users can change these data by specifying their own pump data tables. and is only available with the Advanced Well module.18. The pump speed and recycle flow can be regulated by controllers.2. 2. water only.18. 2. The bypass flow line is modelled so that no back flow is allowed. 2.17 Multiphase Transportation System With Pump This system will be simplified as shown in Fig.4. The recycle flow is out of section J and into Section J-1. This model is described in section 2. the displacement pump. The centrifugal and displacement pumps are part of the Pump module that requires a separate license. which is referred to in the PUMP keyword. The simplified centrifugal pump requires no additional license. However. Note:The input data for the valve sizing coefficients must be consistent with the units specified above. The pump characteristics are defined through the pump data tables. or fluid mixture. The no-slip through the section boundary J is assumed as: . In this implementation the pump is abstracted into a volume-less element on the section boundary J between section J-1 and section J. A complete set for both types of pumps are included in the code. 2. the simplified centrifugal pump and the pump battery models.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 57 through keyword TABLE. Fig. see Chapter 4.

α I .76) Where PO is the pump outlet pressure.18 Simplified illustration of Displacement or Centrifugal Pump Element in the Pipeline Basic equations for the centrifugal pump model For the centrifugal pump.Page 58 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Ug = Ud = Ul = U A valve can also be located at the section boundary of a centrifugal pump. the specific work delivered from the pump into the fluid is: Wl = (P O − PI ) ρl (2. PI the pump inlet pressure and ρl the liquid density. inlet gas volume fraction αI. the work done by the pump is: n −1   n PI  PO  n −1 Wg =     n − 1 ρ g . For a compressible gas. When the gas is assumed to be ideal Win can be written as: . ∆P.77) Where n is the polytropic constant and ρg.75) For the liquid (assuming incompressible). PI ) (2. is dependent on the flow rate Q. 2. and the pump inlet pressure PI: ∆P = f (Q. the pressure increase over the pump. I  PI    (2. N . This valve can be closed in case of backflow through the pump if the pump is stopped and the bypass valve is opened. The work input to the gas is equal to the increase in the gas enthalpy. and assuming a polytropic process. Fig. pump speed N. I the gas density at pump inlet.

0.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 59 n −1   n   P P k I O    Win = − 1   k − 1 ρ g . In order to interpret the homologous curves. by a series expansion. Single phase head HS 2.speed ratio q= β= where subscript R means rated value. If the adiabatic constant k for the gas and the compressor efficiency ηp are given. For n = 1. be written:  (1 − α )  PO P    α  W = PI  − 1 + ln O    ρ g .78) The polytropic efficiency is defined as the ratio of the work done by the pump divided by the work input to the gas. Four sets of homologous curves are tabulated: 1. The relationship between head H and specific work W is W = gH = ghHR.flow ratio QR TH .torque ratio TH R (2.79) can be solved for PO/PI. i. For two phase mixture (except for very high gas fractions) an isothermal compression of the gas may be assumed. (2.79) With W calculated from the pump characteristics. the following variables are defined: h= ω= H . These curves are empirically developed by the pump manufacturer. a volumetric weighting of the pump power to the fluid will be done as: n −1        P P ( ) α n  O n   1− α O W = (1 − α )Wl + αWg = PI  − 1 +    − 1   ρ l  PI  ρ g n − 1   PI       (2. The four quadrant curves are converted to a simpler form by the development of homologous curves where the head and torque ratios (actual value to rated value) are functions of the pump speed and flow rate ratios. For a two phase mixture. Single phase torque THS Q .e.0 equation (2. where HR is rated head and h is the head ratio.79) can. Two phase head HT 3. n=1.81) .80) Pump characteristics for the centrifugal pump The pump characteristics for the centrifugal pump are presented in the form of four quadrant curves.head ratio HR N NR . Eq. I  PI    (2. the polytropic constant n can be calculated. I  PI    ρl  PI (2.

In calculating the hydraulic torque. 4 ω < 0. head. torque. TM(α) is the two phase torque multiplier and α the gas volume fraction at the pump inlet. An example of a graphical presentation of the tabulated pump characteristics is shown in Fig.19. The pump head H and hydraulic torque TH under two phase conditions are determined as: H = HS (1 − HM (α ) ) + HT HM (α ) TH = THS (1 − TM (α ) ) + THT TM (α ) (2.Page 60 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution 4. q ω ω q ω q q ω Independent variables Dependent variables ≤1 q/ω h/ω2 <1 ω/q h/q2 <1 ω/q h/q2 ≤1 q/ω h/ω2 Table 2. Two phase torque THT The two phase head HT and two phase torque THT are curves for fully degraded two phase conditions.1 Dependence of Pump Head on Pump Speed and Flow Rate Curves Range 1 ω > 0. the difference between actual fluid density and rated density must be corrected as: TH = β ⋅ TH R ⋅ ρ ρR (2. These are defined in Table 2. 2 q > 0.82) Where HM(α) is the two phase head multiplier. Each set of homologous curves consists of four curves.2 Dependence of Pump Torque on Pump Speed and Flow Rate .2. the users can change these data easily by specifying their own experimental data through the pump data table. These are based on experimental data and are representative for centrifugal pumps. they can describe a variety of pumps by specifying through input the desired rated density.83) Table 2. flow rate and speed.1 and Table 2. The transfer from single phase to fully degraded two phase conditions is described by a two phase multiplier. 2. Because the homologous curves are dimension-less. TH. 3 q < 0. However. This figure shows the single phase homologous head curves. A complete default set of homologous curves is tabulated in the code.

PI .19 -1 1 0 ω or q Single Phase Homologous head curves The displacement pump model For the displacement pump.back flow rate . the pump flow rate can be expressed as: Q = Q0 − Qb Q0 = Qspc N Qb = f ( N . 2. 2 q > 0.pressure increase across the pump (2.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Curves Range 1 ω > 0. ∆P.pump specific flow rate . 3 q < 0.84) .theoretical flow rate .α I . ν I ) where Q0 Qb Qspc N ∆P . q ω ω q ω q q ω Page 61 Independent variables Dependent variables ≤1 q/ω β/ω2 <1 ω/q β/q2 <1 ω/q β/q2 ≤1 q/ω β/ω2 2 2 HS1 h HS3 1 2 ω h q2 q ω 1 ω h q2 or q h ω2 0 0 HS4 h q2 h 2 ω q ω ω q HS2 -1 -1 q ω Fig. 4 ω < 0.pump speed .

GR is calculated by: 1 G R = (2 ρ∆Pch ) 2 Cd Ach (2. No forward flow is allowed in the recycle loop.Nr ) + D2 ( Q .85) Where Cd is the choke discharge coefficient and Ach the choke opening area. PI in the pump data table. is controlled by a choke and calculated in the same way as for the recycle flow. GR.Qr ) ) ( 1 . and the choke upstream conditions. The choke upstream condition is taken from the pump downstream section (pump pressure side). ∆Po = ∆Pr ( 1 + D1 ( N . The bypass flow. If the mass flow through the choke exceeds the critical flow rate.void fraction at the pump inlet .Qr ) ) ( 1 .Nr ) + E2 ( Q . The flow is calculated with a given pressure difference between the two sides of the choke. the fluid flows from the pump inlet to the pump outlet in the normal pumping flow direction without going through the pump. If the bypass flow line is opened. ∆P. Gb.liquid kinetic viscosity . If the recycle flow is in subcritical condition. νl. Recycle and bypass flow Recycle and bypass flow is only defined for centrifugal (not simplified) and displacement pumps.87) ∆P = ∆Po ρ / ρ r (2.pressure at the pump inlet For a given pump the specific flow rate Qspc is a constant. αI.D3 α ) (2. Simple algebraic expressions are used to calculate pressure increase over the pump and pump efficiency. critical flow conditions will be used.86) η = η r ( 1 + E1 ( N . Qb is tabulated as a function of N. ∆Pch. Simplified centrifugal pump A simplified description of a centrifugal pump is used for modelling the behaviour of a centrifugal pump around an operational point.E3 α ) (2. The choke flow can be regulated by a controller. is considered as the flow through a controlled choke. The flow rate through a critical choke is governed by the choke upstream conditions and the choke opening. Back flow is not allowed through the bypass line.Page 62 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution αI νl PI .88) where: ∆Po = Pump pressure increase at rated density ( bar ) ∆P = Pump pressure increase ( bar ) N = Pump speed ( rpm ) Q = Flow rate ( m3/s ) . The recycle flow.

. The power input to the fluid is calculated from: Wfluid = GT⋅∆H (2.0.3 = Input coefficients for efficiency Subscripts: r = rated The power to the fluid is calculated in the following manner: 1. a pump with a constant pressure increase will be simulated. The actual enthalpy change is then calculated by following formula: ∆H = ( H iso − H s ) η (2. Total shaft power: Wtot = Wfluid / η M (2.2.90) 3.94) where ω = 2 π N / 60.3 = Input coefficients for pressure increase E1.89) 2.2. The enthalpy at discharge pressure is found assuming isentropic conditions (Hiso).3 and E1. Outlet enthalpy is calculated from: Hd = Hs + ∆H (2.91) where Wfluid is in W. Inlet enthalpy (Hs) (J/kg) and entropy (Ss) is found from the fluid file.2.3 = 0. Note that by setting the coefficients D1. one can either iterate on the input value for ∆ Pr or assume some value for D1 and let a controller determine the necessary speed. If the user wants to obtain a certain flow rate in a simple way.2. and GT is the total mass flow in kg/s. and η M the pump mechanical efficiency.93) Pump hydraulic torque: TH = Γ η M (2.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 63 α = Gas volume fraction η = Pump efficiency (adiabatic) ρ = Specific density ( kg/m3) D1.92) Pump torque: Γ = Wtot / ω (2.

specific work delivered from pump into liquid . is calculated as: QPM = Wl Ql ρl + Wg Qg ρ g where. a b Nref QPmf.ref b (2. TH.gas density Mechanical friction loss:  N = QPmf .99) .ref  N  ref     QPmf a (2.mechanical friction loss at the pump reference speed . Wl Ql ρl Wg Qg ρg (2.pump reference speed .viscous loss at the pump reference speed Then.experiment coefficient for mechanical friction loss .97) Viscous friction loss: where.Page 64 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Energy balance The total power input to the fluid from a pump is: QPt = THω (2. In this case.experiment coefficient for viscous friction loss .96) .98) . the hydraulic torque. QPM.ref  N  ref      N QPvis = QPvis .specific work delivered from pump into gas .liquid flow rate .ref QPvis. For the displacement pump.gas flow rate . ω the pump speed and η M the pump mechanical efficiency. the total power input to the fluid is calculated as: QPt = QPM + QPmf + QPvis (2. the total power input to the fluid is calculated by summing the mechanical work on the fluid and the different losses as following: The power used for mechanical work on the fluid. may not be available and it is difficult to calculate the term QPt.95) ηM where TH is the pump hydraulic torque.liquid density .

. and a warning message will be given in the output file. If the maximum pump torque has been given by users (Only for centrifugal and displacement pumps): The effective pump torque is calculated from the total power input to the fluid.3. Controlled by an override controller (Only for centrifugal and displacement pumps): To adapt the pump to the production change (because the recycle flow is at upper or lower limits). In the standard OLGA model.1 Slug/Pig Tracking Module This is a developed version of a special slugtracking model that was implemented in OLGA in 1989. Nmin is the minimum pump speed (defined by user) and u the signal from the controller. physically sharp liquid hold-up fronts are smeared out numerically. Pump speed regulated by controller (All pump models): (1) Controlled manually by specifying time and speed series in the controller definition. (2) Regulated by a physical parameter. Hydrodynamic slugs are treated only in an average manner without giving any information on slug lengths etc. The speed is calculated by: N = N min + u ( N max . especially in horizontal or near horizontal high velocity transient flow cases.3 Special Options 2.100) where Nmax is the maximum pump speed (defined by user). the pump speed will be changed automatically according to the required speed variation (speed acceleration). QPt : TQ pump = 60 QPt 2πN [N m] (2.101) where QPt is the total power input to the fluid.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 65 Controlling the pump speed The following options are available for controlling the pump speed: 1. 3. 2. 2.N min ) (2. The speed variation may be given in form of: SPEED = SPEED ± A ⋅TIME where A is a constant pump speed variation rate (acceleration). The speed variation will stop once the recycle flow is within a defined range below MAXRECYCLE and above MINRECYCLE. If the pump shaft torque is over the limit the pump speed is reduced.

g. In addition. and slugs accumulated ahead of pigs. Terrain slugging will be detected in ordinary simulations without the slugtracking module. The user may limit the number of slugs in the pipeline and specify sections where slugs are not allowed to pass through. The front of the slug accumulating ahead of the pig is then treated non-diffusely by the slugtracking model. with one exception. The physical model for initiating hydrodynamic slugs is still under development. sources. and the interactions between terrain and hydrodynamic slugging can be investigated using the key HYDRODYNAMIC. Once initiated. A slug tail representing a pig is handled specially. velocity. The pig and slug models are coupled by letting the pig represent the tail of a liquid slug. the different slugs are treated in the same way.Page 66 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution The slug/pig tracking model in OLGA is designed to track and maintain such physically sharp fronts as those of start-up slugs. Level slugs which may be initialised when changes in liquid hold-up from one section to another are detected. The waiting time is used to delay initiation of a new slug in a section where a slug has been present at a former time step. liquid sources or boundary conditions changing with time as well as geometrical differences. This option is activated through the key HYDRODYNAMIC. etc. The slug frequency is applied only in computing a minimum distance between a new hydrodynamic slug and an already existing slug. The slug/pig tracking model has two different options for detecting slugs (keyword SLUGTRACKING). there is an option for insertion of pigs in the pipeline (keyword PIGTRACKING). hydrodynamic slugs. . These options represent: 1. This may be caused by a start-up situation. and the present model requires an initial slug frequency or a waiting time between set-up of slugs to be specified. e. 2. length and other characteristic quantities of each individual slug. Hydrodynamic slugs may be initiated when OLGA predicts transition to slug flow from stratified or annular flow.. This model will give information about position. This option is activated through the key LEVEL. at sections containing process equipment. regardless of their origin.

at the pipeline inlet and outlet it is possible to have slugs with the pipeline inlet or outlet as the limit of the liquid slug.g. a level slug may be initiated. A normal slug consists of both a tail and a front.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 67 Initiation of level slugs: Startup Slug 2 Startup Slug 3 Startup Slug 1 Fig.20 . see startup slug 1 in Fig. A front is set up if the void increases gradually to BUBBLEVOID or more within the distance of two downstream sections. It is possible to have a slug with a well-defined front and no tail. The pipeline consists of a well. A level slug will be initiated with a length determined by the conditions in the pipeline. . a transport line and a riser.20 Schematic visualisation of a pipeline shut-in situation with liquid accumulated at low points. However. ENDTIME. A level slug may be initiated between the user specified time limits: STARTTIME. 2. When a section is found where the void is less than SLUGVOID. One now searches the neighbour sections to determine whether a tail/front should be initiated. 2. Terrain and hydrodynamic slugs are short when initiated and will grow if the conditions in the pipeline are correct.The same applies to sections specified as illegal for slugs. where the liquid slug extends into the user specified sections illegal for slugs. A tail is set up if the void increases gradually to BUBBLEVOID or more within the distance of two upstream sections. leaving only one well-defined tail or front. The level option is used mainly for well-defined startup slugs (through initial conditions or restart simulations). e. Detection of levels is based on the parameters: SLUGVOID (maximum void in a slug at initiation) and BUBBLEVOID (minimum void in a bubble at initiation).

have to be given for each pig. that is. a hydrodynamic slug may be initiated in section volume j or j-1 or over both sections. MASS. where UB is the bubble nose velocity of the new slug. The pig is described by its mass. its static friction factors. LEAKAGEFACTOR. To avoid these discontinuities the new slug is set up with a slug length as small as possible. see Fig. When OLGA predicts slug flow. STATICFORCE and LINEARFRIC. Initiating a new slug implies redistribution of masses. and the time of pig insertion. They are applied in the following formulas: . the trapping position. The waiting time between slug generation at any section boundary may be user specified through the key DELAYCONST (minimum number of pipe diameters). TRAPPOSITION. The minimum distance is calculated as UB/INITFREQUENCY. its dynamic friction factor.21 Schematic visualisation of the initialisation of a hydrodynamic slug If OLGA predicts slug flow (ID=3) at a boundary j.21. QUADRATICFRIC and finally the pig leakage factor. The waiting time is calculated from DELAYCONST multiplied by the time liquid takes to travel one pipe diameter. INSERTTIME. where UL is averaged liquid velocity. 2. The default minimum distance is 10 pipe diameters.Page 68 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Initiation of hydrodynamic slugs: J-1 J J+1 ID=3 New Slug J-1 J J+1 LSDINI Fig. and in inclined and vertical flow this may lead to discontinuities in the pressure. The default value for DELAYCONSTANT is 150. DELAYCONSTANT * D/UL. two criteria must be met before a hydrodynamic slug is initiated in a section: • The distance to the nearest slug must be longer than a minimum distance • The time elapsed since the previous slug was generated in or passed this section must be higher than a certain minimum time The minimum distance may be user specified through the key INITFREQUENCY (slug initiation frequency). LAUNCHPOSITION. 2. Initiation of pigs (keyword PIGTRACKING): The initial position.

entailing that Up.r  | dp p |  = sign dp p R p   ρp  ( ) 0. When e. Slugs can be handled through valves. etc. is negative.102) where mp g cosφ is the gravitational force due to the mass of the pig.static pw. A is the cross section area of the pipe and fpw is the friction force between the pig and the wall given by: = sign(U p ) f f pw f pw. Sections with process equipment.f A pw (2.103) where = MAX (0. following the slug. The pig velocity relative to the fluid: U p.f 1|U p | ) (2. Merging of slugs: Two slugs are merged into one if the front of one slug catches up with the tail of a downstream slug. the slug front will no more be treated by the slug tracking model. The number starts at 1 and is increased by 1 for each slug initiated. Decay of slugs: A slug is considered to be decayed once the slug length has become less than 0. It is possible to plot e. f0. etc.105) Rp is a user given leakage factor and rp is the mean upstream density. Note that no slip is assumed between the phases passing over the pig. Identification of slugs: Each hydrodynamic or level slug is given a unique identification number. front and tail velocities.r is a total superficial drift velocity. Page 69 The pressure drop over the pig: the pressure drop over the pig. This unique number makes it possible to follow the development of a slug as it moves through the pipeline. f 0 .104) Up is the pig velocity.001 diameter.g.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution 1.5 (2. . 2. a slug front is entering a section specified as illegal to slugs.static + f 2 |U p |U p (2.: Sections containing process equipment and the very first and last section in the pipeline are automatically set to illegal for slugs by the program itself. f1 and f2 are user specified friction constants. but the rest of the slug will move normally into the section (See also user guidelines).g. dpp. slug length. dpp is given by: dp p = m p g cos φ .

if the flow condition indicates slug flow at the other side of the junction a new slug will be generated. Set the gas fraction at the outlet equal to one. the time step will be limited so that only one tail or front can cross a section boundary during a time step. The following suggestions might make the simulations run better. New slugs will be generated after the junction if the flow conditions allow for slug flow. 45 and 90 bar start-up slug experiments at the SINTEF Two-Phase Flow Laboratory and are believed to be reliable in horizontal and near horizontal cases. (Short pipe with 2 sections). as the flow regime in the slug is bubbly and the flow regime in the slug bubble is stratified. end the pipeline with a couple of horizontal sections at the top of the riser.e. is by default set to infinity. when a slug front moves into a junction it will no more be tracked by the slug tracking model. the flow regime indicator should be used with caution. For slug tracking in networks the sections closest to junctions are by default illegalsections for all branches. For high velocity cases (Usg > 7-8 m/s) there may be a too high build-up of liquid a few sections behind the tail of the start-up slug. and the slug will disappear as it moves through the junction. only gas will flow into the pipeline. and slugs will disappear as they move into junctions. It proved important to activate the hydrodynamic slug option in this simulation /4/. Secondly. This means that if back-flow occurs at the outlet. The model for initiating hydrodynamic slugs has not been properly verified. MAXNOSLUGS. If a slug tail or a slug front moves faster. Thus. Slug tracking for networks is especially suited for cases where several branches converge in a separator or slug-catcher. However. Make the pipeline sections in the riser illegal (ILLEGALSECTION=ON) if the flow in the riser is not expected to influence the slugging significantly. The sections closest to junctions are by default illegal-sections for all branches. except at the highest velocities. The slugtracking model contains a time step control mechanism. 30 and 50 bar terrain slug experiments from the same laboratory. Model verification: Simulations of start-up slugs have been verified against 20. That is. i.Page 70 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Network: The slug tracking option is also available for networks. Simulations of dynamic terrain slugging have been verified against 20. The current limit is at least 10 time steps. the time step will be reduced. the flow regime indicator will never give slug flow when slug tracking is used. very well with the experimentally obtained values. The predicted tail and front velocities correspond. Hints: When the slug tracking is switched on. This effect is believed to be a result of the treatment of the droplet field near the slug tail. The parameter controlling the maximum number of slugs in the pipeline. there is no limitation on the number . If possible. however. The time step control is first based on the number of time steps a slug tail and/or front takes to pass through a section. Problems might be encountered for simulations where slug tracking is performed for a pipeline ending in a vertical riser. The present model seems to initiate slugs too close to already existing slugs. This will usually have to do with back-flow in the riser.

The momentum of the bulk of liquid. For more information see chapter simulations the water properties are calculated by Calsep.2 The Water Module When the water module is activated and the three-phase option selected (ref.1Slug Statistics A first version of slug statistics has been implemented in OLGA version 5.e. The slug statistics information is reset in a restart.0. which means that slug initiation is not limited by this key. is calculated by one equation.3.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 71 of slugs existing simultaneously. The velocity difference between oil and water is calculated by a steady state force balance. water and liquid hydrocarbon. Simulations of terrain slugging have so far indicated that activation of the hydrodynamic slug option is important and is therefore recommended. the mass balance equations for water film and water droplets in the gas are solved. The option to specify the void limits for initiating start-up slugs and levels may be used if suspecting that all possible start-up slugs have not been detected by the model. key INITFREQUENCY. The model may initiate slugs too often. so the user should specify a minimum time between initiation of a new slug in a section through the key DELAYCONST (it is recommended to use the default value of 150). diameter. i. These properties file. the NSLUG parameter may be specified in the OUTPUT group. branch. A slug statistics table is written to the . To switch off the slug tracking option completely both options (HYDRODYNAMIC and LEVEL) must be set to OFF. and sorted by slug length interval (predefined. is normally not specified. 3 ). water properties can either be given as tables in the fluid by OLGA itself. There is no separate input associated with this feature. Slugs are counted for each section defined with LSLEXP in TREND.3. or be calculated 4. To get the list of information on all slugs in the pipeline on the printed output file. In restart cases the MAXNOSLUGS may be used to stop initiating new slugs (MAXNOSLUGS = 0). This . An additional table listing positions with LSLEXP containing position. When the three-phase option is activated. The slug initiation frequency. The initial time step in a restart run should be equal to the time step read from the restart file. properties are needed.out file for each DTOUT (together with the other slug information) and in postprocessor (if POSTPROCESSOR = ON in OPTIONS). pipe and section is also written. 2. 2. but with the possibility to account for different velocities of the two liquid phases. In this case you modify the void limits by keys BUBBLEVOID and SLUGVOID.1. The table contains number of slugs per section and per slug length interval. using number of diameters to be applicable for all pipe diameters). OPTIONS in Ch. For Compositional Tracking the PVT package delivered by Calculation of velocity difference between water and liquid hydrocarbon ("slip velocity") Two different options can normally be used for calculating the velocity difference between liquid water and hydrocarbon liquid (which we term "oil" for simplicity).

Water droplets are entrained in the oil if the water cut in the liquid film is less than the phase inversion point. Dispersion viscosities With the dispersion viscosity option turned on (DISPERSIONVISC= ON). The fraction of water droplets entrained in the oil or oil droplets entrained in the water (if any) are determined. This applies to all gas/liquid flow regimes. µw [cP] is water viscosity and µrel [-] is relative viscosity (dispersion viscosity / viscosity of continuous phase). In this case oil and water are always assumed to flow as a homogeneous mixture with average properties.h) and a water continuous dispersion (µrel. and vice versa. The correlation was published by Pal and Rhodes (1989) /15/ and is primarily developed for dispersions where coalescence and deposition has negligible influence on the pressure drop (and the apparent viscosity). The liquid droplets flowing in the gas phase are not included in this context. One correlation for relative viscosities of a liquid/liquid dispersion was developed based on a generalisation of Einstein’s equation to also be valid for high concentrated dispersions. By turning the water slip option off (WATERSLIP = OFF). The fluid mechanical model reduces to a two-phase gas-liquid model.106) (2.5 (2. water enthalpies are accounted for in the temperature calculations.0 +  1. This is a special option that should only be used with great care in special cases for tuning purposes.108) . depending on the phase velocities and the material properties. w (2. A third option is also available: The user may specify a constant velocity difference between oil and water.19 − Φ w / Φ µ rel =100   2. With the water slip option on (WATERSLIP = ON). the user assumes that there is no velocity difference between the oil and water flow fields.5). and the corresponding dispersion (also knows as emulsion) viscosities calculated if the key DISPERSIONVISC = ON. The mixture viscosity for oil continuous dispersions (µhw) and water continuous dispersions (µwh) are expressed as: µ hw = µ h ⋅ µ rel .Page 72 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution velocity difference is termed the "slip velocity" or just "slip". However. three different viscosity models can be chosen: Pal & Rhodes. Oil and water are always assumed to flow as two liquid layers but possibly with water entrained as droplets in the oil film or vice versa. Rønningsen or Pal & Rhodes correlated with experimental data. Phase inversion is assumed to occur at a water cut given by the user through the key INVERSIONWATERFRAC (default value of 0.107) where µh [cP] is oil viscosity. OLGA calculates the slip velocity by solving the steady state force balance between the oil and water fields.w): µ rel . The degree of mixing of oil and water can vary from fully separated to fully dispersed.h   Φ w / Φ µ rel =100 = 1.h µ wh = µ w ⋅ µ rel . The equations below show the Pal & Rhodes correlations for relative viscosity of an oil continuous dispersion (µrel.

this correlation and the correlation parameters are also applied for water continuous dispersions using the analogous quantities.0 +  1. 1994). The parameter Φ µ rel =100 is the dispersed phase volume fraction for which the relative viscosity µrel equals 100.03484Φ w + 0.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution µ rel . For oil in water dispersion..h) specified. 19 1 − µ ( − 0 .5 (2. It is still left to investigate how to discriminate between oil and water continuous dispersions.109) where Φ w = β wd /( β hc + β wd ) is the concentration of water droplets in the oil continuous dispersion. Φrel (Φh or Φw depending on the inversion point) and µrel (µrel. In the present version of the model.109) is rearranged to calculate the Φ µ rel =100 value: Φ µ rel = 100 = Φ rel 1 .0000500TΦ w (2.108) will then be used to calculate the water in oil dispersion viscosity.06671 − 0. equation (2.19 − Φ h / Φ µ rel =100   2.765 (Søntvedt et al. the viscosity of the oil in water dispersion is assumed equal to the pure water viscosity. With an experimental point.w or µrel.110) Equation (2. VISCmix = (VISCoil*(1-WATERCUT) + VISCwater* WATERCUT)*VISCMOD where the tuning factor VISCMOD can be specified through input as a tabulated function of WATERCUT.109) is used. µrel with the key VISCREL.108) and (2. The possibility to use a simple volume weighting with a tuning factor is also available. and Φ h = β hd /( β wc + β hd ) is the concentration of oil droplets in the water continuous dispersion. w Page 73   Φ h / Φ µ rel =100 = 1. the parameter Φ µ rel =100 is set equal to 0. µrel is limited upwards to 10000. when the Rønningsen method is applied. Based on pipe flow experiments on stable oil continuous emulsions for different crude oils and formation waters.4 rel ) (2. Flashing/condensation of water With the water flash option turned on for standard simulations with PVT tables (WATERFLASH = ON) the amounts of water that evaporate or condense are .000775T + 0. the Pal & Rhodes method in equations (2. Another correlation for relative viscosities of an oil continuous dispersion is the correlation by Rønningsen recommended for a shear rate of 500 1/s (2003) /17/: ln µ rel .h = Relative viscosity (dispersion/oil) T = Temperature (deg C) Φw = Volume % of water dispersed in oil Above the inversion point. and the inversion point with the key INVERSIONWATERFRAC. Φrel is defined with the key PHIREL.h = −0.111) where µrel.

02 Rsw = 20/(50+30+20) = 0.20 . The various mass fractions then become: Rs = 50/(50+30) = 0.mass flow rate of total gas (including any water vapour) . let the saturated gas flow include 1 kg/s of water. ref. its actual value is taken from the fluid properties table. If water properties are calculated by OLGA itself. water vapour in the gas phase is assumed to be zero and WATERFLASH = ON is disregarded. Furthermore. while with WATERFLASH = OFF the value is interpreted as only free water (resulting in more free water than with WATERFLASH = ON). The water vapour fraction of the gas phase is taken from the fluid properties table.mass flow rate of liquid water . in which case flashing of water is decided by FLASHTYPE in COMPOPTIONS. Hints Water fractions in sources.g. WATERFLASH has no effect on Compositional Tracking simulations.water vapour mass fraction (always from fluid table) . that is.21 Rswv = 1/50 = 0.1.mass flow rate of total water (vapour + liquid) . 30 kg/s of oil and 20 kg/s of aqueous phase.source total mass flow rate .625 Rswt = (20+1)/(50+30+20) = 0.source total mass flow rate exclusive of liquid water . a mass source at a specific temperature and pressure are then by definition: Rs Rswt Rswv Rsw where Rs Rswt Rswv Rsw Gtot Ghc Gw GwL Ggas Gwv = Ggas/Ghc = Gw/Gtot = Gwv/Ggas = GwL/Gtot .2. If the MEG Tracking module is used (which uses PVT tables). it is not assumed that the gas phase is saturated with water vapour. the gas might be dry if there is no available water. With WATERFLASH = ON this value is split into free water and water in gas according to the water mass fraction in gas values from the fluid table. is determined from the fluid properties table.total water mass fraction (TOTALWATERFRACTION) . wells and at boundaries (when using PVT tables) are specified either as the mass fraction of liquid water relative to the total mass (flow) with the keyword WATERFRACTION or as mass fraction of total water (liquid water plus the water vapour in the gas phase) with the keyword TOTALWATERFRACTION. The relations between the various mass fractions and mass flow for e. The mass fraction of water vapour in the gas phase at water saturation.Page 74 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution calculated by OLGA under the assumption that the gas phase is always saturated with water vapour. 4.gas mass fraction .mass flow rate of water vapour in the gas phase Example: Assume a flowing mixture consisting of 50 kg/s gas (saturated with water). If TOTALWATERFRACTION is set to -1.liquid water mass fraction (WATERFRACTION) . as a function of pressure and temperature.

This is consistent with 3 phase PVT tables created by PVTsim. In that case the dispersion viscosity is calculated by a simple volume averaging of the oil and water viscosities. MEG Tracking has a water vapour mass balance equation that makes it suitable for simulating three phase systems where a detailed analysis of the water distribution is necessary (can be used with no MEG). The reason is that in the three phase simulation a thin layer of oil is added on top of . If the fluid temperature becomes sub-zero the enthalpy and entropy are extrapolated. Therefore. For multiphase transport systems where liquid accumulation could represent a problem. it is recommended to perform three phase flow computations with the water slip switched on.g. If WATERFRACTION is specified all the water in the e. i. but three-phase fluid tables cannot be used for two-phase flow simulations. the water vapour will be taken into account depending on FLASHTYPE in COMPOPTIONS. The slugtracking module can be used with the water module. the gas phase is assumed to be saturated with water.g. However.3.g. This option is more important for gas production systems than for "normal" oil production systems. The amount of water vapour is determined by the water vapour mass fraction from the pvt table. The user may turn off the calculation of dispersion viscosity (DISPERSIONVISC = OFF). source. not ice). 2. When using Compositional Tracking. Three-phase simulations with two-phase PVT tables uses internal routines in OLGA for calculation of water properties.2. The user should be aware that when performing standard simulations with PVT tables there is no separate water vapour mass balance equation.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 75 Please observe that either TOTALWATERFRACTION (Rswt) or WATERFRACTION (Rsw) can be specified for the same e.1 Gas-water simulations There are two ways to perform gas-water simulations: • Do a three phase simulation and make sure that oil is not present (set GASFRACTION = 1 for all sources etc and. but there can be differences. It is possible to use two-phase (hydrocarbon liquid and gas) fluid tables for threephase flow simulations (implicit WATERFLASH = OFF). source is considered to be liquid water. For three phase simulations. When modelling a three-phase mixture using PVT tables where you want to include the mass transfer between the free water and the gas phase. the inlet total water mass flowrate is not sufficient to saturate the gas at the water vapour mass fraction from the pvt table. meaning that the fluid is in thermal but not in chemical equilbrium (sub-cooled water. if necessary. the total water mass could be in error for cases where e. the water option in OLGA must be used with WATERFLASH = ON. three-phase slug tracking is possible.e. set the gas mass fraction in the fluid tables to a constant value to avoid condensation) • Do a two phase simulation with a modified fluid file where oil properties have been replaced with water properties The options will in most case give very similar results.

The isothermal option assumes that the fluid enters the well with the reservoir temperature. If the adiabatic option is used. With the Advanced Well Module seven new options are available. 1. etc. Linear formula: Gw = A + B( pR . This model is available for all users and is described in section 2.4. the gas mass fraction of the oil and gas mixture of the well fluid. If the well is placed at the mid-point of the section. For the flow from the reservoir into the well section. equilibrium gas mass fraction will be used.3.pwf2 . Two thermal options for calculating enthalpy inflow are available. eq. Options for calculating flow rate Flow from reservoir into well The following three options are available for specifying the relationship between the mass flow rate and the pressure difference.3 Well Description Well placement options A well can be placed at the mid-point or the inlet (bottom) of the well section. WATERFRACTION should be zero (default value). can also be used for linear inflow. the total mass flow is calculated with the gas mass flow fraction equal to the gas mass fraction within the well section. The recommendation is to do two phase simulations with a modified fluid file. the bottom hole flowing pressure is equal to the pressure in the well section.Page 76 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution the water layer for numerical reasons. If GASFRACTION < 0 is given. and reservoir fluid enthalpy is calculated on the basis of reservoir temperature and well pressure. (2. the inlet or bottom hole flowing pressure is calculated by adding the hydrostatic pressure drop to the pressure in the well section. and pwf the bottom hole flowing pressure. For flow from the well to the reservoir.118) in the Advanced Well Module. GASFRACTION.pwf ) where Gw is the mass flow rate. the negative enthalpy source will correspond to the pressure and temperature conditions in the well section. The fluid temperature may change as the pressure decreases from the reservoir pressure to the pressure at the well section due to constant enthalpy expansion and flashing. When it is placed at the inlet. pressure drop. The pressure difference is defined as the reservoir pressure minus the bottom hole flowing pressure. pR the reservoir pressure. The inflow model Constant productivity index. 2. WATERFRACTION (or TOTALWATERFRACTION) are given. and water mass fraction in the total mixture of the well fluid. Constant B is defined as the productivity index. Phase fractions For flows from the well section into the reservoir. This layer can for some flow conditions result in another flow regime and another hold-up. the reservoir fluid enthalpy is calculated on the basis of reservoir temperature and reservoir pressure. Non-linear formula: A + BGw + CGw2 = pR2 . If water option is not used. 2.3. Constant A allows for a minimum pressure difference required for the fluid to start to flow from the reservoir to the well and it must be less or equal to zero.

4. The pressure difference is defined as the bottom hole pressure minus the reservoir pressure. there are two ways to prepare the data for these wells: 1. the program will automatically add a zero point at zero pressure difference. Tabular form: The relationship between the flow rate (or other well parameters) and the pressure difference is given by a table. B and C are constants. eq. A is the minimum pressure required for flow to start from the well into the reservoir. A allows for a minimum pressure difference required for flow to start from the reservoir to the well.pR2 where A. Non-linear formula: A + BGw + CGw2 = pwf2 . 2.3.3. (2. B and C are constants. Note: If equivalent pipe is used and there are wells in each parallel pipe. the constants A and B for the equivalent well are: A = NAi B = NBi . 2. Note the difference between flow from the reservoir to the well and flow from the well into the reservoir. Flow from the well into the reservoir The following three options are available for specifying the relationship between the mass flow rate and the pressure difference. Tabular form (see section 3. 1. If the user does not give a zero flow point in the input. For pressure differences larger than the maximum value in the table. 3.53): The relationship between the flow rate (or other well parameters) and the pressure difference given by a table. Constant A represents the minimum pressure difference required for the fluid to start to flow from the well into the reservoir and it must be less than or equal to zero. the flow rates are determined by a linear extrapolation using the tangent to the quadratic curve at the end point of the table. the program will automatically add a zero pressure difference. the flow rates are calculated by a polynomial interpolation of second degree. For pressure differences within the range of the table.118) in the Advanced Well Module. This model is available for all users and is described in section 2. The inflow model Constant productivity index.pR ) where Gw is the mass flow rate into the reservoir and constant B is the injectivity index.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 77 where A. The interpolation and extrapolation procedure is the same as for flow from the reservoir to the well. Use one of the following procedures to construct data for the equivalent well: a) If the linear equation is used. Give input data for each individual well. 3. Use a single equivalent well. If the user does not give a zero flow point in the input. can also be used for linear inflow. Linear formula: Gw = A + B( pwf .

112) where qf is the instantaneous flow rate for phase f. f. see section 2. This distance. The steady-state flow for each phase is calculated by: q∞f = PI f ( Plim . f . N is number of parallel wells included in the equivalent well.115) As an option. Bi and Ci are the constants for each parallel well.3. the constants A. (2. Eq.o. PIf. and Tf is the time constant for the flow of phase f. the flow rate in the table is the sum of the flow rates of all the parallel wells at the same pressure difference. Numerically. B and C for the equivalent well are: A = Ai B = Bi/N C = Ci/N2 where Ai .Pn+1 wf ) (2.Pwf ) (2. a transport delay can be modelled by specifying a certain distance that the front of phase f must travel before the actual inflow can be started. The productivity index.qn+1 f Tf ∆t q∞f n+1 = PI nf ( P R . will be user determined.114) (2.f. For positive well flow.f.q f Tf (2. Dynamic Well Inflow An option is available for simulating the dynamic characteristics of a well. qf∞ is the steady-state flow with the bottom hole flowing pressure at time t. For these models the reservoir performance can be specified through reservoir variables or from draw-down/build-up tests from the actual well.113) is solved by n+1 qn+1 qn f = f + q∞f . Pwf. is less than a given threshold pressure. With the Advanced Well Module seven new models for calculating the reservoir inflow are available. is calculated by dq f dt = q∞f .113) when the flowing pressure. b) If the non-linear equation is used. hf. When Pwf is above Plim. Plim.4 for further information. . the instantaneous flow rate for each phase. as well as the time constant Tf can change with Pwf. q ∞f will be set to zero.Page 78 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution where Ai and Bi are constants for each parallel well. c) If the well performance is given by a table.

118) where pR is the static reservoir pressure. The Advanced Well Module will be especially well suited for the following applications: • Simulation of fluid flow in drilling operations.g. f Page 79 (2. or as a first estimate when the production curve for the well is not properly defined: q = J ( p R − p wf ) (2.116) (2. the constants are assumed to be zero. otherwise. the flow rate into the well section is set to zero.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution d h f h∞f .3.h f = dt T h. f Pres − Plim. pwf is the flowing bottom hole pressure and J is the constant productivity index given by: . water alternating gas injection (WAG). or from draw-down/build-up tests from the actual well. Please note that a specific license is required to run the Advanced Well Module. • Analysing cross flow between different reservoir zones. 2. The transient option is switched on if one or both of the time constants are greater than zero.o ⋅ Pres − Pw. The reservoir inflow can be specified in a number of different ways depending on the type of reservoir simulated.4.3. The different inflow performance models are presented below.1 Reservoir inflow In the Advanced Well Module the reservoir performance is specified through permeability. Constant productivity index The linear form is used for the production of a typical oil reservoir. fluid properties etc. extension of the reservoir. f h ∞f = h f . • Well bore flow during underbalanced drilling operations. • Start-up and shut down of production and well testing.o. e.4 The Advanced Well Module The Advanced Well Module is designed for well flow applications where the reservoir properties and the inflow relationships play an important role in the modelling. • Complicated production from several reservoir zones. The transient option is only applied for positive flow (from the reservoir to the well section). • Reservoir injection. • Flow from multilateral wells. 2.117) If hf > hf. the flow rate into the well section is set to qf. For the negative flow.

/1/ ) : 2 p R2 − p wf = Bq g + Cq g2 (2.703kh [ln(re C= Where: T µg z re rw s D k h rw ) − 0.75 + s ) (2. for example the Forchheimer model (see ref.122) reservoir temperature [°R] (RESTEMPERATURE) gas viscosity at reservoir conditions [cP] (VISGRES) Gas z-factor at reservoir conditions (ZFACT) reservoir extension [ft] (RESEXT) wellbore radius [ft] (HOLES/2) mechanical skin [-] (SKINS) non-Darcy or turbulence skin [1/Sft3/d] (SKIND) reservoir permeability [mD] (KPERM) well effective net pay [ft] (HPAY) For high pressure gas wells with limited draw down. pressure can be used instead of pressure-squared.119) in oilfield units (stb/d/psi) where J kh ν Bo re rw s Productivity index [stb/d/psi] Effective permeability x net pay [mD ft] Oil viscosity [cP] Oil formation volume factor [Rft3/Sft3] Reservoir extension [ft] Wellbore radius [ft] Mechanical skin Forchheimer and Single Forchheimer model When the full production curve can be estimated and a constant PI is not applicable a quadratic form of the relation between inflow and draw-down can be used.Page 80 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Linear productivity (typical oil reservoir) J= kh 141.120) where B and C are the linear and non-linear part of the productivity index respectively defined by: B= Tµ g z 0.2vBo(ln(re / rw ) − 0.121) [psi2/(scf2/d2)] (2. in which case the Single Forchheimer equation is written: p R − p wf = Bq g + Cq g2 . where B and C are defined by: (2.75 + s ] Tµ g z 0.703kh D [psi2/(scf/d)] (2.123) .

Undersaturated oil wells For oil wells producing from reservoirs with static reservoir pressure above the bubble point pressure.127) where C is defined by: C= (0.407kh )  p av  [psi/(scf/d)] [psi/(scf2/d2)] (2.128) This equation is often referred to as the backpressure equation. ( 2 q = C p R2 − p wf ). known as Vogels equation. /1/ ).125) where pav is defined as pav= (pR + pwf)/2.max is the maximum oil rate when flowing bottom hole pressure equals zero. A normalised form of this equation can be used for saturated oil wells:   p wf q 0 = q 0. /1/ ).703kh)n (Tµ g Z )n D1−n [ln(re rw ) − 0.124) (2.126) where q0.max 1 − 0.75 + s ]  (1.8 wf  pR     2    (2. Vogels equation The following IPR equation.max 1 −    p R    2    n (2. was traditionally used for oil-well performance in saturated oil reservoirs (see ref.75 + s]2n−1 [scf/d/psi2n] (2.max is the theoretical maximum oil rate when flowing bottom hole pressure equals zero.5 to 1. Backpressure and normalized backpressure equations For gas wells the following simple equation is often used for the inflow performance (see ref. n (2. In these cases the linear inflow relationship will not be sufficient alone to describe the inflow under varying flowing pressures.0.129) where q0. The following two equations are therefore introduced: . The exponent n ranges in value from 0.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution B= Page 81  µgZ  T [ln(r r ) − 0.2   pR p   − 0. the bottom hole flowing pressure might drop below the bubble point pressure during production.   p wf q 0 = q 0.407kh )  p av  e w C=  µgZ  T D  (1.

Tabulated inflow performance curve If neither of the above inflow performance curves nor the linear and non-linear option presented in section 2.130) (2. Injectivity index The injectivity index is used for modelling of flow from the wellbore into the reservoir zone of gas.3.Page 82 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution q = J ( p R − p wf  J q = J ( p R − p b ) +   2 pb )  2 2  p b − p wf  ( p b ≤ p wf ≤ p R for ) for p wf ≤ pb (2. the reservoir reference pressure can be specified as a function of time by the user. That is. The initial static reservoir reference pressure is no longer applicable for specifying the inflow from the zone and a reduced reference pressure is introduced.3. 2.4. This is also described in section 2. Variable reservoir reference pressure When a reservoir has been flowing for some time at high rates the reservoir pressure close to the well can be reduced significantly. and the fluid in the wellbore will flow into these fractures instead of flowing into the reservoir matrix. The inflow into the reservoir can be specified on the same form as the well production. hydrocarbon liquid or water. The drilling option can be used to simulate the thermal-hydraulics in a drilling operation. For the model to take these local drawdown and build-up effects into account.3. When the pressure inside the wellbore exceeds this pressure small fractures will be created in the formation resulting in a significant increase in injectivity. In the Advanced Well Module this is modelled by an "infinite" inflow into the reservoir zone. is applicable for the reservoir a tabulated inflow curve can be specified by the user. In addition. when the bottom hole pressure exceeds the static reservoir pressure an inflow into the reservoir will start depending on the injectivity index.3. This option is for example used for pushing the gas back into the reservoir during a work-over operation. Fracture pressure When the pressure in the wellbore exceeds a certain value above the static reservoir pressure the formation will break down.131) where pb is the bubble point pressure. The code can now handle the following configuration of the well that is being drilled: . but a different relationship can also be used.3. The injectivity index is adapted to specify the relation between the flow from the well into the reservoir and the pressure build-up in the well.2 Drilling option Drilling simulation is an option that is available through the Advanced Well module. a separate linear injectivity index can be used for the oil phase or the water phase. The pressure required to burst the formation is called the fracture pressure. By specifying the fracture pressure the user defines the maximum allowable pressure inside the wellbore.

2. Fifteen fictitious components are used: Component ID 1 2 3 Component name HC H2O GDENMIN 4 GDENMAX 5 GVISMIN 6 GVISMAX 7 ODENMIN 8 ODENMAX 9 OVISMIN 10 OVISMAX Description Hydrocarbon mixture Aqueous mixture Min gas density (WATER/OIL) Max gas density (WATER/OIL) Min gas viscosity (WATER/OIL) Max gas viscosity (WATER/OIL) Min oil density (WATER/OIL) Max oil density (WATER/OIL) Min oil viscosity (WATER/OIL) Max oil viscosity (WATER/OIL) tracer for drilling fluid tracer for drilling fluid tracer for drilling fluid tracer for drilling fluid tracer for drilling fluid tracer for drilling fluid tracer for drilling fluid tracer for drilling fluid . and formation string) that are joined at the node of the drilling bit (defined with the keyword BITNODE).22 Well configuration during drilling simulated by Olga The drilling option allows for the possibility of injecting fluid (gas lift for example) through concentric annulus or a parasite pipe.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 83 Parasite pipe Concentric Annulus Annulus Drillstring Formation Fig. A moving grid system is used to simulate the flow along the three strings (drilling string. annulus. A compositional approach is adapted to calculate the transport of different drilling fluids along the flow path. There are two ways to specify the fluid properties of a drilling fluid: 1.

2. Cutting generation rate is calculated by: .cutting generation rate up .hole diameter φ .133) . The viscosity is adjusted according to the volume fraction of components 3-15. The adjusted viscosity for gas phase is only used for calculating the drift velocity of cuttings if the drilling fluid contains gas type.Page 84 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Component ID 11 Component name WDENMIN 12 WDENMAX 13 WVISMIN 14 WVISMAX 15 CUTTING Description Min water density (WATER/OIL) Max water density (WATER/OIL) Min water viscosity (WATER/OIL) Max water viscosity (WATER/OIL) Cuttings tracer for drilling fluid tracer for drilling fluid tracer for drilling fluid tracer for drilling fluid For oil based mud.porosity The cutting is treated as a separate component and the component mass balance equation is solved to determine the cutting concentration which can change with time and along the annulus. For water-based mud. in which case the max/min density/viscosity component tracers (3-14) are not used. components 3 to 15 will be in the oil phase.penetration rate A . A similar approach is used to adjust the density and viscosity for gas phase. m s = u p A(1 − φ ) (2. is calculated depending on the Reynolds number. As an alternative one may use a fluid property file per drilling fluid. The slippage between the cutting and the drilling fluid. The density of oil phase is then adjusted according the volume fraction of HC and mud content in the oil phase. ms . components 3 to 15 will be in the aqueous phase. Vsl. One empirical correlation for Vsl is as follows:  (ρ s − ρ f V sl = C1  d s ρf  ) 1 2   where: C1 is calculated depending on the Reynolds number as given below d s is the cutting diameter (m) ρ s is the density of the solid cuttings (kg/m3) (2.132) where: .

and ROP (rate of penetration) defines the penetration speed. • If Re > 300.136) How to use the DRILLING option Use the following keywords to use the Drilling option: • • • • • • • OPTIONS to set DRILLING = ON ANNULUS to specify the annulus configuration (thermal interactions) POSITION to specify initial bit position and leak-to positions BITNODE to specify the drilling configuration FILES to specify fluid property files for drilling fluids DRILLINGFLUID to specify drilling fluid properties or refer to a fluid label.135) If Re < 3 V sl = 0.134) below): Re = ρ f V sl d s µf (2. ZONELENGTH and fracture data of the formation • LEAK to specify TOPOSITION (useful for simulating well unloading valves) BITNODE is the keyword defining the branches used to model drilling.667 f µf ) 0.133) is used with C1 = 2. ( V sl = 0.333 (2.134) where µ f is the mean viscosity of the mixture (Pa⋅s). .94 (Moore) • If 300 > Re > 3.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 85 ρf is the mean density of the mixture (kg/m3) Vsl is the slip velocity (m/s) The Reynolds number for cutting particles is based on Vsl (iteration process) and cuttings diameter (equation (2. The DRILLSTRING branch is located inside the ANNULUS branch and penetrates the FORMATION branch (all three branches defined through keyword BRANCH and referred to in BITNODE). INITPOSITION defines the starting position of the bit in the DRILLSTRING branch.0179 (ρ s − ρ f ) (ρ 0. SOURCE to use DRILLINGFLUID and specify DENSITY and VISCOSITY In addition the keywords below are useful: • BOUNDARY to be able to specify DRILLINGFLUID • WELL to be able to specify ZONETOP. equation (2.3267 (ρ s − ρ f ) d s2 / µ f • ) (2. The three branches are connected in the specified NODE.

4. is calculated from the following definition: HHP = Qinj ⋅ WHP 2.Page 86 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution 2. 1991 /2/ ): ∆p = 1 ρ ⋅ q2 2 C d2 ⋅ At2 (2.3.g. The equation is known as the “tri-state” equation (see Bourgoyne et.4 Bit nozzles A simplified pressure loss equation can be used for the pressure loss through the drill bit nozzles. The total hydraulic horsepower.137) where QP = PFAC = SPES = Volume delivered by the pump battery Pumping factor Strokes per time unit The pump rate is normally controlled by the following set of controllers: • • • • Controller on the maximum hydraulic horsepower allowed Controller on the maximum pump rate Controller on the minimum pump rate Controller on the maximum pump pressure allowed If either one of these controllers is set into action the pump rate is reduced automatically.3 High pressure displacement pumps (pump battery) Accurate simulation of the pumps used for a standard drilling operation is important for the overall estimation of the pump power needed as well as the volume of mud/water required during the operation.81 (2.4. the velocity upstream of the nozzle is negligible compared to the nozzle velocity and the frictional pressure loss across the nozzle is negligible. Defining the total flow rates proportional to the rate of pump strokes simulates the battery of positive displacement pumps.139) .3. HHP. We define the pump battery through a proportionality factor for the volume delivered at a certain pump rate: QP = PFAC ⋅ S PES (2.138) where Qinj = Pump injection rate of mud or water (bbl/min) WHP = Pump injection pressure (bara) 2. al. The equation used assumes that the change in pressure due to a change in elevation is negligible. The number of controllers can be extended above the number shown above and different variables (e. fluid rate. inflow rate) can be used to control the pumps.

2. 2.4.23 Annulus flow. (1989) /9/. 2. q is the volume flow. (2. Cd is the discharge coefficient and At is the total flow area defined as: NN At = ∑ Ai i =1 . The modification factor is dependent on the reduced flow area and the length of the upset. al. and in addition the wall interfacial friction is calculated based on a hydraulic diameter defined by: Dh = 4A = DC − DT S (2. Internal and external pipe upsets (Tooljoints) Internal and external upsets in pipes and annuli can result in additional pressure drop. There are very limited investigations of annulus multiphase flow performance at high pressure and temperature.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 87 where ρ is the average fluid density flowing through the bit nozzle.23. A detailed modelling of these restrictions will result in an increase of number of sections necessary by an order of magnitude.5 Pipe Upsets Annulus Flow In order to obtain correct wall friction and interfacial friction for flow in the annulus a correction is needed for the increased wetted surface area compared to the flow area. single or multiphase flow. The use of the Olga choke models for high rate mud flows can be questionable and for these cases the simplified model described here is recommended. 2. see Caetano et. Compared to the use of a choke model. A schematic definition is shown in Fig. Fig. . this approach modifies the pressure drop in the pipe directly and numerical problems can therefore be avoided. The investigations indicate that the hydraulic diameter approach is reasonable in turbulent flow.140) where Ai is the flow area of the ith nozzle and NN is the number of bit nozzles. but some investigations at low pressure can be found.3.24. see Fig. A single pipe with a corresponding flow area is assumed.141) where A is the flow area and S is the wetted perimeter. To account for the additional pressure drop a modification of the roughness factor is introduced.

Page 88 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Fig. 2.145) .144) The new roughness is calculated according to: ε = Cε ⋅ ε (2. The correlation introduced by Rygg et.06 λu )(α −1) (2.143) where λu = and α= Aoriginal Aupset (2. The different lengths dimensions corresponds to: DD2 Outer diameter in annulus.142) LJOINT LUPSET (2. LJOINT Length of pipe between upsets. D2INUP Internal upset in annulus/tubing DD1 Inner diameter in annulus. D1EXUP External upset of pipe/tubing LUPSET Length of upset.26−0.24 Side and cross-sectional view of pipe with external and internal upsets. (1996) /10/ is used to calculate the modified roughness: Cε = e (4. al.

3.147) where τ is the shear stress. The user can choose between Newtonian fluids and three different models for non-Newtonian flow.8 2 A_original/A_upset Fig.4. 40 35 L2. 2. µ is the viscosity and γ& is the shear rate.6 1.146) The effective fluid viscosity is then defined by: µe = τ γ& (2.4 1. The shear stress of the Newtonian fluids may be expressed as: τ = µγ& (2. The complex viscosity model modifies the viscosity of the fluid.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 89 Example of modified roughness for different values of the parameters λ and α can be seen in Fig.6 The complex viscosity model An approximation of non-Newtonian effects of mud is included through velocity dependent viscosity. The three models are: • • • Bingham plastic model (Plastic viscosity and yield stress defined by user) Power law model (Power exponent n and consistency factor K defined by user) Herschel-Buckley model (Power exponent n. consistency factor K and yield stress defined by user) . 2.6 20 15 10 5 0 1 1. (Points marked with a square correspond to a standard 5" drillpipe with typical internal upsets. 2. No changes to slip routines or flow-regime transition are used in the current approach.33 Correction factor 30 L5 L10 25 L14.) L in the figure corresponds to λ in the text.25.2 1.25 Effects of modification of pipe roughness due to internal pipe upsets.

For pipe flow the effective fluid viscosity is: µe = µ p + τ0D 6U (2. ρ is the fluid density and U is the average fluid velocity.155) .148) where τ 0 is the yield stress and µ p is the plastic viscosity.150) The corresponding Reynolds number: Re = UρDh µe (2.154) Herschel-Buckley model The shear stress of the fluid: τ = τ o + K ⋅ γ& n (2.153) For annular flow:  12U 2n + 1   µ e = K  ⋅ D 3 n   h n −1 (2. Bingham plastic model For a Bingham plastic model the shear stress of the fluid may be expressed as: τ = τ 0 + µ p γ& (2.152) For pipe flow the effective fluid viscosity is expressed by:  8U 3n + 1  ⋅ µe = K   4n   D n −1 (2.Page 90 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution See "Non-Newtonian Flow and Heat Transfer" for definitions and further details /11/. Power law model For a Power law model the shear stress of the fluid may be expressed as: τ = K ⋅ γ& n (2.149) For annular flow: µe = µ p + τ 0 Dh 8U (2.151) where D h is the hydraulic diameter.

and this program creates mud properties and put them in the water phase of a standard OLGA fluid property table. i. after a shutdown or for an initial start-up. 2.g. gas is continuously injected through this GLV and stable production is optimised by regulating the optimum amount of gas (injection gas rate).8 Gas Lift Valve (GLV) A Gas Lift Valve can be modelled in OLGA using the LEAK and TABLE keywords. This will decrease the hydrostatic pressure and get the well flowing. e.3. and as the tubing pressure decreases this GLV shall close and the next one open (might already be open depending on the response curve). the water phase is substituted by the mud phase. The injection of gas will reduce the liquid head pressure in the tubing until the GLV’s are closed again. Mud Property Table is delivered together with OLGA. which is used for generating mud fluid property tables. mud is one of the fluid phases. The intention is that the GLV closest to the wellhead opens first.4. This cycle will be repeated till the injected gas reaches the operating GLV (lowermost active GLV). At constant injection pressure (casing pressure) all GLV’s above the operating GLV should be closed.e.3. Once the gas lift gas reaches the operating GLV. . This is a procedure where high pressure gas is injected into the annulus/casing. a big liquid slug coming from the productive formation. and is routed through the GLV’s into the tubing to help remove the liquid as well as to optimise the well’s maximum stable production rate. For a typical drilling simulation.157) 2. choke back production at the wellhead. If the tubing pressure is increased for any reason (e. this may cause the opening of some GLV’s. Fig. and there is one curve for each casing pressure.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 91 For pipe flow: 4τ 0  8U 3n + 1  + K ⋅ µe =  8U 3n + 1 D 4n   3⋅ ⋅ 4n D n −1 (2. Typically more than one GLV is placed after each other down the annulus.26 shows an example of these “response curves” where tubing pressure is along the x axis.7 Mud Property Table Mud Property Table is an external program. etc).g.156) For annular flow:  12U 2n + 1  4τ 0  + K  ⋅ µe = 12U 2n + 1 D 3 n   h 3⋅ ⋅ Dh 3n n −1 (2.4. This opening is the automatic response of the GLV’s to stabilise the flow. standard volume gas rate along the y axis. A GLV (sometimes referred to as an Unloading Valve) is a valve specially designed for well unloading and continuous gas injection operations (operating GLV). 2.

2. The casing and tubing pressure work together to open the valve. so using the terms injection/production makes the input more general. For a tubing pressure approaching the casing pressure the flow decreases as the differential pressure decreases. The curve for the casing pressure of 730 psig illustrates the behaviour. see Fig.26 Example of GLV Response Curves The GLV is constructed to respond on both the casing pressure and tubing pressure. respectively. For tubing pressures above the “opening pressure” of 330 psig the valve starts to open. . since the injection gas may be injected in the tubing instead of the casing. and the well fluid flows up the casing.27. For low tubing pressures the combined force is not enough to open the valve (Pt < 330 psig). The intention of the GLV is to allow flow from the injection to the production side. 2. the “Throttling region” from 330 to approximately 600 psig is where the valve goes from closed to fully open. In the input to OLGA the terms “injection pressure” and “production pressure” is used instead of “casing pressure” and “tubing pressure”. while the gas (typically nitrogen) charged dome works in the opposite direction. and above 730 psig (Pt > Pc) there is no flow as there is a check valve that stops the flow going from the tubing to the casing.Page 92 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Fig.

the curve for the lowest injection pressure is used directly. That is. . and vice versa for injection pressure above the highest given injection pressure. 2.27 Sketch of typical casing (injection) pressure operated GLV (with gas charge) The GLV in Fig. It is required that the last point in a response curve (the point with highest production pressure) has a gas rate of 0. PINJ and PPROD switch places in the equation for a Production or Tubing Pressure Operated GLV. and then the resulting gas rate is found by interpolating between these two rates using the current injection pressure.27 is characterized as an Injection or Casing Pressure Operated GLV since the injection/casing pressure works on the large part of the bellows (AINJ) while the tubing pressure works on the small part (APROD). as would be the case for the injection pressure of 790 psig in Fig. no extrapolation for injection pressures.158) where R = ASEAT / ABELLOW. If the current injection pressure is below the lowest given injection pressure. Extrapolation is performed in the direction of decreasing production pressure to find the opening production pressure.26). the code finds the two response curves with injection pressures that are closest (higher and lower) the current injection pressure. Calculation of flow from curves The standard volume gas rate through the GLV (defined in keyword LEAK) is found by linear interpolation in the user-given response curves (defined in keyword TABLE) using the calculated injection pressure (upstream the GLV) and production pressure (downstream). The force balance for the point where the GLV starts to open is then: PB = PINJ (1 − R ) + PPROD ∗ R (2. First. 2. 2.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 93 Fig. One gas rate is found for each curve by interpolating using the current production pressure. if not given (allowed with a negative extrapolated value. It is possible to create a curve with only one point for which this is not a requirement (a way to specify constant standard volume flow for all production pressures below the injection pressure).

water) the mass flux through the GLV is: WP = massfrac P ∗ WTOT (2. flow conditions.054 ⋅10 −7 PB2 (2. The bellows temperature will depend on the production temperature. Production operated : ∆PPROD = R 1− R (2. etc. For each liquid phase (oil.158) we get the following expressions for the increase in required production pressure to open the GLV (assuming constant injection pressure): Injection operated : ∆PPROD = ∆PB ∆PB . the pressure in the dome will increase with increasing temperature as the gas is contained in the dome. According to Winkler and Eads /20/ the increased pressure in a nitrogen charged dome/bellows (based on reference temperature TREF of 60 F) is expressed like: ∆PB = M (TB − TREF ) For nitrogen 60 F base pressures less than 1238 psia : M = 0.00226 + 0.163) . injection temperature.160) where the suffix P represents oil or water and massfrac is the mass fraction of the phase upstream the GLV (in the section where the GLV is placed).159) where WG is the gas mass flux derived from the response curves. but with a user given reference temperature. ρG is the gas density and ρmix the volume averaged density. geometry of GLV. The user must give a parameter α where the bellows temperature is a linear interpolation between the injection and production temperature: TB = TPRODα + TINJ (1 − α ) (2.161) For nitrogen 60 F base pressures from 1238 to 3000 psia : M = −0. and the pressures and temperature are given in psia and F. it has been assumed that the equations give reasonable results also for other reference temperatures than 60 F.84 ⋅10 −7 PB2 where TB is the bellows temperature. Temperature effect In the case of a gas charged dome (a GLV might have a spring instead).001934 PB + 3.Page 94 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Associated liquid (in case of liquid on the injection side) through the GLV is calculated by setting the total mass flux WTOT [kg/(m2*s)] as: WTOT = WG ρ mix ρG (2. That is.267 + 0. placement of GLV.002298 PB + 1. This means that the required force from the production and injection side to open the GLV also increases with increasing temperature. These equations have been implemented in OLGA.162) From the force balance equation (2.

3. open + ∆PPROD > PINJ.161) for a reference temperature different from 60 F). 2.5 The Complex Fluid Module The complex fluid model utilises the Bingham. 2. the water phase or both. particles start to settle. the complex fluid model includes numerous modifications to the physical models for both separated and distributed flow taking into account the nonNewtonian behaviour of the fluids. This is not physically correct.6. as basis for pressure drop prediction is also a major difference. In OLGA this effect is included with a right-shift of all the response curves associated with the GLV. the actual rheology etc the slurry may flow downhill and form particle dunes or even plugs. Non-Newtonian behaviour can be modelled for either the liquid hydrocarbon phase.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 95 where ∆PB is calculated in equations (2. forming particle dunes or plugs. only the opening point is correctly calculated (except for the uncertainty in using equations (2. . and the points to the left of this maximum point are shifted with the calculated ∆PPROD. When the liquid velocity drops below a certain critical value in a section. One important improvement with regard to standard OLGA and the complex viscosity model is to have a slug flow model that include the effects of the above rheologies and simultaneously cover the range of Reynolds numbers from laminar to turbulent flow on bubble front velocity and thereby on liquid accumulation.3. making restart possibly difficult or impossible.g. the original right side of the curve. Further work on GLV in OLGA will possibly implement vendor specific GLV’s where the temperature effect is included in a more correct manner. E. For a sufficiently high temperature above the given reference temperature the GLV might never open: PPROD. This procedure is a simplification of how the response curves are affected in the dynamic region. The particle density in such plugs may continue to rise as the separation of particles and oil continues. For stratified flow the wall friction calculations should be better than using an equivalent viscosity.5. As a result of the separation the particle fraction in the remaining slurry increases. A better model for the liquid flowing below the slug bubble and thereby a better slug fraction prediction. and with it the consistency/yield stress and the density. the curve for a casing/injection pressure of 850 psig in Fig. this will increase the restart pressure. Depending on the local inclination.161). The new response curve will then consist of the adjusted left side of the curve. See chapter 3 for further details.4.26 will not be affected by temperature with this procedure. 2. This effect can be very significant. the Power law model or a Newtonian model. If the hydrate particles sink to low points during shut-down. The Newtonian option is included to include the peculiarities of higher viscosity liquids. and a new maximum point where they cross each other. The point with maximum gas rate (for each of the curves) is identified.1The slurry plug extension The idea of this extension is to describe what happens during normal production and stop/restart with a hydrate slurry in the line..3. and the slurry begin to separate into a pure oil phase and a more dense slurry phase. This is especially important for more viscous liquids. As opposed to the complex viscosity model described in Section 2.

Thus it is not possible to use the table based rheology option (FULL=YES) as this only describes the influence of pressure and temperature not the particle concentration. The water/hydrate is assumed to have a density of 910 kg/m3.5 4 (d / D) 5 1 0 .2501 χ 4 = 0. 5 [2 gD( s − 1)] { } (2. .Page 96 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution When the line is restarted the opposite process of particle entrainment etc takes place.164) where χ1 = 1.7951 χ 2 = 0. and pure oil only arise as a result of a settling process The model assumes that oil and pure water is fully mixed when it enters the pipe. The correlation of Turian et.00179 χ 5 = 0.06623 ϕ : particle concentration d : particle diameter D : pipe diameter s: ρ s / ρ solid liquid density ratio uc: critical velocity for onset of particle entrainment Rheology models The particle concentration of the slurry may now vary with time and along the pipeline.1087 χ 3 = 0. Thus the aqueous phase in the model is really a mixture of water/hydrate and oil with a fraction of the dispersed phase that changes along the pipeline and with time. if sufficient liquid velocity can be obtained considering the obstacles created by the settling process. etc. inlet pressure boundary. In this extension the water equations of the three-phase model is used to describe the slurry phase and the oil phase equations are used to describe the pure oil phase that separates out at low liquid velocity. and couple the hydrate temperature to the HYDRATECHECK keyword instead of specifying one value in FLUID (HYDTEMP). We have added a term in the input for the slurryplug option (WATERCUT in FLUID keyword) that specifies the fraction of pure water in the aqueous/slurry phase. using water density from the pvt table. according to settling and entrainment processes taking place. We have so far chosen to use standard correlation for rheological parameters. Critical velocity The critical velocity is the velocity above which particles becomes entrained in the liquid flow. (1987) /23/ is used for the critical velocity: u χ χ χ χ c = χ ϕ 2 (1 − ϕ ) 3 Dρ ( gD( s − 1))0. al. Further development of the slurryplug option will probably include that the watercut is read from the source and/or pressure boundary instead of specifying this in FLUID. A pure water phase doesn’t exist. This overrides any water input (WATERFRACTION etc) that is given for an inlet source.

and different parameters can be given for the two cases. which can be described via the Krieger-Dougherty formulation. an upper limit of 0. By selecting the right parameters.168) .167) If the particle concentration is so low that any of these parameters get an unphysical value.165) can be used for the slurry and must be used for the emulsion (i. the user can select among three different rheology models (CFLUMW): • Newtonian fluid modelled via the Krieger Dougherty model • Power law shear thinning model via the IFE model from the IFP experiments • Bingham fluid via the Thomas model If the fluid is above the hydrate temperature. it is the only one implemented of many possible correlations).9ϕ − 428. ϕ is the particle fraction ϕ Mf is the particle fraction where the viscosity goes to infinity.e. The relative yield stress is given by: 3 τ yr   Fϕ = 10   /(1 − 1.94(1 − F )ϕ ) 1 − (1 − F )ϕ  6 (2. Then the Complex Fluid Module is used to calculate friction factors etc. The user can give different parameters: ϕ Mf for emulsion and slurry. If the particle fraction exceeds this limit.6 n= 1 1 + 14. The Bingham fluid model Here we use the correlation of Thomas /25/ for the relative yield stress and the relative viscosity. the program choose a Newtonian model with pure oil viscosity. most typical emulsion or slurry behaviours can be approximated. The Krieger-Dougherty correlation is one of many that could have been chosen.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 97 It is only the dependency of model parameters on the local particle or droplet fraction that is modelled here in the ”Slurry plug model”.29(ϕ − 0. Krieger and Dougherty (1959) /24/: µ r = (1 − ϕ / ϕ Mf ) −2. Newtonian model The Krieger Dougherty correlation.99 ϕ Mf is used. For the slurry. we assume that it forms an emulsion or dispersion.67 (2. Shear thinning model We assume that the consistency factor can be modelled as: K = Kr µh (2.166) where the subscript h indicate the continuous hydrocarbon liquid phase. We have so far used a provisional IFE model: K r = 4761. that is when the fluid temperature is below the hydrate temperature.09) (2.

temperature differences can be expected depending on the thermal properties of the gas.5 0.2 0. Large discontinuities are often unphysical. Thermal calculations for the wall may be done at two levels: • The heat flux through the pipe wall layers is conduction controlled and calculated by the code with user given conductivities. and the absolute yield stress is found by τ y = τ yr µ h (2.169) the relative viscosity is given by µ r = 1 /(1 − 1. if there is a great difference in hold-up between two adjacent sections.6 Thermal Computations In a temperature calculation the fluid mixture temperature profile along the pipeline should be critically examined.1 to 1 in steps of 0.1 0.3. It may therefore be important in a dynamic simulation to also treat the wall .28 Yield stress according to the Thomas correlation.170) F is the fraction of fine particles.Page 98 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution A dimension of s-1 is implied in the constant of equation (2. although if large pressure differences occur between two neighbouring sections the Joule-Thompson effect may give a substantial temperature difference.3 0.94ϕ ) (2.168). and pipe walls. as well as the surrounding medium. said to be particle diameters below 30 10 m. -6 6 10 5 10 4 10 3 relative yield stress s−1 10 finefraction 2 10 1 10 0 10 −1 10 −2 10 −3 10 0 0. with fines fraction from 0. ϕ is the particle fraction. 2. 2. the yield stress is scaled with the pure oil viscosity.4 particle concentration 0.7 Fig. liquid.6 0. thermal capacities and densities for the wall layers • The energy flux is determined by a user given overall heat transfer coefficient The former is recommended since the energy storage capacity in the wall is often large. Furthermore.1.

Numerical Restrictions.4.171) = outer diameter of buried pipe = distance from centre of pipe to top of soil = soil heat conductivity = overall heat transfer coefficient for soil The term cosh-1 (x) can mathematically be expressed as follows: cosh-1 (x) = ln ( x + ( x2 . 2. 2. The first option (heat flux calculated by the code) should then always be used due to the rather large heat storage capacities in the soil. Fig. the equivalent heat transfer coefficient from the outer surface of a buried pipeline to the top of the soil can be calculated to be: hsoil = Where: D H λsoil hsoil λ soil D  2H   cosh -1   D 2 (2.172) Where: Rsi Rso ksoil = inner radius of soil layer (=outer radius of pipe wall) = outer radius of soil layer = input value of soil conductivity To accurately predict the transient heat transfer. Theoretically.29 Illustration of a buried pipe Buried pipelines may be modelled with the soil as an outer concentric wall layer. the thermal capacity of the soil should be adjusted as follows: .5.1 ) 0.5 ) for x ≥ 1 To get the same hsoil the following equation can be used to calculate the equivalent soil conductivity used in OLGA input: k soil =hsoil ⋅ Rsi ⋅ ln Rso Rsi (2. For a buried pipe. For discretisation of pipe walls.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 99 temperature calculation dynamically. but should be used with care and preferably in steady state situations only. the division of the soil into concentric layers is only an approximation to reality. see sect. The latter option will save some CPU time.

for dynamic situations.177) and the Prandtl number Pr = κ υ (2.175) that has been introduced to account for thermally driven natural/free convection.173) Where: Cp input = input value of soil thermal capacity Cp soil = soil thermal capacity Heat transfer at steady state conditions depends only on the outer soil layer radius Rso and ksoil. Q is the heat transfer rate from the walls (W/m3) and HS is the enthalpy of sources (W/m3).3.Page 100 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution C p input = C p soil k soil λ soil (2.9). However.3. e is the internal energy per unit mass (J/kg). A 1D fluid model cannot directly consider energy transport due to velocity profile flow in both directions over a cross section.3. A is cross sectional area (m2). T is temperature (K). as is the case in natural convection.   ∂ ∂ F 1 ∂ F ∂T   ∑ mi ei  = −  A∑ miU i H i  +  λeff  + Q + HS ∂t  i=1 ∂ A z ∂ z ∂ z     i =1  (2. U is velocity (m/s).1 Thermally driven natural/free convection in the axial direction Natural convection in the axial direction may significantly affect the temperature profile along a pipeline when the temperature gradient has the same direction as the gravity. the resulting heat redistribution due to natural convection can be viewed as an essentially 1D phenomenon. It is the term ∂  ∂T   λeff  ∂z  ∂z  (2.178) .176) where the Nusselt number Nu depends only on the Rayleigh number Ra = gβL3 ∆T κυ (2.6.174) where m is specific mass (kg/m3). 2. H is enthalpy (J/kg). and it should be considered to use the Soil module (section 2. λeff is the effective conductivity of the fluid (J/ms). have introduced an additional 1D term in the energy conservation equation in OLGA-2000 as follows. Thus.8) or the FEMTherm module (section 2. particularly during a shutin period in a vertical riser. we. However. The effective conductivity is being calculated from the equation λeff = λ ⋅ Nu (2. to account for this effect. a good soil discretisation is important in order to obtain a reliable temperature profile.

erroneous simulation results may occur. These will not be taken into account when the free convection zones are being detected. VALVES etc. 2. If the pipeline profile used in OLGA-2000 is a crude approximation of the real pipeline profile. A riser may for example be divided into two free convection zones if it is being modeled as two BRANCHES instead of one.179) that is if the fluid temperature decreases with increasing elevation. 2. The following guidelines apply to the use of the axial heat option in OLGA-2000 (activated by setting AXIALHEAT=ON in the OPTIONS keyword). In Fig. • Be careful with the geometry of the pipeline. like avoiding horizontal pipe sections or other bumpy pipes. Simplifications. One should therefore have such equipment located at the NODES only. may have a consequence for the accuracy of the results. Free convection zones may include one or several sections of a branch. ν is the kinematic viscosity. Note also that in the present version the automatically detected free convection zones do not cross NODES. • Be careful with the placement of the NODES. Here β is the thermal expansion coefficient. and ∆T and L are the temperature drop and the elevation of any free convection zones of the pipeline where natural convection is likely to occur.30 an example with seven free convection zones (marked red) is shown. Fig. To . Possible free convection zones are being determined prior to simulations and may be enabled whenever g ⋅ cos ϕ ⋅ ∆T > 0 (2. that may serve as obstructions for free convection.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 101 for a given geometry.30 Example with seven free convection zones in OLGA-2000 The axial heat option should be used with care. • Be careful with the location of process equipment like PUMPS. κ is the thermal diffusivity. but not multiple branches. g is the gravitational acceleration. as the resulting heat redistribution in a particular situation is sensitive to the detailed geometry of the pipeline.

Page 102 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution avoid too long free convection zones. unaffected by heating/cooling). Note. The LINE fluid properties are assumed to be constant (i. For a particular free convection zone. and • the heat that is transported with the fluid if there is a flow in the pipe. Thus. The WALL or FASTWALL temperature calculation option must be specified when the BUNDLE module is used. A BUNDLE can consist of two different types of pipes: Pipes for which the full hydraulic and thermal behaviour is calculated. The heat transfer between the different LINES is calculated based on the flow rates in the LINES. These pipes are referred to as OLGA BRANCHES.e. with compositional tracking 2.e. their inlet temperatures. The mass flow as well as the inlet temperature in each of the LINES can be given as a time series. that one for example may have an effect in a well where the surrounding soil temperature is decreasing with increasing height. • included wherever thermally driven natural/free convection is improbable. The flow in the LINES is assumed to be incompressible and the pressure loss is not calculated. the transient redistribution of heat is dependent on the length of the zone (L).3. the temperature difference (∆T) and the thermal expansion coefficient (β) of the fluid in the zone. The BUNDLE module can be used both for steady state and transient simulations. This feature cannot be used together (COMPOSITIONAL = MEG in OPTIONS).180) where the thermal expansion coefficient β is averaged over the zone.7 Bundled pipelines (Bundle Module) The Bundle module is used for simulations of heat transfer between different pipes that are bundled together and with the gaps between the lines are filled with fluids. however. Heat transfer due to natural convection in the axial direction of the pipe is in most cases small compared to • the heat that is being exchanged with the pipe wall. the axial heat feature may be a useful and accurate option if the NODES are. • excluded wherever thermally driven natural/free convection is probable. one should insert NODES at the location of the natural convection obstacles. the characteristic time constant for this transient heat redistribution is proportional to  L τ ∝   gβ∆T 12    (2. . the ambient conditions and the thermal characteristics of the various fluids and pipe materials. i. The pipes for which only heat transfer calculations are performed are referred to as LINES. The flow and temperature in the BRANCHES are calculated using the standard flow OLGA model.

giving • The profiles of the fluid temperature along the pipeline • The profile of the temperature in the pipe WALL along the pipeline. and overall heat transfer coefficient. outer surface. X Y . The combination of 1-dimensional fluid and WALL temperature equations along the pipelines and the 2-dimensional heat transfer equations for the media in each of the cross-sections along the pipeline results in a 3-dimensional temperature field. This equation is solved for each of the cross-sections along the pipeline. A finite difference method is used for solving the heat transfer equation. 2. the model can consider the thermal interactions between the pipelines through the solid media around the pipes. Therefore. and heat transfer rate from the fluid.3. The two equations are solved for each of the pipe sections along the pipelines. The figure below illustrates one cross-section with the grid system used for solving the 2-dimensional heat transfer equation. The simulation model consists of stacks of such cross-sections along the pipeline. for instance. Crossovers of fluid from the outlet of one line to the inlet of another can be specified. inner surface. The cross-section can contain multiple pipelines.8 Soil Module The Soil module (3-dimensional thermal) solves the following equations in two steps: 1. giving the temperature distribution over the cross-sections. The fluid can be reheated at the crossover. Several BUNDLE groups can be specified in either one BRANCH or in different BRANCHES. A 2-dimensional heat transfer equation in the solid media surrounding the pipe WALL. Energy equation for the fluid in the pipe and the heat transfer equation for the first layers of the pipe WALL. Crossovers between BUNDLE LINES in different BRANCHES are possible. Controllers can regulate both the flow rate of and the heat input at the crossovers.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 103 The following output variables are available for each of the LINES: fluid temperature. 2. The BUNDLE module can be combined with the FEMTherm module to simulate. buried BUNDLEs.

ellipse. In this way partially buried pipelines can be defined.3. This is of course only possible for completely buried pipes.31 SOIL grid cross section The thermal masses in the SOIL can be very large and it may require very long simulation times to obtain thermal equilibrium condition when integrating the energy balance equation for the SOIL. • OLGA automatically assigns a cell for which more than half of the cell area is within the circumference of the pipe as being a part of the pipe WALL. • The outer radius of the pipes (pipe + WALL) must touch a grid line. In this case. 1. This time period is specified by the value of the key SOILINIT in keyword INTEGRATION. There must be at least one grid cell between the pipes.8. This module is an alternative to the Soil module described in Section 2. • Similarly. • If the centre of a pipeline is placed at the first or the last vertical grid lines (first or last X co-ordinates). using finite element heat conduction. The profile and discretisation of the BRANCHES inside the same SOIL group must be the same. • Better accuracy is obtained if the outer pipe WALL layer consists of a SOIL layer. which adjacent grid cells are in the sea. • All pipes inside the SOIL group that belongs to the same BRANCH must be of the same diameter and have the same WALL. rectangle) in addition to a userdefined polygon . A special feature is therefore implemented that provides the user with the possibility to neglect thermal masses for the SOIL for a selected period of time in order to obtain a faster approach to a thermal equilibrium condition. 2. 2. it is assumed that the heat transfer is axial-symmetric around the Y (vertical) axis going through the centre of the pipe.9The FEMTherm module The FEMTherm module has been included to simulate the transient and spatial distribution of heat in the solid interior of a bundle or soil. it is assumed that the heat transfer is axial-symmetric around the X (horizontal) axis going through the centre of the pipe. with certain differences: • Easier input: o Discretisation: just one value (MESHFINENESS) o Predefined shapes (circle. 2. the user must specify with the COVER statement. • If the pipe is exposed to the sea. the following should be observed: • Use at least three to four cells on each radius of the pipe both in X and Y directions • The grid lines should be closer near the pipe outer radius.3. • Multiple OLGA pipelines can reside inside the same SOIL grid. When generating the input for the thermal model.Page 104 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Fig. if the centre of a pipeline is placed at the first or the last horizontal grid lines (first or last Y co-ordinates).

2. This equation is solved for each of the crosssections along the pipeline. The combination of 1-dimensional fluid and WALL temperature equations along the pipelines and the 2-dimensional heat transfer equations for the media in each of the cross-sections along the pipeline results in a 3-dimensional temperature field. A finite difference method is used for solving the heat transfer equation. This will be implemented in a later version of the FEMTherm module. grid and results (FEMTherm Viewer) • More accurate discretisation around the circular pipe wall (triangular mesh) However. the model can calculate the thermal interactions between pipelines surrounded by solid media. The simulation model consists of stacks of such cross-sections along the pipeline. FEMTherm consist of a grid generator and a finite element method (FEM) equation solver. The figure below illustrates one cross-section with the grid system used for solving the 2-dimensional heat transfer equation. The cross-section can contain multiple pipelines.32 CROSSSECTION grid The thermal masses in the SOIL can be very large and it may require very long simulation times to obtain thermal equilibrium when integrating the energy balance equation for the SOIL.e. giving the temperature distribution over the crosssections. in the soil module it is possible to define varying ambient heat transfer coefficients (HAMBIENT) to the surroundings. Therefore. The grid generator makes a 2D mesh in concord with the so-called Delaunay criterion.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 105 • Better visualisation of cross section. The module can calculate the thermal performance of: • Bundled pipelines • Buried pipelines • Complex risers The FEMTherm module solves the 2-dimensional heat transfer equation in the solid media surrounding the pipe WALL. i. The finite element equation solver determines the time dependent 2D . BUNDLES. X Y Fig. BRANCHES and LINES.

e.183) In addition to these equations a set of boundary and initial conditions are required to calculate a numerical solution. which can have several SHAPES.183) the energy conservation with heat conduction in the solid interior of the bundle. i. 2.182) (2. Fig.33 CROSSSECTION grid Let us investigate a simple situation with a single component incompressible fluid in the pipe visualized above.181) describes the energy conservation of the fluid.Page 106 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution temperature distribution of any user defined pipe cross-section. 2. ELLIPSES. Equation (2. Consider the pipe in Fig. equation (2. and the parameters in the model are: Αf Τf ρf C pf Τw ρw C pw Αw m& Area of the pipe cross section Temperature of the fluid Density of the fluid Heat capacity of the fluid Temperature of the first wall layer Density of the first wall layer Heat capacity of the first wall layer Cross section area of first wall layer Flow rate of fluid .33 below. RECTANGLES and POLYGONS. y .181) (2. The temperature T = T ( x . CIRCLES. All SHAPES can be combined in the same CROSSSSECTION as long as one SHAPE is surrounding all the other SHAPES. The equations of motion for this system are: f ∂T f f ∂T & ρ C A = −mC p − Q& WALL ∂t ∂z ∂T w ρ w C pw A w = +Q& WALL − Q& FEM ∂t r r ∂T ∂  ∂T  ∂  ∂T  →  ∧ J q = −λ∇T ∧ Q& FEM = ∫∫ J q dS = λ ρC p  +  λ ∂t ∂x  ∂x  dy  ∂y  f f p f (2. z . t ) is the central variable in FEMTherm.182) the energy conservation of the pipe WALL and equation (2.

183) one needs to determine the number of nodes that is required to obtain a suitable grid and select a suitable time step. but generally shorten the computational time of the simulation. For most cases it is recommended to decrease the numerical step size systematically until the numerical solution does not change if one decrease it any further.34 that shows an inner OLGA WALL with two outer walls defined by SHAPE. This will reduce the reliability of the numerical results if asymmetric effects are significant. The results from an OLGA simulation where the FEMTherm module has been applied. BUNDLES.g.34 Left: Grid visualised in FEMTherm Viewer (the fluid in the middle will also have a mesh). the second determines the discretisation in time. The heat conduction in the rest of the cross section is in both spatial directions (x and y). Note that the FEMTherm code makes a triangle mesh also for the OLGA WALLS (radial conduction layers).9. LINES and the fluid within. Fig. 2. can be visualized in the tool FEMTherm Viewer.3. the nodes in the WALL layers have the same temperature for a given radius).Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Q& WALL Q& Heat transfer between first layer and bundle λ ρ Cp Conductivity of the solid interior the bundle Density of the solid interior of the bundle Heat capacity of bundle → Heat flux at the wall surface of the FEM grid FEM Jq r S Page 107 Heat transfer between fluid and first layer Surface vector of the wall In OLGA the fluid temperature varies in the axial (z) direction only.1 Limitations and recommendations To obtain numerical solutions to the heat transfer equation (2. 2. See Fig. 2. Right: Grid used in FEMTherm calculation. The first of these determines the discretisation of space. Therefore the heat conduction in the first WALL layer is always in the radial (r) direction only. The temperature is not calculated separately for these dummy nodes (e. It is possible to include more than one radial conduction WALL layer in the model.. This is for the purpose of visualisation only. .

The temperature of the fluid and the temperature of the pipe WALL are solved with the OLGA model (finite difference method) on the assumption that radial heat conduction is predominant. Thus the pipe WALL outer surface (se figure) serves as an external boundary to the finite element equation. The numerical accuracy is strongly dependent on the number of internal nodes (N) between external boundaries. In (a) N=0. in (b) N=3 and in (c) N=4.Page 108 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution In the cross section below. Thus the grid in (c) is the only acceptable grid for high precision calculations. 2.35 Two OLGA pipes in a cross section In the figure below we see a close-up of the region between the two pipes for three examples of the space discretisation. which are evenly distributed on the outer boundary of the SHAPE with the longest circumference within a CROSSSSECTION. 2. inner surface outer surface Fig. . which is not a POLYGON. The MESHFINENESS1 key in the CROSSSECTION keyword sets the spatial resolution of the grid. The density of nodes (nodes divided by circumference) on the SHAPE with the longest circumference determines the number of nodes on all other non-POLYGON SHAPES in order to obtain a mesh with uniform node spacing.36 Different discretisations for the area between two OLGA pipes We recommend that N should be at least larger than or equal to 4. For complex pipes this constant may be difficult (if not impossible) to calculate. a b c Fig. but a fairly valid approximation is: 1 MESHFINENESS is the number of nodes. two OLGA pipes are placed within a circular cross section. The number N can be checked after the simulation has been performed by looking at the grid in FEMTherm Viewer. Thermal calculations with the finite element method are computationally expensive and are not carried out for every single time step in OLGA. We recommend that the time step for thermal calculations DELTAT in the CROSSSECTION keyword should be below the smallest characteristic time constant in the system.

as more recent high temperature data also have been used. CO2 partial pressure and wall shear stress: CR = f(pH. Corrosion dominated by H2S is at present not covered by the corrosion module. Thus one should determine this time constant for all the layers in a pipe and use a time step that is below the smallest of these. but the NORSOK model takes somewhat larger account for protective corrosion films at high temperature or high pH than the de Waard 95 model. 18/. thermal capacity and thermal conductivity of a pipe layer thickness L . temperature. τ) (2.10 Corrosion Module The basic chemical reactions in CO2 corrosion are: CO2 + H 2 O ⇔ H 2 CO3 (2. 2.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution τ≈ Page 109 1 ρC p 2 L 2 λ (2.187) In CO2 corrosion when the concentrations of Fe2+ and CO32. The NORSOK model gives the corrosion rate as function of pH.184) Where ρ . Both models are tuned to a large set of experimental data.190) where Vr is the maximum corrosion rate based on the limiting reaction rate given as a function of temperature.ions exceed the solubility limit. The corrosion rate will increase with temperature for both models up to a limiting temperature where formation of protective corrosion films are predicted. T) * g(T) * h(PCO2. the NORSOK model .185) which then dissociates in two steps: H 2 CO3 ⇔ H + + HCO3− (2.188) These films can be more or less protective for further corrosion. C p and λ are density.189) The de Waard 95 model gives the corrosion rate according to the following formula: CR = (1 / (1 / Vr + 1 / Vm)) * Fscale (2.186) HCO3− ⇔ H + + CO32− (2.3. The de Waard 93 corrosion model was included in earlier versions. 8. three CO2 corrosion models. but has now been replaced with the top-of-line corrosion model. the de Waard 95 model and the IFE top-of-line corrosion model have been implemented in the OLGA three-phase flow model /5. The NORSOK and de Waard 95 models are both regarded as conservative models as they include only limited effects of protective corrosion films. CO2 partial pressure and pH: . Protective corrosion films can form especially at high temperature (above 60 °C) or at high pH (above pH 5. Currently.5). they combine to form solid iron carbonate films according to: Fe 2+ + CO32− ⇒ FeCO3 ( solid ) (2.

For such cases. This combination is automatically switched on when using a two-phase PVT file together with OPTIONS PHASE = THREE.Page 110 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Vr = f(T. It is also possible to use OLGA's internal PVT package for water together with a two-phase PVT file.2 * DH .191) and the scale protection factor Fscale is a function of temperature and CO2 partial pressure: Fscale = g(T. The following keywords should be specified: • OPTIONS PHASE = THREE (required) • WATEROPTIONS (key WATERFLASH) • COMPOPTIONS (key FLASHTYPE) The key WATERFLASH equal to ON in WATEROPTIONS is important when using three-phase PVT table files (where the saturated water vapour mass fractions for the gas phase are available) due to condensation of water vapour. TOTALWATERFRACTION or WATERCUT available through the keywords BOUNDARY. (2. Top-of-line corrosion rates due to condensation of water in the pipeline will only be calculated if WATERFLASH is ON when using PVT table files. Similarly FLASHTYPE should be set to either SIMPLETHREEPHASE or FULLTHREEPHASE when using compositional tracking to calculate water condensation. The corrosion module must be used together with the three phase module in OLGA. PCO2) In the IFE top-of-line corrosion model the top-of-line corrosion rate is limited by the amount of iron that can be dissolved in the condensed water: CR = a * Rcond * CFe * (b . .8 Vm = C * PCO2 * UL 0. The NORSOK and de Waard models can be used for calculation of corrosion rates in the bottom of the line. Water inflow must be specified through the keys WATERFRACTION. PCO2).T) (2. liquid flow velocity and hydraulic diameter: 0. Vm is the maximum corrosion rate based on the limiting mass transfer rate given as a function of CO2 partial pressure. The three phase module is controlled by WATEROPTIONS when using OLGA PVT table files and COMPOPTIONS when using compositional tracking (COMPOSITIONAL=ON IN OPTIONS).192) where Rcond is the water condensation rate calculated by OLGA and the solubility of iron in the condensing water CFe is a function of CO2 partial pressure and temperature: CFe = f(T. pH. condensation of water vapour will not be taken into account and top-of-line corrosion can not be calculated. SOURCE and WELL. PCO2) The flow field at each section along the pipeline/network is used to calculate the corrosion rate.

PTMAX or PCO2MAX can be found from measurements or calculations in a separator or in a pipeline further downstream where a free gas phase exists. the glycol concentration is constant through the whole pipeline. If the MEGTRACKING option is used. The default value is 30 %. An option for calculating pH based on saturated iron carbonate concentration in water (PHSAT) Maximum CO2 partial pressure in single phase liquid flow (PCO2MAX) Bubble point pressure . the user may set the maximum CO2 partial pressure directly.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 111 The input parameters for the corrosion models are specified in the keyword statement CORROSION. the glycol concentration will be diluted in accordance with water condensation rates.g. For a situation with no free gas phase the CO2 content will be constant for pressures above the bubble point pressure. Experience in CO2 corrosion evaluation is therefore important to prepare input and evaluate simulation results properly. PHSAT = OFF The pH calculation is based on the CO2 partial pressure calculated as the CO2 mole % in the gas phase multiplied by the total pressure. The glycol concentration can either be set manually or be determined by the MEGTRACKING function if available to the user. even if no continuous water film is present. The input parameters BICARBONATE and PHSAT can be used to choose between different water chemistry conditions when calculating the pH value: • Condensed water without corrosion products: BICARBONATE = 0. It has no influence on the flow conditions. PHSAT = ON • Water with specified bicarbonate content (e. bicarbonate content and ionic strength by the formulas given in the NORSOK model. For both the NORSOK and the de Waard 95 models the pH value in the bulk water phase is calculated as a function of CO2 partial pressure. from which the CO2 partial pressure for single phase liquid flow will be calculated (PTMAX) Currently. the water droplets will wet the wall. formation water): BICARBONATE > 0. If no free gas exists in the pipeline at all. . The water chemistry has a significant influence on the calculated corrosion rates. The maximum CO2 partial pressure is then calculated by the code for all pressures higher than PTMAX: CO2FRACTION * PTMAX. which may be found by running OLGA. ionic strength and water wetting limit are given as constants for a given branch. Alternatively. This is done even though free gas is present. glycol concentrations. If the watercut is higher than this value. the code only checks if the pressure is above PTMAX or not. PHSAT = OFF • Condensed water saturated with corrosion products: BICARBONATE = 0. This parameter is only used for the water wetting test in the corrosion module. (PCO2MAX). If the manual option is used. Input parameters for each branch of the network are as follows: • • • • • • • • • CO2 mole % in the gas (key: CO2FRACTION) Bicarbonate concentration in the water phase (BICARBONATE) Total ionic strength in the water (IONICSTRENGTH) Inhibitor efficiency (INHIBITOREFF) Glycol concentration in the aqueous phase (GLYCOLFRACTION) The watercut limit where water droplets in oil will wet the wall (WCWET). The user must then manually supply the bubble point pressure (PTMAX). temperature. the bicarbonate.

WCWALL is equal to the liquid film watercut. formation water is assumed and there will be no corrosion reduction due to scaling. Please note that changing this value might change the flow predictions significantly. i.5 (watercut = 50%). given in the CORROSION keyword (default value 30 %). TAUWWT.0 if there is any continuous water film at the wall.0 < WCWALL < INVERSIONWATERFRAC < 1. but may be changed through the keyword WATEROPTIONS. are pressure (plot variable PT). For ionic strengths lower than 0. Condition 2 will give water wetting if the watercut (and WCWALL converted to %) is above the water wetting limit. The same glycol reduction factor is used for both the NORSOK and the de Waard 95 models. 2. Water only existing as droplets in a continuous oil film. For such cases. water volume fraction (BEWT). wall shear stresses in oil and water. The presence of glycol will reduce the corrosion rate. the water-oil flow regime is determined by the flow model. condensed water conditions are assumed. The water wetting conditions are determined as follows: First. To sum up.5 as inversion point.0). alternatively liquid mixture (boundary variables TAUWHL. and the scaling reduction factor is then dependent on the CO2 partial pressure and temperature. INVERSIONWATERFRAC. both conditions might be occurring intermittently. The water-oil inversion point has a default value of 0.Page 112 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution In the de Waard 95 model. oil film volume fraction (BEHL) and the near-wall watercut (WCWALL.0) This flow information is sent to the corrosion module where tests are performed to determine if water wetting occurs: Condition 1 will always give water wetting of the wall. A continuous water film may be a result of stratification. a passing slug bubble might be in condition 1. water velocity or mixture water/oil velocity.2 M. For slug flow (output variable ID = 3). temperature (TM). A continuous water film exists (WCWALL = 1. or due to a watercut above the flow model's water-oil inversion point. TAUWL). which are used by the corrosion models. Such cases are treated as full water wetting (condition 1). The liquid film watercut can be expressed as USLWT/(USLWT+USLHL) where USLWT is the superficial velocity of water in the liquid film. the case of no water wetting can only occur in condition 2 when the liquid film watercut (and WCWALL in %) is less than the water wetting limit . corrosion reduction due to protective films is not accounted for when formation water is present. The OLGA code has been verified with 0. the watercut must be below the flow model's inversion point (0. WCWALL is defined to be 1.2 M. Parameters calculated by the three phase flow model OLGA. The effect of corrosion inhibitors can be specified through the key INHIBITOREFFICIENCY.e. and USLHL is the superficial velocity of oil in the liquid film. There are mainly two flow regime conditions of concern for the corrosion model: 1. while the liquid slug might be in condition 2 or vice versa. For ionic strengths larger than 0. If water is present only as droplets in the oil film. WCWET. which is given as a fraction).

Wax precipitation is calculated based on a pre-calculated wax table containing data on each of the wax forming components. A selection of corrosion related parameters can be specified as output variables through the keyword statements OUTPUT.3. the corrosion rates assuming full water wetting are always calculated. which can increase the solubility of iron in the condensed water and hence the top-of-line corrosion rate. For partial pressures ratios of CO2 and H2S between 20 and 500. TREND. The corrosion specific parameters are defined in appendix A.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 113 (WCWET). the NORSOK model is presently not valid for pH < 3. use the following dependent keywords: • OPTIONS to set WAXDEPOSITION = ON or OFF . 2. The wax file is generated in PVTSim. but different wax data can be given for each branch.11 Wax Deposition Module The wax deposition module allows for modelling of wax precipitation and deposition of wax on the wall. PLOT and PROFILE. In cases where corrosion control by pH stabilisation is applied. but may be conservative since iron sulphide films may be formed. the models will give an upper bound for the corrosion rate. deposition and melting of wax. 3) Heat balance for precipitation. Full water wetting will always occur if WCWALL (in %) is larger than or equal to WCWET. The user must ensure that these limits are not exceeded. The models should not be used when the H2S partial pressure is higher than 100 mbar. The model takes into account the thermal-hydraulic effects of the wax in the following way: 1) Mass conservation equations are solved for a) Wax dissolved in oil b) Wax precipitated and dispersed in oil c) Wax deposited at wall 2) Pipe diameter and roughness for each section is adjusted depending on the thickness of wax deposited on the wall. The format of this file is described in Chapter 4. The CO2 corrosion models are not valid when the ratio between CO2 and H2S partial pressure (or the ratio between CO2 and H2S molar fraction in the gas phase) is lower than 20. deposition and melting of wax. The corrosion models should not be used for CO2 partial pressures above 10 bar. zero corrosion rate follows. In addition. sec. The top-of-line corrosion model does not account for increased corrosion due to presence of acetic acid in the gas.5 or if T > 150° C. A CO2 corrosion case is described in appendix M.5 or T < 20° C. The implemented corrosion models are not suitable for such cases. 5) Wall heat transfer is adjusted to take the wax layer into account 6) Oil viscosity is adjusted to take into account any suspended (dispersed) wax To use the wax deposition. the pH value might exceed the upper pH limit of the corrosion models. If the gas contains acetic acid this should be evaluated separately. In addition.4. 4) Volume change due to precipitation. Wax deposition will be calculated for all branches. 10. The corrosion models are not valid if pH > 6. In that case.

When generating an OLGA PVT table. A wax deposition case is described in Appendix N. If all inflow boundaries have WAXFRACTION = 1 (default value).193) where G [kg/(cm2s)] is the mass transfer rate of wax deposited and D [cm2/s] is the molecular diffusion coefficient. WELL and/or SOURCE to specify WAXFRACTION. Wax deposition may be calculated by using one of the three following models: • • • RRR model /6/ HEATANALOGY model as described in sec. however. multiphase flashing (gas. either by diffusion of dissolved wax due to a temperature difference between fluid and wall.Page 114 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution • OPTIONS TEMPERATURE = WALL • FILE to specify the file containing the wax data • WAXDEPOSITION to specify wax specific data for all branches. Transport mechanisms from bulk to wall Wax deposition can occur in two ways. The RRR and HEATANALOGY models are using the Hayduk & Minhas correlation. Mass fraction of wax forming components in the inflow boundary fluid mixture (excluding free water). oil. 6. compositional tracking or the MEG tracking model. water) should be used. The wax phase will. apart from the viscosity of the oil/wax dispersion. Al. the amount of wax in the inflow will be according to equilibrium (specified in the wax data file). which is taken into account in the model. if present. The steady-state preprocessor will not consider the wax phase. as described by Matzain et. /12/ The required model is chosen by using the key MODEL in keyword WAXDEPOSITION. The solubility variations are taken from the wax property tables.1]. • TREND to print wax variables for given positions to a trend plot file • OUTPUT to print wax variables for a branch at given times to an output file • PROFILE to print wax variables for a branch at given times to a profile file Note: The wax deposition model cannot be used together with the slug tracking. normally not have a significant effect on the properties of the oil phase. Wax precipitation and dissolution in bulk Precipitation and dissolution/melting of dispersed wax is calculated from variations of the wax component solubility with pressure and temperature. The value must be in the range [0.8. or by transfer of precipitated wax due to shear. The MATZAIN model is using the Wilke & Chang . The wax deposition rate due to molecular diffusion may be described by: G = Dρ wax (C bulk − C wall ) L (2. • BOUNDARY.1 in /14/ MATZAIN model. wax and.

Slug ) N SR = ρ m ρ o vl δ µ o. so that all wax transported from bulk to wall immediately precipitates. The HEATANALOGY model uses a laminar concentration boundary layer based on the laminar thermal layer and the ratio of thermal vs. NSR is a flow 15. Stratified ) N SR = ρ m vl δ µ o. The constant C1 =  dt  diff  dδ  for the MATZAIN model only. It is possible to adjust the constants related to the shear stripping model by using the keys SHEARMULTC2 and SHEARMULTC3. v o is the oil velocity [m/s]. Values: C2 = 0. δ is the wax layer thickness [m]. respectively.055 and C3 = 1. ( Single − phase.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 115 correlation.4.0 from /12/ is included in    dt  diff regime dependent Reynolds number /12/: N SR = ρ o voδ µ o. and porosity effects. In the RRR model. It is assumed that the precipitation rate at the wall is much quicker than the rate of wax transported to the wall. The shear stripping terms are taken from the Matzain model /12/. mass diffusivity (Lewis number).. ρ m is the average density of the gas-oil mixture and vl is the liquid velocity.194) where C2 and C3 are the constants given in /12/. The MATZAIN model uses the laminar thermal boundary layer and an adjustment constant to enhance diffusion. f . ρwax [kg/cm3] is the wax density. ( Annular ) where ρ o is the oil density [kg/m3]. The value is directly multiplied with the diffusion coefficients calculated by the code. the laminar velocity boundary layer is used. and L [cm] is the thickness of the laminar layer. It is possible to adjust the diffusion coefficient for the wax components by using the key DIFFCOEFFMULT. µ o . Shear stripping of wax from the wax layer is used as a wax deposition limiting effect in the MATZAIN and HEATANALOGY models. The equation for the rate of change in wax layer thickness is as follows: dδ 1  dδ  =  C3  dt 1 + C 2 N SR  dt  diff (2. Wax layer porosity (volume fraction of trapped oil in wax layer). φ [-]. f is the oil viscosity kg/(m s). f . C [-] is the concentration of wax components. .  dδ    is the change rate due to diffusion. is taken into account when calculating the wax layer thickness. These are tuning parameters multiplied directly with C2 and C3 . The key may be applied for all deposition models. ( Bubble. f . The boundary layer is calculated differently for the different models activated through the key MODEL.

The deposition rate constant K* (=COEFSHEAR) determines the volume rate of precipitated wax deposited due to shear by the following formula: Vol shear wax = K * C wall γA  m 3    ρ wax  s  (2. & . The adjustment is as follows: C wax . . 2. 3.TWS + dC wax dT ⋅ (TWS − WDT ) WAP where Cwax is the concentration of wax. m 2 upwards by DISSOLRATE (kg/(m s )): m& = min (m& * . dC wax dT is the concentration derivative with respect to temperature at the WAP cloud point (see point 1). DISSOLTDIFF and DISSOLRATE for the RRR model. The default value of DISSOLRATE is 1. which means that there is no limitation of the dissolution and molar diffusion rate. γ is the shear rate at the wall [1/s]. The melting process is calculated by the following method: 1. DISSOLRATE ) & * is the mass diffusion rate based solely on the wax concentration where m differences between wall and bulk (see point 3). while DISSOLTDIFF may be a constant or a function of the section pressure (through the given DISSOLPRESS). DISSOLPRESS.wall > Cwax. TWS is wall surface temperature. The dissolved wax concentration at the wall is adjusted when the wall surface temperature is above the dissolution temperature (found by applying DISSOLTDIFF). When Cwax. The total dissolution and diffusion rate of wax from wall to bulk.195) where Cwall is the volume fraction of precipitated wax in the oil at the inner wall temperature.bulk. The dissolved wax concentration derivative with respect to temperature is found at the cloud point for the pressure in the section. The adjusted Cwax.Cwax. A is the surface area available for deposition [m2] and ρ wax is the average density of the wax [kg/m3].Page 116 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Shear deposition effects may be included by applying the key COEFSHEAR when using the RRR or HEATANALOGY models. The reduction to DISSOLRATE is done so that the mass fraction of the wax components transported by diffusion are kept constant.0e+12. WDT is the dissolution temperature: WDT = WAP + DISSOLTDIFF WAP is from the wax tables. melting will occur. Transport mechanisms from wall to bulk (dissolution of wax layer) Dissolution/melting of wax deposited on the wall may be activated separately through the keys DISSOLUTION.wall is used in the normal diffusion equations where Cwax.bulk . wall = C wax . is limited 4.wall is the driving potential of the diffusion process.

96 F = 8. or be calculated by the code (INSTPOROSITYOPT = AUTOMATIC. VISMULTIPLIER. Wax layer properties: One may also give information about the porosity (oil volume fraction) of the wax layer.196) where η liq is the viscosity of the oil not considering solid wax and Φ wax the volume fraction of precipitated wax in the oil-wax suspension. respectively. The apparent viscosity of oil with suspended wax particles is calculated as follows:     E ⋅ Φ wax F ⋅ Φ 4wax   + η = η liq ⋅ exp( D ⋅ Φ wax ) 1 +  dv x  dv x   dy  dy   (2. the roughness due to deposited wax (keys: WAXROUGHNESS and MAXROUGHNESS) and the thermal conductivity of pure wax. it is possible to tune the wax-oil dispersion viscosity model to measurements.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 117 Viscosity of wax/oil dispersions: Calculation of the viscosity of the wax/oil dispersion is done by modules supplied by Calsep A/S /7/ when using the key VISCOPTION = CALSEP. WAXVOLFRACTION). The calculated apparent viscosity is limited between η liq and 1000⋅ η liq .0 and 1. Keys: VISCMULTD. The instantaneous porosity of wax added to the wax layer may be set as a constant (INSTPOROSITYOPT = MANUAL. The influence of dispersed wax on the oil viscosity may also be given as a table (keys: VISCOPTION = TABULAR. dv x is the shear rate. The resulting tuning parameters may be given directly as input to OLGA when using the Calsep viscosity model. The dy parameters D. or it may be taken from the waxtables (CONDUCTOPT = TABLE).0). The conductivity may be set manually in the input file by using CONDUCTOPT = MANUAL and set CONDUCTIVITY. VISCMULTE. minimum and maximum limit given by MINPOROSITY and MAXPOROSITY). VISCMULTF.82 E = 83. E and F have the following values (viscosities in mPa s and shear rates in s-1) D = 37. These are multiplied with the D. WAXPOROSITY between 0.559*106 In the PVTSim program from Calsep. E and F parameters. The instantaneous porosity equation used by the code is as follows /12/: .

The MEG tracking module should work with all the features in the OLGA basic code. The effect of ageing may also be included by using the keys AGEINGOPT=AGEING. INITPOROSITY and HARDPOROSITY. f (2. The porosity of the wax layer is taken into account when calculating the thermal conductivity of the wax layer. The MEG tracking module must be used together with a two-phase fluid table or a three-phase fluid table with only H2O in the water phase.2 The following assumptions are made in the MEG tracking module: • • • • • • • 2 MEG is only present in the aqueous phase. pump etc). The conductivity is found by using the following equation /13/: k dep = [2k [2k wax wax + k oil + (k wax − k oil ) Fw ] k oil + k oil − 2(k wax − k oil ) Fw ] (2. ρ o is the oil density [kg/m3].Page 118 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution 0. In the standard three-phase model in OLGA the aqueous phase may contain water and MEG. This activates a linear ageing model where the entries for AGEINGTIME. Water vapour content in gas phase is adjusted by the mole fraction of MEG in the aqueous phase. kwax is the conductivity of pure wax (=CONDUCTIVITY in input). Water will be in both gas and aqueous phase. INITPOROSITY and HARDPOROSITY are used to determine the derivative of porosity with time.12 The MEG tracking module A MEG tracking module is implemented in OLGA. The porosity is averaged over the new layer and the old. corrosion. but information about the MEG concentration along the line is not available . The main objective for including this feature is to be able to track the MEG content in a pipeline and thereby ensure that enough MEG is present to prevent formation of hydrates in the pipeline.f = 1 −  8   C oil N RE . aged layer at each time step. vl is the liquid velocity [m/s]. f is the oil viscosity kg/(m s). AGEINGTIME.197) where C oil is the porosity (volume fraction of oil in the wax film). f ρ vd = o l w µ o.198) where kdep is the overall thermal conductivity of the wax film. not slugtracking. The effects of MEG on the properties of the aqueous phase are neglected except for the density.15  N RE  . The MEG tracking module is not required to work with other modules in OLGA than the water option (i. There is no diffusion of MEG in the aqueous phase.e. koil is the conductivity of oil and Fw is the weight fraction of solid wax in the wax film. 2. derivatives of density with respect to pressure and temperature and the viscosity. wax.3. d w is the inner pipe diameter including the wax layer [m] and µ o.

E.Hydrocarbon in oil and gas phase. and the Hankinson-Brobst-Thomson (HBT) technique yields an estimate of the liquid density. The method of Grunberg and Nissan is used to calculate the viscosity of the MEG and water mixture. MEG . The water vapour mass fraction is scaled by the mole fraction of MEG in the aqueous phase.M. Water can be in both the gas and the aqueous phase and the flash calculations in OLGA determine the water mass transfer between the two phases. temperature and the composition in each section of the pipeline for each time step.069 g/mol) Weight per cent of the inhibitor in the liquid Calculated hydrate temperature Hydrate temperature for no MEG For the other properties of the aqueous phase. H2O . The methane properties are assigned to HC component for conversion between mole and mass. Prausnitz. and Poling. R.Water that can be in the gas and the aqueous phase. The effect of MEG is included in the calculation of the density and viscosity of the aqueous phase. The properties of the aqueous phase are calculated at the local pressure. The effect of MEG can also be included in the calculation of the hydrate formation temperature. the effects of MEG are neglected and pure water properties from the three-phase fluid table or from OLGA are adopted. J. More information about the formulas used for determining the density and viscosity of the aqueous phase can be found in the open literature (The Properties of Gases & Liquids Fourth Edition. The user can either specify a hydrate curve for each MEG concentration and let OLGA interpolate between the values. or the Hammerschmidt formula for hydrate depression (/19/) can be used (the equation is valid for MEG concentration between 0% and 70%): TMEGCONC = TMEGCONC =0 − ∆T ∆T = ∆T M W TMEGCONC TMEGCONC=0 = = = = = 2335 ∗W 100 ∗ M − M ∗W (2.). B.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 119 The MEG tracking module consists of three fluid components • • • HC . PHASE = THREE .199) Hydrate depression. Reid. oF Molecular weight of MEG (62.. How to use the MEG tracking module Use the following keywords to use the MEG tracking module • OPTIONS to set COMPOSITIONAL = MEG. Since MEG is assumed to be present only in the aqueous phase there is no flashing of MEG to any of the other phases.C.Mono Ethylene Glycol that is only in aqueous phase.

and shows how to use it. 2. a so-called feed file must be generated and given as input to OLGA. the system can include process equipment such as critical and subcritical chokes with fixed or controlled orifice areas. The compositional tracking module can be used together with both the two-phase and three-phase option in OLGA.Page 120 • • • • • • Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution SOURCE to specify MEGFRACTION in the mass source INITIALCONDITIONS to specify MEGFRACTION at initial time (if STEADYSTATE = OFF in OPTIONS) BOUNDARY to specify MEGFRACTION at the boundary TREND to print compositional variables for given components to trend file PROFILE to print compositional variables for given components to profile file HYDRATECHECK to calculate the effect on hydrate formation temperature Note that either MEGFRACTION or TOTALMEGFRACTION can be given. These feeds may only contain a set of the components available in the feed file. In addition the user may define additional feeds through the OLGA input. merging network with different fluids and changes in fluid composition at the inlet. In the compositional tracking model the mass equations are solved for each component in each phase. liquid droplets. interphasial mass transfer. Thus. but again the compositions are constant with time. 2. check valves. and this composition is assumed to be constant through the whole simulation. In reality the composition may vary along the pipeline due to slip effects (velocity differences between phases).13 The Compositional Tracking module This chapter gives a short description of the compositional tracking model in OLGA. The compositional tracking module in OLGA and PVTSim use the same algorithms to calculate the fluid properties. The feed file contains information about the feeds (fluid composition used in a source or boundary) that the user wants to use in the simulation. and TOTALMEGFRACTION is the mass fraction of MEG in total aqueous phase + water vapour. Instead of using a fluid file with pre-calculated material properties. That is. gas. The model uses a separate PVT package delivered by Calsep for property and mass transfer calculations. and about the components comprising the feeds. Further. Different compositions can be used for each branch in a system. and ensure a more accurate fluid description compared to using the standard OLGA model. TOTALMEGFRACTION can only be used together with TOTALWATERFRACTION. compressors with speed and anti surge controllers. .1 The compositional model in OLGA The standard OLGA model uses a fluid table with material properties calculated for a predefined composition. heat exchangers. valves.13. bulk hydrocarbon liquid and bulk water. the compositional model will keep track of the changes in composition in time and space. MEGFRACTION is the mass fraction of MEG in the total aqueous phase. separators with drain control. PVTSim must be used to characterise the fluid and generate the feed file.and a compositional steady state pre-processor is also implemented.3. This package is inherently compiled into the OLGA code and it is activated with a license for the OLGA Compositional Tracking module.3.

• FILE to specify the feed file.3 User input to the compositional model In order to use the compositional tracking module. Choose Interfaces from the Main Menu in PVTSim. will be used as feedname. and the name specified in the Well column in the Fluid box in PVTsim. • INITIALCONDITIONS to specify initial feeds. 2.3. friction factors and wetted perimeters etc.05 to 1000 bara. The simplified option for simulating pigs and plugs (PLUG keyword) can also be used within the compositional model. temperature and composition. • FEED to define additional feeds and their composition (components from the feed file) • COMPOPTIONS to define calculation options to be used by the PVT routines. and then choose Compositional Tracking.13. The temperature range is from -200 to 374 C (critical temperature for H2O).Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 121 pumps and controlled mass sources and sinks. The feeds (fluid composition used in a source or boundary) defined in the feed file are available as feeds in OLGA. they are reset to the upper or lower limits. If temperature or pressure go out of range. The properties are calculated from the local pressure. although these have been optimized for computational speed.13.3. is calculated. the feed file can be generated. . this feed file is input to the compositional tracking module. 2. in the compositional model are as in the OLGA model. are delivered by the package. Moreover. the mass transfer between the phases needed for the mixture to be at equilibrium for the local pressure. Physical limits for the temperature and pressure used in the PVT calculations are introduced. The reset values are used in the PVT calculations only and not fed back to the overall calculation of temperature and pressure. the molar fractions and their derivatives with respect to pressure. temperature. and the pressure range is from 0. Step 2 Prepare the OLGA input using the following keywords. follow the steps below. Moreover. The descriptions of the flow regimes. • OPTIONS to set COMPOSITIONAL = ON. The PVT package also reads and interprets the feed file generated in PVTSim. Based on these results.2 PVT routine package The material properties of the fluid along the pipeline will be calculated continuously during the simulation. temperature and composition at phase equilibrium. and composition. Calsep delivers the PVT package used for these calculations. In the Compositional Tracking window. and the functions used to calculate the fluid properties of the resulting phases are similar to the ones used by PVTSim. Step 1 Use PVTsim to characterize the fluids to the same pseudo components and generate the feed file with all the necessary composition data for the fluid.

The viscosity calculations can be based on the corresponding states principle or the Lohrenz-Bray-Clark correlation (1964). and hydrocarbon components to the water phase until the fugacity is the same for all the phases. and the same EOS will be adopted in the OLGA simulation. QGST) are CPU demanding since a flash must be performed. Inhibitors in the water phase will also be inert. Classical mixing rules are used both for the two-phase flash calculation and for the distribution of the components between the different phases. FLASHTYPE = FULLTHREEPHASE means that a full three-phase flash is performed for the total composition. The viscosity option is specified through the key VISCOSITYCORR. This option is significantly slower than the simplified three phase flash option computationally. Further. The user may specify the type of flash calculation to use in the PVT package: FLASHTYPE=TWOPHASE treats water as an inert component. but the rest of the keys in WATEROPTIONS affect CompTrack simulations in the same way as simulations using PVT tables. and should be used with care for Compositional Tracking simulations. water components are added to the hydrocarbon phases.g. All the phases are in equilibrium. Classical mixing rules are used for the two-phase flash calculation. This option should be used when performing simulations with fluids consisting purely of nonaqueous components. (1982)). A two-phase flash is performed for the hydrocarbon components. The fugacity of all the components in all the phases is the same. and no hydrocarbon components in the water phase. The phase equilibrium calculations in PVTsim are based on either the SoaveRedlich-Kwong (SRK) or the Peng-Robinson (PR or PR78) equations of state (Soave (1972)) and Peng and Robinson (1976 and 1978)). The fluid data in the feed file are based on one of these equations with or without the Peneloux volume correction (Peneloux et al. • BOUNDARY to specify which feeds are feeding to terminal nodes. If the feed(s) in the feed file has been tuned to one of the . and is therefore recommended as an option to check the limitations in the simplified three phase flash. FLASHTYPE = SIMPLETHREEPHASE means that the water components are treated as an inert phase initially. WATERFLASH in WATEROPTIONS has no effect on CompTrack simulations (flashing of water is decided by FLASHTYPE in COMPOPTIONS). and this may speed up the simulation. the thermal conductivity is calculated together with the viscosity.Page 122 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution • SOURCE to specify feeds in the mass source. This is the default flash option. and when the amount of free water is believed to have little impact on the conclusions and high simulation speed is wanted. and should be used initially when performing three phase simulations. The simplification is that the change in phase equilibrium due to added components is not taken into account. This option is expected to provide accurate results for most simulations involving fluids consisting of both hydrocarbons and aqueous components. • WELL to specify feeds in the well stream. A two-phase flash is carried out for the hydrocarbon components. There will not be any water components in the hydrocarbon phases. Note: Output variables for rates at standard conditions (e. It the corresponding state principle is adopted. • TREND / PROFILE / OUTPUT / PLOT to print compositional output variables to the trend / profile / text output / OLGA Viewer files. Classical mixing rules are used for the hydrocarbon phase while Huron-Vidal mixing rule is used for the water components.

this is the only allowed option (an error will be given if the other correlation is chosen).1loc c c TDELAY . .fc is the non-equilibrium delay factor for component fc. The user must specify the value of this factor. PVTsim might predict another phase than Compositional Tracking since a different and more time demanding approach is used.37) there is no good criteria to distinguish gas from oil. which has the dimension seconds.1loc.loc . f c is the delay factor for component fc for condensation or vaporisation dependent on the sign of the equilibrium mass transfer term.1loc ) ≠ sign (ψ nfc ) In the dense phase region (Fig. which adds to the confusion. f c c c ) (2. With the keys TCONDENSATE and TVAPORIZATION in COMPOPTIONS a nonequilibrium delay constant for each component can be introduced. fc + ∆t = n +1  ∆ tψ f c .1conv = [ψ ] f ⋅ (1 − e − ( ∆Z / u ) / TDELAY . but gets an error saying that this is not valid input since there is no liquid for parts of the branch. T  DELAY . non − eq c  ∆ tψ nf c+.1loc + T ψ nfc . The local non-equilibrium mass transfer term is derived from the following equation: dψ nf c+.1loc is the local mass transfer term calculated by the equilibrium model and TDELAY . ψ nf c+.non − eq dt =− ψ nf +.   T DELAY .1loc. The user then has to specify voidfraction pipe-wise. Also.202) sign (ψ nf c+.1loc ) = sign (ψ nfc ) (2.g. which can be a lot of work. fc + ∆t sign (ψ nf c+. This can be a problem especially for INITIALCONDITIONS where a user specifies e. f c (2.1loc.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 123 viscosity correlations. This yields: ψ nf +.1conv is the convective mass transfer term calculated by the equilibrium model for component fc. non − eq n +1 [ψ ]nf +.201) where ψ nf c+.non − eq − ψ nf +.200) where u is the superficial velocity of the mixture flowing into the section calculated for the equilibrium conditions at the section and ∆Z is the section length. 2. and the "chosen" phase doesn't affect any fluid properties for simulations with Compositional Tracking. and the equilibrium state reached in the flash calculation will be delayed. TDELAY. In the non-equilibrium model the convective mass transfer terms are calculated according to: . voidfraction=0 for an entire branch. and separate values can be given for vaporisation and condensation.

This module makes it possible to perform calculations with a minimum of information about the production fluid(s). The tracked components are gas.g. If water is present. In addition salt may be added to the water. for cases with decreasing pressure where different sections cross from the dense phase region to the two phase region on each side of the critical temperature. 2. Note: The use of DENSITYLIMIT can also reduce oscillations e. This limit should preferably be set equal to the density found in PVTsim when performing a flash at the critical point. Instead of tracking mol-fractions as in compositional tracking. the concentrations of the components are tracked as mass in Sm3. Detailed information about fluid composition is thus not required for making OLGA simulations.g. E. If the limit is not specified the internal criteria is used. The physical properties of gas and oil are calculated using a set of black oil correlations. oil. The minimum required information is data for specific gravity of gas and oil. where density limit comes into effect T Fig. 2.37 Dense phase region The key DENSITYLIMIT in COMPOPTIONS can be used to remedy this. water and optionally H2S. and the gas/oil ratio (GOR) at standard conditions. the specific gravity and/or salinity of the water must be given in addition to the total amount of water.14 The Black Oil module The purpose of the Black Oil module is to improve the CPU performance compared to compositional tracking and to improve the accuracy of in particular shutin calculations compared to the standard pvt-table option. The black oil module uses the framework of the compositional tracking module. CO2 and N2. . if the user gets an error saying there is no gas for this branch the limit can be increased.3.Page 124 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution P Crit = Area. A fluid with higher density than the given value is defined as liquid and fluid with lower density is defined as gas (in the dense phase region where there is no good criteria).

No standard oil component dissolved in water phase. It is allowed to give more than one type of standard gas. For a mixture of different black oils. Water properties may be modified by the presence of salt.1 Black Oil Correlations 2. however. the properties of the mixture at the standard conditions are the average of the constituting black oils weighted by volume at standard conditions. four different correlations have been implemented. and water. for a given RSGO or a value for the equilibrium value of RSGO at any pressure below Pb. (Pb * γg)/T = f1(yg) Mo = f2(API) yg = RS / ( RS + 1. The first assumption does. 2. The basis for the Lasater correlation are the following relationships.3. Second.1. Pb. oil. and water. not exclude dispersion of oil in water and vice versa.32755*105*γo/Mo) where: API = 141. The solubility of the standard oil in the gas phase will be neglected. oil.1Solution Gas-Oil Ratio and Bubble Point Pressure Two situations may occur. The Lasater and Standing correlations are the most well known and are listed below.5 yg = mol fraction of gas γg = specific gravity of gas .5 / γo – 131. The following assumptions are made for the black oil module: 1.14. RSGO. o o o o Lasater /27/ Standing /28/ Vazquez & Beggs /29/ Glaso /30/ These correlations can be used to calculate either the bubble point pressure. An estimate of amount of oil in the gas phase will be needed to make this module better suited for GCS.3.14. The second assumption has as a consequence that it will not be well suited for GCS (gas condensate systems). 2. For calculating RSGO. First the amount of gas at standard conditions has all been generated from flashing of the reservoir fluid (the reservoir pressure is above the bubble point pressure). the fluid from the reservoir consists of both liquid and gas so that the GOR at standard conditions is larger than the solution gas-oil ratio. Different types of black oils can be specified with different properties for standard gas.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 125 Existing Olga routines are used for water. for the reservoir liquid.

5 + 1.0011T) Units: Pressure in psia. ref.00091T – 0.1. ρo = ρob * exp(co(p – pb)) .4*γSTO + 0.4 + p/18.25*T The oil density is calculated as follows ρo = (62. must first be calculated using the above equations with RSGO equal to the amount of gas dissolved in oil.0136*γg *RSGO) / BO With pressure above bubble point. no free gas.14.83*10(0. Next the oil density is calculated.14. ρob. temperature and amount of gas dissolved in oil. the equilibrium value of RSGO.2 Water solubility Water is treated as inert in the current version. 1.3. 2. BO = 0. First the oil volume formation factor BO is calculated.4) where W = (RSGO/γg)0.2 Where C = RSGO * (γg/γSTO)0. 2.20510(0.2)1. the density at bubble point. can be calculated as follows: RSEQ = γg(1. hence no water vapor in the gas phase and no solubility of natural gas in the free water phase. With pressure below bubble point the procedure is as follows. Temperature in 0F. RSEQ.0125API) For a given pressure below Pb.9759 + 1.2(W – 1.3 Oil density The oil density depends on pressure.3.1.015API – 0.Page 126 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Mo = effective molecular weight of tank oil γo = specific gravity of oil RS = solution gas-oil ratio f1(yg) = tabulated function of yg f2(API) = tabulated function of API Units are: Pb (psia) T (0R) RS (sct/STBO) Standing’s correlation for Pb for a given RSGO is: Pb = 18.2*10-4 * C1.

and temperature.3. can be expressed as BG = 0. This is an implicit set of equations which requires an iterative solution. 2. BO in bbl/STB. The gas volume formation factor. pV = znRT The gas constant. lbm – moles.6*γg2 Tpc = 169. The assumption that real gas mixtures will have the same zfactor for the same values of pseudoreduced pressure. has been developed which relates z to Ppr and Tpr. Ppc = 756.14. ref. Tpr. Ppc.4 Gas density The compressibility equation of state is the basis for calculating gas density. deg R(Rankine). The values for Tpr and Ppr are obtained from the pseudocritical temperature. ft3.0283*z*T / p with p in psia and T in 0R.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 127 co is the isothermal compressibility of undersaturated oil.1*γg – 3. R. The gas density is obtained from ρg = ρgsc / BG where ρgsc = 0.2 + 349. 1. expresses the deviation of the real gas volume from the ideal gas behavior. The gas compressibility. 1. the z-values have been tabulated as a function of Ppr and Tpr. Nitrogen is assumed to not have a significant effect on the z-factor. p in psia. will be used to determine the value of z.0764*γgsc and 0. In order to save cpu-time.72 if other variables have units of psia. Ppr = P / Ppc Tpr = T / Tpc Empirical equations exist for Ppc and Tpc. An algebraic relationship. z. BG.8 – 13.0764 is the density of air at standard conditions in lbm/ft3. and pseudocritical pressure.5*γg – 74 * γg2 Units are psia and 0R(Rankine) The presence of CO2 and H2S is accounted for by correcting the pseudocritical P and T values. ref. γgsc is specific gravity of gas at standard conditions. co = 1.6*API)/p Units: T in 0F.2*T – 1180*γg + 12. Tpc’ = Tpc – ε Ppc’ = Ppc Tpc’ / (Tpc + B(1-B) ε ) .e-5*( -1433 + 5*RSGO + 17. Ppr. Tpc. has a value of 10.1.

3. If pressure is equal to saturation pressure. oil saturated with gas.5 Water density The same build-in routines for pure water property calculations as for the standard PVT table option are used for the black oil module. RSGO in scf/STB.9 – A1.3.6) + 15 (B0. The effect of salinity is accounted for by correcting the density at standard conditions. B = yH2S ( y are molfractions ) ε = 120 (A0. and µob with RSGO = RS.14.0) 2. corresponding to RS.5 – B4.338 If amount of gas dissolved in oil.14.715 (RSGO + 100 )-0. ref 1: log log (µoD + 1) = 1.44 (RSGO + 150 )-0.6e-3 S2 where S = salinity in weight percent solids and ∆ρw is correction of density at standard conditions in lbm/ft3.515 and B = 5. is less than RSGO. 2. ref 1: µo = A µoDB. RS.8653 – 0. calculate first saturation pressure.6*P1. The value of ∆ρw is added to the calculated density for pure water.4386 S + 1. ∆ρw = 0. T in 0F.7 Gas viscosity . Then calculate µo with the following expression.6 Oil viscosity o Dead oil viscosity If no data are available the viscosity of dead oil. Pb.3. µ in cp. the viscosity.5644 log T Alternatively measured data as function of temperature can be used.1. ( unit is cp ) where A = 10.Page 128 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Where A = yCO2 + yH2S. is calculated as follows. o Live oil viscosity The dead oil viscosity is modified if gas is dissolved in oil.025086 API – 0.14. µoD. can be calculated using the following equation. ref 1. 2.187*exp(-11.98*P) Units: P in psia.1. µo = µob (P/Pb)B with B = 2. µo.1.5 -8.

01009Ma C = 2.14.3.3*P/3000) For undersaturated oil. Gas-water: σgw = (84.448 + 986.016Ma)T1.1.e-4 * exp(BρgC) with A = (9.0. . Water viscosity is calculated as in the standard PVT table option.2* ( 1 .447 – 0.0. 2 and 7. The following expression is used for given values of API.26Ma + T ) B = 3. P(psia): Unit for σ is dynes/cm.001 N/m. µg in cp.0438 * (T-68) For saturated oil the value is corrected for saturation pressure: σgo = σgod * exp(-2.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 129 Gas viscosity is calculated using the following correlation.2224B Ma = 29γg (apparent molecular weight) Units are: ρg in gm/cm3. For dead oil: σgod = 39. A2 = 0. 1 dyne/cm = 0. 2.API/148 ) – 0.0 The above correlations are based on data from ref.3.0002*P) Oil-water: For oil-water empirical data are scarce and a preliminary relation will be used: σgw = (A1 – A2*T )*exp(-A3*P) Default values will be: A1 = 30.379 + 0. ref 1: µg = A*1. use corresponding saturation pressure for P(T.4 / T + 0.5 – 0. T(deg F).RS). T in deg R.1068*T )*exp(-0.2 + 19.8 Liquid viscosity Liquid viscosity is calculated as in the standard PVT table option with oil viscosity calculated as described above.9 Surface tension Gas-oil: The calculation of surface tension for gas-oil has to be a simple one without the information of fluid composition. 2. A3 = 0.5 / (209.1.14.

2. It is assumed that specific heat of a gas mixture corresponds to specific heat of a pure gas with the same specific gravity.14. ref. 3.00234* γo ) γo = specific gravity of oil. 2. The modifications of Ho at elevated pressures will be neglected. a table for Hg can be generated using 0 0C and 1 bara as zero point. 2. (dH/dP)TdP = -(R*Tpc*Tpr2/Ppr)*(dz/dTpr)PdPpr 2.2 Specific heat of oil The specific heat of oil.3. First the latent heat is estimated at 1 bara.14. Hgo.Page 130 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution 2. can be calculated using the following equation. Hg is calculated from the following equation T P Hg = ∫cpgdT + ∫(dH/dP)TdP P0 T0 The term (dH/dP)T can be expressed as -(RT2/P)*(dz/dT)P Based on tabulated values for cpg and z.3. will be used to calculate the enthalpy of liquefied gas.3. z. The data are from ref.2. .2.14.4 Enthalpy of oil The enthalpy of oil. cpl in kJ/kg0C 2. The compressibility factor. T = temperature in 0C. Ho. 2. Hgo = Hg .0062 – 0. is tabulated as a function of Tpr and Ppr. cpl.2.1 Specific heat of gas The specific heat or heat capacity of gas.14. where cpl = 2. ∆Hgo. fig. will be tabulated as a function of temperature and specific gravity of gas.3.3.34*γo + T*(0. 3. will be directly calculated by integrating cpo from zero to actual temperature. will be approximated by a simple correlation from ref.∆Hgo The term. cpg.96 1.3 Enthalpy of gas The enthalpy of gas. ∆Hgo . 4-49.14.14.2 Thermodynamic properties 2. The term (dH/dP)TdP in the above expression is therefore written in terms of Tpr and Ppr.5 Enthalpy of gas dissolved in oil The latent heat for gas dissolved in oil.3.2. Units are in kJ/kg.

57*logTabp)/M Tabp = atmospheric boiling point.14.0) Tabp is tabulated as a function of oil specific gravity and molecular weight.3 How to use the Black Oil Module Use the following keywords to use the Black Oil module: • • • • • OPTIONS to set COMPOSITIONAL = BLACKOIL BLACKOILOPTIONS to set GORMODEL (optional) BLACKOILCOMPONENT to set the properties of the gas.2.3.3. 2. λo = A + B*T where A and B are input parameters.1385 w/moC B = -0. Tabp (0C) 90 M 70 80 Spec grav.75 + 4.14.7 Fluid Calibration In order to better predict the fluid properties most of the coefficients in the correlations can be tuned by using measured data and will therefore be available as optional input parameters.2.5e-4 w/moC2 2. ∆Hgo = ∆Hgosc – 1.6 Thermal conductivity Gas: Data for thermal conductivity as a function of M and T is plotted in ref.7*(P – 1.9 66 93 6 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 79 104 Tabp 128 146 165 190 205 132 165 202 222 252 274 294 2. A function has been developed that gives a reasonable approximation to the data in ref. Oil: Little data have been found.6 27 42 60 11 0. 2. Next latent heat is corrected for pressures above 1 bara. SOURCE/BOUNDARY/WELL to set flow rates or volume fractions of the feeds to enter the pipeline system . 2. 0.19*Tabp*(8. A simple linear function has therefore been used. 0K. oil and/or water components BLACKOILFEED to combine the gas/oil/water blackoilcomponents into feeds and specify GOR and WATERCUT.3. ref. Atmospheric boiling point. Default values have been set to A = 0.14.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution where Page 131 ∆Hgosc = 4.3.

The OLGA run using case1.out case1. positive gas flow and negative liquid flow).15. . Except for displacement pumps and pump battery. for pipe networks with inlet pressure or well (productivity index) boundary conditions. However. 2. meaning that the core requirement will vary according to the simulation in question. that is. For PID controllers the bias settings are used.g. pressure. the steady state pre-processor is still not as robust as the dynamic OLGA code. It is a complete steady state routine based on the point model OLGAS THREEPHASE with or without temperature calculation. The initial value pre-processor may be used for all combinations of boundary conditions.rsw case1.4.tpl case1.4.4 Program Execution 2.ppl case1.9 and Section 3.cut files.2 OLGA execution To run the program from the command line. If one chooses to start from INITIALCONDITIONS.3. it incorporates the effect of process equipment. The steady state pre-processor cannot handle counter-current flow (e. initial volume fractions of the feeds must be given.3 Steady State Processor OLGA contains a steady state routine that computes liquid hold-up. 2..1 Core Requirements Starting with OLGA most of the arrays are dynamically allocated. both merging and diverging networks with both types of nodes (MERGE and SPLIT) can be calculated.plt Printable output Restart file Trend plot file (if keyword TREND is specified) Profile plot file (if keyword PROFILE is specified) OLGA Viewer plot file (if keyword PLOT is specified) Using the FEMTherm module in an OLGA run will also generate . flow regime and mass flow along the pipeline with the given set of boundary conditions. The steady state conservation equations are solved and the flow regime determined for each pipe section in the pipeline.4. 2. The steady state pre-processor is meant to be a generator of initial values for dynamic computations. The number of branches and sections will usually be most significant. can contribute to the core size required. Also number of radial wall layers and the use of the slug tracking and soil modules. see Section 2.Page 132 • Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution The steady state pre-processor may be used with the black oil module. type: olga2000-<version number> inputfile OLGA can also be started from the OLGA GUI.3. It has full network capability.osi and .inp as input file will generate the following output files: case1.

5. However. Their possible consequences.1 Fluid Properties All fluid properties are normally assumed to be unique functions of temperature and pressure. the total composition (the mole fractions of the components) of the multiphase mixture is assumed to be constant both in time and space.5 Restrictions and Limitations 2. The actual correlation quite significantly influences the transition from stratified to slug flow. Condensate may accumulate in the lower parts of the pipe and result in large compositional differences between sections. The limitation of the instantaneous interface mass transfer has important implications for the pressure propagation. it is possible to perform a simulation using compositional tracking. that one may use different fluid properties in different branches in a pipeline network. as the fluids in the pipes have different compositions. The selected correlation yields good agreement for all the above experiments. As an alternative to PVT tables.5. compositional tracking is more CPU demanding and is not compatible with all the other modules.g. Due to the phase velocity differences. An exception is the correlation for the void fraction in liquid slugs.. If normal condensation takes place. blowdown of pipelines. For example during the depressurisation of a pipeline. This procedure is also more accurate in simulations where the fluid compositional will change considerably with time. and have to be input to OLGA in a particular file. This difference will not affect the steady state results provided that the inlet flowing fluid has the same composition as in the PVT table. the fluid composition in a pipe is generally different from the fluid compositions used in the PVT table. naphtha and stanco experiments at the SINTEF loop. The gas and liquid phases are assumed to be in thermodynamic equilibrium. Note. In transient simulations. where the compositional data is provided in a feed file and the code calculates the fluid properties internally. This means that the total composition may vary both in time and space.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 133 2. slugtracking. Thus. is applied by default. will normally not be influenced by the users input choices. the temperature and pressure are equal in both phases and any interface mass transfer occurs instantaneously.g. Network simulations are special cases where total compositional changes in the pipeline may be important. e. An average correlation based on the diesel. If only gas is released from the pipe the total composition in the pipe will change. This limitation is important for mixtures with pronounced compositional dependent properties. however. . 2. however. the changes of the physical properties and the changes of equilibrium mass fractions with the changes of temperature and pressure will differ from the values from the PVT table. the mixture will appear too compressible in OLGA and the speed of sound or pressure wave velocity will be smaller than if the mass transfer rate was finite. These differences are usually small. e. For air/ water another correlation should be applied and OLGA provides an alternative which may be activated by specifying the key SLUGVOID in the keyword OPTIONS. and that no special consideration is needed for a pipeline network.2 Two-Phase Model Limitations Generally these limitations are difficult to assess.

The flow history at a pipe location is to a small extent considered in the flow regime determination. Eventually one slug may proceed downstream and cause liquid blockage at a bend in a riser connection with possible build-up of a terrain slug. if slug flow is predicted at a section boundary. OLGA will choose the minimum time step from the pressure dependent time step and the smallest CFL determined time step at the specified test sections. This special type of mechanism for the onset of terrain slugging is not represented in the standard OLGA model. is based on the second order time derivative of the pressure. etc. are computed based on the assumption of fully developed slug flow with an infinite number of identical slug cells. such as slug bubble velocity and volume fraction.Page 134 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Unless the slug tracking option is used. etc. as the average flow parameters (pressure. In reality slug flow may persist some distance downstream.1. see section 2. This means that the time step is limited so that no mass is transported across a whole section in one time step. To simulate this phenomenon accurately the slugtracking model with HYDRODYNAMIC = ON should be used. OLGA applies an average slug flow description. 2. all slugs die at the entrance of the latter pipe. Section Lengths For a pipeline of fixed length the computational time increases roughly quadratically with the number of sections the pipeline is divided into for the simulation.3 Vital Numerical Recommendations Time step OLGA has time step control based on several criteria. flow parameters at that boundary. That is.5. This time step control can be switched on through keyword statement DTCONTROL. and MAXDT. Additional time step control is activated when process equipment is simulated. hold-up. The upper and lower limit for the time step is the user given MINDT and MAXDT in the keyword statement INTEGRATION.) differ. The second time step control. however. According to pressure changes the time step is then dynamically reduced or increased within the range determined by the two user specified limits. slug fraction. If both time step control criteria are switched on. The average description implies that if slug flow occurs in two adjacent sections. First. MINDT. the detailed slug flow parameters at one section does not explicitly influence those in the section following it. the number of arithmetic operations per time step increases proportionally to the . The detailed flow parameters at another point along the pipeline will normally differ.3. which is by default switched off. The CFL criterion can be switched off at user specified sections through the keyword statement DTCONTROL. a slug needs some time to disintegrate. or the slug tracking option is activated. The first time step control is based on the transport criterion of Courant-FriedrichLevy (CFL): ∆t < min(∆z / U ) j This time step limitation is by default switched on.. This is the maximum time step allowed if a mass transient is to be followed correctly. For example if slug flow is predicted in an upward sloping pipe and stratified flow in a following downward sloping pipe.

The necessary memory is allocated based on the user input. Error messages are described in chapter 5. If the thermal conductivity of the thin layer is fairly close to the conductivity of one of the neighbours.5 Input/Output Limitations Input pre-processor The input pre-processor that checks the input data for inconsistencies is not foolproof. Secondly.4. the wall layer discretisation can be quite coarse. . Pipe-Section Discretisation In general. should be included in a neighbouring layer by adjusting the thickness and conductivity of that layer.5. 2. Although the most frequent input errors are found.5. not be thicker than approximately 30% of the outer radius of the layer. however. A factor of 2 or less in length ratio between adjacent sections is recommended although factors of 5-10 might work in some cases. that generates initial values to be used as initial conditions in dynamic computations. Initial value pre-processor OLGA contains a steady state processor.3). there may be cases with faulty input that are not detected. The program can be started from the Geometry button in the OLGA GUI.e. For transient calculations when the heat storage in the pipe walls can be important (cool down or heat up) a finer discretisation of the pipe walls may be necessary. OLGAS (see section 2. For steady state calculations. as a rule of thumb.4 Array Size Limitations Dynamic allocation of arrays is used in OLGA. Very thin layers. one layer for each material layer. 2. The accuracy of the solution increases with smaller sections but in a complex manner that is difficult to estimate quantitatively. to reduce numerical 'smearing out' of these effects. the time step decreases with decreasing section length if the CFL transport criterion is switched on. Automated Pipe Discretisation The Grid Generator. described in the manual "Grid Generator Getting Started" is a useful tool for generating or editing an OLGA branch Geometry. A wall layer should. if either the inclination angle or the diameter of the pipes vary.. such as paint etc. The numerical solution should. only the thickness needs to be adjusted.Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution Page 135 number of sections. Variable Mesh Length Past experience indicates that the section lengths should not differ too much along the pipeline. each pipe should be divided into at least two sections to ensure meaningful results. approach the analytical one as ∆t and ∆z approach zero. i. Wall Layer Thickness The numerical solution of the wall temperatures in the wall layers is dependent on the wall layer discretisation.

56 oC/60 F. . Output variables for volume rates at standard conditions assumes that a single stage flash from in-situ to standard conditions has been performed. OLGA uses the gas mass fractions and densities from the fluid property file to perform the conversion (requires that the tables contain standard conditions). For table-based simulations. sections and output time intervals. Output postprocessor The output postprocessor summarises the simulation results. but in OLGA it is defined as 1 atm/14. The file size limitation will be system dependent. care must be taken to avoid a paper or file "explosion". Also. Plot file sizes There are no formal program restrictions regarding the size of these files. The amount of printed output is proportional to the number of output intervals and to the number of output variables and sections specified in the keyword statement OUTPUT. “volume rates at standard conditions” are sometimes expressed as simply the in-situ mass rate divided by the density at standard conditions (for liquid). For Compositional Tracking simulations a flash is performed for the in-situ fluid to standard conditions for each section and time the output variables are to be reported. 2. The gas is not dehydrated unless WATERFLASH = OFF.7 psia and 15.6 Standard conditions in OLGA “Standard conditions” is often defined in SI units as 1 bara and 15 oC.5. That is. The size is determined by the number of variables. The user implicitly controls the size through the data specified in the keyword statements PLOT. and such output variables should therefore be used with care for Compositional Tracking simulations. but in OLGA this definition is not used. but this phrase is often perceived to mean dry oil and gas. Some of the information is dedicated to steady state cases. Other items like the minimum and maximum variable values are interesting also for transient simulations. This can increase the simulation time as a flash is CPU demanding.Page 136 Chapter 2: Input Description and Program Execution There may be differences in the results from OLGAS and OLGA for certain steady state cases due to the fact that OLGAS is a point model that is applied on the staggered mesh in OLGA and due to minor differences in the numerical treatment of the physical models. Printed output As this is a user specified quantity. “Stock tank conditions” is also used in the industry. and “standard conditions” is therefore used instead in OLGA. mass transfer between the phases from in-situ to standard conditions is taken into account. The postprocessor will not give any information on any process equipment that is simulated. TREND and PROFILE. This definition is the most commonly used in the petroleum industry.

....................3..............................................................................................10 CASE............218 ...............2...................................................................................3 Geometrical System Definition ...................................3......152 3.................139 3......192 3...................197 3...........................................1....................................171 3...............................20 DTCONTROL ..............................3.............................................2 BITNODE .................139 3.............................................................208 3.................1.........................................................................144 3..148 3.....................3.......................147 3.......................................................216 3.........3.......................146 3......210 3.......153 3.................................8 Auxiliary Keywords ....................6 BLACKOILOPTIONS..3.......16 COVER.....................................207 3...........................3 Parameter Types...............154 3...............................................170 3..................................21 FEED...................11 CHECKVALVE .........3 Keyword Descriptions ..1...........................................................161 3...................................3..................................................................2.........14 CONTROLLER................22 FILES ........................................................2.............167 3.......4 Boundary and Initial Conditions...............................174 3..........6 Process Equipment ..............................Chapter 3: Input File Description Page 137 CHAPTER 3 INPUT FILE DESCRIPTION 3 INPUT FILE DESCRIPTION..........................2..15 CORROSION ................................2 Execution Modes....139 3...........25 GRID ....................143 3...................................7 BOUNDARY ....................................149 3.......................149 3...5 Compositional Model.................18 CROSSSECTION.....................3........................199 3....................................................................................177 3..172 3.......2.........................................2..................................................................159 3......................1 Input Data Syntax .......155 3..............3..........23 FLUID ....................................203 3..............................1 Example of keyword description (TREND keyword) .....................................................................................3.....................................2 General Rules .................................3..............................................................168 3................12 COMPOPTIONS ..........................................................24 GEOMETRY.............................7 Output options ..1 Case Information ..........................3.................................2.......................................160 3................................149 3................................................151 3..........................................................................................3.................3.........3.9 BUNDLE...............3....................................157 3..............................................................2.............9 Conventions ................................3.........................................3..................3 BITNOZZLE..............................................................................................................................................3...................8 BRANCH .......................205 3..............3...........................................................................2 Input Statements Overview........3........1 ANNULUS ................4 BLACKOILCOMPONENT .............146 3.....................3...............................................150 3...............................3..................................................................................195 3....................19 DRILLINGFLUID .............................................2.................................................................3.......................................................................3...13 COMPRESSOR ..........................................5 BLACKOILFEED ...................150 3..............................17 CROSSOVER .......................

...........61 3....................................................256 OUTPUT..............3.............50 3..................................................................................3......................252 NODE ........292 SETPOINTVARIABLE .............................................................43 3.........3......................................................................3.....................289 RESTART......................254 OPTIONS ....................................32 3....308 SLUGTRACKING ...................................................3..............................................................46 3........350 WELL.......................................306 SHUTIN ..........................244 LINE.........................250 MATERIAL....303 SHAPE .221 HYDRATECHECK...........62 3....................29 3..........37 3.........................31 3.....51 3...3.......53 3......3...............347 WAXDEPOSITION ..........................................3....49 3.....................3......................................................................................................................357 ............................................................278 PUMP ............3....................................44 3........................3........................................................................40 3................52 3......228 INITIALCONDITIONS..............................................................Page 138 Chapter 3: Input File Description 3.................................................................................................................................................3...................................................................................269 POSITION ...........................................................3.............................3...........27 3.....281 REROUTE ..........................................................................39 3..........................................26 3............................3.3....48 3.......248 LOSS .......56 3.....................3..................................................3...................3...............................28 3................................275 PRINTINPUT ............3....3.......................................................................................34 3....................................................................................................................3....................................................................................63 3...........................................261 PIPE .......................58 3..........330 TREND ....344 WATEROPTIONS ...............38 3..................3............3.....................................3................309 SOIL .....................................................54 3...3.....45 3....................317 TABLE .....................315 SOURCE .....................................64 HEATEXCHANGER ........3..........................................3.............268 PLUG.......................235 INTEGRATION .......................57 3...........3........................................................................47 3............277 PROFILE ........3............................................................................3........................................59 3...3.......................................336 UNITS (Not available with OLGA GUI)..36 3.....3....................................................................................................................................42 3........55 3...............................................................340 VALVE ..............30 3..................33 3..................................................263 PLOT ...................................................................3..........242 LEAK .........3...................................................3...................35 3............3.............................................................3..............................................................3............259 PIGTRACKING.............................219 HEATTRANSFER....................................................................326 TOOLJOINT .................60 3.............................332 TUNING..290 SEPARATOR ..................................41 3........................341 WALL............................................

3.l - Branch numbers where the variables will be plotted. [ALL] Wall layer no's for plotting of wall temperatures. Keyword: TREND Dependencies: BRANCH. BUNDLE. BUNDLE sym. the temperatures for selected cells can be trended. The input statements are identified by keywords. In both cases some additional information must be given. DTPLOT should only be given once in the input file. H2O and MEG. If it is given more than once. See Appendix A for list of variables available for plotting. variables for different components can be trended.l. DENMIN. the fluid temperature for selected lines can be trended. VISMAX and CUTTING. GRID. DTPLOT r.l.1 Input Data Syntax 3. related keys. LINE. OLGA will only use the last one. . If the bundle module is used. With the MEG tracking module. For the compositional model the names of the available components are given in the feed file.1.1 Example of keyword description (TREND keyword) This statement defines the trend option that prints data to a file for plotting of specific variables as a function of time. With DRILLING=ON in OPTIONS. OPTIONS POSITION. [ALL] Component names. GEOMETRY. H2O. If the soil module is used. MEG Tracking or Advanced Well (drilling) modules are used. DELETEPREVIOUS sym.Page 139 Chapter 3: Input File Description 3 INPUT FILE DESCRIPTION The case data description is contained in Input File. - Bundle name where LINE is located COMPONENT sym. (s) - Sample period for obtaining variable values. Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description BRANCH sym. The input is divided into several input statements. and parameters. LAYER i. DENMAX. also those read from the restart file. Layer no 1 is the innermost. available components are HC. VISMIN. If the Compositional Tracking. available components are HC. ON | [OFF] All trend variables defined before this keyword will be deleted from the list of trend variables.l.

VARIABLE sym. CONTROLLER.l.l. If DELETEPREVIOUS is used.l. SEPARATOR SPOURCE. SOILROW i. VOLGBL) else if branch variables are specified.l. PIPE=xx. TIME r. SECTION=xx) in the POSITION key. VALVE. - ID numbers of slugs which will be plotted. BRANCH.l. and SECTION should not be used for the same variables.Page 140 Chapter 3: Input File Description Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] LINE sym. A list of values for NPLOT refers to the time points given in TIME. then VARIABLE = (HT. If this is defined for variables. NB! The key POSITION is also used for referencing process equipment with label names. it should also be specified in a separate TREND keyword. such as CHOKE. (s) - Time point when the plot interval is changed. Positions where the variables will be plotted out. Must be specified together with SOILROW. - Pipe numbers where the variables will be plotted. - POSITION sym. Units may be included in the list. For the variables that are related to a processor equipment. PUMP and WELL. LEAK. SOILCOLUMN i.l. NPLOT i. Must be specified together with SOILCOLUMN. PIPE sym. HEAT EXCHANGE. - Section or section boundary numbers where the variables will be plotted. NINTGR. CHECK VALVE. The sample period is calculated as ∆TIME / NPLOT. PIG/PLUG. then . - ROW of soil cell that is printed for. COMPRESSOR. - Column of soil cells that TSOIL is printed for.l. Required keys: Description DTPLOT or NPLOT Internal dependencies of keys: It is recommended to define DPLOT or NPLOT in a separate TREND statement above the TREND statements with variable specifications. If global variables are specified. - Bundle line name. - Number data points for plotting. SECTION i. PIPE.l. - List of variables to be plotted. SLUG i.l. the LABEL of the process equipment should be used instead of a defined POSITION (BRANCH=xx.l.

ULFSB) else if it is a compositional variable. H2O. = ALEXP = TW then see example =1 =1 =1 = POSITION-1 = (2. C2. MEG) else if DRILLING=ON in OPTIONS .8) = (CAR-LINE. =1 =1 =1 = POSITION-1 = (HOL.Chapter 3: Input File Description BRANCH VARIABLE end if else if it is a volume variable. CGDH) if COMPOSITIONAL=ON in OPTIONS COMPONENT = (C1. MASOUT) boundary variable or a slug variable in a specified position. UG) or VARIABLE if VARIABLE end else VARIABLE = TSOIL. 4. then either BRANCH =1 PIPE =1 SECTION =1 or POSITION = POSITION-1 end VARIABLE = (XG. 3 of Appendix A for list of process equipment variables) POSITION = VALVE-1 !The position used is the label of the process !equipment VARIABLE = (PVALVE. TVALVE. then either BRANCH PIPE SECTION or POSITION end either VARIABLE Page 141 =1 = (LIQC. UVALUE) else if it is a process equipment variable (see sec. RET-LINE) =1 =1 = (TBUN. then either BRANCH PIPE SECTION or POSITION end SOILROW SOILCOLUMN else if it is a bundle variable LINE PIPE SECTION VARIABLE !Slug variables can not be given in the !same keyword as volume and boundary !variables. then SLUG = 100 !The slug number used is the ID of the !slug VARIABLE = (ALFSB. MeOH) !Defined in feed file else if COMPOSITIONAL=MEG in OPTIONS COMPONENT = (HC. MASSIN. 6) = (6 . GVALVE) else if it is a slug variable for a specific unique slug.

TM. PIPE = 14. SECTION = 15. VARIABLE = (BE.0) TREND SLUG = 1. DENMIN. PIPE = 4. PIPE = 13. PIPE = 2. SECTION = 2. ULFSL. NINTGR) . VARIABLE = LIQC TREND BRANCH = 1.\ VARIABLE = BEEXP Example 2: !*************************************************************************** ! TREND Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! TREND TIME = (0. DPLOT = (0. ALFSB. H2O.2E+02 TREND BRANCH = 1. PIPE = 1.\ VARIABLE = LSLEXP TREND BRANCH = 1.\ VARIABLE = LSLEXP TREND BRANCH = 1. 10). GA) TREND BRANCH = 1. SECTION = 1. USF. PIPE = 2.\ VARIABLE = (LSLEXP.\ HOLEXP) TREND BRANCH = 1. PIPE = 1. RMERR. ALTSB. HOLEXP) TREND BRANCH = 1.5.1. VARIABLE = (HOL. 1) or NPLOT = (1000. SECTION = 34. BEEXP) TREND BRANCH = 1.\ GG) TREND VARIABLE = (HT. 500) end end if Examples: Example 1: !*************************************************************************** ! TREND Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! TREND DTPLOT = 0. 100) either DTPLOT = (0. VARIABLE = (LSLEXP. ULTSL.\ ULTSB. NSLUG) TREND BRANCH = 1. SECTION = 2. 1. SECTION = 1. SECTION = 4. SECTION = 1. VARIABLE = (GT.\ VARIABLE = HOLEXP TREND VARIABLE = (VOLGBL. VARIABLE = PT TREND BRANCH = 1. ZFSL. UGTSB. then TIME = (0. SECTION = 1.\ VARIABLE = (ALEXP. VISMIN) end if end if If DTPLOT needs to be changed. GLT. PIPE = 4.Page 142 Chapter 3: Input File Description COMPONENT = (HC. PIPE = 17. PIPE = 16. SECTION = 6. UST. VARIABLE = (ZTSL. LSL) TREND BRANCH = 1. PIPE = 1.\ PT) TREND BRANCH = 1. SECTION = 1.

Items are separated by commas (. Where the ellipses (. String protector: A string that contains spaces or commas should be protected with double quotes: " (double quote) List protector: Any list should be put inside a parenthesis: ( .2 Page 143 General Rules An input statement has the general form: KEYWORD KEY = Parameter list.. VALVE. SETPOINT). each identified by a KEY (e.Chapter 3: Input File Description 3. 132 characters. The comment mark can be put anywhere on the line.g.1. The general rules for an input statement are as follows: Line length: Max.). BRANCH.. Tabulation is treated as one single space. ) .). etc... The KEYWORD identifies the input statement (e.. KEYs are separated by commas.) indicate that the statement may contain more than one "KEY = Parameter list" combinations. Each keyword has a set of variables.. . Such combinations are separated by commas. Line continuation: An input statement can be written on several lines by ending each line with the continuation character: / (backslash) Comments: Comments are indicated with the comments mark: ! (exclamation mark) Any information on a line after a comment mark is ignored. Separators: A KEYWORD is separated from the first KEY with a space.g.

Ex: "PT-CONTR-1" "ON" 1-60 characters beginning with a letter.2. the interpolation feature can be used to condense the information given. Defines a label (symbol) for later reference.2. 3: Give two values: The code interpolates assuming the values as the first and last section values. 5:10. The user has the choice of 3 options: 3. Parameter Types The KEY information is given following the syntax of one of 8 parameter types. 10. Symbol List: Ex: ("PT-CONTR-1".8 is interpreted as: 5."GT-CONTR") List of symbols.2 is interpreted as: 10.Page 144 Chapter 3: Input File Description Ranges (integers only): An integer range will be interpreted as the list of all the integers between the two limits of the range connected by the . 8 Repetition: A number of identical items (real) can be given in a compressed way by the use of the repetition character : (colon). 6.1. Used to reference something that has a label or to select predefined option names. String list: Ex: ("CHOKE-1".3 1: Give all the data explicitly (also with repetition sign :) 2: Give one value only: The variable is assumed constant.2.(dash).2 Repeated items can be used in a list together with single items (separated by commas) Interpolation: If some variable must be given for a number of sections. Exception: The GEOMETRY statement can be defined after the BRANCH statement which references it. 2.2. . 3. "CHOKE-2") List of strings. Uneven section lengths are accounted for. 1. 5 . NB: Any reference to a non-defined symbol is an error. String: Ex: "PT-CONTR-1" One or more characters beginning with a letter. A user defined object must be defined and labelled before it is referenced. 7. 10. 10. 4. Symbol: Ex. 10.

54E3) List of real numbers. Ranges are also valid e.5.Chapter 3: Input File Description Page 145 The WALL statement can be defined after the PIPE statement which references it. 12. (11. 42. -23. 6. Real list: Ex.35 bara. Unit can be specified after the parenthesis.4. Normally only used for numbering of branches. The number can be used for referring branches or pipes instead of the labels. pipes.7. .5. Integer list: Ex: (2. The unit is used for all the elements in the list.456 Obeys the rules for FORTRAN real numbers Unit can be given after the number separated by spaces: Ex: 8. 4. 1500) List of integers. Integer: Ex: 243556 Obeys the rules for FORTRAN integers. Real: Ex: -13.g. 7. 3-5 is interpreted as 3. 5.

2 Input Statements Overview The input statements are organised in the following groups: - Case information Execution modes Geometrical system definition Boundary conditions Compositional model Process equipment Output options Auxiliary keywords The related keywords are described in the following sections. For some input parameters. the last parameter-value will be used. if any. the first parameter-value will be used. the setpoints for a CONTROLLER and rate of penetration (ROP) for a BITNODE will be held constant between time intervals. pump file.1 Case Information This comprises the following keywords: Keyword Description CASE Defines the beginning of the case description ENDCASE Defines the end of the case description FILES Specifies the fluid property file and optionally the compressor file. linear interpolation will be used to calculate the parameter-value. time series of the data can be specified. the following rules prevail: 1. For simulation times less than the first timepoint. For simulation times between two time points. 3. wax file or feed file. However. 2. FLUID Enables the use of non-Newtonial fluid models DRILLINGFLUID Defines a drilling fluid .Page 146 Chapter 3: Input File Description 3.2. For simulation times larger than the last timepoint. For extrapolation outside the specified time series.

The steady state pre-processor . PIGTRACKING Control of pig tracking options. CORROSION Activate and control corrosion module. . WATEROPTIONS Used for specifying parameters related to the water/three-phase option. SLUGTRACKING Control of slug tracking options. SHUTIN Specifies the use of only separated flow regime during shutin simulations.Number of phases . WAXDEPOSITION Activate and control wax deposition module. HYDRATECHECK Used to give information on possible formation of hydrates.Debug information .The postprocessor . OPTIONS Controls the following options: .2.Mode of temperature calculations RESTART Specifies restart from a previous run and name of file where data from previous run are stored. INTEGRATION Integration and time step data.Correlation of void in slug .2 Page 147 Execution Modes Keyword Description DTCONTROL Used to activate or deactivate various modes of automatic time step control.Chapter 3: Input File Description 3.

SOIL Defines a soil group by selecting a grid and main material. LINE Defines a bundle line (dimensions. . Used in connection with rerouting of production streams within a network. branches and shapes that belong to a cross section. connection-. It should be noted that all the PIPE-statements given after a GEOMETRY-statement are considered to belong to that geometry statement in the sequence as listed.2. NODE Information about start-. GRID Specifies a grid that can be used to define a SOIL group. That is.3 Chapter 3: Input File Description Geometrical System Definition The keywords listed below define the geometrical system and the properties of the pipe materials. SHAPE Describes the external contour of a material. bundles. CROSSSECTION Defines what lines. which can be referred to in the pipe specifications. until another GEOMETRY-statement is used. POSITION Relates a label to a specified section. and endpoints of pipeline branches. REROUTE Information about switching endpoints (nodes) for branches. GEOMETRY/PIPE Defines geometrical data for the pipes within a branch.Page 148 3. MATERIAL Wall material data. CROSSOVER Defines coupling of bundle lines. fluid and wall properties) to be used with the bundle module. Keyword Description ANNULUS Defines the configuration of pipes which are bundled together and have thermal interaction. COVER Modifies properties of cells in a soil group by specifying that the cell is in the sea or contains another material. which is a grouping of pipes with origination at one node and destination at another BUNDLE Defines which lines belong to a bundle and which OLGApipes it covers. WALL Defines thickness of wall layers and relates this and wall material data to a label. BITNODE Specifies the branches that connect at the drilling bit BRANCH Defines a branch.

WELL Specifications of a well. Keyword FEED COMPOPTIONS 3. HEATTRANSFER Various heat transfer conditions for the pipe walls are given through this keyword. INITIAL Specifies the initial conditions of the pipeline system. PLUG Plug and/or pig specifications. CONTROLLER Used for specifying the various controllers available. COMPRESSOR Compressor definition.6 Description Defines a feed and its components with belonging mole fractions Specifies the different options used in the PVT routines for calculating material properties and flashing terms in the compositional module Process Equipment The following process modules are available: Keyword Description BITNOZZLE Bitnozzle definition.2. HEATEXCHANGER Defines a simple heat exchanger. LOSS User defined pressure loss coefficients are specified through this keyword. LEAK Defines a controlled leak. Compositional Model The following keywords define the compositional tracking settings.4 Page 149 Boundary and Initial Conditions The following keywords define various boundary conditions both in time and space. CHECKVALVE Checkvalve definition. Keyword 3.2. . SOURCE Defines a mass source. Specifies also inlet temperatures for bundle lines.5 Description BOUNDARY Specification of boundary conditions for inlets and outlet of the pipeline system.Chapter 3: Input File Description 3.2.

SEPARATOR Definition of separator.Page 150 3. UNITS Specifies the units to use for PVT or compressor data . TREND Specification of variables for time series plots. Keyword Description TABLE Specifies information for well or valve characteristics. and can be used as a check on input data. Output options The various output options in OLGA can be accessed by using the following keywords: Keyword 3.2.8 Description OUTPUT Specification of variables for tabulated output at given time intervals. VALVE Definition of valve/choke. SETPOINTVARIABLE Alternative way of defining controlled variables.2. PLOT Specification of variables available for OLGA Viewer. Auxiliary Keywords These keywords are used to modify standardised/default values or to give additional information to the information listed above. PRINTINPUTDATA Controls the pre-processor output. PROFILE Specification of variables for profile plots at given time points or time intervals.7 Chapter 3: Input File Description PUMP Pump definition TOOLJOINT Definition of tooljoint.

end" structure or "if. is shown in [ ].9 Page 151 Conventions The following conventions are used to describe the input statement. or. The example is for the keyword TREND. The default option. For keys which do not have default values.1. 7. 3. Alternate data input items are shown by an "either. 5. It is not necessary to type in keys which have default values.2. 4. ¦ bar delimits the options available. the default unit is shown in [ ]. 2. 1. 6. endif" structure. the user must enter the required data.1 shows an example of the description of the input data convention used in this guide. Section 3. User should specify one of them.Chapter 3: Input File Description 3. . Text given after ! is an explanation. For keys which have a unit. The default value is used if it does not appear in the input. if there is one. the value is shown in [ ]. If a key has a default value. elseif.

these will be used in case such a key is not specified. the available options are listed. For the keys with a predefined set of parameters/symbols. 3. 3. These types refer to the definitions in section 3. Default values and options are written inside square brackets [ ]. . r. Input statements in square brackets are optional. Capitalised items are keys.2): Type: Abbreviation: String: String list: Symbol: Symbol list: Integer: Integer list: Real: Real list: str. exactly as written. keywords or predefined symbols. sym. i. i.1. The statements related to the geometrical system definition will be referenced as one group.1. sym.l. Dependencies on other input statements are also indicated. The keywords contained in this group are listed in sec. For real items the default unit is given.l. listed required keys must always be specified.3.l.Page 152 Chapter 3: Input File Description 3.2. str. In the input statement description that follows. r.l. If the required keys have default values. and must be typed.3 Keyword Descriptions The input statements are described in alphabetical order. Parameter types (See also sec. The parameter type is specified in abbreviated form as listed below. Non-capitalised items represent options that the user must supply.2.

\ XCENTER = (0. where gas is injected in the annulus between the casing and tubing while the production fluid together with the injected gas is produced in the tubing. - Specify the pipes at the starting point of the annulus configuration.l.Chapter 3: Input File Description.l. ENDPIPE = (PIPE-2. [Last or first] Section number at the end position.0) . Gas-lifted wells are typical examples. One pipe for each of the branches and in the order as given in key BRANCHES STARTSECTIONS sym. First section or last section (when the positive direction of GEOMETRY is opposite of ANNULUS) of the corresponding pipe in STARTPIPES.PIPE-1). Keyword: ANNULUS Dependencies: BRANCH. OPTION Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description BRANCHES sym.0). [First or last] Section number at the start position.1 Page 153 ANNULUS This statement defines the configuration of pipes which are bundled together and have thermal interaction. (m) - X-coordinate of the pipe center for each of the branches YCENTER r.ANN_DOWNHOLE).l. \ STARTPIPE = (PIPE-1. PIPE-2). - Name of annulus STARTPIPES sym. One pipe for each of the branches and in the order as given in key BRANCHES ENDSECTIONS sym.l. XCENTER r. - Specify the pipes at the end point of the annulus configuration. BRANCHES (DRS_DOWNHOLE.l.l.l. ANNULUS 3. LABEL str. - Refer to the names of branches enclosed within the annulus configuration ENDPIPES sym. Last section or first section (when the positive direction of GEOMETRY is opposite of ANNULUS) of the corresponding pipe in ENDPIPES. ENDSECTIONS Internal dependencies of keys: None Example: ANNULUS LABEL = ANN-1. (m) - Y-coordinate of the pipe center for each of the branches Required keys: All except STARTSECTIONS.3. YCENTER= (0.

1. BRANCH. \ ROP = (0. - Refer to the branch name for the wellbore below the drilling bit. NODE.0] Time points YOFFSET_ECD r. The penetration rate is also specified here. TIME= (0. Note: there is no interpolation between the ROP values (constant ROP until a new ROP is defined). BITNODE BITNODE Use this statement to specify the strings that connect at the drilling bit: Formation branch below the bit. 0. (m) [0. DRILLSTRING = DRS_DOWNHOLE. 100). and the annulus branch. - Refer to the position label defined by keyword POSITION to specify the initial position of the bit LABEL str. TIME r. The default value refers to the inlet of the drilling branch. - Refer to the branch name for the annulus defined by keyword BRANCH DRILLSTRING sym. [Outlet node for DRILLSTRING] Node where the drilling bit is placed (refers to the node name defined by keyword NODE). see Appendix A.l.2 Chapter 3: Input File Description. INITPOSITION = BIT .2). This main keyword is applicable when DRILLING = ON is specified in keyword OPTION. LABEL set DRILLSTRING. The branch is defined by keyword BRANCH INITPOSITION sym. Internal dependencies of keys: None Example: !**************************************************************************** ! BITNODE Definition !**************************************************************************** BITNODE LABEL = BIT. POSITION Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter Default: [ ] ANNULUS sym. the drilling string.0] Reference point for output variable ECD. FORMATION = FORMATION. ROP r.l. Required keys: ANNULUS. ANNULUS = ANN_DOWNHOLE.3. (s) [0. Keyword: BITNODE Dependencies: OPTION.0] Penetration rate for each time point. Must be the same as the outlet node for the branch defined in DRILLSTRING (input error given if not). - Refer to the branch name for the drilling string defined by keyword BRANCH FORMATION sym.Page 154 3. Usually omitted. - Name of bitnode NODE sym. (m/s) [0. Description FORMATION. INITPOSITION.

The BITNOZZLE keyword is part of the Advanced Well module. The purpose of inserting a drill bit in the OLGA model is to calculate the pressure drop through the drill bit nozzles. BITNOZZLE 3. and SECTIONBOUNDARY should be used. PIPE sym. the velocity upstream of the nozzle is negligible compared to the nozzle velocity and the frictional pressure loss across the nozzle is negligible. . Section boundary number where the drill bit is located. The equation is known as the "tri-state" equation. A simplified pressure loss equation is used. LABEL str. [Integer increment] Drill bit label. BRANCH. - SECTIONBOUNDARY i. - Number of nozzles in the bit. i =1 where Ai is the flow area of the ith nozzle and NN is the number of bit nozzles. - Pipe label where the drill bit is located. (m) - List of inner diameters of each bit nozzle. POSITION sym.l.Chapter 3: Input File Description. DIAMETER r. GEOMETRY.95] Discharge coefficient for the drill bit. Cd is the discharge coefficient and At is the total flow area defined as: NN At = ∑ Ai . Keyword: BITNOZZLE Dependencies: BRANCH.3 Page 155 BITNOZZLE This statement defines the input required for drill bits. PIPE. The equation assumes that the change in pressure due to a change in elevation is negligible. The pressure drop is calculated according to: 1 ρ ⋅ q2 ⋅ . NNOZZLES i.3. PIPE. - Position where the drill bit is located. CD r. q is the volume flow. If this sub-key is defined. default is drill bit number. POSITION Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description BRANCH sym. 2 C d2 ⋅ Ay2 ∆p = where ρ is the fluid density. [0. - Branch label where the drill bit is located.

02) ! !**************************************************************************** . 0.9. \ SECTIONBOUNDARY = 2. BRANCH = WELL_A1. . NNOZZLES. CD = 0. DIAMETER Internal dependencies of keys: Either BRANCH PIPE SECTIONBOUNDARY = WELL_A1 = PIPE_1 =2 POSITION = WELLBOTTOM_A1 or end Examples: Example 1: !**************************************************************************** ! Bitnozzle Definitions !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! BITNOZZLE LABEL = DRILLBIT_1.01.01. 0.Page 156 Chapter 3: Input File Description. PIPE = PIPE_1. DIAMETER = (0. . NNOZZLES = 3. BITNOZZLE Required keys: LABEL. .

For three phase simulations. [0.64] = [0. Can not be given if APIGRAVITY is given. To be used for including density effect on water of other components than salt.0] = [0.0] . SALINITY r. Keyword: BLACKOILCOMPONENT Dependencies: OPTIONS Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description LABEL str.4 Page 157 BLACKOILCOMPONENT This statement defines a component (gas.876] = [30] = [1. ρwater / ρfresh water. OIL GAS WATER Oil. MEG.0] Weight concentration of salt in water H2SMOLEFRACTION r.0] Mole fraction of N2 in gas at standard conditions. Can not be given if OILSPECIFICGRAVITY is given. N2MOLEFRACTION r. APIGRAVITY r.876] Oil specific gravity. [30] API gravity. Gas or water component GASSPECIFICGRAVITY r.0] Water specific gravity. the gas is assumed saturated with water vapour.Chapter 3: Input File Description.0] Mole fraction of H2S in gas at standard conditions. Required keys: Label LABEL. (-) [0. ρg / ρair.g. WATERSPECIFICGRAVITY r. API = 141.64] Gas specific gravity. TYPE Sym. [0. e. (-) [0.5 / γo – 131.5. TYPE Internal dependencies of keys: If TYPE = GAS then GASSPECIFICGRAVITY H2SMOLEFRACTION CO2MOLEFRACTION N2MOLEFRACTION else if TYPE = OIL then either OILSPECIFICGRAVITY or APIGRAVITY end else if TYPE = WATER then WATERSPECIFICGRAVITY = [0. ρoil / ρfresh water. where γo is oil specific gravity. [1. CO2MOLEFRACTION r.0] Mole fraction of CO2 in gas at standard conditions. (-) [0.0] = [0.3. OILSPECIFICGRAVITY r. (-) [0.0] = [0. BLACKOILCOMPONENT 3. oil or water) for the black oil options.

. LABEL = W-100. . LABEL = G-60. APIGRAVITY = 20 BLACKOILCOMPONENT TYPE = GAS. N2MOLEFRACTION = 0. \ H2SMOLEFRACTION = 0. \ SALINITY = 10 % .0] end Examples: !**************************************************************************** ! Blackoilcomponent Definitions !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! BLACKOILCOMPONENT TYPE = OIL.Page 158 Chapter 3: Input File Description. .60. GASSPECIFICGRAVITY = 0. BLACKOILCOMPONENT SALINITY = [0. LABEL = O-API20.0. CO2MOLEFRACTION = 0. WATERSPECIFICGRAVITY = 1.01 BLACKOILCOMPONENT TYPE = WATER.01.05.

Default calculated by model specified in BLACKOILOPTIONS. Reference to blackoilcomponent label of type oil GASCOMPONENT sym.5 Page 159 BLACKOILFEED This statement defines a black oil feed.2 .2e-5 or or or end Examples: !**************************************************************************** ! Blackoilfeed Definitions !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! BLACKOILFEED LABEL = BO-1. Alternative to GLR (to be used for gas feeds). Oil gas ratio. Default calculated by model specified in BLACKOILOPTIONS.0] Water volume fraction in oil/water mixture. Alternative to GLR. WATERCUT = 0. LGR r. GLR r.e-5 LGR = 1.Chapter 3: Input File Description. BLACKOILFEED 3. [Calculated] Gas liquid ratio. Keyword: BLACKOILFEED Dependencies: OPTIONS Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description LABEL str. Reference to blackoilcomponent label of type water GOR r. \ WATERCOMPONENT = W-100.3. Liquid gas ratio. Alternative to GOR. GLR = 80. GOR = 100. Blackoil feed label OILCOMPONENT sym. Alternative to GOR (to be used for gas feeds). WATERCUT r. GASCOMPONENT=G-60. OGR = 1. Reference to blackoilcomponent label of type gas WATERCOMPONENT sym. LABEL Internal dependencies of keys: either GOR = 100. OILCOMPONENT= O-API20. [Calculated] Gas oil ratio. Required keys: [0. OGR r.

. BLACKOILOPTIONS BLACKOILOPTIONS This statement defines the black oil options.Page 160 3.6 Chapter 3: Input File Description. [LASATER] STANDING BEGGS GLASO Description Correlation for calculating solution gas oil ratio None Internal dependencies of keys: None Examples: !**************************************************************************** ! Blackoiloptions Definitions !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! BLACKOILOPTIONS GORMODEL = LASATER ! !**************************************************************************** . . Keyword: BLACKOILOPTIONS Dependencies: OPTIONS Key description table: Key GORMODEL Required keys: Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Sym.3. .

starting. Also. the SOURCE or WELL keywords must be used to define the flow parameters. the gas mass fraction is determined from the PVT table. this statement may be used to specify the fraction of wax forming components in the inflow hydrocarbon mixture. i. Water cut. the GOR from PVT table is used. the GASFRACTION at the pipeline boundaries may influence the flow situation even if the flow is out of the pipeline.7 Page 161 BOUNDARY This statement defines the boundary conditions at terminal nodes. In low flow situations. if the boundary condition is a flow related boundary condition.and endpoints of the pipeline system. Only one of WATERFRACTION or TOTALWATERFRACTION can be defined. Mass fraction of total water in the gas-oil-water mixture at the boundary temperature and pressure. Default value is zero. Gas/liquid ratio. i.Chapter 3: Input File Description. It is possible to define the BOUNDARY using: Use key: GASFRACTION WATERFRACTION TOTALWATERFRACTION Specify Gas mass fraction in gas and oil mixture at the source temperature and pressure. . Mass fraction of free water in the gas-oil-water mixture at the boundary temperature and pressure. By default.e. no free water. The inlet temperature for bundle lines is also defined. or by using standard conditions: Use key: GOR GLR WATERCUT Specify Gas/oil ratio. i. Note that. water volume fraction in water and oil mixture. Note that GOR and GLR can not be used at the same time. As default. OILFRACEQ Fraction of oil mass flow relative to equilibrium flow at the boundary temperature and pressure for each feed. BOUNDARY 3. Free water is excluded. Default value is zero. WATERFRACEQ Fraction of water mass flow relative to equilibrium flow at the boundary temperature and pressure for each feed. A drilling fluid used with the Advanced well module can be defined.3.e. or by using the compositional module: Use key: Specify: FEEDMASSFRACTION Mass fraction of the feed(s) GASFRACEQ Fraction of gas mass flow relative to equilibrium flow at the boundary temperature and pressure for each feed.e.

- Refer to the drilling fluid defined by the keyword DRILLINGFLUID.l.Page 162 Chapter 3: Input File Description.l.l. Requires access to the Advanced Well module. FEEDMASSFRACTION r. Omitted if the drillingfluid properties are given in a separate fluid property file. (-) [1. (kg/m3) - Density of the drilling fluid (at standard conditions) for each time point.l.l.l (-) [-1. and GASFRACEQ = 1. One item per time point. (-) - Mole fraction of each feed. FEEDVOLFRACTION r. one item per time and feed FEEDMOLEFRACTION r. But the user may specify a fraction of the gas equilibrium flow to be sent into the pipeline. By default.l. - Gas/oil volumetric flow ratio at standard conditions. - Label of feeds feeding to terminal nodes. (-) - Mass fraction of each feed. (-) GASFRACTION r. one item per time and feed FEEDNAME sym. (Sm3/Sm3 ) Description Volume fraction of each feed given in FEEDNAME (only for Blackoil model) .0] Gas mass fraction of the inflowing gas + oil mixture. GLR r. the GOR from the PVT table is used. GASFRACEQ r. Requires COMPOSITIONAL = ON under the OPTIONS keyword and access to the compositional module. LINE Sym. This key is only available in the compositional module. Must be within the min and max density as specified in the keyword DRILLINGFLUID. BOUNDARY Keyword: BOUNDARY Dependencies: NODE. Negative input values force OLGA to use equilibrium values from the fluid property tables.0] By default. the equilibium gas fraction of the total flow is used for the gas flow in the compositional model. DRILLINGFLUID sym.l. (Sm3/Sm3 ) - Gas/liquid volumetric flow ratio at standard conditions. A list of both positive and negative values is not allowed. - Reference to a bundle line label. GOR r. LINE Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] DENSITY r.l.

PRESSURE r. (Ns/m2) - Viscosity of the drilling fluids (at standard conditions) for each time point. Negative if injected at the pipeline outlet side. With a value of -1. Must be within the min and max viscosity as specified in the keyword DRILLINGFLUID.0 the total water fraction is taken from the fluid table (interpreted as free water if WATERFLASH = OFF. - For bundle line only.l. MEGFRACTION r. One item per time point.(-) [0. Omitted if the drillingfluid properties are given in a separate fluid property file. (-) - Mass fraction of total water in the total boundary fluid mixture. TYPE Sym.l. BOUNDARY Key Page 163 Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description MASSFLOW r. WATERCUT r. . The inlet mass flow rate.l.l. (°C) - Temperature of inflowing mixture. Positive if the fluid is injected at the pipeline inlet side. and OILFRACEQ = 1. Requires PHASE = THREE under the OPTIONS keyword and access to the water module. (-) [0. NODE Sym.l. Either this key or the WATERFRACTION can be specified. (-) [1.Chapter 3: Input File Description.l.0] Mass fraction of MEG in the water phase. and free water + water in gas if ON). OILFRACEQ r. the equilibirium oil fraction of the total flow is used for the oil flow in the compositional model. - Reference to a terminal node label.0] By default.l. (-) [0. TOTALMEGFRACTION r. CLOSED Boundary type PRESSURE BUNDLE VISCOSITY r.l. But the user may specify a fraction of the oil equilibrium flow to be sent into the pipeline. TIME r. (s) - Time points for specified values of the boundary condition variables.0] Water volume fraction in oil/water mixture.l. (Pa) - Boundary pressure TEMPERATURE r. With a value of -1.0] Mass fraction of MEG in total water (water phase + water vapor) TOTALWATERFRACTION r.l. Bundle line: Inlet temperature. This key is only available in the compositional module.0 the total water fraction is taken from the fluid table.

0E+05.0] either MEGFRACTION = [3:0.0] MEGFRACTION = [3:0. But the user may specify a fraction of the water equilibrium to be sent into the pipeline.0. One item per time point.40.(-) [1. The value must be in the range [0. then NODE = OUTLET TIME = (0.1].l. and WATERFRACEQ = 1.l. 100. the equilibrium water fraction of the total flow is used for the water flow in the composiotional model.l.0) [S] PRESSURE = (50. Requires PHASE = THREE under the OPTIONS keyword and access to the water module.0. BOUNDARY Key WATERFRACTION Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] r.0] Scaling factor for determining the amount of wax forming components relative to HC mixture. else if TYPE = PRESSURE. Required keys: TYPE Internal dependencies of keys: If TYPE = CLOSED then NODE = INLET Note: The WELL or SOURCE keyword statement must be applied to specify flow conditions.0] either WATERFRACTION = [3:0.0] ! only for MEG tracking or TOTALWATERFRACTION = [3:0.0] Description Mass fraction of free water in the total boundary fluid mixture.0] ! only for MEG tracking or TOTALMEGFRACTION = [3:0. 45.0E+05) [PA] TEMPERATURE = 3:20 [C] either GASFRACTION = [3:-1.Page 164 Chapter 3: Input File Description.0] By default.0] ! only for MEG tracking end end . (-) [0. This key is only available in the compositional module. WATERFRACEQ r. 200. (-) [1. Either this key or the TOTALWATERFRACTION can be specified. 1 means the amount of wax forming components is equal to values from the wax table. WAXFRACTION r. Requires WAXDEPOSITION = ON under the OPTIONS keyword and access to the waxdeposition module.0E+05.

0. BO-3) FEEDVOLFRACTION = ( 0.0) [OC] = 3 : 1.7.0.. then DENSITY = 3:1000 [kg/m3] VISCOSITY = 3:1 cP end end else if TYPE = BUNDLE. 0.Chapter 3: Input File Description.7.0.1 either GLR = 3:100 or GOR = 3:120 end if WAXDEPOSITION=ON in OPTIONS WAXFRACTION = [3:1.3 ) or if a drilling fluid is simulated DRILLINGFLUID = DRILLINGFLUID-1 if drillingfluid properties are NOT given in a separate file. 0. 0.5. BOUNDARY Page 165 if WAXDEPOSITION=ON in OPTIONS WAXFRACTION = [3:1. TIME = 0.0] end if or if the compositional tracking module is used (multiple time and feeds. 20. the array is a function of both feed and time as shown below. 0.0 [KG/S] endif Note: For the subkeys FEEDMASSFRACTION and FEEDMOLEFRACTION.5.6. FEED1(T2).6. 0.0) [S] = (15.0.\ PRESSURE = 0. 0. 200.3.0] end if or if using standard conditions WATERCUT = 3:0. 100. 0.4.5E+07. 0. FEED-3) either FEEDMASSFRACTION = (0. 0.7. FEED-2(T2)) Examples: Example 1: !**************************************************************************** ! Boundary Definitions !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! BOUNDARY NODE = INLET.6) [kg/s] or FEEDMOLEFRACTION = (0. GASFRACTION = 1. TEMPERATURE = 22.TYPE = CLOSED ! BOUNDARY NODE = OUTLET.\ . 0. 0.5) ! override equilibrium phase fractions = 3:0 ! override equilibrium phase fractions = 3:0 ! override equilibrium phase fractions or if the black oil module is used FEEDNAME = (BO-1.7. 0. 15.3.7. FEED-2(T1). 0.4.7. 0. then LINE TIME TEMPERATURE MASSFLOW = METHANOL-I = (0. 0. note below) FEEDNAME = (FEED-1. TYPE = PRESSURE.5. FEEDMASSFRACTION = FEED-1 (T1).4) [kmol/s] end GASFRACEQ OILFRACEQ WATERFRACEQ = (3:0..

LINE = CARRIERLINE.\ PRESSURE = 0.\ FEEDMASSFRACTION = 1 !**************************************************************************** . TYPE = PRESSURE. FEEDNAME = FEED-1.Page 166 Chapter 3: Input File Description. Example 2: !**************************************************************************** ! Boundary Definitions for the compositional tracking module !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! BOUNDARY NODE = INLET...5E+07.\ TIME = 0. TIME = 0. BOUNDARY WATERFRACTION = 0 BOUNDARY TYPE = BUNDLE.0 !**************************************************************************** . TEMP = 25. TEMPERATURE = 22.TYPE = CLOSED ! BOUNDARY NODE = OUTLET. MASSFLOW = 0.

and endpoints. TO sym. i.1] Description Switch for checking if PIPE-co-ordinates corresponds with NODE-co-ordinates at branch start. Changing the direction can avoid crash in preprocessor or result in a solution closer to the transient steady state solution. [Integer increment] Number of branch. Label or number of fluid table to apply for the specific branch. then TOLERANCE end if = [0. BRANCH 3. NUMBER i. This key is used to specify the maximum allowable co-ordinate mismatch in any direction. Required Keys: LABEL. Keyword REROUTE may be used to reroute the branch from one destination node to another. [POSITIVE] | NEGATIVE Input to the preprocessor if the initial guess on flow direction for a branch should be positive or negative. GEOMETRY sym. FROM. If this switch is on. Keyword: BRANCH Dependencies: NODE. FROM sym. The key FLOAT must be set to OFF to activate this option. [Integer increment] Name of branch. FLUID must be the same as the LABEL given in the pvt file.Chapter 3: Input File Description. Label/name of origination node. LABEL str. Label/name of destination node.e. FLOAT. TO Internal dependencies of keys: If FLOAT is turned off. If keyword based pvt file is used. NUMBER. Label of GEOMETRY keyword. numbering is not valid for this format. GEOMETRY Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] FLOAT sym.8 Page 167 BRANCH This statement defines a branch. which is a grouping of pipes with origination at one node and destination at another. FLUID.3. TOLERANCE r. Only one geometry is allowed in each BRANCH statement INIFLOWDIR sym. [ON] | OFF FLUID sym. (m) [0. the code will discard any such discrepancy and use the geometry data given internally for each branch. GEOMETRY. In that case all destination nodes other than the one specified in BRANCH are specified in REROUTE.1] [m] .

- BRANCHXCENTERS r.l.l.l.l.l. - Carrier and auxiliary lines in this bundle. The user can specify the outer surface heat transfer coefficient by sub-key OUTERHVALUE in this keyword.(m) Denotes x-centres of lines relative to center of bundle.(m) Denotes x-centers of OLGA branches relative to center of bundle. BRANCHYCENTERS r.and OUTERHVALUE in the LINE keyword. the OLGA lines should have the same pipeline profile and discretization. The user can specify the heat transfer coefficient by sub-key INNER. - Label of the bundle. The inner surface or the outer surface heat transfer coefficient for each LINE can either be calculated by the code or specified by the user. LINE Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default:[ ] BRANCHES sym. OUTERHVALUE r. ENDPIPES sym. The outer heat transfer coefficients and the ambient temperatures used by the bundle are the values given for the first branch in the list assigned to key BRANCH. Label of the pipes that exit the bundle for each branch.l. (W/m2oC) - Description Number/name of within this bundle first OLGA branches End sections. Heat transfer coefficients at wall surface of the OLGA branches to the bulk fluid in the carrier line.(m) Denotes y-centres of lines relative to center of bundle. If more than one OLGA line is contained in a bundle.3. [Last or section] LABEL str. The outer surface heat transfer coefficient for each OLGA branch can also be calculated by the code or specified by the user. . LINES sym.l. Keyword: BUNDLE Dependencies: BRANCH. BUNDLE BUNDLE This group defines a bundle which consists of one or more OLGA lines and a number of auxiliary lines.l.Page 168 3.(m) Denotes y-centers of OLGA branches relative to center of bundle. LINEXCENTERS r.9 Chapter 3: Input File Description. ENDSECTIONS i. LINEYCENTERS r. Forced/free convection will be applied if this key is not defined.l. Last section or first section (when the positive direction of GEOMETRY is opposite of BUNDLE) of the corresponding pipe in ENDPIPES. If calculated by the code the forced/free convection on the outer surface will be taken into account. If calculated by the code the forced/free convection on the inner and outer surface will be taken into account.

ENDPIPES last Start sections.33. BRANCHYCENTERS. \ BRANCHXCENTERS = 0. STARTPIPES. \ LINEXCENTERS = (0. Required keys: LABEL.Chapter 3: Input File Description.5.0) cm .0 m.0 m. \ BRANCHES = FLOWLINE.0) [m] end if Example: !*************************************************************************** !BUNDLE Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------BUNDLE LABEL = HEATING. RETURNLINE.0.2. [First or section] BRANCHES. \ ENDPIPES = PIPE_7. STARTSECTIONS i.0.l.l. BUNDLE Key Type Unit: ( ) STARTPIPES sym. \ LINES=(CARRIERLINE. \ STARTPIPES = PIPE_2.0.0.0. \ BRANCHYCENTERS = 0. Page 169 Parameter set Default:[ ] Description Label of the pipes that enter the bundle for each branch.0) cm.30. LINE_2 LINEXCENTERS = (-0. First section or last section (when the positive direction of GEOMETRY is opposite of BUNDLE) of the corresponding pipe in STARTPIPES. Internal dependencies of keys: if (there is one or more lines within the bundle) then LINES = LINE_1.0.+0. METHANOL). \ LINEYCENTERS = (0. BRANCHXCENTERS.0.2) [m] LINEYCENTERS = (0.

3. [" "] Author of input file/case DATE str.10 CASE Defines information about a simulation. [" "] Date for creation of file. Do not use (' '). [" "] Project name. DATE. Will be printed in sub text for trend plots and profile plots in the OLGA GUI. . Will be printed in sub text for trend plots and profile plots in the OLGA GUI. TITLE. Required keys: Description PROJECT. ! CASE PROJECT ="Project from Good Oil Company". INFO str. Keyword: CASE Dependencies: NONE Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] AUTHOR str. AUTHOR. [" "] Additional information PROJECT str.Page 170 Chapter 3: Input File Description. . INFO Internal dependencies of keys: NONE Example: !**************************************************************************** ! CASE Description !--------------------------------------------------------------------------!Note! Keys not given will take default value. . [" "] Case title. TITLE str. Note! Always put string inside (" ").\ TITLE ="SAMPLE CASE WITH SEVERE SLUGGING" . CASE 3.

\ SECTIONBOUNDARY = 3. DIRECT = POSITIVE !*************************************************************************** . Position is a reference to the label of a POSITION statement. PIPE = 17. DIRECTION Internal dependencies of keys: Either BRANCH PIPE SECTIONBOUNDARY =1 =1 =1 POSITION = POSITION-1 or end Example: !*************************************************************************** ! Check Valve Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! CHECKVALVE LABEL = CHECK-1. Required keys: Number/name of branch where check valve is located LABEL. Number/name of pipe where check valve is located POSITION Sym. [Integer increment] Check valve label PIPE Sym. Positive direction refers to direction of increasing segment/section numbers. This is an alternative way to specify the location of the check valve. section boundary 3 if 2 sections) of the last branch of the branches going into a SPLIT node. LABEL str.g. Section boundary where check valve is located. DIRECTION Sym.3.Chapter 3: Input File Description. instead of specifying branch. POSITION Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description BRANCH Sym. Keyword: CHECKVALVE Dependencies: BRANCH. Note that a checkvalve cannot be defined at the last section boundary (e. BRANCH = 1. GEOMETRY. Allows flow only in the defined flow direction. pipe and section boundary. Of the same reason no checkvalve can be defined on the first section boundary of the branch coming from a MERGE node. CHECKVALVE Page 171 3. SECTIONBOUNDARY i. [POSITIVE] NEGATIVE Allowed direction. since the last section volume is used as the control volume for the SPLIT node.11 CHECKVALVE Defines a check valve in the pipeline.

The table below shows which flash types that can be used in a two phase and a three phase simulation depending on if aqueous components (H2O. MEG. . TWOPHASE is default for two phase simulations and SIMPLETHREEPHASE is default for three phase simulations. [Internal routines] Used in the dense phase region.l.12 COMPOPTIONS This statement specifies the different options used in the PVT routines for calculating material properties and flashing terms in the compositional module. FLASHTYPE sym. [ALL] Components to specify delay constants for (defined in feed file). DENSITYLIMIT r.Page 172 Chapter 3: Input File Description. If used it should preferably be set equal to the fluid density at the critical point. FLASH TYPE TWOPHASE PHASE in OPTION FEED with aqueous components FEED without aqueous components SIMPLETHREEPHASE and FULLTHREEPHASE Two Three Two Three No Yes No Yes Yes No No No Note: If salts are included in the feed. etc) are part of the feed or not. in which case this is the only allowed option. Keyword: COMPOPTIONS Dependencies: OPTIONS Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description COMPONENT str. COMPOPTIONS 3. FLASHTYPE = FULLTHREEPHASE must be used. If VISCOSITYCORR is specified the chosen model is used for viscosity calculations for the gas and oil phases. An error is given if the feed has been tuned to another viscosity correlation in PVTsim. A fluid with higher density is defined as liquid and fluid with lower density is defined as gas. [TWOPHASE] [SIMPLETHREEPHASE] FULLTHREEPHASE The algorithm to use in flash calculations.3. If not used internal routines will be used to decide phase (may cause instabilities when crossing bubble/dew point).

VISCOSITYCORR = CORRSTATE ! . 10) s else if delay constant is given without COMPONENT TCONDENSATION TVAPORIZATION = 10 s = 15 s ! Same values apply to all components ! in feed file endif Example: !*************************************************************************** ! Compoptions !--------------------------------------------------------------------------COMPOPTIONS FLASHTYPE = SIMPLETHREEPHASE.(s) Time constant for mass transfer from liquid phase to gas phase for components in COMPONENT.l. TVAPORIZATION r. VISCOSITYCORR sym. None Internal dependencies of keys: if COMPONENT is given COMPONENT TCONDENSATION TVAPORIZATION = (C1. Required keys: [CORRSTATE]. 10. 5) s = (15. 5. (Non-equilibrium delay constant). LBC Use Corresponding state or Lohrenz-Bray-Clark correlation for viscosity correlation.(s) Time constant for mass transfer from gas phase to liquid phase for components in COMPONENT. C3) = (10.l. COMPOPTIONS Key Type Unit: ( ) Page 173 Parameter set Default: [ ] Description TCONDENSATION r. (Non-equilibrium delay constant). C2.Chapter 3: Input File Description.

The compressor RPM is governed by the compressor speed controller: RPM = RPMmin + urpm ⋅ (RPMmax .e. IASCON ISPDCO = = Antisurge controller Speed controller Note that a compressor cannot be defined at the last section boundary (e.RPMmin) where urpm = output signal from compressor speed controller The opening of the controlled choke (valve) in the recycle loop is governed by the anti surge controller (ASC). a security factor of 1.2 means that the anti-surge recycle valve starts to open if the compressor inlet flow is less than 1. see section 2. .g.Page 174 Chapter 3: Input File Description. Note that the compressor characteristics are given in a separate file. The surge flow is specified in the compressor data file.2. The anti-surge recycle valve starts to open when compressor inlet flow equals the surge flow multiplied by the security factor. section boundary 3 if 2 sections) of the last branch of the branches going into a SPLIT node. The set-point for the ASC unit is calculated by multiplying the compressor surge flow with the anti-surge security factor. Of the same reason no compressor can be defined on the first section boundary of the branch coming from a MERGE node. which is referred to in the COMPRESSOR statement.2 times the surge flow.3.1 An illustration of how the compressor is incorporated in the pipeline. COMPRESSOR 3. It is possible to specify characteristics for more than one compressor. The compressor is represented through its characteristics which give pressure increase and temperature as a function of flow and rotating speed (RPM). Figure 3.13 COMPRESSOR Describes the configuration of a compressor in the system. since the last section volume is used as the control volume for the SPLIT node. Each of the characteristics is assigned to a label. I.

Name of compressor speed controller. Name of antisurge controller.l.84] Discharge coefficient of valve/choke in recycle loop. Refers to a controller label. Section boundary number compressor is located. POSITION sym. TEMPERATURE r. FILES Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description ANTISURGECONTR sym.l. (rpm) Minimum RPM PIPE sym. flow is 120% of surge rate. COMPRESSOR Page 175 Keyword: COMPRESSOR Dependencies: BRANCH. DIAMETER r. POSITION.2 = > min. (rpm) Maximum RPM MINRPM r. (W) COOLER sym. BRANCH sym. Number of temperature values must correspond to the time points given in the TIME-key. COOLCAPACITY r. COMPRDATA sym. pipe where where . PIPE and SECTION keys. [Integer increment] Name of compressor data. GEOMETRY. Reference to the label in a POSITION keyword.(-) Security factor (e. Number/name of branch compressor is located. This key is an alternative to the BRANCH. CD r. (s) Time points for temperature out of heat exchanger.Chapter 3: Input File Description. [Integer increment] Compressor name or number.g. TIME r. [OFF] ON Switch for turning on or off heat exchanger in recycle loop. 1. Refers to a controller label. where Maximum heat transfer rate from fluid flowing through the heat exchanger in the recycle loop. The POSITION statement refers to the location where the compressor will be located. (m) LABEL str. This refers to a label in the compressor characteristics file. (-) [0. MAXRPM r. (oC) Temperature values out of heatexchanger. SECURITYFACTOR r. SECTIONBOUNDARY i. SPEEDCONTR sym. Number/name of compressor is located. Orifice diameter of valve/choke in recycle loop.

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Chapter 3: Input File Description, COMPRESSOR

Required keys: ANTISURGECONTR, CD, COMPRDATA, COOLER, DIAMETER,
LABEL, MAXRPM, MINRPM, SECURITYFACTOR, SPEEDCONTR
Internal dependencies of keys:
To specify checkvalve location, enter
Either
BRANCH
=1
PIPE
=1
SECTION BOUNDARY = 1
or
POSITION

= POS-1

end
If COOLER = ON, then
COOLCAPACITY
TIME
TEMPERATURE

= 0.15E+08 [W]
= (0.0, 1.0E+06) [s]
= (2:40.0) [C]

endif
If COMPRDATA not given, OLGA assumes that each of the compressor characteristics in
the compressor data file are labelled with increasing integers, starting at 1.

Example:
!***************************************************************************
!
COMPRESSOR Definition
!--------------------------------------------------------------------------!
COMPRESSOR LABEL = CMPR-2-1, BRANCH = 2, PIPE = 1,\
SECTIONBOUNDARY = 4, MINRPM = 0.66E+04, MAXRPM = 0.98E+04,\
SECURITYFACTOR = 1.15, DIAMETER = 0.15, CD = 0.25,\
SPEEDCONTR = C-301, ANTISURGECONTR = C-201, COOLER = ON,\
COOLCAPACITY = 0.15E+08, TIME = (0., 0.1000E+07),\
TEMPERATURE = (2:0.4E+02)
COMPRESSOR LABEL = CMPR-2-2, BRANCH = 2, PIPE = 1,\
SECTIONBOUNDARY = 6, MINRPM = 0.66E+04, MAXRPM = 0.98E+04,\
SECURITYFACTOR = 1.15, DIAMETER = 0.15, CD = 0.2,\
SPEEDCONTR = C-301, ANTISURGECONTR = C-202, COOLER = OFF
!***************************************************************************
.
.
.

Chapter 3: Input File Description, CONTROLLER

Page 177

3.3.14 CONTROLLER
Defines controllers used together with the various types of equipment. See section
2.2 for the description of controllers.
The following controller types are defined:
ANTISURGE

Anti-surge controller (ASC) with alternate amplification.

CASCADE

Cascade controller (normal and extended)

ESD

Emergency shutdown controller (linear).

MANUAL

Operator controller (manual).

OVERRIDE

Override controller. It is possible to combine up to three subcontrollers. Each of the sub-controllers in such a combination
responds to a separate input parameter. The output signals
from each of the controllers in the combination are
compared, and the minimum or maximum output signal is
chosen as the output signal to the controlled device.

PID

PID controller.

PSV

Pressure safety valve controller (PSV).

SELECTOR

Switch controller. The controller switches between two subcontrollers (low and high sub-controllers) depending of the
low and the high variable limits given in the input. If the low
sub-controller is active, it stays active until the high limit is
reached. Then the high sub-controller takes over, and stays
active until the low variable limit is reached. More than one
low and high limit variable can be given. If more than one low
limit variable is given the one limit which is first reached
causes the switch. Similarly, if more than one high limit
variable is given the one which reaches it’s high limit will
determine the switch.

For PID controllers, the user can also specify if the controller is linear or non-linear.
If a controller is non-linear, the user has to give tables for specifying the
amplification factors, integral time constants, and derivative time constants as
functions of the error input.
For PID and ASC, the user can also specify the normalised amplification factor. In
this case, the working range (through the key NORMRANGE) has to be given in the
input.
For all the controller types, the digital controller option can be selected by using the
key SAMPLETIME. The difference between analogue and digital sampling in an
OLGA simulation is as follows:
The analogue controller collects input and gives a corresponding output at each
time step. The relative change in the input signal to the controller from one time step
to the next will never exceed 0.25, due to automatic integration time step control.
The digital controller collects input and generates a corresponding output at time
points separated by time intervals given in input (Key: SAMPLETIME). There may be
one or more integration time steps in between each sample time point. The
automatic time step control assures that a simulation time point always agrees with

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Chapter 3: Input File Description, CONTROLLER

a sample time point. The output signal from the controller is kept constant during the
following sample time interval.
If a controlled variable is a mass flow rate, there are two ways to specify its setpoint
value.
The setpoint value can be specified directly as the relevant mass flow rate.
Alternatively, to control total mass flow, a volumetric flow rate at standard conditions
can be used as setpoint.
The name of the controlled (mass flow) variable is used to determine the phase of
the given volumetric flow setpoint. For example, if variable GG (Gas mass flow rate)
is given as VARIABLE (see below), the gas volume flow rate must be specified by
SETPOINT and this is used by OLGA to calculate the total mass flow rate setpoint
value. The calculation is based on the given GOR (or GLR) and WATERCUT.
To use volumetric flows as an alternative setpoint to total mass flow the following
data must be specified:
VARIABLE

A mass flow rate variable must be specified. The mass
flow rate variable must be defined at the measurement
point (i.e. GLLEAK in a leak).

SETPOINT

Volumetric flow rate at standard conditions.

REFCONDITION

STD (standard conditions i.e. 1 atm (~1 bara) and
60 °F (~ 15.5 °C)

GOR or GLR

Default value is based on the gas mass fraction from
the fluid property file at standard conditions. The fluid
property table range must cover standard pressure and
temperature.

WATERCUT
MOLWEIGHT

Molecular weight. If the equivalent gas volumetric flow
rate is specified (when all hydrocarbons are assumed
to be gas, which is relevant for wet gas) its molecular
weight should be given in order to determine the
density of the equivalent gas (under the assumption
that the gas is ideal). By default, the gas density at the
standard condition from the PVT table is used.

The individual mass flow rates can only be controlled at REFCONDITION = IN-SITU
(which is default) i.e. for P and T at the position where the mass flow rate is
measured. If the volumetric flow setpoint of a phase is known at IN-SITU conditions,
the user could just as well specify a phase volumetric flow rate as VARIABLE e.g.
QG.
For all controller types a mode can be specified, using the subkeys MODE,
MODETIME,
MANUALSETPOINT,
EXTSIGNCONTROLLER
and
EXTSETPCONTROLLER. Using MODE = AUTOMATIC the controller will behave
as specified by the standard subkeys, e.g. AMPLIFICATION etc for a PID controller,
but these settings can be ignored by using one of the other modes. See the end of
the chapter for an example on how to use the different MODEs.

Chapter 3: Input File Description, CONTROLLER

Page 179

Keyword:

CONTROLLER

Dependencies:

BRANCH, GEOMETRY, POSITION

Key description table:
Key

Type
Unit: ( )

Parameter set
Default: [ ]

Description

AMP1

r. (-)

For ASC: Controller amplification
(proportional term) for anti surge
controller. Used for negative deviation
from setpoint.

AMP2

r. (-)

For ASC: Controller amplification
(proportional term) for anti surge
controller. Used for positive deviation
from setpoint.

AMPLIFICATION

r.l. (-)

Controller amplification factor(s).
If the non-linear option is chosen for
PIDs, the number of amplification
factors and their sequence must
correspond to the error values listed in
the key ERROR.

AVERAGETIME

r. (s)

For use with EXTENDED CASCADE
controller: Average time for the moving
averaging function of the primary
controller variable.

BIAS

r. (-)

Initial controller output signal

BRANCH

sym. l.

Branch(es) where controller input is
sampled.

COMBINEVARIABLES

Sym.

ON
[OFF]

Switch for use of more than one
variable in the input.

CONSTONE

r. (1/s)

For use with EXTENDED CASCADE
controller: Constant C1

CONSTSWITCH

r. (-)

For use with EXTENDED CASCADE
controller: Switching value for using C1
and C2.

CONSTTWO

r. (1/s)

For use with EXTENDED CASCADE
controller: Constant C2

DERIVATIVECONST

r.l.(s)

[0.0]

Derivative term in controller equation. If
the non-linear option is chosen for PIDs,
the number of amplification factors and
their sequence must correspond to the
error values listed in the key ERROR.

Page 180

Chapter 3: Input File Description, CONTROLLER

Key

Type
Unit: ( )

Parameter set
Default: [ ]

Description

ERROR

r.l.

Must be given if the non-linear controller
option is chosen for PIDs. The list of
error values (both positive and negative)
is used for finding the correct
proportional, derivative and integral
terms listed in the keys AMPLIFICATION,
DERIVATIVECONST
and
INTEGRALCONST.
If
the
error
measured is between two values in the
list, OLGA interpolates between the
corresponding values in the lists of the
equation terms. If the error measured is
outside the values in the ERROR list,
the nearest corresponding value in each
of the lists of the equation terms is used.

EXTENDED

Sym.

ON
[OFF]

Specify ON to use the EXTENDED
CASCADE controller.

EXTSETPCONTROLLER

Sym.

-

Label of controller used when MODE
equals EXTERNALSETPOINT

EXTSIGNCONTROLLER

Sym.

-

Label of controller used when MODE
equals EXTERNALSIGNAL

GLR

r.l.

GOR

r.l.

(Sm3/Sm3)

[Value
from
PVT-table]

Gas/oil volumetric flow ratio.
Default is value from PVT-table.
GOR and GLR can not be used
together.

HIGHLIMIT

r.l

-

For use with SELECTOR controller:
Values of the HIGHLIMITVARIABLES.

HIGHLIMITVARIABLE

sym.l.

-

For use with SELECTOR controller:
Variables determining the high limits.
The variables are defined in the input
group SETPOINTVARIABLE.

INITIALCONTROLLER

sym.

-

For use with SELECTOR controller:
Controller at start of simulation (must be
either
SUBCONLOW
or
SUBCONHIGH).

INTEGRALCONST

r.l.(s)

[1.e10]

Integrational time constant in controller
equation. If the non-linear option is
chosen for PIDs, the number of
amplification factors and their sequence
must correspond to the error values
listed in the key ERROR.

Gas/liquid volumetric flow ratio.

(Sm3/Sm3)

Chapter 3: Input File Description, CONTROLLER

Key
INTERLOCKHIGH

Type
Unit: ( )

Parameter set
Default: [ ]

sym.

-

Page 181

Description
For use with SELECTOR controller or
override controller: State of interlocking
and resetting the integration term of
SUBCONHIGH:
= ON : The output signals of the nonactive controllers follow the output of the
active controller.
= OFF: Integrate as if the controller was
active.

INTERLOCKLOW

sym.

-

For use with SELECTOR controller:
State of interlocking and resetting the
integration term of SUBCONLOW:
= ON: Locking the integration term.
= OFF: Integrate as if the controller was
active.

LABEL

str.

Controller reference name.

LINE

Sym.

Bundle line label. Required if the
controlled variable is bundle line
temperature TBUN.

LOWLIMIT

r.l

-

For use with SELECTOR controller:
Values of the LOWLIMITVARIABLES.

LOWLIMITVARIABLE

sym.l.

-

For use with SELECTOR controller:
Variables determining the low limits.
The variables are defined in the input
group SETPOINTVARIABLE.

MANUALSETPOINT

r.l.

-

List of output signals used when MODE
is MANUAL (no interpolation). One
element for each MANUAL.

MAXCHANGE

r.

[0.2]

Analogue controller:
Maximum allowed change in controller
output signal from one timestep to the
next. This is a restriction which is used
by the time step control. If the change in
output exceeds this value, OLGA will go
back to the former time point and
integrate with a shorter time step.
Digital controller:
Maximum allowed discrepancy between
sample time point and integration time
point in terms of a fraction of the sample
time interval.
(Example: With sample time = 1.0s and
maxchange
=
0.2,
maximum
discrepancy will be ± 0.2s.)

MAXSETPOINT

r.

Maximum setpoint for secondary
controller in cascade control loop

MAXSIGNAL

r.

Maximum output signal from controller.

Page 182

Chapter 3: Input File Description, CONTROLLER

Key

Type
Unit: ( )

Parameter set
Default: [ ]

Description

MINSETPOINT

r.

Minimum setpoint for secondary
controller in cascade control loop

MINSIGNAL

r.

Minimum output signal from controller.

MODE

sym.l.

[AUTOMATIC]
MANUAL
EXTERNALSIGNAL
EXTERNALSETPOINT
FREEZE

Mode for controller, corresponding to
the time points in MODETIME.
AUTOMATIC: Behaves as specified by
the other subkeys
MANUAL: Manual mode. Output signal
set directly by MANUALSETPOINT. Not
applicable for ESD and PSV.
EXTERNALSIGNAL: Output signal set
equal to the output signal for the
controller
defined
in
EXTSIGNCONTROLLER.
Not
applicable for ESD and PSV.
EXTERNALSETPOINT: Setpoint set
equal to the output signal for the
controller
defined
in
EXTSETPCONTROLLER
FREEZE:
constant

-

The output signal stays

MODETIME

r.l.

MOLWEIGHT

r. (kg/kmol)

The molecular weight of equivalent gas
at reference condition. Used to calculate
gas density at reference conditions. By
default the gas density, at standard
condition from the PVT-table is used to
compute the molweight.

NORMRANGE

r.

For normalised controllers (used
together
with
AMPLIFICATION).
Indicates measuring range for input
variable to controller.

OPENMODE

Sym.l.

ABOVE
BELOW

List of time points where MODE and
MANUALSETPOINT change

For ESD: Switch for specifying when the
close signal occurs. If OPENMODE =
ABOVE, the valve will close when the
signal exceeds the setpoint.
For PSV: Switch for specifying when the
open signal occurs. If OPENMODE =
ABOVE, the valve will open when the
signal exceeds the setpoint.

PIPE

Sym. l.

Pipe(s) where
sampled.

controller

input

is

Chapter 3: Input File Description, CONTROLLER

Key

Type
Unit: ( )

Parameter set
Default: [ ]

Page 183

Description

POSITION

Sym. l.

PRIMARYCONTROL

sym.

REFCONDITION

sym.

RESET

r.l.

For PSV,the valve closes if the input
variable gets below or exceeds the
reset value depending on OPENMODE.
For ESD, the valve opens if the input
variable gets below or exceeds the
reset value depending on OPENMODE.

SAMPLEDT

r. (s)

For use with EXTENDED CASCADE
controller: Logging time interval for the
primary controller variable. NB! Number
of data stored is proportional with
AVERAGETIME/SAMPLEDT.

SAMPLETIME

r.(s)

The digital controller option is selected
by using this key. The digital controller
collects input and generates a
corresponding output at time points
separated by the time interval given by
SAMPLETIME

SECTION

i. l.

SELECTIONMODE

sym.

Section(s)/boundary(ies) (dependent of
variable type) where controller input is
sampled.
An override controller selects either
minimum or maximum of the signals
from all the subcontrollers. Key
SELECTIONMODE
determines
the
selection of minimum or maximum
signal.

STD, [IN-SITU]

[LOW]
HIGH

SETOFVARIABLES

Sym. l.

Position(s) where controller input is
sampled. Refers to a POSITION
keyword label (an alternative to
specifying
BRANCH,
PIPE
and
SECTION), the label of equipment
(source, pump, etc), or a branch
depending on the type of the controlled
variable.
Primary controller label in cascade
control loop. NB! If a controller is used
as a primary controller under a cascade
controller it must be defined before the
cascade controller.
STD means standard conditions (1atm
and 60 °F). Use STD if an equivalent
volume flow at standard conditions is
used as alternative setpoint for total
mass flow setpoint. If STD is used,
standard conditions must be included in
the PVT-table. Separate phase mass
flow rates can only be controlled at INSITU conditions.

Specify controlled variable(s) by
referring to controlled variables defined
by keyword SETPOINTVARIABLE.

Page 184

Chapter 3: Input File Description, CONTROLLER

Key

Type
Unit: ( )

Parameter set
Default: [ ]

Description
Setpoint values. Multiple setpoint values
can only be used for PIDs and manual
controllers. The number of setpoints
must correspond to the number of time
points listed in the TIME-key. For the
PSV, the valve opens if the input
variable exceeds or gets below the
setpoint
value
depending
on
OPENMODE. For the ESD, the valve
closes if the input variable exceeds or
gets below the setpoint value depending
on OPENMODE. If non-default unit is
used, unit should be specified together
with variable. For the EXTENDED
CASCADE controller, EXTENDED=ON,
the initial setpoint of the secondary
controller is given. Note: there is no
interpolation between the setpoint
values (constant setpoint until a new
setpoint is defined).

SETPOINT

r.l.

STROKETIME

r.(s)

[10]

Stroke- or actuator time. Time required
to change valve settings or compressor
speed from minimum to maximum
value.

SUBCONHIGH

sym.

-

For use with SELECTOR controller:
Sub-controller for use from high limit
(determined by HIGHLIMITVARIABLE
and HIGHLIMIT) until low limit is
reached
(determined
by
LOWLIMITVARIABLE and LOWLIMIT).
The sub-controller is defined in a
separate controller definition.

SUBCONLOW

sym.

-

For use with SELECTOR controller:
Sub-controller for use from low limit
(determined by LOWLIMITVARIABLE
and LOWLIMIT) to high limit is reached
(determined by HIGHLIMITVARIABLE
and HIGHLIMIT). The sub-controller is
defined in a separate controller
definition.

SUBCONTROLLER

Sym.l.

Used for DPID's and TPID's. (Only
PID's can be referred to as
subcontrollers. This key refers to
names/labels of controller statements
which describes PID controllers. Used
together with TYPE = OVERRIDE.

TIME

r.l.(s)

Timepoint list for SETPOINT key.

TYPE

Sym.

ANTISURGE
CASCADE
ESD
MANUAL
OVERRIDE
PID
PSV
SELECTOR

Controller type. Explained at start of
section

TYPE If VARIABLE key is used either BRANCH PIPE SECTION or POSITION end Page 185 = 0. (-) Required keys: Parameter set Default: [ ] ADD | SUBTRACT Internal dependencies of keys: If TYPE = ANTISURGE. Water volume fraction in oil/water mixture. if non-default unit is used. l.35 AMP2 = -0. then AMP1 = -1.Chapter 3: Input File Description. See Appendix A for available variable names.0 = [0.0 MAXSIGNAL = 1.35 DERIVATIVECONST = [0. Between the two first listed variables. VARIABLEFUNCTION Sym.0] INTEGRALCONST = [1. LABEL. Including unit. .2] MINSIGNAL = 0.e10] MAXCHANGE = [0.0 BIAS = 0. WATERCUT r.0 =1 =1 =1 = POSITION-1 end if STROKETIME = 10 [s] else if TYPE = CASCADE.0] = [∞] For use when more than one variable are specified. the first operator will be used.0 either VARIABLE = QG or SETOFVARIABLES = GASFLOW end NORMRANGE = 1. CONTROLLER Key Type Unit: ( ) VARIABLE Sym. The variables must be of same type. l. The values of the variables will be added or subtracted depending on the operation. then ERROR DERIVATIVECONST INTEGRALCONST Description Input variable(s) to controller. Note that number of operations in VARIABLEFUNCTION must be 1 less than number of items in VARIABLES or SETOFVARIABLES. The second operator will be used between the result of the first operation and the third variable.l.

0 MINSETPOINT = 0. CONTROLLER AMPLIFICATION| = -0.25 COMBINEVARIABLES = ON | [OFF] if (COMBINEVARIABLES=OFF) either VARIABLE = GLT REFCONDITION = [IN-SITU] | STD or SETOFVARIABLES = GASFLOW end if (VARIABLE key is used) either BRANCH PIPE SECTION = BRANCH-1 = PIPE-1 =1 or POSITION = POSITION-1 end else if (COMBINEVARIABLES=ON) either VARIABLE = (GLT. GASFL2.0 MAXCHANGE = [0. 4. GLT) REFCONDITION = [IN-SITU] | STD or SETOFVARIABLES = (GASFL1. EXTENDED = ON | [OFF] if (EXTENDED=OFF) MAXSETPOINT = 10.0 else (EXTENDED=ON) SETPOINT = 5. PI-7. POS-3. end if NORMRANGE = 1. BR-3.0 [s] SAMPLEDT = 1. 8.2] MAXSIGNAL = 1.5E-03 MINSIGNAL = 0.0 BIAS = 0. PI-4.SUBTRACT.0 AVERAGETIME = 100.0 [s] CONSSWITCH = 1. POS-2.0E5 CONSTONE = 0. GLT.ADD) ! In this case 4 variables must be specified. GASFL3. BR-5. BR-2 PIPE = PI-2. then SAMPLETIME = 10 [s] .0 PRIMARYCONTROL = LEVEL-1 ! LEVEL-1 must be specified before specifying the cascade controller.Page 186 Chapter 3: Input File Description.0E-6 [1/s] end if if it's a digital controller. POS-4) end end if VARIABLEFUNCTION = (ADD. GASFL4) end if (VARIABLE key is used) either BRANCH = BR-1. GLT. PI-5 SECTION = 1. 3 or POSITION = (POS-1.5E-6 [1/s] CONSTTWO = 1.

100) [s] = (0. then OPENMODE either VARIABLE = ABOVE = PT bar REFCONDITION = [IN-SITU] | STD SETPOINT = 30.33 [s] else if TYPE = OVERRIDE. CONTROLLER Page 187 end if STROKETIME = 15.03. 0.25 COMBINEVARIABLES = ON | [OFF] if (COMBINEVARIABLES=OFF) either VARIABLE = GG REFCONDITION = [IN-SITU] | STD or SETOFVARIABLES = GASFLOW end if (VARIABLE key is used) either BRANCH PIPE SECTION = BRANCH-1 = PIPE-1 =1 or POSITION end else if (COMBINEVARIABLES=ON) either = POSITION-1 .Chapter 3: Input File Description.0 [s] else if TYPE = ESD.0 else if TYPE = MANUAL.5E-03 MINSIGNAL = 0.0 If (key VARIABLE is used ) either BRANCH =1 PIPE =1 SECTION =1 or POSITION = POSITION-1 end if STROKETIME = 60 [s] RESET = 30.2] MAXSIGNAL = 1.1) = 33.0 MAXCHANGE = [0. then TIME SETPOINT STROKETIME = (0.0 BIAS = 0.0 DERIVATIVECONST = [0. FC-1) = 10 [s] =[LOW] | HIGH ERROR = 0.0.0 = (LC-1. then = 28. then RESET SUBCONTROLLER STROKETIME SELECTIONMODE else if TYPE = PID.0] INTEGRALCONST = [∞] AMPLIFICATION| = -0.

then SAMPLETIME = 10 [s] end if STROKETIME = 15.0 [s] elseif TYPE = PSV. 3 or POSITION = (POS-1. POS-2. GASFL4) end if (VARIABLE key is used) either BRANCH = BR-1.0 = 0. CONTROLLER VARIABLE REFCONDITION = (GLT. end if NORMRANGE TIME SETPOINT = 1.0 if it's a digital controller. BR-2 PIPE = PI-2.0 = 28. POS-4) end end if VARIABLEFUNCTION = (ADD. 4. PI-7. GASFL3. BR-3. 8.0 = 44. POS-3.Page 188 Chapter 3: Input File Description.0 [s] elseif TYPE = SELECTOR . GLT. PI-5 SECTION = 1. then SUBCONLOW = S_CON_L SUBCONHIGH = S_CON_H .ADD) !In this case 4 !variables must be !specified. PI-4. GASFL2. GLT) = [IN-SITU] | STD or SETOFVARIABLES = (GASFL1.SUBTRACT. then OPENMODE = ABOVE either VARIABLE REFCONDITION = PT bar = [IN-SITU] | or SETOFVARIABLES = GASFLOW end SETPOINT RESET = 30. BR-5.0 If (key VARIABLE is used) then either BRANCH =1 PIPE =1 SECTION =1 or POSITION = POSITION-1 end end if if it's a digital controller. GLT. then SAMPLETIME = 10 [s] end if STROKETIME = 10.

VARIABLE = QG.3.. INTEGRALCONST = 0. then either GOR = 200 [Sm3/Sm3] GLR = 200 [Sm3/Sm3] or ! Default value is computed from PVTtable end WATERCUT = [0. endif endif if MODE = MANUAL ! This is not a valid option for TYPE = PSV or ESD MANUALSETPOINT = 0.Chapter 3: Input File Description. CONTROLLER Page 189 INITIALCONTROLLER = SUBCONHIGH or SUBCONLOW LOWLIMITVARIABLE = (LOW_LIQLV.9 INTERLOCKLOW = ON INTERLOCKHIGH = ON end if if (VARIABLE = 'any mass flow variable (no unit)' and REFCONDITION = STD and controller type is not SELECTOR controller). POSITION = ESD_POS. TYPE = ESD. \ SETPOINT = 30. BIAS = 0. 20) HIGHLIMIT = 0. TYPE = ANTISURGE. \ .1E+02 ESD : !************************************************************************** ! Controller Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! CONTROLLER LABEL = ESD-1. LOW_GLT) HIGHLIMITVARIABLE = HIGH_GLT LOWLIMIT = (0. STROKETIME = 0.0. DERIVATIVECONST = 0.35.0 CASCADE : !*************************************************************************** ! Controller Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! CONTROLLER LABEL = LC-1.\ AMP2 = -0. AMP1 = -1.\ BRANCH = 2. STROKETIME = 10. OPENMODE = ABOVE. PIPE = 1.35.12E+03. then MOLWEIGHT = 25 ! If not given gas density from PVT table is used.5 else if MODE = EXTERNALSIGNAL EXTSIGNCONTROLLER = CONTROLLER-1 ! Refers to a controller of any TYPE else if MODE = EXTERNALSETPOINT EXTSETPCONTROLLER = CONTROLLER-2 ! Refers to a controller of any TYPE end if Examples: ANTISURGE: !************************************************************************** ! Controller Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! CONTROLLER LABEL = C-201. SECTION = 4.0] if (wet gas flow).\ MINSIGNAL = 0. MAXSIGNAL = 1. TYPE = PID. \ VARIABLE = PT bara.

BIAS = 0.02. MAXSIG = 1.5E-03. MAXSIG = 1..\ MAXSIGNAL = 1. TIME = 0. \ PIPE=PIPE-2. \ MINSIG = 0. SECTION=4. STROKETIME = 10.3E-01. SETPOINT = 44.0. REFCONDITION = IN-SITU !--------------------------------------------------------------------------CONTROLLER LABEL = C-401.\ SETPOINT = 0. CONTROLLER AMPLI = 1. STROKETIME = 33. AMPLIFICATION = -0.\ INTEGRALCONST = 0. MINSIGNAL = 0. BRANCH = 1. TYPE = OVERRIDE. \ VAR = BE.\ STROKETIME = 15. \ MAXSETPOINT = 51. \ TIME = 0. TYPE = CASCADE. BIAS = 0. TYPE = PID. \ MINSIG = 0. POSITION = IN-SEP. CONSTONE = 1E-9 . POSITION = SEP-1. INTEGRAL = 10.0..BRANCH=BRANCH-1. MAXSIG = 1. POSITION = SEP-1.40676. BIAS = 0.0. \ AMPLI = -0. \ AMPLI = -0. TYPE = PID. \ AMPLI = 1. \ VAR = GNODHL.1E+02.\ PRIMARYCONTROL = LC-1 !--------------------------------------------------------------------------CONTROLLER LABEL = FC-2. MINSIGNAL = 0. POSITION = SEP-1. \ VAR = BE.25. \ TIME = 0. CONSTTWO = 1E-8.33 CONTROLLER LABEL = C-503. TYPE = MANUAL.21 !--------------------------------------------------------------------------CONTROLLER LABEL = FC-1. DERIVATIVECONST = 0.0.0. BIAS = 0. !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! The input variable to the controller C-402 is the sum of VARPOS-1 AND VARPOS-2 CONTROLLER LABEL = C-402. INTEGRAL = 10. INTEGRAL = 10.7 !--------------------------------------------------------------------------CONTROLLER LABEL = DRAIN.3E-01. SETPOINT = 0. \ EXTENDED = ON. MAXSIG = 1. MAXSIG = 1.0. TYPE = PID.3918. INTEGRAL = 1. BIAS = 0. SETPOINT = 50. \ TIME = 0. BIAS = 0.Page 190 Chapter 3: Input File Description. BIAS = 0. TIME = 0. AVERAGETIME = 100 s.5E-03. \ VAR = GNODHL. \ MINSIG = 0. SECTION=11. POSITION = IN-SEP..0.\ PIPE = 2. \ SETOFVARIABLES = (VARPOS-1. INTEGRAL = 1..3918. MINSETPOINT = 0.\ INTEGRALCONST = 0. \ SUBCONTROLLER = (LC-1.0.02.BRANCH=BRANCH-3. TIME = 0. \ CONSTSWITCH = 1E5. \ MINSIG = 0.0.\ SETPOINT = 0. SECTION = 11. DERIVATIVECONST = 0. PSV: . TIME = 0.VARIABLE=PT. COMBINEVARIABLES=ON. AMPLIFICATION = -0. \ PRIMARYCONTROL = LC-1. \ VAR = GNODHL.\ MAXSIGNAL = 1. STROKETIME = 15.0. SETPOINT = 0.02.E10.0.40676. TYPE = CASCADE.33 OVERRIDE : !**************************************************************************** ! Controller Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! CONTROLLER LABEL = LC-1.E10.0 MANUAL : !**************************************************************************** ! Controller Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! CONTROLLER LABEL = C-502. STROKETIME = 33. REFCONDITION = IN-SITU SETPOINTVARIABLE LABEL=VARPOS-2. PID: !*************************************************************************** ! Controller Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! SETPOINTVARIABLE LABEL=VARPOS-1.21 !--------------------------------------------------------------------------CONTROLLER LABEL = FC-1. FC-1). SAMPLEDT = 1 s. \ AMPLI = -0.0. VARIABLE = GG. TYPE = PID.25. TYPE = MANUAL.\ VARIABLEFUNCTION=ADD. VARPOS-2).VARIABLE=PT. \ SETPOINT = 25. \ MINSIG = 0. SETPOINT = 44. \ PIPE=PIPE-5.1E+02.

MAXSIGNAL=1 .7).200. \ INTERLOCKLOW = ON. SETPOINT=(1. \ MODE=(AUTOMATIC.8. ! CONTROLLER LABEL = CON_LIQ.05. ! CONTROLLER LABEL = S_CON_H.2 and 0. BIAS=0. ! Initially CONTROLLER-2 behaves as a PID controller defined by ! SETPOINT etc. BRANCH = BRANCH_1. At 800 s the setpoint is set equal to the output ! signal for CONTROLLER-3.\ INTEGRALCONST = 10. ! The slow (normal) controller takes over again when the level drops below ! 2. VARIABLE = LIQLV.\ MAXSIGNAL = 1. At 600 and ! 700 s the output signal is set manually to 0. CONTROLLER Page 191 !**************************************************************************** ! Controllers Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! CONTROLLER LABEL = PSV-1. meaning that the controller again behaves ! like a PID.0 m. \ TYPE=PID.\ MAXSIGNAL = 1. POSITION = SEPARATOR.\ TIME = 0. !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! CONTROLLER LABEL=CONTROLLER-1. \ LOWLIMITVARIABLE = (LOW_LIQLV).800).3). MANUAL.500) CONTROLLER LABEL=CONTROLLER-3. SETPOINT=(0. \ PIPE = PIPE_BEFORE_SEP. HIGH_GLT). TYPE = PID. MINSIGNAL = 0.0. SETPOINT=5. but ignores the original SETPOINT.\ INTEGRALCONST = 30.0. BIAS = 0.2. EXTSETPCONTROLLER=CONTROLLER-3 .3 defined in ! MANUALSETPOINT. POSITION = SEPARATOR SETPOINTVARIABLE LABEL = HIGH_LIQLV. AMPLIFICATION=-0. TYPE = SELECTOR.FREEZE. MINSIGNAL = 0. 40). SETPOINT = 1.\ STROKETIME = 30.7 m. EXTERNALSIGNAL. VARIABLE=GT. BIAS = 0. meaning that the ! output signal is set equal to the output signal for CONTROLLER-1 ! (defined in EXTSIGNCONTROLLER). ! A fast controller takes over if the liquid height ! increases above 2.2. SETPOINT = 30. AMPLIFICATION = 5.600. MINSIGNAL=0 . \ RESET = 28. VARIABLE = LIQLV.7.45. meaning ! that the calculated output signal at 200 s is kept constant. VARIABLE = GLT. INTERLOCKHIGH = ON MODE: !**************************************************************************** ! The example below shows the use of MODE and the associated subkeys. SUBCONLOW = S_CON_L. HIGHLIMIT = (2. 0. that is. TIME=(0. SETPOINT = 1. The controllers ! are defined for operation of a separator with a height of 4 m. DERIVATIVECONST = 0. VARIABLE = LIQLV. STROKETIME = 5. At 200 s the mode is switched to FREEZE.0 s SELECTOR : !**************************************************************************** ! Controllers Definition for SELECTOR controller: ! ! The example below is the one described in Chapter 2.0).\ STROKETIME = 5. VARIABLE = PT bara \ POSITION = PSV_POS. It is ! desirable to keep the liquid level as close as possible to 1.0. or if the liquid flow rate just upstream of the ! separator becomes above 40 kg/s (indicating that a slug is coming).0. SECTION = SECT_BEFORE_SEP ! CONTROLLER LABEL = S_CON_L. AMPLIFICATION = 1.\ TIME = 0.1. EXTERNALSETPOINT).1200) CONTROLLER LABEL=CONTROLLER-2.400.8.Chapter 3: Input File Description.8 m. TYPE=MANUAL.700. TYPE = PSV. \ POSITION=CONTROL. \ INTEGRALCONST=100 s. ! At 400 s the mode is set to EXTERNALSIGNAL. TYPE = PID. \ MANUALSETPOINT=(0.3). MODETIME=(0. !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! SETPOINTVARIABLE LABEL = LOW_LIQLV.3. POSITION = SEPARATOR SETPOINTVARIABLE LABEL = HIGH_GLT. EXTSIGNCONTROLLER=CONTROLLER-1. \ LOWLIMIT = (2. POSITION = SEPARATOR.45.2 and 0. TYPE=MANUAL.0. ! ! The sub-controllers referred to (SUBCONLOW and SUBCONHIGH) must be defined ! before the SELECTOR controller in separate controller definitions. TIME=0 s. The controller (CON_LIQ) controls the separator liquid drain valve. DERIVATIVECONST = 0. INITIALCONTROLLER = SUBCONLOW. \ SUBCONHIGH = S_CON_H. VARIABLE = LIQLV. ! The low and high limit variables referred to (LOWLIMITVARIABLE and ! HIGHLIMITVARIABLE) must be defined before the SELECTOR controller in the ! separate main input group SETPOINTVARIABLE.\ HIGHLIMITVARIABLE = (HIGH_LIQLV.MANUAL. TIME=(0.

[0. CO2FRACTION r. INHIBITOREFFICIENCY = 100 % means no corrosion. Only used if the MEG-tracking function is not used. IONICSTRENGTH r. PTMAX must be set equal to the pressure in the pipeline where gas is formed (bubble point pressure). That is. CORROSION 3. . The corrosion module cannot be applied together with the wax deposition module. the output variable PCO2 can be read and PCO2MAX can be set to the PCO2 value in the section where gas is formed.15 CORROSION This group is used to define corrosion module input parameters. The effect of glycol and an additional inhibitor (through INHIBITOREFFICIENCY) is treated differently depending on the model used. WATEROPTIONS Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set (Default:[ ]) Description BICARBONATE r.0] Total ionic strength in Molar. GLYCOLFRACTION r. [0. M (= mol/l). Mole percentage of CO2 in gas phase (ratio of CO2 partial pressure to total pressure in %) for all branches listed in the current keyword. the glycol fraction is calculated by the code. Keyword: CORROSION Dependencies: BRANCH. if a simulation shows single phase liquid flow.l.0] Glycol concentration in weight % in glycol/water mixture for all branches listed in the current keyword. If the corrosion rate in single phase liquid flow is to be calculated correctly. a new simulation should be performed with the correct PTMAX set to the pressure in the section where gas is formed. [All branches] Branches where corrosion rates are to be calculated. [0. OPTIONS. If MEG-tracking is used. the larger of the two resulting reduction factors is used while for the de Waard models the product of the two factors is used. M ( = mol/l). for all branches listed in the current keyword BRANCH sym. [0. For the NORSOK model.Page 192 Chapter 3: Input File Description. for all branches listed in the current keyword. Requires access to the corrosion module. INHIBITOREFFICIENCY r. Alternatively.0] Inhibitor (not glycol) efficiency in % for all branches listed in the current keyword.0] Bicarbonate (HCO3-) in water concentration in Molar.3.

water wetting is detected by the corrosion module regardless of the water cut set as the wetting limit. 2 for further information. WCWET r. See the corrosion module description in ch. MODEL1 MODEL2 MODEL3 [ALL] Activates the specified model for the specified branches in the current keyword. from which the CO2 partial pressure for single phase liquid flow will be calculated for all branches listed in the current keyword. pH is calculated for condensed water saturated with iron carbonate for all branches listed in the current keyword.Chapter 3: Input File Description. If the liquid film watercut is higher than this value. Must be given as watercut in %. It has no influence on the flow conditions.1 [mol/l] endif else if PHSAT = ON then BICARBONATE = [0. Required keys: Description CO2FRACTION Internal dependencies of keys: if MODEL1 or MODEL3 then CO2FRACTION = 6 [mol%] WCWET = [30] [%] if PHSAT = [OFF] then BICARBONATE = 0. PTMAX r. Generic names are used. the following models are available from Scandpower Petroleum Technology: MODEL1: NORSOK MODEL2: Top of Line corrosion model MODEL3: de Waard 95 PCO2MAX r. [30.0 is allowed . [1E6] Maximum CO2 partial pressure in single phase liquid flow for all branches listed in the current keyword. Currently.1 [mol/l] endif ! deWaard 95 or NORSOK model ! Only 0.0] Water droplet wall wetting limit for all branches listed in the current keyword.l. even if no continuous water film is present. as the modular program design allows the current corrosion models to be replaced without changing the main program.1 [mol/l] IONICSTRENGTH = 0. ON/[OFF] If turned ON. It is only used in the corrosion module to detect if water droplets are wetting the wall. CORROSION Key Page 193 Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set (Default:[ ]) MODEL sym. the water droplets will wet the wall. If a continuous water film is predicted by the flow model. - Bubble point pressure.0] [mol/l] IONICSTRENGTH = 0. PHSAT sym.

ULWT. HOLWT) PROFILE VARIABLE = (HOLHL. INHIBITOREFFICIENCY = 90.PH3) PROFILE VARIABLE = (PCO2.USLHL.ROWT. MODEL3). BRANCH = BRANCH_1. \ CO2FRACTION = 5. PROFILE TIME = (1000).Page 194 if COMPOSITIONAL = OFF GLYCOLFRACTION = 70 [%] endif INHIBITOREFFICIENCY = 70 [%] PCO2MAX = [1e6] [Pa] or PTMAX = [1. GLYCOLFRACTION = 50.CORR2.USLWT. \ PHSAT = ON.CORR1.CORRW1.WCWALL) .ID. WCWET = 30. . .e7] [Pa] endif I If MODEL2 then CO2FRACTION = 6 [mol%] endif Chapter 3: Input File Description.ULHL.CORR3. HOL.ROHL.0. CORROSION ! MEG-tracking off ! Used if no free gas is present ! Top of Line model Example: ! CORROSION MODEL = (MODEL1.0 ! . VARIABLE = (PT.CORRW3.PH2.PH1.USL. TM. MODEL2.

SOILCOLUMN. For specified cell groups in a defined SOIL specification. The SOILCOLUMN and SOILROW keys specifies a rectangular area in the soil group that is modified.Chapter 3: Input File Description. SEA sym. SOIL. SOILROW Internal dependencies of keys: Either MATERIAL = ROCKDUMP SEA = ON | OFF or end . SOIL sym. COVER Page 195 3. Requires access to the soil module. Keyword: COVER Dependencies: GRID. SOIL. - List of cell rows that are modified (vertical range) Required keys: Name of new material for the specified cells. SOILCOLUMN i. MATERIAL Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set (Default:[]) Description MATERIAL sym. ON | [OFF] The cells are considered to contain sea water at ambient conditions.16 COVER This group is used to define trenched and covered soils groups. either a new material can be specified or the cells can be declared as belonging to the sea. - Name of soil group that is modified. - List of cell columns that are modified (horizontal range) SOILROW i.l.3.l.

55 ! !*************************************************************************** ! SOIL Definition !*************************************************************************** ! SOIL LABEL = TRENCH.9.. SOILCOLUMN = (4-6). 2.5.25. SOILROW = 1 COVER SOIL = TRENCH.1. XGRID = ( 0. PIPEYCOORD = 0. MATERIAL = SOIL ! !*************************************************************************** ! COVER Definition !*************************************************************************** ! ! The sides of the rockdump cover ! COVER SOIL = TRENCH.2.6. GRID = G-TRCH.457E-04. 1. .8. 1. DIAM = 0.\ PIPEXCOORD = 0. SEA = ON. MAT = ROCKD.8. .3.4.). SOILCOLUMN = 1-2.4. COVER Example: Example 1: ! !*************************************************************************** ! MATERIAL Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! MATERIAL LABEL = SOIL. NS = 5.)...5. SOILCOLUMN = 1-3. . ELEV = -. SOIL = TRENCH PIPE LAB = P-2. SOILCOLUMN = (5-6). CAPACITY = 1162 MATERIAL LABEL = ROCKD.2. .3. . NS = 3. . . SOILROW = 2-3 ! !*************************************************************************** ! PIPE Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! GEOMETRY LABEL = GEOM-1 ! PIPE LAB = P-1. . SOIL = NONE . .6. . SEA = ON. ELEV = 0. CONDUCT = 2. CONDUCT = 1. \ YGRID = ( 0... \ ROUG = 0..Page 196 Chapter 3: Input File Description. WALL = STEELWALL.LEN = 200. . CAPACITY = 1162 ! !*************************************************************************** ! GRID Definition !*************************************************************************** ! !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! 1000 mm crossover to top of pipe with some below pipe: Trenched pipe !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! GRID LABEL = G-TRCH. DENSITY = 1800. 1. SOILROW = 1 COVER SOIL = TRENCH. SOILROW = 2 ! ! Rockdump cover and trench ! COVER SOIL = TRENCH. DENSITY = 1800.55. MAT = ROCKD..2727.LEN = 100. 2. .

MAXHEATINPUT r. TOLINE sym - Line that receives the fluid TOPOSITION sym. The user must verify that the fluid specifications for the different lines are consistent if for example a line receives fluid from more that one crossover. If zero MASSFLOW is given the lines are just connected. HEATLIMIT r. CROSSOVER Page 197 3. MINHEATINPUT r. - Name of the crossover MASSFLOW r. The fluid is taken from a line outlet and enters at a line inlet.Chapter 3: Input File Description. Crossovers can be specified between lines in the same bundle or in different bundle groups. (W) - Maximum power input. (kg/s) [0] Mass flow added to flow (TOLINE) in a crossover. - Label of the controller regulating the power input to the crossover. - Position which the fluid is taken from. Default given by key MASSFLOW. MAXFLOWRATE r. LABEL str. For bundles with more than one OLGA-line. (W) - Minimum power input. Crossovers including OLGA-lines are impossible.17 CROSSOVER This group defines a crossover of fluid from one bundle line to another. The boundary temperature for the receiving line sets the maximum inlet temperature and the added heat may be limited by this. HEATCONTROLLER sym. FROMPOSITION and TOPOSITION must always refer to the OLGA branch given first in the list of OLGA branches in the BUNDLE keyword. POSITION Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description FLOWCONTROLLER sym. - FRACTION r.3. This statement requires access to the bundle module. Label of the controller regulating the crossover flow rate. - Position which receives the fluid. - Line that the fluid is taken from FROMPOSITION sym. (kg/s) [0] Minimum mass default: zero. (kg/s) - Maximum mass flow rate. (W) [0] The crossed fluid is heated with this amount of heat. Keyword: CROSSOVER Dependencies: LINE.(-) FROMLINE sym. Fraction of the flow in the line the flow is taken from flow rate in line allowed . MINFLOWRATE r. CONTROLLER.

Page 198 Chapter 3: Input File Description. CROSSOVER Required keys: FROMLINE. then FLOWCONTROLLER MINFLOWRATE MAXFLOWRATE = FLOW = [0] = 300 kg/s MASSFLOW = [0] kg/s FRACTION = 0.. . . TOPOSITION Internal dependencies of keys: If (controlled power input).\ FROMPOSITION = ANN_OUT. TOPOSITION = WAT1_OUT ! !*************************************************************************** . FROMPOSITION. . Example 2: !*************************************************************************** ! CROSSOVER definition for connection to water injection lines !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! CROSSOVER FROMLINE= WATERLINE1. TOPOSITION = RET_IN. TOLINE = RETURNLINE. TOLINE. HEATLIMIT = 100. TOLINE = ANNULARLINE. .E5 kW HEATLIMIT = [0] W else endif if (controlled flow rate). KW !*************************************************************************** .\ MASSFLOW = 120.\ MASSFLOW = 120. TOPOSITION = RET_IN.1 else or endif Example: Example 1: !*************************************************************************** ! CROSSOVER definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! CROSSOVER FROMLINE = ANNULARLINE.\ FROMPOSTION = WAT2_INLET. then HEATCONTROLLER MINHEATINPUT MAXHEATINPUT = HEAT =0 = 60. TOLINE = WATERLINE2.\ FROMPOSITION = ANN_OUT. . ! CROSSOVER FROMLINE = RETURNLINE.

Please note that the outer boundary of the grid should be defined with the SHAPE keyword. but one should not place a shape within a LINE.18 CROSSSECTION This keyword stores all information that is required to configure a pipe cross section. CROSSSECTION Page 199 3.Chapter 3: Input File Description.3. The quality of the grid is not very sensitive on the MESHFINENESS as the value of this parameters is being rounded off to multiples of 32. BRANCH or BUNDLE. Here one should define the start and end pipe between which the same crosssection applies. The higher the MESHFINENESS the finer the mesh. For every CROSSSECTION a finite element triangle mesh is generated. . If two boundaries overlap the grid generator will fail to generate a grid and an error message will be displayed. Typical values for this key is between 128 and 640. The fineness of the mesh is set by the MESHFINENESS sub key. The possible objects to be placed within a CROSSSECTION are the following: • • • • SHAPE LINE BUNDLE BRANCH Please ensure that the outer boundaries of these objects do not overlap. The value of this key denotes the number of nodes on the SHAPE with the largest circumference excluding the SHAPEs of polygon type (polygon shapes have a fixed number of nodes). It is possible to place any of the four objects above within a SHAPE. In the CROSSSECTION below the MESHFINENESS is equal to 128.

(s) - Time step for thermal calculations DTPLOT r. The name of file will be in this format: <inpufilename>-<crosssection-label>. - BUNDLEXOFFSETS r. In addition there will be generated a file for each bundle in a crosssection that stores the bundle geometry. LINE. LABEL Str.l.l.bun. and can be viewed in FEMThermTool. Last section or first section (when the positive direction of GEOMETRY is opposite of CROSSSECTION) of the corresponding pipe in ENDPIPES.l. BUNDLE.l.l.cut. [Last or section] Name label of the pipe at the end position for each of the branches inside the CROSSSECTION. A file that stores the cross section geometry required to generate a grid.cut.(m) - Name labels of the lines that reside inside the cross-section Placement of geometric x-centers of lines relative to the center of the largest SHAPE Placement of geometric y-centers of branches relative to the center of the largest SHAPE Name labels of the bundles that reside inside the cross-section Placement of geometric x-centers of bundles relative to the center of the largest SHAPE Placement of geometric y-centers of bundles relative to the center of the largest SHAPE first . - LINEXOFFSETS r.(m) - Name labels of the branches that reside inside the cross-section Placement of geometric x-centers of branches relative to the center of the largest SHAPE BRANCHYCENTERS r.l.(m) - BUNDLEYOFFSETS r.Page 200 Chapter 3: Input File Description. Keyword: CROSSSECTION Dependencies: SHAPE. - Name of the CROSSSECTION. LINES sym. A file that stores the 2D temperature. 3. BRANCH Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description BRANCHES sym. - BRANCHXCENTERS r. and can be viewed in FEMThermTool.l. and can be viewed in FEMTherm Viewer. The name of file will be in this format: <inpufilename>-<bundle-label>. (s) - Time step for saving thermal data ENDPIPES sym. CROSSSECTION At least two extra result files for each CROSSECTION are generated when a simulation is performed: 1.(m) - BUNDLES sym. - ENDSECTIONS i.l.(m) - DELTAT r. End sections. The name of file will be in this format: <inpufilename>-<crosssection-label>. 2.l.osi.l.

0) [m] end if if there is one or more lines within the cross-section LINES = (HEATING) LINEXOFFSETS = (0.0) [m] end if if there is one or more branches within the cross-section BRANCHES = (BRAN_1) . Rounded to nearest multiple of 32. DTPLOT.0) [m] BUNDLEYOFFSETS = (0.Chapter 3: Input File Description. - Name labels of the shapes that reside inside the cross-section. CROSSSECTION Key Page 201 Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description LINEYOFFSETS r. MESHFINENESS.l. SHAPES = CIRCLE_1.(m) - Placement of geometric x-centers of shapes relative to the center of the largest SHAPE SHAPEYOFFSETS r. BRANCHES.l.l. The higher the number the finer the mesh. SHAPES sym. SHAPEYOFFSETS Internal dependencies of keys: if there is one or more shapes within the cross-section.(m) - Placement of geometric y-centers of shapes relative to the center of the largest SHAPE STARTPIPES sym.0) [m] LINEYOFFSETS = (0. The SHAPE with the largest circumference is automatically the outer surface of CROSSSECTION SHAPEXOFFSETS r. last Required keys: LABEL. [32] The number of nodes on the largest SHAPE in the CROSSSECTION excluding polygon SHAPES.l.0. - STARTSECTIONS i. [First or section] Name label of the pipe at the start position for each of the branches inside the CROSSSECTION. SHAPEXOFFSETS. CIRCLE_2 SHAPEXOFFSETS = (-0.l.l.(m) - Placement of geometric y-centers of lines relative to the center of the largest SHAPE MESHFINENESS i.+0.2) [m] SHAPEYOFFSETS = (0. BRANCHYCENTERS. Start sections.2. BRANCHXCENTERS. SHAPES. DELTAT.0. First section or last section (when the positive direction of GEOMETRY is opposite of CROSSSECTION) of the corresponding pipe in STARTPIPES.3) [m] end if if there is one or more bundles within the cross-section BUNDLES = (B_1) BUNDLEXOFFSETS = (0.

00.8e-005 m.00) m !******************************************************************* !CROSSSECTION Definition !------------------------------------------------------------------CROSSSECTION LABEL = (SECTION42). ELEVATION = 300 m.\ BRANCHES = BRAN-1.\ RADIUS = 0.4) [m] = (0. GEOMETRY = GEOM-1.1 m.\ BRANCHYCENTERS = (0.00) m.80 m !******************************************************************* !LINE Definition !------------------------------------------------------------------LINE LABEL = METHANOL. \ SHAPEXOFFSETS = (0.74 cm. \ BRANCHXCENTERS = (0.00) m.\ WALL = METHANOLPIPE !******************************************************************* !BUNDLE Definition !------------------------------------------------------------------BUNDLE LABEL = HEATING. NSEGMENTS = 4.00) m.\ FROM= INLET.00) m.00) m.\ LINEYCENTERS = (0.Page 202 Chapter 3: Input File Description.\ LINEXCENTERS = (0.\ BRANCHYCENTERS = (0.00) m.\ DELTAT = (100). \ ENDPIPES = (PIPE-4). CROSSSECTION BRANCHXCENTERS BRANCHYCENTERS = (-0.\ DTPLOT = (100) . FLOAT = ON. \ LINEXOFFSETS = (-0. \ BUNDLEXOFFSETS = (0. TO = OUTLET !******************************************************************* !SHAPE Definition !------------------------------------------------------------------SHAPE LABEL = CIRCLE1.\ MESHFINENESS = (128).\ LINEYOFFSETS = (0.00.\ SHAPES = CIRCLE1).\ LENGTH = 300 m.\ BUNDLES = (HEATING).0) [m] end if Example: !******************************************************************* !GEOMETRY Definition !------------------------------------------------------------------GEOMETRY LABEL=GEOM-1 PIPE LABEL = PIPE-4.65) m.\ LINES = (METHANOL).\ FLUIDMATERIAL = METHANOLFLUID. FLUID = "1".0.\ TYPE = CIRCLE. ROUGHNESS = 2.00) m.\ BRANCHXCENTERS = (0.\ BRANCHES = (BRAN-1).\ WALL = WALL-3 !******************************************************************* !BRANCH Definition !------------------------------------------------------------------BRANCH LABEL = BRAN-1.00) m.\ LINES =(CARRIERLINE. DIAMETER = 0.\ STARTPIPES = (PIPE-4).0.65) m.RETURNLINE).\ BUNDLEYOFFSETS = (0.30) m.\ MATERIAL = MATER-2.\ RADIUS = 3.\ STARTPIPES = PIPE-4.\ ENDPIPES = PIPE-4. \ SHAPEYOFFSETS = (0.

density (at standard conditions) MAXVISCOSITY r. The syntax of the pvt table file when it contains the rheology parameters is given in chapter 4. They are treated as extra fluids and are tracked through the pipeline. DRILLINGFLUID Page 203 3. - Type of drilling fluid. The following types are allowed: WATERMUD. 2.1. For water-based mud.23 (FLUID). viscosity (at standard conditions) . (kg/m3) - Max. The density and viscosity used at the inlet is given in SOURCE or BOUNDARY. l. the power law exponent or yield stress is read when the heading contains the strings "POWEXPW" or "YIELDSTRW" respectively. - Name of definition. The non-Newtonian models Bingham and Power law are used to modify the viscosity of the drilling fluid as for the complex viscosity option.3.19 DRILLINGFLUID This statement enable the use of drilling fluids. viscosity (at standard conditions) MINVISCOSITY r. Get the fluid properties for the drilling fluid from a separate fluid property file. (Ns/m2) - Max. (Ns/m2) - Min. the power law exponent or yield stress is read when the heading contains the strings "POWEXPL" or "YIELDSTRL" respectively.3.Chapter 3: Input File Description. - Fluid label or number of the fluid property table used for the drilling fluid TYPE sym. This main keyword requires access to the Advanced Well module. Keyword: DRILLINGFLUID Dependencies: OPTION Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description LABEL str. The fluid properties of a drilling fluid can be given in two different ways: 1. FLUIDTABLE sym. For oil-based mud. The fluid property file must then have an appropriate string in the header of the file: string "GASMUD" if gas phase is used as drilling fluid string "OILMUD” if oil phase is used as drilling fluid string "WATERMUD" if water phase is used as drilling fluid Non-Newtonian rheology is applied if the pvt table contains the rheology parameters yield stress or power law exponent. A combination of 1) and 2) can not be used in the same case. or GASMUD MAXDENSITY r. see the chapter 3. OILMUD. Define the range of density and viscosity at standard conditions for a drilling fluid. (kg/m3) - Min. density (at standard conditions) MINDENSITY r.1. They do not replace any of the phases.1.

TYPE = OILMUD.Page 204 Chapter 3: Input File Description. MINVIS = 1 CP . MAXDEN = 2200. !*************************************************************************** ! DRILLINGFLUID Definition !*************************************************************************** DRILLINGFLUID LABEL = OIL. . then FLUIDTABLE = “2” else MAXDENSITY = 2200 [kg/m3] MINDENSITY = 900 [kg/m3] MAXVISCOSITY = 10 [Ns/m2] MINVISCOSITY = 1 [Ns/m2] end Examples: Example 1. DRILLINGFLUID Required keys: LABEL. Example 2: !*************************************************************************** ! DRILLINGFLUID Definition !*************************************************************************** DRILLINGFLUID LABEL = OIL. . TYPE Internal dependencies of keys: If drillingfluid properties are given in a separate file. . MINDEN = 900. \ MAXVIS = 10 CP. . FLUIDTABLE= “2” . TYPE = OILMUD. .

PRESSURE sym. Required keys: CFL. The limit of the time step due to accuracy in pressure integration is set "OFF" by default.20 DTCONTROL This option defines a switch for stability control. Keyword: DTCONTROL Dependencies: BRANCH. [ALL] Section number. POSITION sym. See section 2. ON | [OFF] The limit of the time step due to accuracy in pressure integration. and SECTION should not be used.5. PIPE sym. POSITION Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] BRANCH sym. SECTION i. BRANCH.3 for a discussion of these stability control options. [ALL] Branch number or label. - Position where the stability control should be turned on or off. [ALL] Pipe number or label.l. If POSITION is defined.Chapter 3: Input File Description. [ON] | OFF The Courant-Friedrich-Levy criteria based on the flow velocity (CFL). PIPE. GEOMETRY. PRESSURE Internal dependencies of keys: either BRANCH PIPE SECTION =1 =1 =1 POSITION = POSITION-1 or end Description .l.3.l. DTCONTROL Page 205 3. CFL sym.l. The Courant-Friedrich-Levy criteria based on the mass velocity (CFL) is set "ON" by default.

4). \ CFL = OFF. . . \ CFL = OFF. PRESSURE = ON !*************************************************************************** . PIPE = 1. \ CFL = OFF. PIPE = 2. 2. Example 2: !*************************************************************************** ** ! DTCONTROL Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! DTCONTROL BRANCH = 1. !*************************************************************************** ! DTCONTROL Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! DTCONTROL POSITION = ( POSITION-1. DTCONTROL Examples: Example 1: !*************************************************************************** ! DTCONTROL Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! DTCONTROL BRANCH = 1. 7. PIPE = 1. SECTION = ( 1.Page 206 Chapter 3: Input File Description. BRANCH = 1. 8. 2. PRESSURE = ON !*************************************************************************** . . PIPE = 2. 7. PIPE = ( 2. 8) !*************************************************************************** ** . 15). 3. . Example 3: !*************************************************************************** ! Definition for Position of DTCONTROL !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! POSITION LABEL = POSITION-1. SECTION = ( 1. 7. BRANCH = 2. PRESSURE = ON DTCONTROL BRANCH = 2. . 3. SECTION = ( 5. . . PRESSURE = ON !*************************************************************************** . 4) POSITION LABEL = POSITION-2. 6. \ CFL = OFF. . 8 ). 6. 6. . SECTION = ( 5. 3. POSITION-2 ).

.2. The feed file is generated in PVTSim.C3. Feeds can also be defined directly in the feed file.C2.Chapter 3: Input File Description.21 FEED This statement defines a feed (fluid composition used in a source or at a boundary) and its components with belonging mole fractions.l. and the properties for each component will be taken from the feed file.MeOH). MOLEFRACTION = (0.4. Required keys: Parameter set Default: [ ] Description Components in feed (defined in feed file) [Integer increment] Name of feed Mole fractions of components in feed COMPONENT. MOLEFRACTION Example: !*************************************************************************** ! Feed !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! FEED LABEL = FEED-1. FEED Page 207 3.C1.3.l. MOLEFRACTION r. LABEL str. .0. The components in the feed must be defined in the feed file.2.1.0. COMPONENT = (H2O.0. Keyword: FEED Dependencies: FILES Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) COMPONENT str.1) ! !*************************************************************************** .0.

The file can contain several feeds.. For definition of a restart file. then COMPRESSORFILE = Name of compressor file endif if (compositional tracking is used). Keyword: FILES Dependencies: NONE Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] COMPRESSORFILE str. Name of feed file (used by the compositional tracking module). PVTFILE Internal dependencies of keys: if (compressor module is used).g. Name of PVT file(s) for fluid property calculations. The files can contain several fluids each. see 3. then WAXFILE = Name of file containing the wax table endif .Page 208 Chapter 3: Input File Description. e. PVT table files for fluid properties. PUMPFILE and PVTFILE. See chapter 4 for details. Required keys: - Description Name of compressor file(s). pump data table files. then FEEDFILE = Name of feed file else PVTFILE = Name of PVT file endif if (pump module is used). compressor table files. Name of file containing wax tables. The files can contain several compressors each. WAXFILE str. - FEEDFILE str. PVTFILE str.l. these are specified as additional files in the PVTFILE key.47. Note that multiple wax tables may be specified in the file. then PUMPFILE endif = Name of pump file if (wax deposition module is used). feed file for the compositional tracking model and wax file for the wax deposition model.22 FILES This statement defines the additional input files. FILES 3.l. Note that several files can be listed for COMPRESSORFILE. Each file can contain only one pump. PUMPFILE str.l.3. Name of PUMP file(s).3. Note that only one file may be specified. If drilling fluids are used and the fluid properties are given in files.

WAXFILE = Wax-1.Chapter 3: Input File Description. FILES Page 209 Example: !*************************************************************************** ! Input Files ! The user should write the name of the PVT file and pump-. COMPRESSORFILE = COMP-1.and wax table file when necessary. .tab ! !*************************************************************************** .tab.tab. !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! FILES PVTFILE = PVT-1. . ! compressor.

Page 210 Chapter 3: Input File Description. 3. even if CFLUML or CFLUMW are set to NEWTONIAN. the complex fluid model includes numerous modifications to the physical models for both separated and distributed flow taking into account the nonNewtonian behaviour of the fluids. Bingham plastic model Power law model Herschel-Buckley model Any of the three models may be utilised for the hydrocarbon liquid phase and the water phase independently. The models used are calculated according to: Bingham plastic model τ = τ o + Kγ& n where τ 0 is the yield stress and µ ρ is the plastic viscosity. As opposed to the complex viscosity model. As soon as TYPE is set COMPLEXFLUID the modified physical models are used. . The module utilises either the Bingham. Three different models for non-Newtonian fluids can be used for this behaviour: 1.23 FLUID This statement enables the use of the complex viscosity model and the complex fluid model for simulation of non-Newtonian flows. The model modifies the effective viscosity as a function of velocity. Power law model τ = K ⋅ γ& n where K is the consistency factor and n is the power exponent. 2. FLUID 3. Herschel-Buckley model τ = τ o + Kγ& n Where τ 0 is the yield stress. Due to limited testing against Newtonian data. the power law or a Newtonian model that may be used for hydrocarbon liquid and the water phase independently. The complex viscosity model The Complex Viscosity module requires a license for the Advanced Well module. The complex fluid model The Complex Fluid module requires a separate license. The complex viscosity model is only recommended used for single phase flow as no feedback on the flow models is implemented.3. K is the consistency factor and n is the power exponent. the complex fluid model is not recommended used on gas-condensate and oil-gas systems with oil viscosity less than 50 cp.

The chosen rheology is used below the given hydrate formation temperature (slurry). Keyword: FLUID Dependencies: NONE Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [] Description CFLUML Sym [NEWTONIAN]| BINGHAM| POWERLAW Indicator for complex fluid model for liquid hydrocarbon phase CFLUMW Sym. This implies that the FLUID keyword must be given above the FILES keyword in the OLGA input file since the fluid property files are read as soon as OLGA reads the FILES keyword. therefore the existing table based option (FULL=YES) cannot be used as it does not have this functionality. As a consequence the usual way of describing the phase distribution of sources can not be used. It is assumed that an antiagglomerant is used and that the water is dispersed in the oil as a result. Therefore. The equations for water are used to describe this emulsion or slurry stream. The use of the slurry plug extension requires that the three phase option is activated. When using the OLGA GUI to make the input file this is automatically taken care of. Slurry plug extension In this option only preprogrammed rheology correlations are used.Chapter 3: Input File Description. In the power law formulation it is used as the consistency factor K. simple or full (FULL = YES). [NEWTONIAN]| BINGHAM| POWERLAW Indicator for complex fluid model for water phase . In all cases the hydrocarbon liquid and/or the water viscosity part of the usual PVT file is used. They are (given by CFLUMW): • Krieger_Dougherty Newtonian rheology • IFE-Solaize power law correlation based on Solaize experiments • Thomas correlation for a Bingham fluid All of these correlations depend on the local particle correlations. FLUID Page 211 For the complex fluid model. above the hydrate formation temperature the KriegerDougherty correlation for Newtonian viscosity is used (emulsion). the power law exponent or the yield stress is given as a function of pressure and temperature in the fluid property table file specified in PVTFILE in FILES. One must give the fraction of dispersed water in the emulsion/slurry that is flowing into the pipe through the key WATERCUT. while the equations for oil is used to describe a pure oil phase that will separate from the slurry if the flow is sufficiently slow. and in the Bingham formulation it is used as the coefficient of rigidity. In the simple mode the power law exponent or yield stress is given in the main input file. In the full mode. the fluid properties can be given in two ways. setting CFLUML = NEWTONIAN is equivalent to CFLUML = BINGHAM with YIELDSTRL = 0. PHASE=THREE on OPTIONS. and CFLUML = POWERLAW with POWEXPL = 1.

Requires PHASE = THREE in OPTIONS.Page 212 Chapter 3: Input File Description. . FINEFRACT r [-] - Requires CFLUMW = BINGHAM. only used with PARTICLESETTLE=ON MAXCONCK_G_EMUL r [-] - Used with the Krieger-Dougherty correlation for Newtonian viscosity. only used with PARTICLESETTLE=ON HYDTEMP r [oC] - Hydrate temperature. ON/[OFF] Use the slurryplug extension of the CFM if PARTICLESETTLE= ON. [*] - Consistency factor for water phase. CONSFW r. Only used with PARTICLESETTLE=ON PARTICLESETTLE Sym. CVISL Sym. [NEWTONIAN]| BINGHAM| POWERLAW| HERSCHELBUCKLEY Indicator for complex viscosity model type for water phase. Fraction of fine particles used in the Bingham type correlation of Thomas. only used with PARTICLESETTLE=ON MAXPARTCONC r [-] - For particle concentrations above this the particle settling stops. Used with the Krieger-Dougherty correlation for Newtonian viscosity. It is the particle fraction where the viscosity of the emulsion (T>HYDTEMP) goes to infinity. It is the particle fraction where the viscosity of the slurry (T<HYDTEMP) goes to infinity. Used in complex viscosity model. Used in complex viscosity model. CVISW Sym. FULL Sym YES/[NO] Use power exponent/yield stress as function of P and T from the fluid property file in complex fluid model. [NEWTONIAN]| BINGHAM| POWERLAW| HERSCHELBUCKLEY Indicator for complex viscosity model type for liquid hydrocarbon phase. FLUID Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [] Description CONSFL r. [*] - Consistency factor for hydrocarbon liquid. Only used with PARTICLESETTLE=ON MAXCONCK_G_SLUR r [-] - Requires CFLUMW = NEWTONIAN.

WATERCUT r [-] - Fraction of water in emulsion/slurry in input stream.7 YIELDSTRL = 5 [Pa] End If CVISW = BINGHAM. [-] - Power exponent for water phase. used in complex viscosity model. PLASTW r. Used in both complex viscosity and complex fluid model. then CONSFW = 0. [Ns/m²] - Hydrocarbon liquid plastic viscosity.Chapter 3: Input File Description. TYPE Sym. then PLASTL = 0.3 . [-] - Power exponent for hydrocarbon liquid phase. only used with PARTICLESETTLE=ON YIELDSTRL r. Required keys: TYPE Internal dependencies of keys: If TYPE = COMPLEXVISCOSITY.3 POWEXPL = 0.03 [Ns/m²] YIELDSTRL = 5 [Pa] else if CVISL = POWERLAW. POWEXPW r.03 [Ns/m²] YIELDSTRW= 5 [Pa] else if CVISW = POWERLAW. FLUID Key Page 213 Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [] Description PLASTL r. [NEWTONIAN]| COMPLEXVISCOSITY | COMPLEXFLUID| Indicator of fluid model type. used in complex viscosity model. [Pa] - Yield stress for hydrocarbon liquid phase in the complex viscosity and complex fluid model YIELDSTRW r.7 else if CVISL = HERSCELBUCKLEY. [Pa] - Yield stress for water phase in the complex viscosity and complex fluid model *) These subkeys do not have a fixed unit due to the form of the Power law and the Herschel-Buckley model. POWEXPL r. [Ns/m²] - Water plastic viscosity. Used in both complex viscosity and complex fluid model. then If CVISL = BINGHAM. then CONSFL = 0. then CONSFL = 0. then PLASTW = 0.3 POWEXPL = 0.

then ! Required WATERCUT = 0. then If FULL = YES. then if FULL = YES. then MAXCONCK_G_SLUR = 0.7 If CFLUMW = NEWTONIAN.5 end if end if If PARTICLESETTLE = ON.3 POWEXPW = 0.65 HYDTEMP = 10 MAXCONCK_G_EMUL = 0.7 YIELDSTRW= 5 [Pa] End Else if TYPE = COMPLEXFLUID. then (values are taken from PVTFILE) else YIELDSTRL = 5 [Pa] end if else if CFLUML = POWERLAW. then FINEFRACT = 0. then If FULL = YES. then CONSFW = 0. then if FULL = YES.5 end if end if end if end if .66 else if CFLUMW = BINGHAM.7 else if CVISW = HERSCELBUCKLEY.5 end if end if If CFLUMW = BINGHAM. then (values are taken from PVTFILE) else POWEXPW = 0.3 MAXPARTCONC = 0. then If CFLUML = BINGHAM. then If FULL = NO.Page 214 Chapter 3: Input File Description. then (values are taken from PVTFILE) else YIELDSTRW = 5 [Pa] end if else if CFLUMW = POWERLAW. FLUID POWEXPW = 0. then (values are taken from PVTFILE) else POWEXPL = 0.

. CFLUML=NEWTONIAN. MAXPARTCONC=0.2. FULL=NO. CVISL=POWERLAW. PLASTW = 0. In the fluid group we give a watercut in the assumed oil continuous dispersion. .) kg/s. YIELDSTRL = 5 Pa !*************************************************************************** .HYDTEMP=10.\ TEMPERATURE=(3:30. FLUID Page 215 Examples: Example 1: !*************************************************************************** ! FLUID Options !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! FLUID TYPE=NEWTONIAN !*************************************************************************** .3.7. YIELDSTRW = 5 Pa.\ FINEFRACT=1. CFLUML=BINGHAM.0.250. . Example 2: !*************************************************************************** ! FLUID Options !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! FLUID TYPE=COMPLEXVISCOSITY. POWEXPL = 0. FLUID TYPE=COMPLEXFLUIDMODEL.2. CONSFL = 0. !************************************************************************** ! SOURCE Definition !************************************************************************** ! SOURCE LABEL=SRC_SUBSEA. MASSFLOW=(0. CFLUMW=BINGHAM.Chapter 3: Input File Description. In the source group we give the total mass source and we give a water fraction as zero.03 Ns/m²] !*************************************************************************** .\ CVISW=BINGHAM.\ PARTICLESETTL=1. CRITFLOWMODEL = FROZEN..0) – . POSITION=INLET.7. FULL=NO.1000000) s. .\ GASFRACTION=(3:-1 )-.67.TIME=(0..) C.MAXCONCK-G-EMUL=0.250. Example 4 (slurryplug extension): This example show the interaction between the fluid and the source keywords and how we specify the dispersed fraction in the emulsion/slurry when the slurryplug extension is used. Example 3: !*************************************************************************** ! FLUID Options !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! FLUID TYPE=COMPLEXFLUID. WATERCUT=0. WATERFRACTION=(3:0.

3. GEOMETRY 3. (m) [0] Y co-ordinate of the start point of a branch. (m) [0] Z co-ordinate of the start point of a branch. (m) - North/South co-ordinate of the start point of a branch. XSTART r. (m) [0] X co-ordinate of the start point of a branch. Required keys: LABEL Internal dependencies of keys: Either XSTART YSTART ZSTART = 0 [m] = 0 [m] = 0 [m] TVDSTART NSSTART EWSTART = -3200 0 [m] = 0 [m] = 0 [m] or end Description .Page 216 Chapter 3: Input File Description. NSSTART r. - Label of the geometry for a branch.24 GEOMETRY This statement defines the geometry label and the co-ordinates of the starting point for a branch. (m) - True vertical depth co-ordinate of the start point of a branch. TVDSTART r. ZSTART r. Keyword: GEOMETRY Dependencies: NONE Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] EWSTART r. LABEL str. (m) - East/West co-ordinate of the start point of a branch. YSTART r. The pipes belonging to this geometry must be defined sequentially after the geometry statement by use of the PIPE-keyword as many times as required.

ZEND = -155. ROUGHNESS = 0. TO = NODE-4.\ NSEGMENT = 3. YEND = -1159.Chapter 3: Input File Description. ZEND = 0 PIPE LABEL = PIPE-4.4. .12.. ZEND = 0 ! GEOMETRY LABEL = GEOM-2. FLOAT = ON .. .28E-04. YSTART = -2318. TO = NODE-4.6 ! PIPE LABEL = PIPE-1..\ GEOMETRY = GEOM-2. XEND = 0. FLOAT = ON BRANCH LABEL = BRAN-2. XSTART = 1779. ***************************************************************************** ! BRANCH Definitions !--------------------------------------------------------------------------BRANCH LABEL = BRAN-1.3 PIPE LABEL = PIPE-2..28E-04. ROUGHNESS = 0.24E+04. ZEND = 0 ! !**************************************************************************** . YEND = -1159. . NUMBER = 1. YEND = 0.12. DIAMETER = 0. YEND = 0.\ ZSTART = -310. DIAMETER = 0. XSTART = 1862. DIAMETER = 0. XEND = 0...\ NSEGMENT = 3. DIAMETER = 0. .\ GEOMETRY = GEOM-1. ROUGHNESS = 0.\ NSEGMENT = 3. NUMBER = 2.28E-04.\ ZSTART = 0 ! PIPE LABEL = PIPE-3. XEND = 2131.24E+04.. . FLUID = 1. FLUID = 1. GEOMETRY Page 217 Example: !**************************************************************************** ! PIPE and GEOMETRY Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! GEOMETRY LABEL = GEOM-1. XEND = 2089.\ NSEGMENT = 3. ROUGHNESS = 0.12.12. FROM = NODE-2. YSTART = -2318.28E-04. FROM = NODE-1.

- No. - Name of grid NXPOINTS i.5.4.32.575. 0. . 0. of x-grid points in homogeneous xgrid NYPOINTS i. 0.378. It requires access to the soil module.\ 4. 2.35. 0. \ XGRIDCOORD = (0.81.0. - No.0). 1.27. 0.25 GRID This keyword is used to define the grid lines of the solid media surrounding the flow lines.79.30. 0. Description set of grid co-ordinates must be specified Internal dependencies of keys: Either XGRIDCOORD or XEND NXPOINTS end Either YGRIDCOORD or YEND NYPOINTS end Example: GRID LABEL = G-1. YEND r(m) - Y-end.23. 0.0) .197. 2. . \ 1.3.5.20. (m) - Horizontal grid co-ordinates. \ YGRIDCOORD = (0. 0.9. 0. 3. of y-grid points in homogeneous ygrid XEND r(m) - X-end. Size of homogeneous x-grid XGRIDCOORD r.l. 0. GRID 3.772. 5. 0.Page 218 Chapter 3: Input File Description. Keyword: GRID Dependencies: NONE Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] LABEL str.0. 0. l. X co-ordinate is from left to right and Y co-ordinate is from top to bottom. (m) - Vertical grid co-ordinates Required keys: LABEL.21. 8. Size of homogeneous y-grid YGRIDCOORD r. 1. 0.0.1.0.0. 0. 0. 0.

TIME r. Keyword: HEATEXCHANGER Dependencies: BRANCH. POSITION Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description BRANCH sym. where heat .l.26 HEATEXCHANGER This statement describes the effects of a heat exchanger. GEOMETRY. Of the same reason no heatexchanger can be defined on the first section boundary of the branch coming from a MERGE node. (s) - Time points in temperature setpoint table. The heat exchanger is represented as an ideal loss. - Position of the heat exchanger. Note that a heatexchanger cannot be defined at the last section boundary (e. section boundary 3 if 2 sections) of the last branch of the branches going into a SPLIT node. since the last section volume is used as the control volume for the SPLIT node. [integer increment] Heat exchanger label. (°C) - Heat exchanger outlet temperature set points. - Number/Name of Branch where heat exchanger is located. If POSITION is defined. - Number/Name of Pipe exchanger is located. POSITION sym. LABEL str. The heat exchanged is equal to the enthalpy difference corresponding to the difference between the inlet temperature and a user specified outlet temperature of the heat exchanger.3. PIPE. Positive value is for heating and negative value for cooling. PIPE sym. and SECTIONBOUNDARY should not be used.g.Chapter 3: Input File Description. TEMPERATURE r.l. BRANCH. CAPACITY r. SECTIONBOUNDARY i. (W) - Maximum heat exchanger capacity. HEATEXCHANGER Page 219 3. - Section boundary number where the heat exchanger is located.

.25E+08.) !*************************************************************************** .\ SECTIONBOUNDARY = 5. TEMPERATURE = (2:45.1000E+07). . TIME = (0. HEATEXCHANGER Required keys: LABEL. BRANCH = 2. TEMPERATURE Internal dependencies of keys: Either BRANCH PIPE SECTIONBOUNDARY =1 =1 =1 POSITION = HEATPOSI-1 or end Example: !*************************************************************************** ! Definition for HEATEXCHANGER !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! HEATEXCHANGER LABEL = HEAT-2-1. PIPE = 1. TIME. CAPACITY.Page 220 Chapter 3: Input File Description. .\ 0. CAPACITY = -0. .

The interpolation is performed between these points by using the distance between the section midpoints to achieve a linear temperature profile with respect to the distance along the pipeline. If the time series is periodic. For the default option. . for the ambient heat transfer coefficient. and fluid properties such as density and viscosity. For options HORIZONTAL. In addition to this one of the following three options must be used: 1.Chapter 3: Input File Description. If nonperiodic. the ambient heat transfer coefficient is a function of the pipe diameter1. the user can specify start and end ambient temperature and OLGA will perform an interpolation along the pipeline. actual length or vertical depth along the pipeline section. This interpolation method is also applied when specifying two TAMBIENT values. For each of the following parameters a time series can be specified: • Ambient temperature • Ambient heat transfer coefficient • Ambient velocity Each parameter must be given with separate time series. follow the following steps: 1. requires TEMPERATURE = WALL in OPTIONS) Specify properties of the ambient fluid / predefined fluid (HOUTEROPTION = OTHER/ WATER/ AIR.27 HEATTRANSFER This statement specifies the heat transfer data for the pipe walls. for instance. The first value in the time series will be assigned to the value used at the start of the simulation. LENGTH and VERTICAL. A time series can either be periodic or non-periodic. the time series will be repeated with the period equal to the last time value in the time series. but the fluid properties must only be given if a user specified fluid is used (HOUTEROPTION = OTHER). the minimum heat transfer coefficient for each bundle LINE can be specified with the HMINNERWALL Key. the ambient temperature is given by the user for the central (midpoint) position of the first and last section. the fluid velocity. otherwise. If option 3 is used. the ambient temperature is specified at the inlet and outlet boundaries of the pipeline section. 3. The velocity must be specified. requires TEMPERATURE = WALL in OPTIONS) For options 2 and 3 the overall heat transfer coefficient is calculated and the keyword WALL must be completed. Use the main keyword with the following subkeys to define the time series: • Key TIMESERIES to specify whether the time series is periodic or nonperiodic. 1 If HEATTRANSFER is used together with the FEMTherm module the inner diameter of the first branch that appears in the CROSSSECTION is used to calculate the heat transfer coefficient. Specify overall heat transfer coefficient: UVALUE (requires TEMPERATURE = UGIVEN in main key OPTIONS) Specify ambient heat transfer coefficient: HAMBIENT (HOUTEROPTION = HGIVEN. The temperature of the surroundings must be given. For HOUTEROPTION = AIR or WATER default fluid properties are applied. The interpolation is then performed based on horizontal length. Four different interpolation options are available. called SECTIONWISE. To use a time series. the last point is used. 2. In order to simplify the input of the ambient temperature distribution along a predefined pipeline section. If BUNDLE calculations are performed.3. linear interpolation with time is applied if the integrated time is less that the last time value in the time series. HEATTRANSFER Page 221 3.

HAMBIENT r. If the time series is defined after the keyword RESTART. HAMBIENTSERIES sym. CONDUCTIVITY r. PIPE.29] If WATER [1000] Density of ambient fluid.56] Thermal conductivity of ambient fluid. (W/m2C) [0 W/(m2C)] 1. EXPANSION r. HOUTEROPTION sym. coefficient of The label of H ambient time series.Page 222 Chapter 3: Input File Description. 2.l. (1/C) If AIR [34x10-4] If WATER [21x10-5] Thermal expansion ambient fluid. SECTION). the clock time in a time series will start from the first time point. if the time series is not redefined after the keyword RESTART. CAPACITY r. DENSITY r. For a restart run.023] If WATER [0. Applied both on inside and outside of the line.l. OPTIONS.l. the same time series will be applied for the whole BRANCH. Minimum heat transfer coefficient for bundle line (only one real value accepted).l. the clock time in the time series keeps increasing independent of the start time of the simulation given in the main keyword INTEGRATION. [HGIVEN] | AIR | WATER | OTHER Option for coefficient. • Key HAMBIENT to given the values of the heat transfer coefficient. ambient heat transfer . If only BRANCH is defined. HEATTRANSFER • Key SERIESLABEL to give a name to the time series. use key HAMBIENTSERIES to specify which and where the time series should be applied in a statement including location (BRANCH. (W/m2C) - Mean heat transfer coefficient on outer wall surface. LINE Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description BRANCH sym. HMININNERWALL r. Minimum heat transfer coefficient on inner wall surface. the same time series will be applied for the whole PIPE.l. (kg/m3) If AIR [1. • Key TIME to give the time values in the time series. [ALL] Branch number. GEOMETRY. (W/mK) If AIR [0. If only BRANCH and PIPE are defined. 2 After the time series are defined. Keyword: HEATTRANSFER Dependencies: BRANCH. (J/KG-K) If AIR [1000] If WATER [4186] Heat capacity of ambient fluid.l.l.

l. T1 – First time point in TIMESERIES Tn – Last time point in TIMESERIES NONPERIODIC . HORIZONTAL | LENGTH | VERTICAL Description SERIESLABEL sym. (m/s) If AIR [4] If WATER [1] Speed of ambient fluid. (oC) - Ambient temperature at inlet to the first pipe in a pipeline section where temperature interpolation is used for ambient temp. HEATTRANSFER Key Page 223 Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] INTAMBIENT r.l.10) or pipe = (PIPE_1. Note that the value actually used by the program is interpolated between the values specified by the given timetable.The ambient input data is time depending and the data will repeat according to the time series. from pipe 1 to pipe 10. for example.l. UVALUE r. . OFF – The ambient input data is not time depending PERIODIC . TAMBIENT r. VELOCITY r. o OUTTAMBIENT r.PIPE_10). with a dash between the two numbers.Chapter 3: Input File Description. SECTION i. (W/m2C) - Overall heat transfer coefficient given by user based on inner pipe diameter. [SECTIONWISE] | Type of interpolation used for calculation of ambient temperature. (s) - The time points when the ambient data is to be changed. - The label of T ambient time series. (°C) - Ambient temperature. If there is a comma between two pipe numbers or labels. pipe number must be given as: PIPE = (1 – 10). not the pipes from 2 to 9.The ambient input data is time dependent. for example. - Name of the time series LINE sym. but the data will not repeat according to the time series. TAMBIENTSERIES sym.l.l. [ALL] Section number.that means the value will be defined for pipe 1 and pipe 10. [ALL] Pipe label or pipe number.l. [OFF] | PERIODIC | NONPERIODIC Option for time depending ambient data. VELOCITYSERIES sym. If a range at pipes is to be defined. PIPE = (1.l. The label of velocity time series. PIPE sym. The period will be (Tn-T1) Here. - Line Label. INTERPOLATION sym. TIMESERIES sym. ( C) - Ambient temperature at outlet of the last pipe in a pipeline section where temperature interpolation is used for ambient temperature. TIME r.

one may define both BRANCH and PIPE. 3600) [s] TAMBIENT = (4. HEATTRANSFER Key VISCOSITY Required keys: Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] r. and define only one TAMBIENT value. If . as TAMBIENT = 4 [°C] If the ambient temperature is constant for the PIPE.l. 500) [W/m2C] or VELOCITY = (1. Subkey BRANCH and PIPE must be defined. (Ns/m2) If AIR [1. INTERPOLATION = HORIZONTAL | LENGTH | VERTICAL | SECTIONWISE INTAMBIENT = 60 [°C] OUTTAMBIENT = 30 [°C] else if ambient temperature is time dependent. then TAMBIENTSERIES = Label of the time series (pre-defined in HEATTRANSFER key) else if specify TAMBIENT for each section1) (INTERPOLATION not defined) If the ambient temperature is constant for the branch. as TAMBIENT = 4 [°C] If the ambient temperature is different for each SECTION. BRANCH Internal dependencies of keys: If TEMPERATURE = WALL or TEMPERATURE = FASTWALL in OPTIONS group. 20) [°C] or HAMBIENT = (200. 2) [m/s] This group of subkeys must be defined in it’s own HEATTRANSFER key before it’s referenced by the other HEATTRANSFER statements end if Options for TAMBIENT If INTERPOLATION is to be used for calculation of the ambient temperature. and define only one TAMBIENT value. one must define TAMBIENT for each SECTION. ignore subkey SECTION.8x10-5] If WATER [1x10-3] Description Viscosity of ambient fluid. one may only define BRANCH and ignore subkey PIPE and SECTION. ambient H or ambient velocity is time depending. then If ambient temperature.Page 224 Chapter 3: Input File Description. then TIMESERIES = PERIODIC | NONPERIODIC SERIESLABEL = Label of the time series TIME = (0.

then VELOCITYSERIES = Label of the time series (pre-defined HEATTRANSFER key) else if specify ambient velocity for each section1) VELOCITY = (2 : 3. 15. 10) [°C] The number of TAMBIENT values must be equal to the number of the sections of the pipe(s). 2) [M/S] It follows the same rule as “If specify TAMBIENT for each section” end if if HOUTEROPTION=OTHER (default values are applied if AIR or WATER): DENSITY = 2 [kg/m3] VISCOSITY = 0. as TAMBIENT = (50.02E-33 [Ns/m2] CAPACITY = 1000 [J/kg-C] CONDUCTIVITY = 0. then1) = (2 : 300. If only two value of TAMBIENT is defined for a BRANCH or for a PIPE. then HAMBIENTSERIES = Label of the time series (pre-defined in HEATTRANSFER key) else If HOUTEROPTION HAMBIENT = HGIVEN (default). 200) [W/m2 oC] ! for each section else if TEMPERATURE = UGIVEN in OPTIONS group. HEATTRANSFER Page 225 subkey SECTION is ignored. 2:25. the code will assign the value to each section of the pipe by the sequence. then in . 3:20. TAMBIENT = (30. 200) [W/m2C] ! for each section It follows the same rule as “If specify TAMBIENT for each section” else if an ambient fluid is used (air.Chapter 3: Input File Description. 10) [°C] The code will do the SECTIONWISE interpolation along the BRANCH or PIPE.023 [W/m-K] EXPANSION = 34E-4 [1/C] It follows the same rule as “If specify TAMBIENT for each section” end if end if End of options for HAMBIENT HMININNERWALL = (2:100. end if End of options for TAMBIENT Options for HAMBIENT If H ambient is time dependent. water or user specified) then HOUTEROPTION = AIR | WATER | OTHER if VELOCITY is time dependent.

) can be specified for each section. TAMBIENT = (5:27.2E+02).Page 226 Chapter 3: Input File Description.5E+03 HEATTRANSFER BRANCH = 1.5). HAMBIENT = 581. HAMBIENT = (5:581.) ! 5C for the first section.) ! TAMBIENT is 6C for each section in PIPE-1 HEATTRANSFER BRANCH = 2.\ TAMBIENT = (27.4).5. HMININNERWALL = 0. only: HMININNERWALL = 100 [W/m2 oC] End if 1) All properties (TAMBIENT.8. DENSITY. HMINNINNERWALL etc. Examples: Example 1: !*************************************************************************** ! HEATTRANSFER Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! HEATTRANSFER BRANCH = 1.\ HMININNERWALL = 0.2. PIPE = PIPE-1.2. HEATTRANSFER TAMBIENT is defined by the same rule as described in “If TEMPERATURE=WALL or FASTWALL” section” UVALUE = (2 : 300. UVALUE = (12:0. HMININNERWALL = 0.5E+03 !*************************************************************************** Example 2: !*************************************************************************** ! HEATTRANSFER Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! HEATTRANSFER BRANCH = 1.\ TAMBIENT = 0.: TAMBIENT = (2.3E+02. same as TAMBIENT = 4:2.\ TAMBIENT = (5. UVALUE = (7:0. PIPE = PIPE-1. If the values are the same for all sections. e.1).5E+03 HEATTRANSFER BRANCH = 1. CAR_LINE). PIPE = PIPE-2.\ TAMBIENT = (6. else 6C !*************************************************************************** Example 3: !*************************************************************************** ! HEATTRANSFER Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! HEATTRANSFER LINE = (RET_LINE.6:6. HAMBIENT = (3:581.2). PIPE = PIPE-3.\ HMININNERWALL = 100 !*************************************************************************** .g. 200) [W/m2 oC] ! for each section It follows the same rule as “If specify TAMBIENT for each section” end if If LINE is specified. 9:26. PIPE = PIPE-2. same as TAMBIENT = 2.5.8). just one value is needed.\ 9:551.2E+02).

\ TIME = (0. \ HAMBIENT=500. \ VELOCITY = (1.7. DENSITY = 1100 kg/m3. \ HAMBIENT = (200. 6. PIPE = PIPE-1. \ HOUTEROPTION = WATER HEATTRANSFER BRANCH = BRAN-1.\ CAPACITY = 5000 J/kg-C. VELOCITY = 3 m/s \ HEATTRANSFER BRANCH = BRAN-1.1).\ HMININNERWALL = 0. TAMBIENT = (2:6. 12) h. HMININNERWALL=10. PIPE = PIPE-4. HAMBIENT = 900. 24) h. HMININNERWALL=10. PIPE = (1-5).50 W/m-k.). HOUTEROPTION = OTHER.\ HMININNERWALL = 0. INTERPOLATION=LENGTH. \ TAMBIENTSERIES=4.\ CONDUCTIVITY = 0. PIPE = PIPE-3. \ TAMBIENT = (10. INTAMBIENT=4. UOUTEROPTION=WATER.4 m/s. HMININNERWALL=10. TAMBIENT = (3. HMININNERWALL=10. 30. SERIESLABEL=SEABOTTOMV. 24) h. PIPE = PIPE-5.00001 !*************************************************************************** Example 6: HEATTRANSFER TIMESERIES = PERIODIC.0015 N-S/M2. HOUTEROPTION = AIR.HOUTEROPTION = AIR HEATTRANSFER BRANCH = BRAN-1. HAMBIENT = 500 HEATTRANSFER BRANCH=2.\ INTAMBIENT = 100. 200) \ HEATTRANSFER TIMESERIES = PERIODIC. VELOCITY = 2 m/s HEATTRANSFER BRANCH = BRAN-1. HEATTRANSFER Page 227 Example 4: !*************************************************************************** ! HEATTRANSFER Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! HEATTRANSFER BRANCH = 1. OUTTAMBIENT=25 \ .\ HMININNERWALL = 0. \ TAMBIENTSERIES=SEABOTTOMT. 500. SERIESLABEL = SEABOTTOMH.).1. 12.).HOUTEROPTION = WATER. 10) \ HEATTRANSFER TIMESERIES = PERIODIC. \ TIME = (0. 12. \ EXPANSION = 0.Chapter 3: Input File Description. INTERPOLATION = VERTICAL. SERIESLABEL = SEABOTTOMT. HAMBIENTSERIES = SEABOTTOMH HEATTRANSFER BRANCH=3. \ TIME = (0.\ VELOCITY = 0. OUTTAMBIENT = 10.\ HMININNERWALL = 0. 2. \ TAMBIENTSERIES=SEABOTTOMT. TAMBIENT = (2:6.\ HMININNERWALL = 0. 1) \ HEATTRANSFER BRANCH=1. TAMBIENT = (5:6.). PIPE = PIPE-2. \ VELOCITYSERIES =SEABOTTOMV HEATTRANSFER BRANCH=4. \ VISCOSITY = 0. TAMBIENT = (4:6.\ HMINNERWALL = 200 ! !*************************************************************************** Example 5: !*************************************************************************** !HEATTRANSFER Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! ! new model for calculating Hambient ! HEATTRANSFER BRANCH = BRAN-1.

MEGFORMULA = OFF: One hydrate curve per MEG concentration (MEGCONC) must be given (OLGA will interpolate between the curves). When hydrate curves for different MEG concentrations (MEGFORMULA = OFF) are used. 3. i. the volume variable DTHYD is updated For a given pressure and MEG concentration in a section.28 HYDRATECHECK This statement is used to get information on possible formation of hydrates. All hydrate curves are extrapolated so they reach two of the square sides as illustrated in the figure below for MEGCONC = 0%. The program does the following: 1. This requires the MEG-tracking module. module” in Chapter 2) will be used based on the hydrate curve for no MEG. The difference between the hydrate formation temperature and the fluid temperature is then calculated. the volume variable DPHYD is updated The positions and the values of the maximum temperature and pressure differences for hydrate formation are calculated. MDTHYD and MDTPOS are updated. The hydrate formation curve can be specified either with keys PRESSURE and TEMPERATURE. the branch variables MDPHYD. i. Interpolation and extrapolation of the hydrate curves: An imaginary square is formed to define the limits of the hydrate curve(s). The effect can be calculated in two ways: 1. or from an ASCII file where the hydrate formation curve is given. the pressure above which hydrate may form is determined from the hydrate formation curve. One HYDRATECHECK keyword must be defined for each curve/concentration. 2. For MEGFORMULA = ON the highest/lowest pressure is defined by the hydrate curve for the MEG concentration of 0%.e.Page 228 Chapter 3: Input File Description.3. For a given pressure and MEG concentration in a section. MDPPOS. while the highest/lowest temperature depends on the actual MEG concentration (Hammerschmidt). . HYDRATECHECK 3. The user specifies hydrate formation curves for each branch that should be investigated. the temperature below which hydrate may form is determined from the hydrate formation curve. MEGCONC = 20% and MEGCONC = 40%. MEGFORMULA = ON: The Hammerschmidt equation (see “The MEG tracking 2.e. The difference between the fluid pressure and the hydrate formation pressure is then calculated. The equation is valid for MEG concentration between 0% and 70%. The effect of MEG on the hydrate formation temperature can be calculated. the four sides are the highest/lowest temperature and highest/lowest pressure of the hydrate curves. i.e.

Chapter 3: Input File Description. If the temperature in the section is to the right of the square (Condition 3) the highest pressure in the square is used as the hydrate pressure. When the temperature in the section is to the left of the square the lowest pressure in the square is used as the hydrate pressure. If the temperature in the section is inside the square and no match is found. hydrate pressure always defined within the square with ON). the pressure and the temperature in the section. When OLGA2000 computes DPHYD and DTHYD it uses the MEG concentration. Condition 1 and 2 has a MEG concentration of 40%. while Condition 3 has 0%.2 Hydrate curve square with different pressure/temperature conditions. the highest hydrate temperature is used if the pressure is above the hydrate curve (Condition 3) and the lowest is used if it is below (MEGFORMULA = OFF only. If the MEG concentration in the section is between two hydrate curves. If it is above the highest MEG concentration. When DPHYD is computed the temperature in the section is used to find the hydrate pressure for the given MEG concentration. hydrate temperature always defined within the . the hydrate curve for the lowest MEG concentration is used. If MEGFORMULA = OFF it is checked whether the MEG concentration in a section is within the range given by the hydrate curves. the hydrate curve for the highest MEG concentration is used. If the Hammerschmidt equation is used (MEGFORMULA = ON). If the pressure in the section is inside the square and no match is found. HYDRATECHECK Page 229 PRESSURE DTHYD > 0 2 DTHYD < 0 4 DPHYD > 0 DPHYD > 0 DPHYD < 0 MEGCONC = 40 % DTHYD < 0 20 % 3 DTHYD > 0 DPHYD > 0 1 0% TEMPERATURE Figure 3. the hydrate temperature is calculated based on the actual MEG concentration. see Condition 1 in the figure above. the highest hydrate pressure is used if the temperature is to the right of the hydrate curve (Condition 2) and the lowest is used if it is to the left (MEGFORMULA = OFF only. OLGA2000 interpolates the two hydrate curves to generate a new hydrate curve for the MEG concentration in the section. When DTHYD is computed the pressure in the section is used to find the hydrate temperature for the given MEG concentration. If is below the lowest MEG concentration.

especially if the section temperature also is higher than the highest temperature in the square. Using DEBUG = ON in OPTIONS. in which case DTHYD < 0 and the section temperature in reality may be far above the hydrate formation temperature. . see Condition 4. To remove this source of error all hydrate curves should include both the minimum and maximum pressure in the pipeline. This goes for pressure above/below the square and MEG concentrations above/value the given values. That is. the hydrate curves in Figure 3.2 are not well defined for conditions 2. It should be noted that if the section pressure is above the highest pressure in the square the reported DPHYD will always be a positive value that indicates hydrate formation. HYDRATECHECK square with ON). as well. This can be misleading. Also. a warning is given the first time the fluid temperature is above or below the maximum temperature in the “hydrate curve” square to alert the user. it is recommended to always include the hydrate curve for a MEG concentration of 0% to avoid underestimating the hydration formation temperature. When the pressure in the section is below the square the lowest temperature in the square is used as the hydrate temperature. If the pressure in the section is above the square (Condition 2) the highest temperature in the square is used as the hydrate temperature. 3 and 4 (especially the hydrate curvet for 0%).Page 230 Chapter 3: Input File Description.

it is not applied to any of the branches.) . Label of the hydrate curve MEGCONC r. Must only be used with a hydrate temperature curve for a mixture that is free of any inhibitors. [NO] | YES YES if the hydrate dissociation curve is to be read from a data file. By default. HYDRATEFILE str. Labels of the branches the hydrate formation curve is applied to.0] MEG-concentration for a hydrate curve.0. the hydrate check will be removed for these branches. the first column is for temperature (C) and the second for pressures (Pa). (-) [0.l. This is the default.0) MEGFORMULA is set to OFF by default. (To use this feature you need a license for the MEG-tracking module. HYDRATECHECK Keyword: HYDRATECHECK Dependencies: BRANCH Page 231 Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description APPLYTO sym. (MEGCONC = 0. The default value for MEGCONC is 0. NO if the hydrate curve is specified with keys PRESSURE and TEMPERATURE. and COMPOSITIONAL=MEG under OPTIONS in the input file. FROMFILE sym. [None] COLUMNHEADER str. By default. Name of the file containing hydrate temperature as a function of pressure or vice versa. [OFF] | ON Switch for activating the Hammerschmidt formula for computing hydrate temperature curves for different MEG concentrations. and COMPOSITIONAL=MEG under OPTIONS in the input file. and if it is applied to some branches in a previous run. Units and orders of columns of the temperature and pressure in the file.l.Chapter 3: Input File Description.) MEGFORMULA sym. LABEL str. (To use this feature you need a license for the MEG-tracking module.

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Chapter 3: Input File Description, HYDRATECHECK

Key
PRESSURE

Type
Unit: ( )
r.l. (pa)

Parameter set
Default: [ ]

Description
Hydrate formation pressure for each of
the temperature points given for key
TEMPERATURE.
The pressure points must be unique for
each HYDRATECHECK LABEL, and
entered in increasing order.

TEMPERATURE

r.l. (oC)

Temperature points.
The temperature points must be unique
for each HYDRATECHECK LABEL, and
entered in increasing order.

Required keys:

LABEL, FROMFILE, APPLYTO

Internal Dependencies of keys
If FROMFILE = NO then
TEMPERATURE = (0, 5, 10, 20, 30),
PRESSURE
= (32, 47, 62, 163, 500) BARA
else if FROMFILE = YES then
HYDRATEFILE = hyd.dat
COLUMNHEADER
= (TEMPERATURE C, PRESSURE BARA)
end if
If MEGFORMULA = OFF then
MEGCONC
= 30 % ! One MEGCONC and hydrate curve per keyword
else if MEGFORMULA = ON then
MEGCONC
= [0.0] % ! No other value allowed
end if

Chapter 3: Input File Description, HYDRATECHECK

Page 233

Examples:
Example 1:
Hydrate formation curve specified with the key pair, TEMPERATURE and PRESSURE, no
MEG influence
HYDRATECHECK

LABEL
FROMFILE
TEMPERATURE
PRESSURE
APPLYTO

=
=
=
=
=

HYD_1, \
NO, \
(0, 5, 10, 20, 30), \
(32, 47, 62, 163, 500) BARA, \
(BRANCH_1)

Example 2:
Hydrate formation curve specified for no MEG with the key pair, TEMPERATURE and
PRESSURE, and MEG influence on hydrate formation computed by OLGA
HYDRATECHECK

LABEL
FROMFILE
TEMPERATURE
PRESSURE
MEGFORMULA
APPLYTO

=
=
=
=
=
=

HYD_1, \
NO, \
(0, 5, 10, 20, 30), \
(32, 47, 62, 163, 500) BARA, \
ON, \
(BRANCH_1)

Example 3:
Hydrate formation curve from a file, no MEG influence
HYDRATECHECK

LABEL
FROMFILE
HYDRATEFILE
COLUMNHEADER
APPLYTO

=
=
=
=
=

HYD_1, \
YES, \
hyd.dat , \
(TEMPERATURE C, PRESSURE BARA), \
(BRANCH_1)

Example 4:
Hydrate formation curve for no MEG from a file and MEG influence on hydrate formation
computed by OLGA
HYDRATECHECK

LABEL
FROMFILE
HYDRATEFILE
COLUMNHEADER
MEGFORMULA
APPLYTO

=
=
=
=
=
=

HYD_1, \
YES, \
hyd.dat, \
(TEMPERATURE C, PRESSURE BARA), \
ON, \
(BRANCH_1)

Example 5:
Hydrate formation curves at different MEG concentration from different files
HYDRATECHECK

LABEL
FROMFILE
HYDRATEFILE
COLUMNHEADER
MEGFORMULA
MEGCONC
APPLYTO

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

HYD_1, \
YES, \
hyd.dat , \
(TEMPERATURE C, PRESSURE BARA), \
OFF, \
0.0 %, \
(BRANCH_1)

HYDRATECHECK

LABEL
FROMFILE
HYDRATEFILE
COLUMNHEADER
MEGFORMULA
MEGCONC
APPLYTO

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

HYD_2, \
YES, \
hydMEG10.dat , \
(TEMPERATURE C, PRESSURE BARA), \
OFF, \
10.0 %, \
(BRANCH_1)

The file hyd.dat for this examples is as follows (The temperature entries and the
pressure entries must be unique, and in increasing order)
WRONG:
TEMPERATURE (C)
0.4853
0.4853
3.4717

PRESSURE (BAR)
32.4656
36.7623
35.6277

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Chapter 3: Input File Description, HYDRATECHECK

RIGHT:
TEMPERATURE (C)
0.4853
1.9738
3.4717
4.9768
6.4870
7.9997
9.5125
11.0227
12.5282
14.0272
15.5187
17.0031
18.4827
19.9615
21.4459
22.9438
24.4647
26.0192
27.6184
29.2738
30.9976
32.8023
34.7010

PRESSURE (BAR)
32.4656
36.7623
41.6277
47.1369
53.3754
60.4394
68.4384
77.4959
87.7523
99.3660
112.5168
127.4080
144.2700
163.3636
184.9843
209.4663
237.1885
268.5796
304.1252
344.3751
389.9520
441.5609
500.0000

Chapter 3: Input File Description, INITIALCONDITIONS

Page 235

3.3.29 INITIALCONDITIONS
This statement defines initial conditions for a dynamic calculation. The initial
conditions are given branch-wise and pipe-wise. The total mass flow is defined at
section boundaries while the remaining parameters are given for section volumes.
There are several ways to define initial data, depending on the key STEADYSTATE
in the OPTIONS statement:
1.

STEADYSTATE=OFF (initial conditions not calculated by steady state preprocessor): User defines the pressure, temperature, gas volume fraction,
mass flow, and water volume fraction in the liquid phase for all sections in
each branch.

2.

STEADYSTATE=NOTEMP (initial temperature not calculated by steady state
pre-processor): User defines the temperature for all sections in each branch.

The latter option can be useful if the pre-processor has problems finding a solution.
This implies that the simulation must be run for some time in order to achieve a
steady state solution.
Compositional tracking input such as FEEDMOLEFRACTION can be given for all
settings of STEADYSTATE (in OPTIONS). For STEADYSTATE=ON or NOTEMP,
the given FEEDMOLEFRACTION will be an initial input to the steady state preprocessor.
For Compositional Tracking, Drilling fluid, and MEG Tracking it is possible to specify
the compositional masses in the initial conditions through one or more of the
subkeys CMG, CMHL, CMHD, CMWL and CMWD (STEADYSTATE = OFF). For
Compositional Tracking these values are used as initial input to the steady state
pre-processor if STEADYSTATE = ON or NOTEMP.
In the same initial statement, the compositional masses cannot be specified
together with FEEDNAME, FEEDMASSFRACTION, FEEDMOLEFRACTION,
MEGFRACTION,
VOIDFRACTION,
or
WATERCUT
(including
INMEGFRACTION/OUTMEGFRACTION etc).
There are three ways to specify the compositional masses (N: number of sections,
Z: number of components):
1. For each component in each section: N*Z values. The values are read first
for the first component for all sections, and then the second component for
all sections and so forth.
2. For each component in all sections: Z values. If the number of values in a
subkey is equal to the number of components, the masses are then constant
for all the sections.
3. Interpolation for each component from inlet to outlet section: 2*Z values. If
the number of values in a subkey is equal to twice of the number of the
components, interpolation as given by subkey INTERPOLATION will be
applied.
After the compositional masses are read, the values will be normalized so that the
volume fractions in each section add up to one. For Compositional Tracking the
number and order of components can be found by e.g. pressing the button next to
COMPONENT in the FEED window in the GUI. For MEG Tracking there are three
components in the following order: HC, H2O, MEG. For Drilling fluid there are 15
components with order as specified in Chapter 2 (Drilling option).

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Chapter 3: Input File Description, INITIALCONDITIONS

In order to simplify the input for certain initial condition variables, OLGA can perform
interpolation along pre-defined pipeline segments. Three different interpolation
options are available; HORIZONTAL, LENGTH and VERTICAL. The variable is
specified at the inlet and outlet of the pipeline segment, and the interpolation is
performed based on horizontal length, actual length or vertical depth along the
pipeline. LENGTH is the default option.
Keyword:

INITIALCONDITIONS

Dependencies:

BRANCH, GEOMETRY, OPTIONS, BOUNDARY, FILES,
FEED
Key description table:
Key

Type
Unit: ( )

Parameter set
Default: [ ]

Description

BRANCH

sym.l.

[ALL]

Branch.

CMG

r.l.
(kg/m3)

[0.0]

Component masses in gas phase. Not
applicable if FEEDMASSFRACTION
etc are specified.

CMHL

r.l.
(kg/m3)

[0.0]

Component masses in oil film. The
default value of zero is not used if
FEEDMASSFRACTION etc are
specified instead.

CMHD

r.l.
(kg/m3)

[0.0]

Component masses in oil droplets.
The default value of zero is not used if
FEEDMASSFRACTION etc are
specified instead.

CMWL

r.l.
(kg/m3)

[0.0]

Component masses in water film. The
default value of zero is not used if
FEEDMASSFRACTION etc are
specified instead.

CMWD

r.l.
(kg/m3)

[0.0]

Component masses in water droplets.
The default value of zero is not used if
FEEDMASSFRACTION etc are
specified instead.

FEEDNAME

sym.l.

Label of initial feed to be used for
calculating local fluid compositions in
the branch (from feed file and FEED
keyword). A list means mixing of feeds
for each section in the branch.
Requires COMPOSITIONAL = ON
under the OPTIONS keyword and
access to the compositional module.
Not applicable if component masses
are specified (CMG etc.)

FEEDMASSFRACTION

r.l. (-)

Mass fraction of each feed given in
FEEDNAME. Not applicable if
component masses are specified (CMG
etc.)

FEEDMOLEFRACTION

r.l. (-)

Mole fraction of each feed given in
FEEDNAME. Not applicable if
component masses are specified (CMG
etc.)

Chapter 3: Input File Description, INITIALCONDITIONS

Key

Type
Unit: ( )

Parameter set
Default: [ ]

Page 237

Description

FEEDVOLFRACTION

r.l. (-)

Volume fraction of each feed given in
FEEDNAME (only for Blackoil model)

INMEGFRACTION

r. (-)

INPRESSURE

r. (Pa)

Pressure at inlet to the first pipe in a
pipeline section where interpolation is
used for the pressure.

INTEMPERATURE

r.(oC)

Temperature at inlet to the first pipe in a
pipeline section where interpolation is
used for the temperature.

INTERPOLATION

sym.

INVOIDFRACTION

r.(-)

INWATERCUT

r.(-)

[0.0]

Water cut at inlet to the first pipe in a
pipeline section where interpolation is
used for the water cut.

MASSFLOW

r.l. (kg/s)

[0.0]

Total mass flow at each section
boundary. Note that the number of
entries is equal to number of sections
plus 1.

MEGFRACTION

r.l. (-)

[0.0]

Mass fraction of MEG in water phase in
each section.

OUTMEGFRACTION

r. (-)

[0.0]

Mass fraction of MEG in water phase at
outlet of last pipe in a pipeline section
where interpolation is used.

OUTPRESSURE

r. (Pa)

-

Pressure at outlet of last pipe in a
pipeline section where interpolation is
used for pressure.

OUTTEMPERATURE

r. (oC)

-

Temperature at outlet of last pipe in a
pipeline section where interpolation is
used for temperature.

OUTVOIDFRACTION

r. (-)

-

Void fraction at outlet of last pipe in a
pipeline section where interpolation is
used for void fraction.

OUTWATERCUT

r. (-)

[0.0]

Water cut at outlet of last pipe in a
pipeline section where interpolation is
used for water cut.

[0.0]

HORIZONTAL
| [LENGTH] |
VERTICAL

Mass fraction of MEG in water phase at
inlet to the first pipe in a pipeline section
where interpolation is used for MEG
fraction.

Type of interpolation used for
calculation of initial conditions.
Void fraction at inlet to the first pipe in a
pipeline section where interpolation is
used for the void fraction.

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Chapter 3: Input File Description, INITIALCONDITIONS

Key

Type
Unit: ( )

Parameter set
Default: [ ]

PIPE

sym.l.

[ALL]

Pipe label or pipe number. If a range of
pipes is to be defined, e.g., from pipe 1
to pipe 10, pipe number must be given
as: PIPE = (1-10), with a dash between
the two numbers. If there is a comma
between two pipe numbers or labels,
for example, PIPE = (1,10) or PIPE =
(PIPE_1,PIPE_10), that means the
value will be defined for pipe 1 and pipe
10, not the pipes from 2 to 9.

PRESSURE

r.l. (Pa)

-

Initial pressure in each section.

REFPRESSURE

r.(Pa)

SECTION

i.l.

[ALL]

TEMPERATURE

r.l. (°C)

-

Section volume or section boundary.
Initial temperature in each section.

VOIDFRACTION

r.l.(-)

-

Initial void fraction in each section.

WATERCUT

r.l.(-)

[0.0]

Initial water cut in each section. This
key can be given a value different from
0.0 only if the water option is available.
Non-zero values are ignored for twophase simulations, even if the water
option is available.

Required keys:

Description

Reference pressure used if no pressure
b.c. and no wells are used. To be given
for one section only for one branch, and
only if STEADYSTATE=ON or
NOTEMP in keyword OPTIONS. Keeps
the pressure constant at the given
section throughout the simulation.

None

Internal dependencies of keys:
If no PRESSURE boundary conditions or WELLs are given (e.g. SOURCE in and SOURCE
out) and STEADYSTATE = ON or NOTEMP in keyword OPTIONS, then
REFPRESSURE
BRANCH
PIPE
SECTION

= 50 bara
=1
=1
=1

Note: Can only define the reference pressure at one section in one branch
end if
If the initial conditions are to be defined by user, (STEADYSTATE = OFF in keyword
OPTIONS), then
BRANCH
PIPE
SECTION
either
INPRESSURE
OUTPRESSURE
or
PRESSURE

= [ALL]
= [ALL]
= [ALL]
= 1.5e+7 [Pa]
= 5E+6 [Pa]
= (3 : 7E + 6, 2: 6E + 6) [Pa]

! 5 sections

Chapter 3: Input File Description, INITIALCONDITIONS

Page 239

or
PRESSURE

= (7E + 6) [Pa]

! One value enough if same for all sections

end
correspondingly for TEMPERATURE, VOIDFRACTION and WATERCUT
MASSFLOW

= (6:50.0) [kg/s]

! 6 section boundaries

else if only the initial temperature are to be defined by user, (STEADYSTATE = NOTEMP or
TEMPERATURE = OFF in keyword OPTIONS), then
BRANCH
PIPE
SECTION

= [ALL]
= [ALL]
= [ALL]

either
INTEMPERATURE = 100 [C]
OUTTEMPERATURE = 10 [C]
or
TEMPERATURE
= (5: 10.0) [C]
end
endif
if the compositional tracking module is used
either ! Branch-wise specification of initial composition
FEEDNAME
= (FEED-1, FEED-2)
! Mixing of two feeds for each
either
! section in the branch
FEEDMASSFRACTION = (0.5, 0.5)
! Gives initial value to pre-processor
or
FEEDMOLEFRACTION = (0.5, 0.5)
end
either
INVOIDFRACTION
= 1.5e+7 [Pa]
OUTVOIDFRACTION
= 5E+6 [Pa]
or
VOIDFRACTION
= (5 : 7E + 6) [Pa] ! 5 sections
end
correspondingly for WATERCUT
or ! Section-wise specification of initial composition masses
either ! Specify for each component in each section
CMG = (0.1, 0.1, 0.1, 0.2, 0.2, 0.2)
! Two components; first component is 0.1
! in all 3 sections, second is 0.2
or ! Specify for each component, all sections
CMG = (0.1, 0.2) ! Two components; first component is 0.1, second is 0.2, for
all
! number of sections
or ! Specify for each component, interpolate between inlet and outlet section
INTERPOLATION = [LENGTH]
CMG = (0.1, 0.11, 0.2, 0.19)
! Two components; first component is
! interpolated between 0.1 and 0.11
end
correspondingly for CMHL, CMHD, CMWL and CMWD
end
else if the MEG tracking module is used
either ! Branch-wise specification of initial composition
either
MEGFRACTION = 5:0.4
or
INMEGFRACTION
= 0.6
OUTMEGFRACTION
= 0.3
end

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Chapter 3: Input File Description, INITIALCONDITIONS

correspondingly for WATERCUT and VOIDFRACTION
or ! Section-wise specification of initial composition masses
either ! Specify for each component in each section
CMG = (0.1, 0.1, 0.2, 0.2, 0.3, 0.3)
! Three components (HC, H2O and MEG)
! HC is 0.1 in both 2 sections, etc
or ! Specify for each component, all sections
CMG = (0.1, 0.2, 0,3)
! HC, H2O and MEG; HC is 0.1, H2O is 0.2,
! MEG is 0.3 for all number of sections
or ! Specify for each component, interpolate between inlet and outlet section
INTERPOLATION = [LENGTH]
CMG = (0.1, 0.11, 0.2, 0.19, 0.3, 0.29) ! HC, H2O and MEG; HC is
! interpolated between 0.1 and 0.11
end
correspondingly for CMHL, CMHD, CMWL and CMWD
end
end if
else if the Drilling fluid is used
either ! Branch-wise specification of initial composition
either
INVOIDFRACTION
= 1.5e+7 [Pa]
OUTVOIDFRACTION
= 5E+6 [Pa]
or
VOIDFRACTION
= (5 : 7E + 6) [Pa] ! 5 sections
end
correspondingly for WATERCUT
or ! Section-wise specification of initial composition masses
either ! Specify for each component in each section
CMG = (0.1, 0.1, 0.2, 0.2, ..., 1.5, 1.5) ! 15 components (HC, etc)
! HC is 0.1 in both 2 sections, etc
or ! Specify for each component, all sections
CMG = (0.1, 0.2, ..., 1.5) ! 15 components; HC is 0.1, H2O is 0.2,
! CUTTING is 1.5 etc for all number of sections
or ! Specify for each component, interpolate between inlet and outlet section
INTERPOLATION = [LENGTH]
CMG = (0.1, 0.11, 0.2, 0.19, ..., 1.5, 1.55)
! 15 components; HC is
! interpolated between 0.1 and 0.11
end
correspondingly for CMHL, CMHD, CMWL and CMWD
end
else if the Black oil module is used
FEEDNAME
= (BO-1, BO-2)
FEEDVOLFRACTION
= (0.2, 0.8)
end if

\ MASSFLOW = (0.). TEMPERATURE = (3:5. TEMPERATURE = WALL !*************************************************************************** ! Definition for INITIAL CONDITIONS !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! INITIALCONDITIONS BRANCH = BRAN-1. FEED-2).. PIPE-5).5. WATERCUT = (12:0) INITIALCONDITIONS BRANCH = BRAN-2. \ CMG = (0.1.265E+08). MASSFLOW = 10.5).\ PRESSURE = (0. \ INTERPOLATION = VERTICAL. 58. STEADYSTATE = OFF. MASSFLOW = (8:0. 2 components. PIPE = (PIPE-1.)..12. TEMPERATURE = (5.108E+08). WATERCUT = (7:0) INITIALCONDITIONS BRANCH = BRAN-3.95E+07. VOIDFRACTION = (12:0.99). VOIDFRACTION = (0.).\ TEMPERATURE = (5.5) Example 3 (Compositional Tracking.11.9E+02). FEEDMASSFRACTION = (0.195E+08.19. 0. 2:65. branch-wise. WATERCUT = 0. \ FEEDNAME = (FEED-1.).2 !*************************************************************************** Example 2 (Compositional Tracking.9E+02).9E+02) . default value zero) INITIALCONDITIONS BRANCH = "BRANCH-2".18). PRESSURE = (12:0.108E+08). \ FEEDNAME = (FEED-1.0.). 10 : 55). 2:0. 2:0. all initial conditions given): !*************************************************************************** ! OPTIONS STEADYSTATE = OFF. WATERCUT = (0) Example 4 (Compositional Tracking.9E+02).0. PRESSURE = (0. \ PRESSURE = (0.5. 2:45. COMPOSITIONAL = ON !*************************************************************************** ! Definition for INITIAL CONDITIONS !--------------------------------------------------------------------------INITIALCONDITIONS BRANCH = "BRANCH-2".2).99). COMPOSITIONAL = ON !*************************************************************************** ! Definition for INITIAL CONDITIONS !--------------------------------------------------------------------------INITIALCONDITIONS BRANCH = "BRANCH-2".2.Chapter 3: Input File Description. FEED-2). FEEDMASSFRACTION = (0. INPRESSURE = 300 bara.0. initial guess to preprocessor): !*************************************************************************** ! OPTIONS STEADYSTATE = ON.108E+08).0.\ TEMPERATURE = (12:5.\ VOIDFRACTION = (7:1. INITIALCONDITIONS Page 241 Examples: Example 1 (all initial conditions defined by user): !*************************************************************************** ! Setting Calculation Options !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! OPTIONS POSTPROCESSOR = ON.1080E+08.0. 0. COMPOSITIONAL = ON !*************************************************************************** ! Definition for INITIAL CONDITIONS !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! 3 sections. TEMPERATURE = (60. component masses given for each section ! only gas (CMHL etc not specified. branch-wise.\ MASSFLOW = (0. section-wise.\ VOIDFRACTION = (12 : 0. all initial conditions given): !*************************************************************************** ! OPTIONS STEADYSTATE = OFF.\ MASSFLOW = (13:0.\ OUTPRESSURE = 100 bara.\ 2:0.

3. If STARTTIME is not specified in a restart case. all data except ENDTIME can be read from the restart file.5. The thermal mass of the cells in a soil group can be set to a very small value for a period of time with the SOILINIT key. .l. (s) if DEBUG = ON [100] else [10] - STARTTIME r. Period from start with minimal thermal mass in soil cells Note! In a restart case. (s) [0. (s) - Simulation end time. (s) [1e7] If in restart: [Same as for precedent run] CPU time limit for the simulation.Page 242 Chapter 3: Input File Description.l. SOIL. The simulation stops when the signal from the controller is zero. - Name of the controller for conditional termination of the simulation CPULIMIT r. ENDTIME r. STARTTIME must be less or equal to ENDTIME in the preceding case. (s) [0. (s) If in restart: [Same as for precedent run] Minimum integration time step table. (s) - Simulation start time. A controller can be used to setup conditional stop of the simulation before the end of simulation time. MINTIME r. STARTTIME will be set equal to TIME read from the restart file.4. MAXDT r. This can be used to quickly reach a steady state. Keyword: INTEGRATION Dependencies: RESTART.l. OPTION (key DEBUG). CONTROLLER Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description ENDCONTROLLER sym. MAXTIME r.0]If in restart: [Same as for precedent run] Timepoint table for changing MINDT NSIMINFO i. (-) Number of times to print simulation progress info to standard output SOILINIT r.l. DTSTART r. INTEGRATION 3. Data for the time step control and CPU time limit are also given.0] If in restart: [Same as for precedent run] Timepoint table for changing MAXDT MINDT r.30 INTEGRATION This statement defines start and end times of the simulation. (s) If in restart: [Same as for precedent run] Maximum integration time step table. See also section 2. (s) If in restart: [DT of last time step in precedent run] First time step used in the integration.

\ DTSTART = 0.Chapter 3: Input File Description. Value for MAXDT and MINDT can be given as a time series with timepoints for changing MAXDT and MINDT given by time tables MAXTIME and MINTIME. . INTEGRATION Page 243 DTSTART is not required in a restart case.1E-01. !*************************************************************************** . ENDTIME. MINDT. then SOILINIT = 10 [s] endif Example: !*************************************************************************** ! Integration !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! INTEGRATION STARTTIME = 0.4E+05. as default value is equal to timestep read from the restart file. MINDT = 0. .108E+06. CPULIMIT = 0. NSIMINFO Internal dependencies of keys: If soil module is used.1E-01. MAXDT. . Required keys: STARTTIME. DTSTART. ENDTIME = 0. MAXDT = 5.

. BRANCH sym.1>. Both sub-critical and critical flow is modelled. BACKPRESSURE cannot be defined as the backpressure is equal to the section defined in TOPOSITION). It can also be used to model interconnections in the model. Pressure in GLV bellows (dome) at REFTEMPERATURE.31 LEAK This statement specifies a negative mass source (mass out of the pipe). there will be no backflow if section pressure is lower than the backpressure. For option 2 backflow is not allowed if GASLIFTTABLES is used (to define a gas lift valve/GLV). that is. (-) - For TEMPDEPENDENCY = ON. CONTROLLER sym. (Pa) - Leak back pressure. BACKPRESSURE r. Note: GASLIFTTTABLES can also be used for option 1. (Pa) - For TEMPDEPENDENCY = ON. LEAKs have two main functionalities: 1.3.8 for information about GLV’s. BELLOWSPRESSURE r. The leak is positioned in the middle of the section that is specified. POSITION. and interpolation for <0. Backflow is not allowed for option 1. - Branch with the leak. It can be used to model a valve or rupture where the mass out of the pipe is removed from the simulated system. used for a temperature dependent GLV. [0. LEAK 3. Keyword: LEAK Dependencies: BRANCH. where the mass out of one section is transferred to mass into another section (requires the key TOPOSITION. CD r.3. CONTROLLER Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description ALFA r. the mass is lost to the surroundings (requires the key BACKPRESSURE) 2.l. but the sign of the flow variables is negative for both flow directions. GEOMETRY.84] Discharge coefficient. that is. Controller label for relative leak flow area. Backflow is allowed if CD/DIAMETER/CONTROLLER is used instead.4. 1 means the production temperature. label or number. See chapter 2. 0 means that the bellows temperature equals the injection temperature.Page 244 Chapter 3: Input File Description. Constant used for a temperature dependent GLV.

When this key is used. [Integer increment] Leak label. PIPE.Chapter 3: Input File Description. default is leak number.l. (s) - Time points for BACKPRESSURE. Used for a temperature dependent GLV. TOPOSITION sym. and SECTION should not be used. GASLIFTTABLES sym. PIPE sym. (m) - Maximum equivalent diameter of leak area. - Section boundary where the leak is located. BACKPRESSURE. The temperature for which the gas lift response curve is defined. Specifies whether a GLV is operated by injection pressure or production pressure. GLVOPERATION. Geometry factor used for a temperature dependent GLV. REFTEMPERATURE r (C) - For TEMPDEPENDENCY = ON. R r (-) - For TEMPDEPENDENCY = ON. - Position where the leak is located. LEAK Key CRITFLOWMODEL Page 245 Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] sym. POSITION sym. [OFF] | ON Specifies the temperature dependency for a GLV: OFF: No temperature dependency ON: Temperature dependency for a nitrogen charged bellow. label or number. - Pipe with the leak. In addition. SECTION i. BRANCH. Homogenous frozen critical flow model or Henry-Fauske model. If POSITION is defined. R and REFTEMPERATURE must be specified TIME r. DIAMETER r. GLVOPERATION sym [INJOPERATED] | PRODOPERATED For TEMPDEPENDENCY = ON. LABEL str. . - Names of tables (defined in keyword TABLE) that define the curves for a GLV. Subkeys ALFA. TEMPDEPENDENCY sym. BELLOWPRESSURE.l. a forced subcritical option is available. - Refer to position the leak is targeted to. the following sub-keys cannot be defined: TIME. [FROZEN] | HENRYFAUSKE | SUBCRITICAL Description Choice of critical flow model to be used.

Page 246 Chapter 3: Input File Description.2E+06. PIPE = 1.\ CONTROLLER = C-503 !*************************************************************************** Example 3: LEAK from one section to another by using GLV (no temperature dependency) !*************************************************************************** ! Leak Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! LEAK LABEL = LEAK-1-1. \ TEMPDEPENDENCY = OFF !*************************************************************************** . BRANCH = 1.1 REFTEMPERATURE = 100 C end if end Example: Example 1: LEAK from pipe to surrondings !*************************************************************************** ! Leak Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! LEAK LABEL = LEAK-1-1.1 ! Flow defined by GASLIFTTABLES for a GLV GASLIFTTABLES = (GLVTABLE-1.1779.\ TOPOSITION = DOWNSTREAM-LEAK. BACKPRESSURE = 0. GLVTAB-2).\ CD = 1. GASLIFTTABLES = (GLVTAB-1. GLVTABLE-2) if TEMPDEPENDENCY = ON then ALFA =0 BELLOWSPRESSURE = 50 bara GLVOPERATION = [INJOPERATED] R = 0. SECTION = 4. TIME = 0. SECTION = 4. SECTION = 4. DIAMETER = 0..1779.\ CD = 1.. PIPE = 1. BRANCH = 1.84] CONTROLLER = CONTR-1 DIAMETER = 0. PIPE = 1. DIAMETER = 0. LEAK Required keys: LABEL Internal dependencies of keys: Either BRANCH PIPE SECTION =1 =1 =1 POSITION = POSITION-1 or end Either TIME =0 BACKPRESSURE = 70 bara or TOPOSITION = POSITION-2 end Either or ! Flow through leak defined by parameters CD = [0.\ CONTROLLER = C-503 !*************************************************************************** Example 2: LEAK from one section to another by using CD/DIAMETER/CONTROLLER !*************************************************************************** ! Leak Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! LEAK LABEL = LEAK-1-1. TOPOSITION = DOWNSTREAM-LEAK. BRANCH = 1.

\ TOPOSITION = DOWNSTREAM-LEAK. GASLIFTTABLES = (GLVTAB-1. LEAK Page 247 Example 4: LEAK from one section to another by using GLV (with temperature dependency) !*************************************************************************** ! Leak Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! LEAK LABEL = LEAK-1-1. BRANCH = 1. R = 0. SECTION = 4.Chapter 3: Input File Description. ALFA = 0.1. . \ TEMPDEPENDENCY = ON. . . GLVTAB-2). \ GLVOPERATION = INJOPERATED. PIPE = 1. REFTEMPERATURE = 100 C !*************************************************************************** . BELLOWPRESSURE = 50 BARA.

Keyword: LINE Dependencies: MATERIAL Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] LABEL str. WALL Internal dependencies of keys: either RADIUS FLUIDMATERIAL = 0. (W/m²°C) [Calculated by OLGA] Inner surface heat transfer coefficient for the line OUTERHVALUE r. The user can specify the dimension of the line. Only SHAPEs of type CIRCLE is implemented. LINE 3. - Name/label of the material that gives the fluid properties. The same applies for the outer surface heat transfer coefficient. [Integer increment] Name of line FLUIDMATERIAL sym.3. (W/m²°C) [Calculated by OLGA] Outer surface heat transfer coefficient for the line WALL sym.32 LINE This group defines a bundle line. RADIUS r. the material data for the fluid it transports and the thermal characteristics of the wall. Required keys: LABEL.5 [m] = MAT_1 SHAPE = CIRCLE_1 or end Description . The inner surface heat transfer coefficient can either be determined by OLGA heat transfer correlations or specified by users. - Name/label of wall that gives the wall thermal properties SHAPE sym - Name/label of shape. (m) - Internal radius of the line INNERHVALUE r.Page 248 Chapter 3: Input File Description.

\ WALL = Steel-wall. cm. RADIUS = 10.5 cm. FLUIDMATERIAL = (FL-6) . TYPE=CIRCLE. RADIUS = 8. RADIUS=41 cm ! *************************************************************************** ! LINE definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! LINE LABEL = "TANNULUS". SHAPE=SHAPE-1. \ FLUIDMATERIAL = (FL-1) ! LINE LABEL = "RETURN-1".\ WALL = Steel-wall. INNERHVALUE = 15.Chapter 3: Input File Description. LINE Page 249 Example: !*************************************************************************** ! SHAPE Definition !*************************************************************************** SHAPE LABEL=SHAPE-1.\ WALL = Steel-wall ! LINE LABEL = "AUXLINE". MATERIAL=FL-19..

- Loss coefficient when the flow is in negative direction. - Loss coefficient when the flow is in positive direction. - Pipe number with pressure loss. U J J+ 1 EXPANSION A. PIPE sym. [Integer increment] Loss label. Keyword: LOSS Dependencies: BRANCH. POSCOEFF r. U' Figure 3. U' J-1 A. NEGCOEFF r. Section boundary where pressure loss is located. . - SECTIONBOUNDARY i.Page 250 Chapter 3: Input File Description. POSITION sym. J-1 Description J+ 1 J CONTRACTION A'. - Position where the pressure loss is located. LOSS 3. contractions.33 LOSS This statement defines pressure loss due to valves. bends. - Branch number with pressure loss.3. expansions or other obstructions in or between pipes. POSITION Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] BRANCH sym.3 An illustration of the use of loss coefficients for contraction and expansion. LABEL str. GEOMETRY. U A'.

NEGCOEF = 0. \ POSCOEF = 0.1.1. SECTIONBOUNDARY = 19. NEGCOEF = 0.50E-01 LOSS LABEL = LOSS-3. . PIPE = 3. SECTIONBOUNDARY = 6. \ POSCOEF = 0.50E-01 LOSS LABEL = LOSS-2. NEGCOEF = 0.Chapter 3: Input File Description. SECTIONBOUNDARY = 1. BRANCH = 1. ρ U A′  A′ The contraction pressure loss that is always included in OLGA is: ∆p = - 1  A  ∆P =  1 .1. POSCOEFF. LOSS Page 251 The expansion pressure recovery that is always included in OLGA is: A A 2  1. . BRANCH = 1. BRANCH = 1. NEGCOEFF Internal dependencies of keys: Either BRANCH PIPE SECTIONBOUNDARY =1 =1 =1 POSITION = POSITION-1 or end Example: !*************************************************************************** ! Loss Coefficient Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! LOSS LABEL = LOSS-1.50E-01 ! !*************************************************************************** . . PIPE = 10. PIPE = 15.  2   A′  2   ρU2  The additional loss specified by the user for positive flow is: ∆P = 1 POSC(J)ρ U 2 2 The additional loss specified by the user for negative flow is: ∆P = 1 NEGC(J)ρ U 2 2 Required keys: LABEL. \ POSCOEF = 0.

DENSITY.(Ns/m2) - Required keys: Description Dynamic viscosity of fluid material LABEL. If the fluid is a gas at low pressure (< 100 bar) natural convection will have less influence on the heat transfer rate and radiation will become important as well. Keyword: MATERIAL Dependencies: OPTIONS Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] CAPACITY r. CAPACITY.E-04 = YES or NO = 0. MATERIAL 3. CONDUCTIVITY. Radiation is included in heat transfer calculation by setting RADIATION = YES.79 (oxided steel) = 0. natural convection will be significant for the heat transfer rate.) Stefan-Boltzmann's law for long concentric cylinders is used to calculate the heat transfer rate. pipeline coating. The heat transfer rate due to radiation is neglectable if one or both of the emissivities are small. By choosing TYPE = FLUID.07 (polished surface) = 0. The viscosity and expansion coefficient of the fluid must then be given. TYPE Internal dependencies of keys: if (TYPE = FLUID) then EXPANSION RADIATION if (RADIATION = YES) then INNEREMISSIVITY OUTEREMISSIVITY end if VISCOSITY end if = 1.9E-5 . (J/kg°C) - Thermal capacity of the material. [0. DENSITY r. OLGA will calculate the natural convection.Page 252 Chapter 3: Input File Description. (High emissivity means low reflectivity. EXPANSION r. CONDUCTIVITY r. INNEREMISSIVITY and OUTEREMISSIVITY must then be specified. If a fluid is enclosed between two concentric cylinders. (W/mK) - Thermal conductivity of the material.] RADIATION sym YES | [NO] TYPE sym [SOLID] | FLUID Emissivity of outer surface of fluid layer =NO: No radiation across fluid layer =YES: Radiation across fluid layer Type of wall material =SOLID: Normal wall layer material =FLUID: Stagnant fluid material VISCOSITY r.34 MATERIAL This statement specifies physical properties of the materials associated with the pipe wall. (1/°C) - Expansion coefficient of fluid layer INNEREMISSIVITY r.] Emissivity of inside surface of fluid layer LABEL str.3. (kg/m3) - Density of the material. - Material label OUTEREMISSIVITY r [0. insulation and soil.

.07 !*************************************************************************** . CAPACITY = 2000. DENSITY = 0. . CAPACITY = 0.0. DENSITY = 1. OUTEREMISSIVITY = 0.187 MATERIAL LABEL = MATER-3. MATERIAL LABEL = MATER-2.6E+03. CAPACITY = 0. DENSITY = 0.23E+04.65E+03. \ CONDUCTIVITY = 0.1 MATERIAL LABEL = GAS. \ RADIATION = YES.79.\ CONDUCTIVITY = 48.Chapter 3: Input File Description.\ CONDUCTIVITY = 0.E-04. DENSITY = 0. EXPANSION = 1. \ TYPE = FLUID. MATERIAL Page 253 Example: !*************************************************************************** ! MATERIAL Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! MATERIAL LABEL = MATER-1.78E+04. . CAPACITY = 0.15E+04.15E+04.9E-5. VISCOSITY = 0. CAPACITY = 0. INNEREMISSIVITY = 0.45E+03. .\ CONDUCTIVITY = 0. DENSITY = 0.024.1E+04.\ CONDUCTIVITY = 1.202E-01 MATERIAL LABEL = MATER-4.

X = 0. NUMBER i. Keyword: NODE Dependencies: NONE Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] LABEL str. Y.3. SPLIT: Nodes or junctions that have more than one outgoing branch. section boundary 3 if 2 sections) of the last branch of the branches going into a SPLIT node. since the last section volume is used as the control volume for the SPLIT node. X r. NODE 3.(m) [0] Y-co-ordinate of the node. heatexchanger) can be defined at the last section boundary (e.35 NODE This statement defines the nodes in a single branch or a network. Y r.g. Y = 0 !*************************************************************************** . TYPE sym. MERGE: Nodes or junctions where different branches are connected. Of the same reason no process equipment can be defined on the first section boundary of the branch coming from a MERGE node.(m) [0] Z-co-ordinate of the node. valve. X = 0.] or end Examples: Example 1: Single branch !*************************************************************************** ! NODE Definitions !--------------------------------------------------------------------------NODE LABEL = INLET. Y = 0 NODE LABEL = OUTLET.(m) [0] X-co-ordinate of the node. Required keys: Description TYPE. Z Internal dependencies of keys: either LABEL = NODE-1 NUMBER = [nr. TYPE = TERMINAL. [Integer increment] Node number. X. TYPE = TERMINAL. TERMINAL | MERGE | SPLIT Type of the node. Z r.2E+02. Note that no process equipment (e.g. TERMINAL: Inlet or outlet nodes.Page 254 Chapter 3: Input File Description. - Node label.

Y = 0. TYPE = MERGE. TYPE = TERMINAL.48E+04.. Z = 0 NODE LABEL = NODE-6.\ Z = 310. TYPE = TERMINAL. X = 1862.6 NODE LABEL = NODE-2. X = 1862..4E+03.6 NODE LABEL = NODE-4. Y = 0. Y = -2318.\ Z = -310. TYPE = SPLIT.5E+03.. Y = 0. Z = 0 NODE LABEL = NODE-5. X = 0.25E+04.\ Z = 0 . TYPE = TERMINAL.\ Z = -100 NODE LABEL = NODE-7. Y = -2318.Chapter 3: Input File Description.\ Z = 0 NODE LABEL = NODE-3. X = 0.. X = 0. Y = -2318..24E+04. X = 1779.. TYPE = TERMINAL. X = 0. NODE Page 255 Example 2: Network !*************************************************************************** ! NODE Definitions !--------------------------------------------------------------------------NODE LABEL = NODE-1. TYPE = TERMINAL.48E+04. Y = 0.

mass conservation equations. DEBUG sym. [ON] | OFF Turn on or off postprocessor. PHASE sym. MEG tracking. will be as for a normal simulation with slip. In circumstances with no or little flow this option may give leveling of the temperatures in vertical or near vertical pipeline sections. three phase flow) can be used only if the water module is available. total water fraction and waterfraction in keywords like SOURCE. LIMITED gives the same warnings as ON except for the fluid table warnings. The other calculations. With DEBUG = OFF. ON | [OFF] Set it to ON for simulation drilling process NOSLIP sym. IF option THREE is not used. ON | [OFF] | LIMITED Turn on or off printing of time step information to standard output and output file.36 OPTIONS This statement specifies the different calculating options to be applied in the simulation. POSTPROCESSOR sym. non-zero values for watercut.3. . ON | [OFF] | MEG|BLACKOIL Turn on Compositional tracking. the code will print an edited summary of the calculated results. ON | [OFF] Option for selecting axial heat redistribution by means of thermally driven natural/free convection. Option THREE (i. The no-slip option is implemented in both the steady state pre-processor and in the dynamic code. [SINTEF] | AIR Option for selecting correlations for determining gas volume fraction in liquid slugs. etc.Page 256 Chapter 3: Input File Description. will stop the simulation even if the water module is available. GAS | LIQUID | [TWO] | THREE Defines the number of phases / nature of phase to be simulated.e. only a summary of the warning messages regarding the fluid file is written to the screen. etc. WELL. DRILLING sym. COMPOSITIONAL sym. SLUGVOID sym.. Keyword: OPTIONS Dependencies: NONE Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description AXIALHEAT sym. or Black oil model. OPTIONS 3. mass transfer. ON | [OFF] OFF: Slip between phases is calculated (recommended) ON: Should only be used for sensitivity simulations. The gas and liquid (oil and water) is treated as one single homogenized phase in the pressure drop and momentum calculations. If the output post processor is turned on.

wall heat conduction and heat storage is accounted for. OFF: No temperature calculation. [ON] | OFF | NOTEMP Turn off the initial value (steady state) preprocessor or only turn off the temperature calculation in the pre-processor. [WALL] | ADIABATIC | UGIVEN | FASTWALL | OFF | Specify the desired temperature calculation option. OFF: Max./max. This was how it was done in v4. UGIVEN: Total heat transfer coefficient for pipewall is given. values defined in the tables (recommended). pressure in the tables. is 110% of the max.Chapter 3: Input File Description. allowed pressure/temperature are the same as the max. value./min. ADIABATIC: No energy exchange with walls. pressure./min. but should only be used when old PVT files with too narrow pressure/temperature range cannot be reproduced and improved. TABLETOLERANCE sym. allowed pressure is 50% of the min. WALL: Heat transfer on wall inside and outside./max. FASTWALL: The same as option WALL except for the heat storage which is neglected. No wall temperatures are calculated. ./max temperature in the tables -/+ half the distance to the nearest point. Only enthalpy and entropy are extrapolated. ON | [OFF] Defines the maximum and minimum pressure and temperature allowed in the simulation. This option is used for a fast approach to steady state thermal conditions. Adiabatic flow is assumed. OPTIONS Key Page 257 Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description STEADYSTATE sym. min. based on the PVT fluid tables. max. the other properties stay constant equal to the min. WAXDEPOSITION sym. ON: Min.16 and older versions. ON|[OFF] Switch for using wax deposition model. initial values used for temperature. TEMPERATURE sym. allowed temperature is the min.

Note: If PHASE = GAS or LIQUID. TEMPERATURE = WALL !*************************************************************************** . a single phase simulation is carried out and the boundary condition and PVT-data must be defined so that the correct phase is present. . Example 2: !*************************************************************************** ! Setting Calculation Options !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! OPTIONS STEADYSTATE = OFF. POSTPROCESSOR = ON. . .\ DEBUG = ON. TEMPERATURE = ADIABATIC.Page 258 Required keys: Chapter 3: Input File Description. STEADYSTATE = OFF. OPTIONS All (default values can be used) Internal dependencies of keys: NONE Examples: Example 1: !*************************************************************************** ! Setting Calculation Options !--------------------------------------------------------------------------!Note! Keys not given will take default values. . . ! OPTIONS POSTPROCESSOR = ON.\ PHASE = GAS !*************************************************************************** .

l. ON | [OFF] All output variables defined before this key will be deleted from the list of output variables. SECTION i. COLUMNS i. - Pipe label or number.Chapter 3: Input File Description.l.l. - Section volume or section boundary number. SOILROW i.l. or one value is given. must not be greater than 6. INTEGRATION. [4] Number of variable columns per page.(s) - Times at which time intervals between printing of output is changed. - List of variables to be printed.3. DELETEPREVIOUS sym. Must be specified together with SOILCOLUMN. one value must be given for DTOUT.l. Also the printed output page width is specified. PIPE sym. - Column of soil cells that TSOIL is printed for. If TIME is not specified. Keyword: OUTPUT Dependencies: BRANCH. also those read from restart file. The time interval is changed at the times specified in key TIME.l. Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description BRANCH sym. Units may be included in the list. GRID. Printout of soil temperature for selected cells is possible if the soil module is available. TIME r.l.37 OUTPUT This statement defines the time intervals for printed output of the simulation results. SOILCOLUMN i. . - Branch number or label. and this value will be used for the entire simulation. DTOUT r. The available variables are listed in Appendix A. VARIABLE sym. OUTPUT Page 259 3. SOIL. Must be specified together with SOILROW. the section volumes or boundaries for which a set of variables is to be printed and the desired variables. - ROW of soil cell that TSOIL is printed for.(s) - Time intervals between printing of output.l. OPTIONS PIPE.

. T=7200s. TM. OUTPUT Required keys: DTOUT. MD. UG. GD. . Example 2: !*************************************************************************** ! Output Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! OUTPUT DTOUT = 0. DTOUT = (7200. UD. Q2) !*************************************************************************** .… and T=ENDTIME . VOL) !*************************************************************************** .144E+05. ROL. ID. UG. ROG. VARIABLE Internal dependencies of keys: If DTOUT should be changed during simulation. AL. COLUMNS = 3 OUTPUT BRANCH = 1 OUTPUT VARIABLE = (UL. Example 3: !*************************************************************************** ! ! OUTPUT DTOUT = 5h. PT. DPT.\ HOL. then SOILROW SOILCOLUMN = (2. AL. PSID.. 3600. RETOT. 4) = (UL. BOU. SOILCOLUMN = (1. RMTOT. DS. SOILCOLUMN = (6-9) . UG) endif If else endif Examples: Example 1: !*************************************************************************** ! Output Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! OUTPUT TIME = (0.20) OUTPUT VARIABLE = TSOIL. T=10800s. DPT. then TIME DTOUT = (0. WG. TW. BE. This will produce output at T=0s.. ID. COLUMNS. 3600) VARIABLE = TSOIL. ML. 2. \ SOILROW = 5. \ SOILROW = 1. 7200) = (7200.. PSI.Page 260 Chapter 3: Input File Description. PSIE.8) BRANCH VARIABLE = (1. BOU. UD.). GG.). GL. CONTR. . RMTOT. TM. 3. WL. COLUMNS = 4 OUTPUT BRANCH = 1 OUTPUT BRANCH = 2 OUTPUT BRANCH = 3 OUTPUT BRANCH = 4 OUTPUT VARIABLE = (UL. 7200. 4) = (3 . COL = 4 OUTPUT VARIABLE = TSOIL.\ PT. PSI.. GA.\ MG.

It is not allowed to have a node. Also. it is not allowed to have the launch and trap position in the first and last section of a branch. Described in section 2. - Position for pig launch. (Ns/m) - Friction factor coefficient for friction of fluid film between pig and pipe wall. and 1. LINEARFRIC r.3. The following approach is recommended when using the pig tracking model. PIGTRACKING 3.0] Leakage opening relative to pipe cross section area. this only works for PLUG. . pump or compressor between the launch and trap position. this pig will be slug number two.Page 261 Chapter 3: Input File Description. OLGA contains a coupled pig and slug tracking model. respectively. named pig tracking. - Pig label MASS r. Do not use the slug tracking option.(-) [0. If a new pig is inserted after the first pig has been removed. LEAKDPCOEF r. - Pig leakage factor.38 PIGTRACKING This statement defines the pig tracking option. The second first is not allowed if the inlet is connected to a merge or split node. The slug can now be tracked through the usual slug tracking variables. - Position for pig trap Wall friction factor for freely moving pig. Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description INSERTTIME r. LEAKAGEFACTOR r. Leakage factor = 0. Corresponds to no fluid leaking through the pig.2. (N) - Force necessary to tear pig loose from the wall. [∞] Pressure loss coefficient measured by letting the fluid flow past a pig that is fixed to the pipe wall. This model is additional to the pig model under the PLUG keyword. This combined model is capable of tracking the pig itself and the front of the liquid slug ahead of the pig. or turn off both options for generating liquid slugs (level and hydrodynamic) in the keyword SLUGTRACKING.6 LEAKOPENING r. (Ns2/m2) STATICFORCE r. and the first pig will be slug number one. LAUNCHPOSITION sym. separator. and the two models should not be used simultaneously.0 corresponds to all fluid leaking through the pig. (kg) - Pig mass QUADRATICFRI r. TRAPPOSITION sym. and the second last is not allowed if the outlet is connected to a split node as the last branch. LABEL str. (s) - Time point for insertion of pig.

0 [Ns2/m2] either LEAKAGEFACTOR = [0] or LEAKDPCOEF = [∞] or LEAKOPENING = [0. INSERTTIME = 0. TRAPPOSITION.1E+03.14E+03. STATICFORCE. LAUNCHPOSITION = PIGSTART-1. LAUNCHPOSITION.0 [s] MASS = 140.0 [N] LINEARFRIC = 1000.\ TRAPPOSITION = PIGTRAP-1. QUADRATICFRIC Internal dependencies of keys: LABEL = PIG-1 LAUNCHPOSITION = PIGSTART-1 TRAPPOSITION = PIGTRAP-1 INSERTTIME = 300.\ MASS = 0. LINEARFRIC. STATICFORCE = 0.Page 262 Chapter 3: Input File Description.\ LEAKAGEFACTOR = 0 .0] end Examples: !************************************************************************* ! Pig Tracking definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! PIGTRACKING LABEL = PIG-1.\ LINEARFRIC = 0.0 [Ns/m] QUADRATICFRI = 100. MASS. PIGTRACKING Required keys: LABEL.0 [kg] STATICFORCE = 1000.1E+04. INSERTTIME. QUADRATICFRI = 0.1E+04.3E+03.

and z co-ordinates of the end of each pipe. Specify the individual hydraulic diameter (DIAMETER) of the parallel pipes and the number of parallel pipes represented by the equivalent pipe (NEQUIPIPE). See section for Vital Numerical Recommendations in Chapter 2. There are three options available for specifying the pipeline profile: 1.3 for hints and limitations regarding discretization. PIPE Page 263 3. True vertical depth. y. Number of parallel pipes is used to obtain total flow area for calculation of total flow rates.Chapter 3: Input File Description.3. Pipe lengths and elevations. Specify the individual hydraulic diameter (DIAMETER) of the parallel pipes and the total flow area AREA. Several parallel pipes with equal diameter can be represented by a single equivalent pipe. The possibility to specify the internal diameter of the external pipe (IDIAMETER) and the external diameter of the internal pipe (ODIAMETER) for annulus flow is also included. North/South and East/West co-ordinates of the end of each pipe.39 PIPE This statement defines pipe elements in a branch. wall definitions. The hydraulic diameter of the individual pipes is used to obtain correct pressure drop. All pipe statements are registered sequentially and belong to the geometry specified by the GEOMETRY statement above the PIPE-statement. .5. 3. 1. 2. and number and size of sections for discretization are specified. There are two ways of specifying an equivalent pipe. It is possible to specify flow in an annulus by using DIAMETER and AREA or NEQUIPIPE. 2. Geometrical data. x-.

ZEND r. (m) - North/South co-ordinate of end of pipe. LABEL str. pipes in an . XEND r. (m) - X-co-ordinate of end of pipe. OPTIONS. NSEND r. NEQUIPIPE - - Number of parallel equivalent pipe. Zero for internal flow. PIPE Keyword: PIPE Dependencies: GEOMETRY. (m) [0. It is an alternative to pipe label (not supported by the Olga GUI). TVDEND r. ELEVATION r. - Pipe number. (m) - East/West co-ordinate of end of pipe.Page 264 Chapter 3: Input File Description. ODIAMETER r. (m) - Length of the pipe. (m) [LENGTH / NSEGMENTS] Section lengths. WALL Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description AREA r. IDIAMETER r. DIAMETER r. (m2) [not used] Total cross-sectional flow area in case of equivalent pipes. WALL sym. YEND r. [Integer increment] Pipe label. NSEGMENTS i. LENGTH r. Equivalent pipe means one single pipe representing a number of equal parallel pipes with a correct total flow area. (m) - Pipe hydraulic diameter. [No. EWEND r. LSEGMENT r. - Wall label for pipe. (m) - Y-co-ordinate of end of pipe. ROUGHNESS r. NUMBER i. of items in LSEGMENT] Number of sections in the pipe. (m) - Internal diameter of external pipe for annulus flow.0] Z-co-ordinate of end of pipe. (m) - Pipe endpoint elevation relative to start of pipe. (m) - External diameter for internal pipe for annulus flow. Equivalent to pipe inner diameter for normal pipe flow. (m) - Absolute roughness of the pipe. (m) - True vertical depth co-ordinate of end of pipe.l.

63 [m2] AREA or NEQUIPIPE =5 end if or IDIAMETER ODIAMETER = 10.0 [m] end If the pipe LENGTH and ELEVATION are to be given. or end either DIAMETER = 0.] NUMBER = no. unless explicitly given.0 [m] else if XEND. YEND. Internal dependencies of keys: either LABEL = [no. ROUGHNESS. and ZEND are to be given. will also be inherited from the previous pipe. ROUGHNESS and WALL need only to be defined if a pipe has different values from the previous pipe within the same geometry.3 [m] and if an equivalent pipe is to be defined. PIPE Page 265 ODIAMETER IDIAMETER Required keys: NSEGMENTS. then either = 0.0] [m] .0 [m] = 70. YEND.Chapter 3: Input File Description. if any. then XEND YEND ZEND = 70. If DIAMETER is not defined for a pipe. and EWEND Note: The keys DIAMETER. and ZEND or TVDEND. either LENGTH and ELEVATION or XEND. then ELEVATION LENGTH = 10. NSEND.0 [m] = [0.0 [m] = 100.0 [m] = 100. the equivalent pipe definition.

WALL = WALL-2 . WALL = WALL-2 PIPE LABEL = PIPE-4.4826. 300. ROUGHNESS = 0. NSEND and EWEND are to be given.4826. DIAMETER = 0.\ 600. WALL = WALL-1 PIPE LABEL = PIPE-2.0.0) end if If TEMPERATURE = WALL or FASTWALL in OPTIONS statement.\ LSEGMENT = (815. FLOAT = ON . ROUGHNESS = 0. 20..0. DIAMETER = 0. 650. FLUID = 1.53E+04.\ NSEGMENT = 1. 4:852. then WALL = WALL-1 end if Examples: Example 1: !*************************************************************************** ! PIPE Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! GEOMETRY LABEL = GEOM-1 ! PIPE LABEL = PIPE-1.00.\ NSEGMENT = 6. 70.0. 25. LENGTH = 0. ELEVATION = -8.0. 30. then TVDEND NSEND EWEND = 100.71E+04. 800.00.00.\ NSEGMENT = 3.00.445E-04. !*************************************************************************** ! BRANCH Definitions !--------------------------------------------------------------------------BRANCH LABEL = BRAN-1. FROM = INLET. 35. DIAMETER = 0. 500.0. 100. PIPE else if TVDEND.0.0.5E+04.4826. LENGTH = 0.4826. .0 [m] = [0.0. .. 500..0.0. then NSEGMENTS =5 else if non-equal section lengths are to be defined.00.\ 250. 800. 20. WALL = WALL-2 ! !*************************************************************************** . ROUGHNESS = 0.0.Page 266 Chapter 3: Input File Description. 40. 400. 15.2E+02. LENGTH = 44.00.0.0] [m] end if If equal section lengths are to be defined. TO = OUTLET.\ LSEGMENT = (30.445E-04.0. DIAMETER = 0. then LSEGMENT = (5. 10.445E-04.00. 120.\ GEOMETRY = GEOM-1.0. ROUGHNESS = 0.00). 400. ELEVATION = -44.00.\ 30. 750.0 [m] = 50.. 320. 700.0. PIPE LABEL = PIPE-15..0. . 60. ELEVATION = -2. 150.00. LENGTH = 0.5).4826.0. LENGTH = 0.445E-04.0. 200.0. 90.0. . ROUGHNESS = 0.\ NSEGMENT = 19. 55. ELEVATION = 0.445E-04. ELEVATION = 2.\ NSEGMENT = 14.0. WALL = WALL-1 PIPE LABEL = PIPE-3. DIAMETER = 0.0.0. 200.

28E-04. XEND = 0.\ NSEGMENT = 3. ROUGHNESS = 0.. XEND = 0.. YSTART = -2318. ZEND = 0 PIPE LABEL = PIPE-4. PIPE Page 267 Example 2: !*************************************************************************** ! PIPE Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! GEOMETRY LABEL = GEOM-1. XSTART = 1862. DIAMETER = 0. XEND = 2131. ZEND = 0 ! GEOMETRY LABEL = GEOM-2. ROUGHNESS = 0.\ ZSTART = 0 ! PIPE LABEL = PIPE-3.. YEND = 0. DIAMETER = 0.\ ZSTART = -310. .\ NSEGMENT = 3.28E-04. . DIAMETER = 0.4...3 PIPE LABEL = PIPE-2. ZEND = -155.Chapter 3: Input File Description.12.24E+04.. ROUGHNESS = 0.\ NSEGMENT = 3. ROUGHNESS = 0. YSTART = -2318.. YEND = 0.12. .12.28E-04.24E+04.6 ! PIPE LABEL = PIPE-1.28E-04. DIAMETER = 0.12.\ NSEGMENT = 3. XSTART = 1779. XEND = 2089. YEND = -1159. YEND = -1159. ZEND = 0 ! !*************************************************************************** .

The data are printed for all sections in all branches. variables for all components can be plotted. MEG Tracking or Advanced Well (drilling) modules are used. BEWX. DTPLOT should only be given once in the input file. LIQLV. If the Compositional Tracking. This is done automatically if the input file is generated in the Olga GUI. HOL. LSLEXP. ALEXP. OLGA will only use the last one. VARIABLE sym. HT. If it is given more than once. - List of variables to be plotted. Keyword: PLOT Dependencies: NONE Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description DELETEPREVIOUS sym.l. The results are viewed in OLGA Viewer. Required keys: DTPLOT Internal dependencies of keys: None Example: !*************************************************************************** ! PLOT Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! PLOT DTPLOT = 1 PLOT VARIABLE = (GT. NSLUG. LIQC. \ LSBEXP.40 PLOT Note: This keyword must be placed as the last keyword in the input file (before ENDCASE).l. XG) . also those read from the restart file. ON | [OFF] All variables defined before this keyword will be deleted from the list of variables. (s) - Time point when the plot interval is changed. DTPLOT r. PLOT 3. See Appendix A for list of variables available for plotting. This statement defines the plot option that prints data to a file for plotting of specific variables as a function of time. TIME r.3. PUMPSPEED. The variables HOLHL (volume fraction of oil) and HOLWT (volume fraction of water) should be specified to view “Gas/Oil/Water holdup” in OLGA Viewer.l.Page 268 Chapter 3: Input File Description. Units may be included in the list. Variables from different groups can be defined on the same line. (s) - Sample period for obtaining variable values. CORR1.

and pig trains (TYPE = LONG).Chapter 3: Input File Description.MEG tracking The availability of the wax deposition removal functionality depends on the user's licensing agreement with Scandpower Petroleum Technology. a pig train is simulated as a SHORT pig. There are three types of pig/plug that can be simulated in OLGA: Spherical pigs (TYPE = SHORT). the following modules cannot be used: . which contain inspection and measurement equipment.3.(J/kgoC) - Thermal capacity of pigging fluid CONDUCTIVITY r. (kg/m ) - If TYPE = SHORT: Not necessary If TYPE = LONG: Pigging fluid density If TYPE = HYDRATE: Hydrate density DIAMETER r. The PLUG group must not be used if a pig is specified by the keyword PIGTRACKING. (m) - Pig diameter NOTE! If no diameter is given.Compositional tracking . (W/mK) - Thermal conductivity of pigging fluid 3 Description DENSITY r. Remarks: If TYPE = HEAVYSSH. POSITION Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] CAPACITY r. A pig is a mechanical device for internal cleaning of a pipe. plug or pig release and possibly plug growth. The pig/plug module is described in section 2.41 PLUG This statement specifies the data for simulation of plug or pig transport. or wax removal devices. The friction force due to the pigging fluid is added to the friction force between pig and pipe wall. which are usually rubber balls used to clean the pipeline. Keyword: PLUG Dependencies: BRANCH. The route from the launch to trap position can be specified with key ROUTING.Slugtracking . GEOMETRY. A plug (or a pig) can go from one branch to another. When using the wax module and the plug module in combination. PLUG Page 269 3.Water/threephase .6. A plug is a flow obstruction due to hydrate formation (TYPE = HYDRATE). in a pipeline. the diameter of the pig is set to the inner pipe diameter minus 4 times the wall roughness.2. This implies that leakage between the pig and the wall will occur .

This key is only necessary for the hydrate model. This key is optional. LAUNCHPOSITION sym.2. PLUG Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description DISPRATE r. This key is only necessary for the hydrate model. pigging fluid length If TYPE = HYDRATE. INSERTTIME r. (s) - Time period when pigging fluid is injected into the pipeline.Page 270 Chapter 3: Input File Description. (m/s) - Water mix velocity in stagnant fluid. (oC) - Initial temperature of pigging fluid. (Ns/m) [10. This key is only necessary for the long pig model. - Position for plug/pig launch. (°C) - Hydrate temperature. .0 corresponds to all fluid leaking past pig. Leakage factor at 0 corresponds to no fluid leaking past pig. not necessary If TYPE = LONG.L.] Plug/pig label.6 LEAKOPENING r.0] Leakage opening relative to pipe cross section area. LINEARFRIC r. LENGTH r. - Plug/pig leakage factor. LABEL str. LEAKDPCOEF r. When not given for the hydrate model. a pig goes to the branch that has the highest volumetric flowrate out of the node the pig enters. - Hydrate growth rate coefficient. This key is only necessary for the hydrate model. Described in section 2.] Linear friction factor coefficient for fluid friction of fluid film between pig and pipe wall.(-) [0. ROUTING Sym. and 1. The position should be defined before PLUG group LEAKAGEFACTOR r. (m) - If TYPE = SHORT. HYDRATETEMPERATUR E r. initial hydrate plug length. (s) - Plug/pig launch time. [∞] Pressure loss coefficient measured by letting the fluid flow past a pig that is fixed to the pipe wall. [Integer incr. INITTEMPERATURE r. GROWTHRATE r. INJECTIONPERIOD r. the program will calculate the leakage factor from the cross sectional area. - Name of branches a plug/pig passes from the launch position to trap position. If not given. default is plug number.

(Ns2/m2) [0. sym. (N-s/m2) [-1] Plastic viscosity of wax plug in front of pig. (-) [0] Wax cutting efficiency.6 for further details. with friction force due to pigging fluid added. HYDRATE: Hydrate formation and growth followed by possible plug release and transport. See 2. pigging fluid should not be included If TYPE = HEAVYSSH: mass of pigging fluid PGWXFORMFAC r. Only available with the wax module. Only available with the wax module. The position should be defined before PLUG group. If TYPE = HYDRATE: Initial hydrate plug mass. STATICFORCE r. HEAVYSSH: Simulate pig train as short pig.] Plug/pig mass.] Quadratic friction factor coefficient for fluid friction of fluid film between pig and pipe wall.6. TYPE Description Type of pig: SHORT: Spherical pig used for cleaning. LONG: Pig train containing inspection and measurement equipment. This key is only necessary for the long pigging model. (kg) [140. - Position for plug/pig trap.] Force necessary to tear plug/pig loose from the wall. .Chapter 3: Input File Description. (N-s/m2) - Dynamic viscosity of the pigging fluid. This key is only necessary for the hydrate model. WPPLASTVISC r.2. The wax plug is assumed to exhibit Bingham fluid behavior.2. –1 implies using internal model for estimating the plastic viscosity. QUADRATICFRIC r. for breaking force in sec. WALLFRICTION r. If TYPE = LONG: pig mass. (N) [1000. WATERFRACTION r. see eq. PLUG Key Page 271 Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] MASS r. - Mass fraction of free water in total liquid. (Ns/m) [1000] Factor for wall friction between pig and pipe. 2. [SHORT] | LONG | HYDRATE | HEAVYSSH VISCOSITY r. TRAPPOSITION sym.

–1 imples that the internal yieldstress correlation is used. TYPE.0] Wax removal efficiency.2.0 then WPPLASTVISC = 5. [Pa] [-1] Yield stress of wax plug in front of pig. Only available with the wax module. WALLFRICTION. WXYIELDSTR r.6.0 ! Only available when the wax module is active WPYIELDSTRESS = 10000 ! Only available when the wax module is active end else if TYPE = LONG then MASS = [140] [kg] (mass of pig) VISCOSITY = 0. [-] [-1] Description Porosity of wax plug in front of pig. TRAPPOSITION.0 ! Only available when the wax module is active PGWXFORMFAC = 0 ! Only available when the wax module is active WXYIELDSTR = 50 ! Only available when the wax module is active WPPOROSITY = 0. Used for wax plug friction calculation. LAUNCHPOSITION. [Pa] [-1] Yield stress of wax layer on the wall. PLUG Key WPPOROSITY Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] r.2.6 for further details. Only available with the wax module. Required keys: LABEL.8 ! Only available when the wax module is active If WPPOROSITY >= 0. QUADRATICFRIC Internal dependencies for keys: If TYPE = SHORT then MASS = [140] [kg] (mass of pig) DIAMETER = 0. WXBRFCOEF r.47 [m] either LEAKAGEFACTOR = [0] or LEAKDPCOEF = [∞] or LEAKOPENING = [0. Only available with the wax module. See 2. –1 implies using internal model for estimating the yield stress. 2. 2. LINEARFRIC. Default value –1 implies that no special friction calculation for the wax plug is performed. STATICFORCE.0] end WXBRFCOEF = 1 ! Only available when the wax module is active WXRMEFF = 1. The wax plug is assumed to exhibit Bingham fluid behavior. see eq. INSERTTIME. Only available with the wax module.6.008 [Ns/m2] . see sec. WPYIELDSTRESS r. [-] [1] Coefficient C in wax breaking force equation.Page 272 Chapter 3: Input File Description.2. in sec. WXRMEFF r. Only available with the wax module. [-] [1.

).96. \ LEAKAGEFACTOR = 0 Example 2: Short pig in combination with wax !*************************************************************************** !WAXDEPOSIT Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! WAXDEPOSITION RANCH=BRANCH_1. TSHEARC2=0. \ TSHEARC1=15 . MODEL=RRR.\ POROSITYOPTION=CONSTANT.1.055 . PIPE = 2. SHEARSTRIPPING=OFF.01 [LEAKAGEFACTOR calculated from free flow area.4 [W/mK] = 5 [oC] = 100 [m] = 800 [kg/m3] = 100 [s] else if TYPE = HYDRATE then LENGTH = 0 [m] MASS = [140] [kg] (initial hydrate mass) DENSITY = 700 [kg/m3] DISPRATE = 0.\ MASS = 0.WXRMEFF = 100. TYPE = SHORT. \ DIFFCOEFFMULT=0 . CONDUCTIVITY=0.5 h.242 W/m-K.\ VISCOPTION=TABULAR. WAXPOROSITY=0.1.82.001 [N-S/M2] end if Examples: Example 1: Short pig .1E+04.01 [m/s] HYDRATETEMP = 15 [C] WATERFRACTION = 0. WAXROUGHNESS=0 -.0. SECTION = 2 POSITION LABEL = PLUGTRAP-1. \ LAUNCHPOSITION = PLUGSTART-1. TYPE= SHORT.14E+03. MAXROUGHNESS=0 m. CALVCD=37.6 .0) !*************************************************************************** ! PLUG Definition !*************************************************************************** PLUG LABEL=PLUG-1. BRANCH = 1. \ QUADRATICFRIC=0 Ns2/m2.0 %.\ PGWXFORMFAC = 0. WALLFRICTION = 0. QUADRATICFRIC = 0. CALVCF=8559000.4 . TSHEARC3=1. \ WAXTABLE="WAXTABLE".0. STATICFORCE=1000 N. TRAPPOSITION = PLUGTRAP-1 . \ STATICFORCE = 0..6 -.Chapter 3: Input File Description.\ COEFSHEAR=0 kg/m2. BRANCH = 1. SECTION = 10 !*************************************************************************** ! PLUG Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------PLUG LABEL = PLUG-1.VISMULTIPLIER = (1.468 .0. LAUNCHPOSITION=PIGLAUNCHER.\ TRAPPOSITION=PIGRECEIVER. INSERTTIME=17.] else if TYPE = HEAVYSSH MASS VISCOSITY = [140] [kg] (mass of pig and pigging fluid) = 0. PIPE = 1..TYPE = SHORT !*************************************************************************** ! Definition for Position of Plug !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! POSITION LABEL = PLUGSTART-1.3E+02. DIAMETER = 0.\ WXBRFCOEF = 1.1E4.01 GROWTHRATE = 0. PLUG CAPACITY CONDUCTIVITY INITTEMPERATURE LENGTH DENSITY INJECTIONPERIOD Page 273 = 2000 [J/kg OC] = 0. \ LINEARFRIC = 150.\ LEAKAGEFACTOR=0. INSERTTIME = 0. \ WAXVOLFRACTION = (0. WPPOROSITY = 0. CALVCE=83.

STATICFORCE = 0. WALLFRICTION = 0. \ INITTEMP = 5 .1E+04.16. LENGTH = 100.3E+02.8E-3. \ DENSITY = 800. TYPE = LONG.14E+03. INSERTTIME = 0.\ MASS = 0. VISCOSITY = 0.1E4. \ LINEARFRIC = 150. TRAPPOSITION = PLUGTRAP-1 . CONDUC = 0.Page 274 Chapter 3: Input File Description. QUADRATICFRIC = 0. PLUG Example 3: Pig train .TYPE = LONG PLUG LABEL = PLUG-1. \ LAUNCHPOSITION = PLUGSTART-1. INJECTIONPERIOD = 100. \ CAPACITY = 2400.0.

42 POSITION This statement specifies the positions for choke. Keyword: POSITION Dependencies: BRANCH. GEOMETRY. OILBACKPRESSURE = 14 BAR. OILTIME = 0. DIRECT = POSITIVE ! !*************************************************************************** . RESETHOLDUP = 0. SECT = 1 POSITION LABEL = DN-SEP.0. separator. POSITION = UP-SEP. EFF = 1. Section or section boundary number of the position. TRAIN = GAS. PIPE sym. SECT = 2 POSITION LABEL = IN-SEP. BRANCH = 1. DIAM = 2. - SECTION i. \ EMGCD = 1. PIPE = 53.1.135.0. PIPE Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] BRANCH sym. SECT = 2 !*************************************************************************** ! SEPARATOR Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! SEPARATOR LABEL = SEP-1. compressor etc. POSITION = DN-SEP.0. HHOILHOLDUP = 0.\ LLOILHOLDUP = 0. - Pipe label or number of the position. as an alternative to sub-keys BRANCH.05.Chapter 3: Input File Description. PIPE = 54. It can also be used when referring to equipment variables. \ ORIENTATION = HORIZONTAL. POSITION = IN-SEP. and SECTION. \ OILCD = 1. EMGDIAM = 0. - Label of the position.75. - Branch label or number of the position. \ OILCONTROLLER = DRAIN ! !*************************************************************************** ! Check Valve Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! CHECKVALVE LABEL = CHEK-1. BRANCH = 1.25.05. STROKETIME = 15.3. LABEL str. POSITION Page 275 3. PIPE. PHASE = TWO. valve. Required keys: Description All keys required Internal dependencies of keys: None Examples: Example 1: ! Equipment is placed using POSITION !*************************************************************************** ! Definition for POSITIONS !--------------------------------------------------------------------------POSITION LABEL = UP-SEP. OILDIAM = 0.365. PIPE = 55. BRANCH = 1. EMGBACKPRESSURE = 14 BAR. LENGTH = 10. DIRECT = POSITIVE CHECKVALVE LABEL = CHEK-2.

PIPE=xx. SEPARATOR. \ SETPOINT=1. CHECK VALVE. CONTROLLER. can be referred to using the LABEL of the process equipment instead of a defined POSITION (BRANCH=xx. POSITION Example 2: Some of the output variables that are related to process equipment. DERIVATIVECONST=0 s. HEATEXCHANGER. SECTION=xx) in the POSITION key: !Equipment variables are referred to using POSITION ! CONTROLLER LABEL=SEP-1. TIME=0 s. PIG/PLUG. MAXSIGNAL=1. POSITION=POSITION-1. VALVE. SOURCE. STROKETIME=60 s.GTDHL) . MINSIGNAL=0.0 m. BIAS=0. AMPLIFICATION=65. LEAK. COMPRESSOR. VARIABLE=LIQLV ! TREND POSITION=SEP-1. PUMP and WELL. TYPE=PID. \ INTEGRALCONST=360 s. VARIABLE=(LIQLV.Page 276 Chapter 3: Input File Description. such as the variables for CHOKE.

Keyword: PRINTINPUT Dependencies: NONE Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] DATA sym.3. . - Define which input keyword will be printed out.l.l. COMPRESSORDATA). COVER) LINE BUNDLE CROSSOVER TABLE FEED WALL Required keys: Description Either DATA or KEYWORD must be specified Internal dependencies of keys: None Example: !*************************************************************************** ! PRINTINPUT Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! PRINTINPUT DATA = (PVTDATA.) HEATTRANSFER GRID SOIL (incl.43 PRINTINPUT This statement defines the input data which will be printed in the output file. KEYWORD sym. PRINTINPUT Page 277 3. Currently valid for the following keywords: GEOMETRY (incl. PIPE etc.Chapter 3: Input File Description. KEYWORD = GEOMETRY !*************************************************************************** . compressor table or array dimensions will be printed out. . BRANCH. . PVTDATA | COMPRESSORDATA | DIMENSIONS Define whether the PVT table.

DTPLOT r. H2O and MEG. LINE. variables for different components can be specified.(s) - Time interval for writing to profile plot file. TIME r. INTEGRATION. - Variables to be written to the profile plot file. GRID. SOILCOLUMN i. MEG Tracking or Advanced Well (drilling) modules are used. Keyword: PROFILE Dependencies: BRANCH.l. LINE sym. Plots of bundle variables along a bundle line can be specified if the bundle module is used. available components are HC. With the MEG tracking module.l. See Appendix A for list of variables available for plotting. OPTIONS Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description BRANCH sym. Must be specified together with SOILCOLUMN. [ALL] Component names. PROFILE 3. If the Compositional Tracking. LAYER i. [ALL] Wall layer no's for plotting of wall temperatures.l.l. and plots of soil temperature for selected cells can be specified if the soil module is available.l.l.(s) - Time points for writing to profile plot file.l. also those read from restart file. - ROW of soil cell that is printed for. DELETEPREVIOUS sym.3.l. ON | [OFF] All profile variables defined before this key will be deleted from the list of output variables.44 PROFILE This statement defines profile plots of variables along the pipeline at specified time points. VARIABLE sym. - Column of soil cells that TSOIL is printed for. - Refers to bundle line labels. . SOILROW i. [ALL] Branch number or label. For the compositional model the names of the available components are given in the feed file. COMPONENT sym. Must be specified together with SOILROW. With DRILLING=ON in OPTIONS there are 15 available components as specified in Chapter 2 (Drilling option). Units can be included.Page 278 Chapter 3: Input File Description. Layer no 1 is the innermost.

PROFILE Required keys: Page 279 TIME or DTPLOT. . Examples: Example 1: !*************************************************************************** ! Profile Plot Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! PROFILE TIME = (7200. MAXDT = 0. Example 2: !*************************************************************************** ! Integration !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! INTEGRATION STARTTIME = 0.\ 0.7200E+05. H2O. VISMIN) end if end if Note that TIME or DTPLOT must be specified before any variables are specified.9000E+05. VARIABLE Internal dependencies of keys: either TIME = (0. ENDTIME = 0.175E+06. MEG) else if DRILLING=ON in OPTIONS COMPONENT = (HC. C2. 0. UG) else if it is a bundle variable LINE = CARLINE VARIABLE = (TBUN. 0. MINDT = 0. GT) !*************************************************************************** . H2O. VARIABLE = (PT. 300) [s] DTPLOT = 100 [s] or end if variable is a volume variable or boundary variable BRANCH = BRANCH-1 VARIALBE = (HOL. UVALUE) else if VARIABLE = TSOIL. HOL.. . then BRANCH = BRANCH-1 VARIABLE = (XG. then BRANCH = BRANCH-1 SOILROW =5 SOILCOLUMN =2 else if VARIABLE = TW. 100.5 !*************************************************************************** . CGDH) if COMPOSITIONAL=ON in OPTIONS COMPONENT = (C1.1080E+06). then ! Wall layer temperatures see example else if it is a compositional variable. 0. DENMIN. CPULIMIT = 0.2880E+05.Chapter 3: Input File Description.1E-02. MeOH) !Defined in feed file else if COMPOSITIONAL=MEG in OPTIONS COMPONENT = (HC..0.36E+05.\ DTSTART = -1. TM.

SOILCOLUMN = 2 !*************************************************************************** .VARIABLE = TW...e.4) ! ! Plotting of selected layers.. BRANCH = BRI. Example 4: !*************************************************************************** ! Profile Plot Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! PROFILE DTPLOT = 1h PROFILE VARIABLE = TSOIL. Example 5: !*************************************************************************** ! Plotting of wall layer temperatures !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! All or selected wall layer temperatures can be plotted . HOL). BRANCH = BRI !*************************************************************************** . layer no 4 or no 3 or no 2 for a wall having only 2 layers !will result in that TW in layer no 2 is plotted for all these cases ( i. .LAYER = (1. layer no 2 and 4 for the wall described ! above: . HOL. the !outermost layer) ! . Example 3: !*************************************************************************** ! Profile Plot Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! PROFILE DTPLOT = 1 h PROFILE VARIABLE = TBUN.3.LAYER = (2. PROFILE . BUNDLE = BUNDLE_1 PROFILE VARIABLE = (PT.2. .depending on the ! LAYER key (LAYER no 1 is the innermost wall layer): ! Plotting of all layer temperatures for a wall consisting of 4 layers in ! BRANCH_2 ! either PROFILE BRANCH = BRANCH_2. VARIABLE = (PT..18E+04.Page 280 Chapter 3: Input File Description. ID) !*************************************************************************** ... TM. . . .4) ! !If the pipes in a branch have walls with different no of layers. SOILROW = 5.g.VARIABLE = TW ! or PROFILE BRANCH = BRANCH_2. specifying !plotting of TW in e. e. LINE = CARLINE. .g. LAYER = (1-4) ! or . !*************************************************************************** ! Profile Plot Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! PROFILE DTPLOT = 0.

The pump battery model is used for drilling applications. Figure 3.4. PUMP Page 281 3. A complete default set of homologous curves is tabulated in the code. the users can change these data easily by specifying their own experimental data through the pump data table. inlet gas volume fraction αI. The pump models are described in more detail in section 2. The user can choose the recycle flow as gas only. the displacement pump. Each of the characteristics is assigned a label. Because the homologous curves are dimension-less. The pump characteristics are defined through the pump data tables.3. However. These are based on experimental data and are representative for centrifugal pumps.3. and the pump tables in section 4. The pump speed and recycle flow can be regulated by controllers. liquid mixture. the simplified centrifugal pump and the pump battery models. This model is described in section 2. ∆P. the pressure increase over the pump.45 PUMP There are four pump models in OLGA: the centrifugal pump. The four quadrant curves are converted to a simpler form by the development of homologous curves where the head and torque ratios (actual value to rated value) are functions of the pump speed and flow rate ratios.3. and the pump inlet pressure PI. is dependent on the flow rate Q. and a bypass flow line. pump speed N.2. The bypass flow line is modelled so that no back flow is allowed. or fluid mixture.4 Simplified illustration of Displacement or Centrifugal Pump Element in the Pipeline For the centrifugal pump. The pump characteristics for the centrifugal pump are presented in the form of four quadrant curves. and this option is only available with the Advanced Well module.10. water only. they can describe a variety of pumps by specifying through input the desired rated . which is referred to in the PUMP keyword. A complete set for both types of pumps is included in the code.3. as illustrated in Figure 3. the users can change these data by specifying their own pump data tables.4. Centrifugal and displacement pumps The centrifugal pump and the displacement pump are modelled with a recycle flow line. However.Chapter 3: Input File Description.

the pump flow rate can be expressed as the difference between the theoretical flow rate and the back flow rate.0.3 = 0. PUMP density.3 = Input coefficients for pressure increase E1.2. one can either iterate on the input value for ∆ Pr or assume some value for D1 and let a controller determine the necessary speed.E3 α ) ∆ P = ∆ Po ρ / ρ r where: ∆ Po = Pump pressure increase at rated density ( bar ) ∆ P = Pump pressure increase ( bar ) N = Pump speed ( rpm ) Q = Flow rate ( m3/s ) α = Gas volume fraction η = Pump efficiency (adiabatic) ρ = Specific density ( kg/m3) D1.0.2. Simple algebraic expressions are used to calculate pressure increase over the pump and pump efficiency. a pump with a constant pressure increase will be simulated. flow rate and speed. A valve can be located at the centrifugal pump section boundary for controlling flow through the pump. For the displacement pump. is tabulated as a function of N (pump speed).D3 α ) η = η r ( 1 + E1 ( N .3 = Input coefficients for efficiency Subscripts: r = rated Note that by setting the coefficients D1. If the user wants to obtain a certain flow rate in a simple way. head. The opening of the recycle and bypass chokes can be controlled through controller statements in order to get the desired flow. ∆ Po = ∆ Pr ( 1 + D1 ( N .2.Page 282 Chapter 3: Input File Description.3 and E1. For a given pump the theoretical rate is proportional to pump speed. torque.Qr ) ) ( 1 . . Note also that if using the simplified pump model.Qr ) ) ( 1 . Qb. The back flow. the input values for BYDIAMETER and RECDIAMETER (see table below) must be = 0. ∆P (pressure increase across the pump).Nr ) + E2 ( Q .Nr ) + D2 ( Q . αI (void fraction at pump inlet). Simplified centrifugal pump A simplified description of a centrifugal pump is used for modelling the behaviour of a centrifugal pump around an operational point. νl (liquid kinetic viscosity) and PI (pressure at pump inlet) in the pump data table.2.

The speed is calculated by : N = N min + u ( N max . (2).Chapter 3: Input File Description. PUMP Page 283 Pump battery The pump battery is used for pumping drilling fluids. Regulated by a physical parameter. Nmin is the minimum pump speed (defined by user) and u the signal from the controller. muds in a drilling operation. The speed variation may be given in form of: SPEED = SPEED ± A ⋅ TIME where A is a constant pump speed variation rate (acceleration). Controlled manually by specifying time and speed series in the controller definition.g. The volume delivered by the pump is proportional to the rate of pump strokes.N min ) where Nmax is the maximum pump speed (defined by user). fluid rate. e. Controlled by an override controller (Only for centrifugal and displacement pumps): To adapt the pump to the production change (because the recycle flow is at upper or lower limits). Pump speed regulated by controller (All pump models): (1). The number of controllers can be extended above the number shown above and different variables (e.) can be used to control the pumps. 2.g. The purpose is to get an overall estimate of pump power needed as well as the volume of mud pumped. inflow rate etc. specified with the key ACCECOEFF. Controlling the pump speed The following options are available for controlling the pump speed: 1. . the pump speed will be changed automatically according to the required speed variation (speed acceleration). The speed variation will stop once the recycle flow is within a defined range below MAXRECYCLE and above MINRECYCLE. Qp = PFAC*SPES where QP = Volume delivered by the pump PFAC = Pumping factor SPES = Strokes per time unit The pump rate is normally controlled by the following set of controllers: • • • • Controller on the maximum hydraulic horsepower allowed (HPMAX) Controller on the maximum pump rate (MAXCAPACITY) Controller on the minimum pump rate (MINCAPACITY) Controller on the maximum pump pressure allowed (MAXPRESSURE) If either one of these controllers is set into action the pump rate is reduced automatically.

Of the same reason no pump can be defined on the first section boundary of the branch coming from a MERGE node. this value will be used to increase or decrease the pump speed.0] Relative change in pump pressure increase with flow rate for simplified pump DCOEFF3 r(-) [0.6] Experimentally determined exponent for calculating the viscous friction loss for a displacement pump. [1. (rad/s2) [0. (kg/m3) [900] Rated pump density. Used centrifugal and simplified pumps. BCOEFFICIENT r.0] Relative change in pump pressure increase with pump speed for simplified pump DCOEFF2 r (1/m3/s) [0.Page 284 3. PUMP If the maximum pump torque has been given by users (Only for centrifugal pumps): If the pump shaft torque is over the maximum limit specified.0] Pump speed acceleration. For centrifugal and displacement pumps. Must be = 0. the pump speed is reduced. BYDIAMETER r.6] Experimentally determined exponent for calculating the mechanical friction loss for a displacement pump. - Label of controller for regulating the bypass flow rate. Chapter 3: Input File Description. For centrifugal and displacement pumps. For centrifugal and displacement pumps. ACOEFFICIENT r.0] Diameter of the valve in the bypass flow line. POSITION Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description ACCECOEFF r. - Number/name of branch where pump is located. (m) [0. and a warning message will be given in the output file. BYCONTROL sym.0] Relative reduction in pump pressure increase with gas volume fraction DENSITYR r. [1. GEOMETRY. for .0 if PUMPTYPE = SIMPLIFIED DCOEFF1 r (1/rpm) [0. When recycle flow is over or below the limits. Keyword: PUMP Dependencies: BRANCH. Note that a pump cannot be defined at the last section boundary of the last branch of the branches going into a SPLIT node. since the last section volume is used as the control volume for the SPLIT node. BRANCH sym.

7] Mechanical efficiency of centrifugal and simplified pump. - Label of the controller for regulating the recycle flow rate. (m) - Rated pump head. MDISSIPATION r.0] Minimum recycle mass flow rate. Used for centrifugal and simplified pumps. - Pipe number for pump location.Chapter 3: Input File Description.0] Relative change in pump efficiency with pump speed for simplified pump ECOEFF2 r (1/m3/s) [0.(Pa) - Maximum downstream pressure for pump battery.(m3/s) - Minimum battery. (kg/s) - Maximum recycle mass flow rate. MAXPRESSURE r. HEADRATED r.0] Relative reduction in pump efficiency with gas volume fraction EFFIMECH r. HPMAX r.0] Minimum pump speed. flow Used capacity for pump pump for pump type. (W) - Maximum hydraulic horsepower for each single pump in the pump battery. LABEL sym. PUMPTYPE sym. (W) [0. [0. MAXRECYCLE r. valve . MAXSPEED r. centrifugal RECCONTROL sym. MAXCAPACITY r. POSITION sym. CENTRIFUGAL | DISPLACEMENT | PUMPBATTERY | SIMPLIFIED Name of PUMPVALVECONTRO L sym.(m3/s) - Maximum flow capacity for pump battery. MINRECYCLE r. For centrifugal and displacement pumps. MINSPEED r. - Position where pump is located.0] Relative change in pump efficiency with pump speed for simplified pump ECOEFF3 r(-) [0. [Numerical increment] Label of the pump. Used for displacement pumps. (rpm) [0. PUMP Key Page 285 Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description DPRATED r [ bar ] - Pump pressure increase at rated conditions for simplified pump ECOEFF1 r (1/rpm) [0.5] Adiabatic efficiency of simplified pump at rated conditions FLOWRATED r. - Label for controller. EFFRATED r. (kg/s) [0. (m3/s) - Rated pump flow. PREFSPEED r. centrifugal pumps. (rpm) [3000] Pump reference speed. PIPE sym. MINCAPACITY r. (rpm) - Maximum pump speed.0] Mechanical dissipation at nominal speed for a displacement pump. [0.

SPECAPACITY r. SPEEDR r. SCONTROL sym. Used centrifugal and simplified pumps. (Nm) - Maximum motor torque allowed.0] Choke diameter for recycle flow. PUMPTYPE Internal dependencies of keys: Either BRANCH PIPE SECTION = BRAN_1 = PIPE_1 =1 POSITION = POS-1 or end If RECDIAMETER > 0. Used for displacement pumps.0 if PUMPTYPE = SIMPLIFIED RECPHASE sym. (m) [0. (rpm) - Rated pump speed. Required key: table in Description Name of the tables of pump back flow data or pump characteristic data. then RECPHASE RECCONTROL = [MIXTURE] | GAS | LIQUID | WATER = RECCONT-1 If recycle flow limits are required MAXRECYCLE MINRECYCLE ACCECOEFF end if end if If BYDIAMETER > 0. For centrifugal and displacement pumps. (Nm) - Rated pump hydraulic torque. (W) [0. VDISSIPATION r. Qspc.Page 286 Chapter 3: Input File Description. then = 30 [kg/s] = 10 [kg/s] = [0 ] [1/s2] for . Used for centrifugal pumps. SECTIONBOUNDARY i. [MIXTURE] GAS LIQUID WATER Phase of recycle flow. - Label of the controller regulating the pump speed. PUMP Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] RECDIAMETER r.0. - Section boundary number for pump location. TORQR r. TABLE sym. Can only be used for centrifugal pumps.0] Viscous dissipation at nominal speed for a displacement pump. [Default defined code] TORQMAX r. (m3/R) - Pump specific volumetric capacity. For centrifugal and displacement pumps. Must be = 0. For centrifugal and displacement pumps. LABEL.

7 EFFIMECH = 0.1 [m3/s] HEADRATED = 30 [m] SPEEDR = 2000 [rpm] TORQR = 1000 [Nm] SCONTROL = CSPEED MINSPEED = [0] [rpm] MAXSPEED = 6000 [rpm] EFFIMECH = 0.0] [m] else if PUMPTYPE = CENTRIFUGAL.] ECOEFF1 = 0. then TORQMAX = 3000 [Nm] end if if PUMPTYPE = DISPLACEMENT.1 [m3/s] EFFRATED = 0.0 [ 1/rpm ] ECOEFF2 = .72 [ 1/m3/s ] ECOEFF3 = 0.0] [kW] VDISSIPATION = [0. then DENSITYR = [900] [kg/m3] FLOWRATED = 0.001 [ 1/rpm ] DCOEFF2 = .0] [m] If the flow through the centrifugal pump will be controlled.0 [ .Chapter 3: Input File Description.0] [m] BYDIAMETER = [0.9 TABLE = PUMPTABLE_LABEL RECDIAMETER = [0.] if DCOEFF1 or ECOEFF1 different from 0 SCONTROL = CSPEED MINSPEED = [0] [rpm] MAXSPEED = 6000 [rpm] end if else if PUMPTYPE = PUMPBATTERY.006 [ 1/m3/s ] DCOEFF3 = 0.9 [ . then HPMAX = 4000 [hhp] MAXPRESSURE = 50 [bar] Page 287 . then ACOEFFICIENT = [1.0] [kW] SPECAPACITY = 0.0.6] SCONTROL = CSPEED MINSPEED = [0] [rpm] MAXSPEED = 6000 [rpm] PREFSPEED = [3000] [rpm] MDISSIPATION = [0.1 [m3/rev] TABLE = PUMPTABLE_LABEL RECDIAMETER = [0.0.6] BCOEFFICIENT = [1. then PUMPVALVECONTROL end if else if PUMPTYPE = SIMPLIFIED FLOWRATED = 0.9 DENSITYR = 900 [kg/m3] DPRATED = 56 [ bar ] SPEEDR = 3500 [rpm ] DCOEFF1 = 0. PUMP BYCONTROL = BYCONT-1 end If Maximum torque limit is required.0] [m] BYDIAMETER = [0.

9. TORQR = 400. SCONTROL = C-PUMP1. SECTION = 5.0 rpm. HPMAX = 4000 hhp. \ SCONTROL = C-103. VDISSIPATION = 10. RECCONTROL=C-101. \ MAXSPEED = 6000.006. SPEEDR = 3500..0 KW. BCOEFFICIEN = 1. BRANCH = 1.013 m3/s. PIPE = 3. \ PUMPTYPE = PUMPBATTERY. MAXCAPACITY = 0. \ ECOEFF1 = 0. PIPE = 3.9. \ ACOEFFICIENT = 1.\ MDISSIPATION = 10. DENSITYR = 900.6. MAXPRESSURE = 50 bar ! ! !*************************************************************** ! PUMP Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------! PUMP LABEL = PUMP-1. EFFRATED = 0. \ RECDIAMETER = 0. HEADRATED = 30.13 m3/s.Page 288 Chapter 3: Input File Description. \ \ FLOWRATED = 350 m3/h.\ MAXSPEED = 6000.13 [m3/s] = 0.080 M3/R . PUMPVALVECONTROL = C-PUMPV-1 ! !*************************************************************** ! PUMP Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------! PUMP LABEL = PUMP-1.0 ! !*************************************************************** ! PUMP Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------! PUMP LABEL = PUMP-1.72. SECTION = 1.0. DPRATED = 56.DCOEFF3 = 0. PUMP MAXCAPACITY MINCAPACITY SCONTROL MINSPEED MAXSPEED = 0. SPEEDR = 2000. PIPE = 3. BRANCH = 1. BAR. RECPHASE = MIXTURE .0. PUMPTYPE = CENTRIFUGAL. EFFIMECH = 0..0 .0 . \ SPECAPACITY = 0. \ DCOEFF1 = 0.0. \ MAXSPEED = 5000.0.\ BYDIAMETER = 0. RECPHASE = MIXTURE .SCONTROL = C-103.1.0. ECOEFF3 = 0. BRANCH = 1. \ SCONTROL = C-103. MINSPEED = 1000. PREFSPEED = 1500. PIPE = 1. PUMPTYPE = DISPLACEMENT. \ TABLE = "pumpc.tab".001.013 [m3/s] = CSPEED = [0] [rpm] = 6000 [rpm] end if Examples: ! !*************************************************************** ! PUMP Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------! PUMP LABEL = PUMP-1. MINSPEED = 1000. SECTION = 5.5.0. \ FLOWRATED = 50. \ MINCAPACITY = 0.1. \ BYDIAMETER = 0.0 KW. DCOEFF2 = -0.tab". SECTION = 5. \ PUMPTYPE = SIMLIFIED.ECOEFF2 = -0.\ RECDIAMETER = 0. RECCONTROL=C-101.0.6. BRANCH = 1. \ TABLE = "pump1. MINSPEED = 1000.

46 REROUTE This statement reroutes a branch from one destination node to another. At time = 3600 secs. REROUTE Page 289 3. .Chapter 3: Input File Description. Name or number of branch TIME r. branch INLET-1 is routed to node MERG-1. TIME = (0. MERG-2). NODE Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description BRANCH sym.l.0] Time points for routing and rerouting of branch TO sym.l. Keyword: REROUTE Dependencies: BRANCH. . . Remarks: From time = 0 sec to 3600 secs. Note: In a restart no new destination nodes can be defined All keys required Required keys: Internal dependencies of keys: None Example: !*************************************************************** ! REROUTE Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------! REROUTE BRANCH = INLET-1. 3600) !*************************************************************** .3. A change in destination node will be done at the corresponding time point given in the TIME-key. (s) [0. it is rerouted to node MERG-2. TO = (MERG-1. - Label/name of destination node(s).

the following input statements are not allowed after keyword RESTART (both with restart write and restart read) in a restart case NODE BRANCH PIPE GEOMETRY WALL MATERIAL Only keywords read after RESTART will be accepted in a restart run. FILE str. (s) [End of the simulation time] A time point or series of time points when data are written to the restart file.e. without using the RESTART keyword.l. (s) [The end time of the previous simulation] Time when the restart file should be read (only one time point is allowed). READTIME r. The fluid file from the previous run must be present in the directory. The simplest restart case (restart read) would consist of the keywords RESTART. APPEND: New data will be added to previous data =OFF: No writing of data to file WRITETIME r. APPEND. a restart file is written each time the output file is updated. (s) [Total simulation time] The constant time interval between writing of data to the restart file. the files with extension rsw) are written during an ongoing simulation (restart write) as well as how to use restart files generated in earlier simulations as initial conditions for new simulations (restart read). INTEGRATION.Page 290 Chapter 3: Input File Description. By default. . RESTART 3. the RESTART keyword with the options listed below can be used. and ENDCASE. For all other keywords OLGA will use the statements from the restart file. - The name of the restart file.3. OFF OVERWRITE: File will be rewound before writing new data to file. WRITE sym. but contains data only for the last write time. If the users want to save restart files generated at other times. Keyword: RESTART Dependencies: NONE Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description DTWRITE r. [OVERWRITE].47 RESTART This keyword defines the time(s) when restart files (i. As no geometry data may be changed in a restart run.

WRITETIME = (1. . .10) H !*************************************************************************** . s ! Start time is by default the endtime of CASE1 ENDCASE !*************************************************************************** .rsw.rsw" FILES PVTFILE="fluid1. READTIME = 1 H !*************************************************************************** Example 3: !*************************************************************************** ! An example of the shortest possible and complete RESTART read case RESTART FILE = "CASE1.\ FILE = CASE2. WRITETIME = (1. RESTART Required keys: Page 291 None Internal dependencies of keys: If (WRITE = APPEND or OVERWRITE) then DTWRITE = 1000 s (default = total simulation time) or WRITETIME = (1000. 2000) s (default = end of the simulation time) else if (WRITE = OFF) then No restart file is written end if If the results should be read from the restart file(restart read). . Example 2: !*************************************************************************** ! Definition of a combined RESTART read and write statement !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! RESTART WRITE = APPEND.rsw READTIME = 2000 s [The end time of the previous simulation] end if Examples: Example 1: !*************************************************************************** ! Definition of a RESTART write statement !---------------------------------------------------------------------------! RESTART WRITE = APPEND.10)H.tab" INTEGRATION ENDTIME=1000. then FILE = previous_run.Chapter 3: Input File Description. .

Single train separator b. c. . the oil and water level are set to the average of high and low limits of the respective levels. b.2. Flow path to be simulated for single train separator: Note that this is only needed for single train separators a. Separator model a. The “single train” separator model follows one flow path out of the separator. Please observe that for a network case.1 for detailed description of the two separator models.48 SEPARATOR This statement defines the input required for separators. f. Calculating flow rate at each outlet: a. Downstream of oil outlet c. the separator should not be positioned in the first section of the branch immediately downstream of a junction node. It is possible to define valves for separators in the VALVE keyword and refer to the valve label in SEPARATOR using the key GASTRAINVALVE. see section 2. Separator type: a. e. Mixing of gas and oil downstream of outlet Note: For alternative c the pipe model must include at least one complete OLGA PIPE downstream the separator. Downstream of gas outlet b. SEPARATOR 3.2. The following options are available for the modelling a separator: 1. 4. There are two separator models in OLGA. If the initial levels are not specified (for single train separators). Use valve sizing coefficient table Section 2. For single train separators this is not required. This is in order to be able to reduce the number of keys in the SEPARATOR keyword.3. OLGA's separator models assume that the separator is a (fictitious) pipe section. The “multi train” separator model follows all outlets from the separator in different branches. Two-phase vertical separator Three-phase vertical separator Two-phase horizontal separator Three-phase horizontal separator Two-phase user-given shape Three-phase user-given shape 3. Users must set initial water and oil level for multi train separators. OILTRAINVALVE etc.Page 292 Chapter 3: Input File Description. Multi train separator 2. Use flow equation b.3 briefly describes how separator control parameters can be chosen. d.

EMGTRAINVALVE sym. CRITFLOWMODEL sym.Chapter 3: Input File Description. GASCONTROLLER sym. Label of the table where the emergency drain valve sizing coefficients are specified. [1. . - Branch number or LABEL. EMGCD r. GEOMETRY. - Called EMGVALVE in v3. - Branch label for flare outlet for multitrain separator. - Ratio between gas and liquid sizing coefficient.0] Separator efficiency (one minus the volume fraction of the liquid droplets in the gas outlet stream: 1 . [0. OPTIONS. EMGOUTLET sym. SEPARATOR Page 293 Keyword: SEPARATOR Dependencies: BRANCH. CF r. EMGDIAMETER r. (m) - Separator inner diameter. [0. Homogenous frozen critical flow model or Henry-Fauske model. (Pa) - Emergency drain outlet pressure.00 and earlier. CONTROLLER. - Branch label for emergency outlet for multi-train separator (required if TYPE = MULTITRAIN) EMGTABLE sym.84] Discharge coefficient for emergency drain choke (required only if equation is used for calculating liquid flow at the emergency drain). EFFICIENCY r.GA) EMGBACKPRESSURE r.l. (m) - Maximum diameter of the emergency drain choke (required only if equation is used for calculating liquid flow at the emergency drain). [FROZEN] | HENRYFAUSKE Choice of critical flow model to be used. - Label of the controller regulating the gas outlet choke or valve. FLAREOUTLET sym. (Pa) - Gas outlet pressure GASCD r.84] Discharge coefficient for gas outlet choke (required only if equation is used for calculating gas flow at the gas outlet). VALVE. POSITION Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description BRANCH sym. GASBACKPRESSURE r. - Label of the valve for the emergency drain. DIAMETER r.

(m) - Liquid level height limit. - Called GASVALVE in v3. If liquid holdup is lower than this value. water will be drained together with oil through the oil drain (required if PHASE = THREE).00 and earlier. SEPARATOR Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description GASDIAMETER r. LABEL str. LEVELTABLE sym. (m) - Separator length. If water level is higher than this value. INITWATLEVEL r.(-) - Liquid hold-up upper limit. the emergency valve will be opened. (m) - Maximum diameter of the gas outlet choke (required only if equation is used for calculating gas flow at the gas outlet).(-) - Liquid hold-up lower limit. water will be drained together with oil through the oil drain (required if PHASE = THREE) HHWATLEVEL r. If liquid holdup is higher than this value. (m) - Diameter of outlet gaspipe if TRAIN=MIX GASPIPELENGTH r. - Branch label for gas outlet for multi-train separator (required for TYPE = MULTITRAIN) GASPIPEDIAM r. (m) - Length of outlet gaspipe if TRAIN=MIX GASPIPEROUGH r. INITOILLEVEL r. HHWATHOLDUP r. GASOUTLET sym. Label of the table where the gas outlet valve sizing coefficients are specified. .l. LLOILHOLDUP r. If water holdup is higher than this value. (m) Average of high and low limit of water level for singletrain The initial water level (required if TYPE= MULTITRAIN and PHASE=THREE).(-) - Water hold-up upper limit. oil drain rate will start to decrease. LENGTH r. (m) - Roughness of outlet gaspipe if TRAIN=MIX GASTIME r. - Label of the table where the shape (range of level-volume data points) of the separator is specified.Page 294 Chapter 3: Input File Description. (m) Average of high and low limit of oil level for singletrain The initial oil level (required if TYPE=MULTITRAIN). If liquid level is higher than this value. (m) - Water level height limit. HHOILLEVEL r. the emergency valve will be opened. default is separator number. (s) - Time points for gas outlet pressure GASTABLE sym. [increment] Separator label. GASTRAINVALVE sym. - Label of the valve used for the gas drain HHOILHOLDUP r.

84] Discharge coefficient for oil outlet choke (required only if equation is used for calculating oil flow at the oil normal drain). Option THREE can only be used if the water option is available (PHASE=THREE in OPTIONS). - Label of the valve used for the oil drain ORIENTATION Sym VERTICAL | HORIZONTAL Orientation of the separator. (m) - Liquid level lower limit. OILDIAMETER r. LLWATLEVEL r. (Pa) - Oil outlet pressure OILCD r. PIPE sym. (m) - Water level lower limit. (m) - Diameter of outlet oilpipe if TRAIN=MIX OILPIPELENGTH r. - Label of the controller regulating the oil outlet choke or valve. water drain rate will start to decrease (required if PHASE = THREE). (m) - Roughness of outlet oilpipe if TRAIN=MIX OILTABLE sym. PHASE sym.00 and earlier. - Position where the separator is located. OILTCONST r. oil drain rate will start to decrease. (s) - Time constant for separating oil from water. . Orientation is ignored if LEVELTABLE is given. OILCONTROLLER sym. - Pipe number where the separator is located. - Called OILVALVE in v3.(-) - Water hold-up lower limit. LLWATHOLDUP r.l. If liquid level is lower than this value. POSITION sym.Chapter 3: Input File Description. (m) - Maximum diameter of the oil outlet choke (required only if equation is used for calculating oil flow at the normal oil drain). SEPARATOR Key Page 295 Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description LLOILLEVEL r. If the water level is lower than this value. OILTIME r. [0.l. OILBACKPRESSURE r. (m) - Length of outlet oilpipe if TRAIN=MIX OILPIPEROUGH r. (s) - Time points for oil outlet pressure OILTRAINVALVE sym. - Branch label for oil outlet for multi-train separator (required for TYPE = MULTITRAIN) OILPIPEDIAM r. OILOUTLET sym. If the water level is lower than this value. TWO | THREE Number of phases separated in the separator. Label of the table where the oil outlet valve sizing coefficients are specified. water drain rate will start to decrease (required if PHASE = THREE).

(s) - Time constant for separating water from oil.(-) - Liquid hold-up below which the emergency drain starts to close. EFFICIENCY. WATTCONST r.00 and earlier. - Branch label for water outlet from multitrain separator (required if TYPE = MULTITRAIN and PHASE = THREE) Called WATVALVE in v3. PHASE . comes.Page 296 Chapter 3: Input File Description. multi-train separator follows all outlets. SEPARATOR Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] RESETHOLDUP r.84] Discharge coefficient for water outlet choke (required only if equation is used for calculating water flow at the water normal drain). WATCD r.(s) - Time points for water outlet pressure (required only if PHASE=THREE) WATTRAINVALVE sym. - Label of the valve used for water outlet. OIL | GAS | MIX Defines from which outlet the fluid in the downstream sections. WATCONTROLLER sym. (m) - Liquid level below which the emergency drain starts to close. RESETLEVEL r. the pipeline calculations is continued moving the oil from the separator. If TRAIN = OIL. Label of the table where the water outlet valve sizing coefficients are specified. LABEL.l. WATOUTLET sym. If TRAIN = GAS. - Label of the controller regulating the water outlet choke or valve. WATBACKPRESSURE r. If TRAIN = MIX. WATDIAMETER r.l. (Pa) - Water outlet pressure (required only if PHASE = THREE). ORIENTATION. WATTIME r. SECTION i. STROKETIME r. [0. [SINGLETRAIN]| MULTITRAIN Separator type. inline separator follows one outlet. - WATTABLE sym. Required keys: Description Section volume number where the separator is located. the pipeline calculations is continued moving the gas from the separator. (m) - Maximum diameter of water outlet choke (required only if equation is used for calculating water flow at the water normal drain). TYPE sym. TRAIN sym. both gas and oil outlets are simulated and mixed in the separator downstream section. (s) - Stroke time of the emergency drain choke or valve.

3600) [s] OILBACKPRESSURE = (10E5. =1 = SECT-1 = 2.5 [m] = 10 [m] = table for separator shape = gasvalve !label for gas valve defined in VALVE = gasdrain =1 ! label for gas valve table ! Note that if TRAIN = GAS. 3600) [s] GASBACKPRESSURE = (10E5. = 1. or GASCD GASDIAMETER end GASCONTROLLER = [1] = 0. SEPARATOR Page 297 Internal dependencies of keys for single train separator: TYPE = SINGLETRAIN either BRANCH PIPE SECTION or POSITION end either DIAMETER LENGTH or LEVELTABLE end either GASTRAINVALVE or either GASTABLE CF !separator location = 1.1 !label for oil valve defined in VALVE !label for oil valve table !label for oil valve controller !oil drain data . 5E5) [pa] end end if (TRAIN = MIX) then GASPIPEDIAMETER = 0.Chapter 3: Input File Description.15 GASPIPELENGTH = 25 GASPIPEROUGH = 4. then OILTIME = (0. the gas valve can also be specified with keyword VALVE or it can be omitted.05 [m] = GASCONTR-1 !label for gas valve controller if (TRAIN = OIL) then !gas outlet data GASTIME = (0.5E-5 OILPIPEDIAM = 0. 5E5) [Pa] end end either OILTRAINVALVE = oilvalve or either OILTABLE = oildrain or OILCD = [1] OILDIAMETER = 0.05 [m] end OILCONTROLLER = OILCONT-1 If (TRAIN = GAS).

6 = 0. 3600) [s] WATBACKPRESSURE = (10E5. 5E5) [Pa] end either HHWATHOLDUP or HHWATLEVEL end = 0.5 [m] or WATTABLE = WAT-DRAIN end WATCONTROLLER =WAT-C WATTIME = (0.5 [m] = 1E5 [Pa] = 30 s = 0.5E-5 end either EMGTRAINVALVE =emgvalve !emergency drain data !label for emergency valve defined in ! the VALVE keyword or either EMGTABLE or EMGCD EMGDIAMETER end EMGBACKPRESSURE STROKETIME end either HHOILHOLDUP or HHOILLEVEL end either LLOILHOLDUP or LLOILLEVEL end either RESETHOLDUP or RESETLEVEL end If (PHASE = THREE) then OILTCONST WATCONST either WATTRAINVALVE = emgdrain !label for emergency valve table = [1] = 0.Page 298 Chapter 3: Input File Description.1 [m] = 0.3 = 0.34 [m] !label for watercontroller .65 [m] = 60 [s] = 60 [s] =watvalve ! label for water valve defined in ! the VALVE keyword or either WATCD WATDIAMETER = [1] = 0.8 = 0.01 = 0.5 [m] = 0. SEPARATOR OILPIPELENGTH OILPIPEROUGH = 20 = 4.

SEPARATOR either LLWATHOLDUP or LLWATLEVEL end endif = 0.01 = 0.1 [m] Page 299 .Chapter 3: Input File Description.

8 [m] !label for gas outlet branch ! specified in BRANCH !label for emergency outlet branch !label for flare outlet branch !label for liquid outlet branch !label for oil outlet branch !label for water outlet branch .8 [m] If (PHASE = THREE) then OILTCONST WATCONST = 60 [s] = 60 [s] either HHWATHOLDUP or HHWATLEVEL end INITWATLEVEL endif = 0.Page 300 Chapter 3: Input File Description.34 [m] = 0.3 = 0. SEPARATOR Internal dependencies of keys for multi train separator: TYPE either BRANCH PIPE SECTION or POSITION end = MULTITRAIN !separator location =1 =1 =1 = SECT-1 GASTOUTLET = BRAN-GAS EMGOUTLET FLAREOUTLET (optional) = BRAN-EMG = BRAN-FLR if ( PHASE = TWO ) then OILOUTLET = BRAN-LIQ else if ( PHASE = THREE ) then OILOUTLET = BRAN-OIL WATOUTLET = BRAN-WAT end INITOILLEVEL = 2.

3. BRANCH = 1. GASTRAINVALVE = V-GAS Example 2: ! !*************************************************************************** ! SINGLE TRAIN TWO-PHASE SEPARATOR WHICH FOLLOWS GAS TRAIN ! VALVES DEFINED IN SEPARATOR KEYWORD !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! SEPARATOR LABEL = SEPA-1-1.1.4E+07. OILCONTROLLER = C-103.50E-01.45..1E+02 ! SEPARATOR LABEL = SEPA-1-2.5E-02.1. PHASE = TWO. \ CONTROLLER = C-105 ! VALVE LABEL = V-EMG.\ OILBACKPRESSURE = (2:0. TIME = 0 s. RESETHOLDUP = 0. BRANCH = 1. RESETHOLDUP = 0.\ OILTIME = (0.. TRAIN = GAS.\ OILTRAINVALVE=V-OIL. SECTION = 3. CD = 0.1. EMGDIAMETER = 0. INITOILLEVEL= 0.. EFFICIENCY = 1.1.50E-01. PHASE = TWO. DIAMETER = 0. PIPE = 1.\ BACKPRESSURE = (2:0.5 m. DIAMETER = 0. GASCD = 0.1. \ OILTRAINVALVE = V-OIL. BACKPRESSURE = 0.\ GASDIAMETER = 0. HHOILHOLDUP = 0.1000E+07).\ ORIENTATION = HORIZONTAL.50E-01.5E-02.99.\ DIAMETER = 0. TIME = (0.\ LENGTH = 0.1.5.2. TRAIN = GAS..4E+07. OILCONTROLLER = C-105 .4E+07). OILDIAMETER = 0.50E-01.2.4E+07.\ ORIENTATION = HORIZONTAL. CD = 0. PHASE = TWO.5E+02. EMGCD = 0.1000E+07). \ BACKPRESSURE = (2:0...1E+02.. VALVE LABEL = V-EMG. SEPARATOR Page 301 Examples: Example 1: ! !*************************************************************************** ! SINGLE TRAIN TWO-PHASE SEPARATOR WHICH FOLLOWS GAS TRAIN ! USING SEPARATE VALVE DEFINITIONS !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! VALVE LABEL = V-GAS. SEPARATOR LABEL = SEPA-1-1. EFFICIENCY = 0.1000E+07).\ ORIENTATION = HORIZONTAL. LLOILHOLDUP = 0. \ EMGTRAINVALVE=V-EMG. CD = 0.\ ORIENTATION = HORIZONTAL.5.. DIAMETER = 0.\ GASCONTROLLER = C-401.\ OILCD = 0. EFFICIENCY = 1. SECTION = 3.99. 0.4E+07). 0. POSITION = SEPA-1-1.\ HHOILHOLDUP = 0.\ LENGTH = 0. SECTION = 1. \ CONTROLLER = C-401 ! VALVE LABEL = V-OIL. CD = 0.\ LENGTH = 25. LLOILHOLDUP = 0.. OILBACKPRESSURE = (2:0.3.. POSITION = SEPA1-2. POSITION = SEPA-1-1.\ EMGBACKPRESSURE = 0.\ LENGTH = 25.5E-02. DIAMETER = 1. 0. 0.\ STROKETIME = 5.4E+07.3. SECTION = 1. HHOILHOLDUP = 0.. PIPE = 1. DIAMETER = 1. TRAIN = GAS.5 m ! Example 3: ! !*************************************************************************** ! SINGLE TRAIN TWO-PHASE SEPARATOR WHICH FOLLOWS GAS TRAIN ! There is no gas valve at the gas outlet !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! VALVE LABEL = V-OIL.\ EMGDIAMETER = 0. OILTIME = (0. POSITION = SEPA-1-1. INITOILLEVEL= 0. BRANCH = 1. \ STROKETIME = 5.4E+07). OILDIAMETER = 0.45.5. TRAIN = GAS.4.50E-01. RESETHOLDUP = 0. \ BACKPRESSURE = 0. DIAMETER = 0.Chapter 3: Input File Description. BRANCH = 1. \ CONTROLLER = C-103 TIME = (0.5E-02. EFFICIENCY = 0. EMGTRAINVALVE = V-EMG ! !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! SEPARATOR LABEL = SEPA-1-2. OILCD = 0.50E-01. DIAMETER = 1.5. PHASE = TWO. DIAMETER = 1. PIPE = 1.\ LLOILHOLDUP = 0. RESETHOLDUP = 0.. CD = 0. STROKETIME = 0.1000E+07). EMGCD = 0.4E+07).\ LLOILHOLDUP = 0.5E+02.\ HHOILHOLDUP = 0. POSITION = SEPA-1-2. STROKETIME = 0. PIPE = 1.3.4.3. EMGBACKPRESSURE = 0..3.

WATTRAINVALVE = V-WAT Example 5: ! !*************************************************************************** ! MULTI TRAIN THREE-PHASE SEPARATOR ! Valves are defined on section boundaries using VALVE keyword !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! POSITION LABEL=SEPARATOR. TIME=0 s. TRAIN = MIX.000045. AMPLIFICATION=2 . VARIABLE=PT CONTROLLER LABEL=DRAIN. PIPE = CD = 1. \ TIME = 0. RESETHOLDUP = 0.07 m. \ GASPIPELENGTH = 25.92 m..000045. TIME=0 s.\ STROKETIME=30 s. DIAMETER = 0. \ STROKETIME = 15. \ LLOILHOLDUP = 0. TYPE=PSV. TYPE=MULTITRAIN. \ GASTRAINVALVE = V-GAS. POSITION = SEP-1 ! SEPARATOR LABEL = SEP-1.84. \ . MAXSIGNAL=1 . TYPE=PID.. DIAMETER = 0.65. CONTROLLER = WDRAIN. POSITION=SEPARATOR.\ WATOUTLET=BRANCH_5. TYPE=PID. SECTIONBOUNDARY = 1. OILTRAINVALVE = V-OIL.. \ INTEGRALCONST=100 s.07 m. BRANCH=BRANCH_1. EMGOUTLET=BRANCH_4.25.05.\ MAXSIGNAL=1.05. BIAS=0.1.\ MAXSIGNAL=1. \ P-11. DIAMETER = 0.\ HHWATHOLDUP = 0. INITWATLEVEL = 1. OILPIPEDIAM = 0. SETPOINT=0. EFFICIENCY = 1.07 m. DIAMETER=2. DIAMETER = 0. BRANCH =BRANCH_4. OILTCONST = 5. VARIABLE=BEHL CONTROLLER LABEL=EDRAIN. DIAMETER = 0. OILCONTROLLER = DRAIN. \ P-11. PIPE = CD = 1. PIPE=P-10. EFFICIENCY=1 .3. \ OILPIPELENGTH = 25.75. POSITION=SEPARATOR.5 m. TIME=0 s. AMPLIFICATION=1.31. CD = 1. \ OILTCONST=0.0. MINSIGNAL=0. \ POSITION = SEP-1 VALVE LABEL = V-EMG. CONTROLLER=EDRAIN ! VALVE LABEL = WATVAL. SETPOINT=2800000 . PIPE = CD = 1. HHOILHOLDUP = 0. BRANCH =BRANCH_2. AMPLIFICATION=1 . OILTIME=0 s. DIAMETER = 2. CONTROLLER = GASOUT.3.0. DIAMETER = 0. CD = 0. \ P-11.0E-7. \ WATTCONST=0. POSITION = SEPARATOR.\ RESET=0. \ PHASE=THREE. OILOUTLET=BRANCH_3. BIAS=0 .21. GASPIPEROUGH = 0. LLWATHOLDUP = 0. STROKETIME=30 s. POSITION = SEP-1 VALVE LABLE = V-WAT.135. TIME=0 s. BACKPRESSURE = 10 BAR.0. INTEGRALCONST=100 s. WATTCONST = 0. BIAS=0 . BRANCH =BRANCH_3.15.1 s. VARIABLE=BE CONTROLLER LABEL=WDRAIN.Page 302 Chapter 3: Input File Description. POSITION=SEPARATOR. CONTROLLER=DRAIN ! VALVE LABEL = EMGVAL.8.\ POSITION=SEP-1 VALVE LABEL = V-GAS. SECTION=1 CONTROLLER LABEL=GDRAIN.\ MAXSIGNAL=1. SECTIONBOUNDARY = 1. AMPLIFICATION=2. SEPARATOR Example 4: ! !*************************************************************************** ! SEPARATOR Definition: Mixing of gas and oil downstream of separator !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! VALVE LABEL = V-OIL. ORIENTATION = HORIZONTAL. INTEGRALCONST=100 s. LENGTH=10 m. STROKETIME=30 s. BACKPRESSURE = 14 BAR. CD = 1. OILPIPEROUGH = 0. BIAS=0. CONTROLLER=GDRAIN ! VALVE LABEL = OILVAL. BRANCH =BRANCH_5. SETPOINT=0.1 s ! VALVE LABEL = GASVAL. MINSIGNAL=0. INTEGRALCONST=583 s. SECTIONBOUNDARY = 1.\ STROKETIME=30 s. PIPE = CD = 1. DIAMETER = 0. ORIENTATION=HORIZONTAL. \ GASOUTLET=BRANCH_2.05. \ POSITION=SEPARATOR. CONTROLLER=WDRAIN P-11. MINSIGNAL=0. \ EMGTRAINVALVE = V-EMG. \ INITOILLEVEL=3. CD = 1. POSITION=SEPARATOR.0.3. \ LENGTH = 10.3 -. SETPOINT=0. HHWATHOLDUP=0. GASPIPEDIAM = 0. PHASE = THREE.0.05.. MINSIGNAL=0.75 m. DIAMETER = 0. TYPE=PID. VARIABLE=BEWT ! SEPARATOR LABEL=SEP-1. SECTIONBOUNDARY = 1.75 m.

1 atm (~1 bara) and 60 °F (~ 15. The name of the controlled (mass flow) variable is used to determine the phase of the given volumetric flow setpoint.Chapter 3: Input File Description. The fluid property table range must cover standard pressure and temperature. . Under the keyword CONTROLLER the controlled variables defined by SETPOINTVARIABLE are referenced by the sub-key SETOFVARIABLES. the gas density at the standard condition from the PVT table is used. If a controlled variable is a mass flow rate. NB! The actual setpoints are given in the CONTROLLER input group. for P and T at the position where the mass flow rate is measured. to control total mass flow. The setpoint value can be specified directly as the relevant mass flow rate. a volumetric flow rate at standard conditions can be used as setpoint. SETPOINTVARIABLE Page 303 3. For example. To use volumetric flows as an alternative setpoint to total mass flow the following data must be specified: VARIABLE A mass flow rate variable must be specified. By default. the user could just as well specify a phase volumetric flow rate as VARIABLE e. MOLWEIGHT Molecular weight. see keyword CONTROLLER.e.e. Alternatively.g.3. The mass flow rate variable must be defined at the measurement point (i. if variable GG (Gas mass flow rate) is given as VARIABLE (see below).e.5 °C) GOR or GLR Default value is based on the gas mass fraction from the fluid property file at standard conditions. If the volumetric flow setpoint of a phase is known at IN-SITU conditions. which is relevant for wet gas) its molecular weight should be given in order to determine the density of the equivalent gas (under the assumption that the gas is ideal). REFCONDITION STD (standard conditions i. SETPOINT Volumetric flow rate at standard conditions. The individual mass flow rates can only be controlled at REFCONDITION = IN-SITU (which is default) i. WATERCUT Water volume fraction in oil/water mixture.49 SETPOINTVARIABLE This input group offers the user an alternative way of specifying controlled variables. If the equivalent gas volumetric flow rate is specified (when all hydrocarbons are assumed to be gas. The calculation is based on the given GOR (or GLR) and WATERCUT. the gas volume flow rate must be specified by SETPOINT and this is used by OLGA to calculate the total mass flow rate setpoint value. there are two ways to specify its setpoint value. GLLEAK in a leak). QG.

- Section number. .(kg/kmol) - The molecular weight of equivalent gas at the reference condition. Including unit if non-default unit is used. GLR r. See Appendix A for available variable names. Use STD if an equivalent volume flow at standard conditions shall be used as alternative setpoint for total mass flow setpoint. - Bundle line label. GOR r. MOLWEIGHT r. - Label given to the controlled variable. Separate phase mass flow rates can only be controlled at IN-SITU conditions. Used to calculate gas density at reference conditions. SETPOINTVARIABLE Keyword: SETPOINTVARIABLE Dependencies: BRANCH. (-) 0 Water volume fraction in oil/water mixture. LABEL str. GEOMETRY. - Pipe label or number. POSITION Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description BRANCH sym.Page 304 Chapter 3: Input File Description. LINE sym. - Controlled variable. REFCONDITION sym. PIPE sym. STD. GOR and GLR can not be used together. If STD is used. standard conditions must be included in the PVT-table. (Sm3/Sm3) - Gas/liquid volumetric flow ratio. (Sm3/Sm3) [Value from PVT-table] Gas/oil volumetric flow ratio. POSITION sym. - Branch label or number. PIPE. SECTION. Default is value from PVT-table. Position must be defined before it is referenced under SETPOINTVARIABLE. By default the gas density at standard condition from the PVT-table is used to compute the mole weight. VARIABLE sym. [IN-SITU] STD means standard conditions (1atm and 60 °F). - Position of the controlled variable. Required if the controlled variable is bundle line temperature TBUN. SECTION sym. WATERCUT r.

\ POSITION = INTO_SEPARATOR SETPOINTVARIABLE LABEL = HIGH_GLT. PIPE and SECTION. GLR = 200 . VARIABLE = GLT. Example: !*************************************************************************** ! Definition for SETPOINTVARIABLE ! ! The example is for three variables to be used by a SELECTOR controller ! which is used by a separator. SECTION = 2. If VARIABLE is not a volume or section boundary variable: Give POSITION. REFCONDITION = IN-SITU SETPOINTVARIABLE LABEL = LOW_GLT. The variables are meant to be used for ! lower and upper limits for switching between two sub-controllers. \ REFCONDITION = STD. \ POSITION = SEPARATOR. VARIABLE = LIQLV. ! !--------------------------------------------------------------------------SETPOINTVARIABLE LABEL = LOW_LIQLV. or give POSITION. \ BRANCH = INLET_BRANCH.Chapter 3: Input File Description. ! ! For variable labelled LOW_GLT the POSITION called INTO_SEPARATOR must be ! defined before it can be used by SETPOINTVARIABLE. VARIABLE Internal dependencies of keys: If VARIABLE is a volume or section boundary variable: Give BRANCH. SETPOINTVARIABLE Required keys: Page 305 LABEL. PIPE = TOP_PIPE. VARIABLE = GLT Kg/S. Se example below for details. Se example below for details.

WIDTH r. Keyword: SHAPE Dependencies: MATERIAL Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default:[ ] Description LABEL str Name of shape. CIRCLEs and ELLIPSEs are automatically placed in the origin.(m) This keyword is given if the type is a rectangle.Page 306 Chapter 3: Input File Description. Denotes the y-coordinate of the lower left corner of the rectangle. X_LOWER_LEFT r. TYPE sym RADIUS r. Polygon points must be specified counter clockwise.50 SHAPE This keyword describes the external contour of a material. (m) CIRCLE | ELLIPSE | RECTANGLE | POLYGON - Type of shape. Denotes the x-coordinate of the lower left corner of the rectangle. This keyword is given if the type is a polygon.l. Denotes the y-coordinate of the upper right corner of the rectangle. Polygon points must be specified counter clockwise.(m) This keyword is given if the type is a rectangle. HEIGHT r. Denotes the height of the ellipse. The shape keyword is being used in the LINE and CROSSSECTION keywords.l.(m) This keyword is given if the type is an ellipse.(m) This keyword is given if the type is a circle. Denotes the y-coordinates of the polygon points. Denotes the radius of the circle. POLYGON. . Denotes the x-coordinates of the polygon points. Y_UPPER_RIGHT r. Denotes the width of the ellipse. RECTANGLE. Denotes the x-coordinate of the upper right corner of the rectangle. X_UPPER_RIGHT r. (m) YPOINTS r. Y_LOWER_LEFT r. ELLIPSE.(m) This keyword is given if the type is a rectangle. The material inside the shape is being described with the MATERIAL keyword. XPOINTS r. MATERIAL sym Name/label of solid (or fluid if used by LINE) inside the shape. SHAPE 3.3.(m) This keyword is given if the type is an ellipse.(m) This keyword is given if the type is a rectangle. This keyword is given if the type is a polygon. The type of the shape can be one of the following: CIRCLE.

\ MATERIAL = MATER-2.2) [m] = (-0. 0. TYPE .1.80 m ! Polygon.1. 0. -0.2) m. 0. 0.01 [m] = -0.05 [m] = -0. \ MATERIAL = MATER-2.01 [m] = 0.015 [m] = 0. -0.Chapter 3: Input File Description.2.1) (0. -0. -0.1.\ CAPACITY = 880 J/kg-C.2.2) (0.03 [m] = (-0.2. 0.2.\ CONDUCTIVITY = 10 W/m-K.1.2. \ TYPE = CIRCLE.1. -0.2) .1) [m] Example: ! !*************************************************************************** !MATERIAL Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------MATERIAL LABEL = MATER-2. SHAPE Required keys: Page 307 MATERIAL.1.05 [m] = -0.2. 0.2. \ YPOINTS = (-0. \ XPOINTS = (-0.1) x (-0. 0. \ RADIUS = 0. 0. 0.2. LABEL Internal dependencies of keys: if (TYPE=CIRCLE) then RADIUS else if (TYPE = ELLIPSE) then WIDTH HEIGTH else if (TYPE=RECTANGLE) then X_LOWER_LEFT Y_LOWER_LEFT X_UPPER_RIGHT Y_UPPER_RIGHT else if (TYPE = POLYGON) then XPOINTS YPOINTS end if = 0.1) m y (-0.1. see drawing below SHAPE LABEL = POLYGON.\ DENSITY = 2500 kg/m3 ! !*************************************************************************** !SHAPE Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! Cirle SHAPE LABEL = CIRCLE1. 0.03 [m] = -0. -0.1. \ TYPE = POLYGON.

set TSHUT1 > TSHUT2. the flow regime will always be stratified/annular. To switch off SHUTIN. TSHUT2 r. TSHUT2 = 0. (s) - Start time for shutdown simulation. otherwise an input error is given. it is required that SHUTIN is redefined after RESTART. TSHUT2 Internal dependencies of keys: None Example: !*********************************************************************! SHUTIN Definition !---------------------------------------------------------------------! SHUTIN TSHUT1 = 0. in a start-up simulation following a shutdown. During this shutdown period.108E+06 !********************************************************************* . and must be switched off e.g. Note: SHUTIN should only be used for shutdown simulations. Required keys: Description TSHUT1.3. Numerical flow regime flipping during shutdown can therefore be avoided.Page 308 Chapter 3: Input File Description. both < STARTTIME or both > ENDTIME. In a restart from a file where SHUTIN has been defined. SHUTIN 3. (s) - End time for shutdown simulation. Keyword: SHUTIN Dependencies: INTEGRATION Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] TSHUT1 r.51 SHUTIN This statement defines start and end times of a shutdown period.

by: (1) (2) setting key ILLEGALSECTION = OFF specifying the section where slugs are allowed by key combination BRANCH.3. and the interactions between terrain and hydrodynamic slugging can be investigated using the key HYDRODYNAMIC. The slug tracking option is also available for network cases (the first section after the junction between branches is by default an illegal section). Terrain slugging will be detected in ordinary simulations without the slugtracking module.Chapter 3: Input File Description. liquid will be injected into the pipeline to generate slugs of required size. Other slug fronts are the required distance away.52 SLUGTRACKING This statement defines the slug tracking option. PIPE. The slug tracking option offers full temperature calculation capabilities. These two options may be used together or separately. Keyword: SLUGTRACKING Dependencies: BRANCH. SECTION or key POSITION. or. the boundary sections are automatically set to illegal for slugs by the program itself. If HYDRODYNAMIC = MANUAL. and the slug tail into the inlet section. SLUGTRACKING Page 309 3. However. The time elapsed since the previous slug was generated in or passed this section is higher than a specified minimum time.3.1. SECTION. That is. If HYDRODYNAMIC = ON. Remark: The availability of the slug tracking option depends on the user’s licensing agreement with Scandpower Petroleum Technology.1. The slug tracking module cannot be applied together with the wax deposition module.out file for positions where LSLEXP are defined in TREND. PIPE. Slug statistics is reported to the . GEOMETRY. The illegal sections can be changed back to legal again for instance in a restart. Users can specify the sections where slugs are not allowed to be generated by (1) (2) setting key ILLEGALSECTION = ON specify the sections by key combination BRANCH. These are: (1) (2) (3) Flow regime at the section boundary changes from separated to slug flow. Slugs are not allowed to be generated at the inlet and outlet sections by default. key POSITION. OPTIONS. the user can specify a fixed number of slugs to be set up at predefined positions and times. This statement has two main suboptions for initiation of liquid slugs: the level slug option (LEVEL) and the hydrodynamic slug option (HYDRODYNAMIC). see Chapter 2. the slug front is allowed to move into the outlet section. Using this option. POSITION . the code will set up a new slug in a section whenever the set-up criteria are fulfilled.

Shea correlation for slug frequency: F sl = where D L Usl = = = 0 . SLUGTRACKING Hint: The DELAYCONST determines the required time delay between generation of slugs in a particular section. With a long pipeline operating mainly in the slug flow regime. The default value of 150 has been found to give good results for a number of cases. To turn off slugtracking in a restart. In a case where terrain effects are dominant and large slugs can be developed far from the outlet. DELAYCONST should be tuned so that resulting slug frequency is in the same order of magnitude as Fsl in the cases where hydrodynamic slugging is dominant. This can be obtained by using the key ILLEGALSECTIONS. say last 5-10 km. Based on Shea correlation for slug frequency. the physical number of slugs can be very large (gives large CPU time). set both LEVEL and HYDRODYNAMIC to OFF. the DELAYCONST can be estimated. 68 ⋅ U sl D 1 . it should not be used. MAXNOSLUGS determines the max number of slugs that will be allowed in the system. If terrain effects are dominant. . It can be used to tune the delay constant in systems dominated by hydrodynamic slugging.Page 310 Chapter 3: Input File Description. Time delay between new slugs: ∆T = DELAYCONST ⋅ D Ul where Ul is averaged liquid velocity.2 ⋅ L 0 .6 pipeline diameter [m] pipeline length [m] superficial liquid velocity [m/s] This correlation is based on experimental slugging data and some field data. the key ILLEGALSECTIONS should not be used to prevent such slugs from being developed. In such situations it is recommended to only allow for slugs in the parts of the pipeline close to the outlet.

the last definition is valid. SECTION. [One pipe diameter] Maximum initial hydrodynamic slug length in no.l.l.Chapter 3: Input File Description. INITPERIODS r. Slugs generated elsewhere may move into the section. ON | [OFF] Specifies whether slugs are allowed for sections defined by BRANCH. See key ILLEGALSECTION BUBBLEVOID r. 2.l. ILLEGALSECTION = ON: Slugs are not allowed to be generated. 1. 2.(s) - The end times for slug generations INITFREQUENCY r. HYDRODYNAMIC sym. of pipe diameters. Default minimum distance is 10 pipe diameters. but is not allowed to pass through this section. HYDRODYNAMIC = OFF: No hydrodynamic slugs allowed.(-) - Minimum void required behind a level tail and ahead of a level front at initiation time DELAYCONST r [150] Number of pipe diameters a slug must travel before a new slug can be set up. If the key is present more than once. ILLEGALSECTION = OFF: Slugs allowed. - Branch number. INITBUBBLEVOIDS r. HYDRODYNAMIC = MANUAL: Slugs are generated at the userspecified position and frequency. INITENDTIMES r. 1.(s) - Time interval between new slugs . PIPE. INITLENGTH r. Used in defining a minimum distance from a possible new slug to an already existing slug. Used for sections where illegal sections previously has been switched on. HYDRODYNAMIC = ON: Hydrodynamic slugs may be set up if slug flow regime is predicted. or POSITION. ENDTIME r. ON | Manual | [OFF] Option for initiating hydrodynamic slugs. (1/s) - Slug frequency. SLUGTRACKING Page 311 Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description BRANCH sym. 3. (s) - End of time interval where level is to be initiated. The slugs will be destroyed when both the front and tail are within the section. The very first and last section in the pipeline are automatically set to illegal for slugs by the program itself.(-) [1] Void fractions in the slug bubbles. ILLEGALSECTION sym.

(See key ILLEGALSECTION) SECTION i. (-) - The maximum void allowed in a liquid slug at initiation time. LEVEL = OFF: No initiation. PIPE and SECTION should not be used. SLUGTRACKING Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description INITPOSITIONS sym.l. LEVEL = ON: Level slugs may be initiated in the user specified time interval (STARTTIME .l. - Define the positions. STARTTIME r.(s) - The start times for slug generations INITZONELENGTHS r. . INITSLUGVOIDS r. - Pipe number (See key ILLEGALSECTION) POSITION sym.l. If the key is present more than once. - Section number.Page 312 Chapter 3: Input File Description. sub-key BRANCH. (s) - Beginning of time interval where levels are to be initiated.(-) [0] Void fraction in the liquid slug. If this option is used.l. MAXNOSLUGS i [No limit] Max number of slugs allowed in the system PIPE sym.(m) - The length of zones where slugs are to be generated. LEVEL sym. INITSTARTTIMES r.ENDTIME). the last definition is valid. (See key ILLEGALSECTION) SLUGVOID r. ON | [OFF] Option for detecting and initiating level slugs.l.l. - The labels of the sections boundaries where the slug generation zones are located. 1.l. 2.

05 = 0. SLUGTRACKING Page 313 Required keys: LEVEL.6 If (HYDRODYNAMIC = ON) then INITLENGTH = [one pipe diameter] INITFREQUENCY =1 DELAYCONST = [10] else if (HYDRODYNAMIC = MANUAL) then INITPOSITIONS = (SL1. 300)[s] endif If (ILLEGALSECTION = ON) then either BRANCH =1 PIPE =1 SECTION =1 or POSITION = SLUGKILL-1 end endif !This will set a certain section as illegal. ILLEGALSECTION. HYDRODYNAMIC. If (ILLEGALSECTION = OFF) then either BRANCH =1 PIPE =1 SECTION =1 or POSITION = NOSLUGKILL-1 end endif !This will switch a section back from illegal !to legal. . SL2) INITBUBBLEVOIDS = [2 : 1] INITSLUGVOIDS = [2 : 0] INITPERIODS = (2 : 10)[s] INITZONELENGTHS = (2 : 200)[m] INITSTARTTIMES = (10.0 [s] = 0. 200)[s] INITENDTIMES = (100.Chapter 3: Input File Description. MAXNOSLUGS Internal dependencies of keys: If (LEVEL = ON ) then STARTTIME ENDTIME SLUGVOID BUBBLEVOID endif = 0. !Illegalssection should have been switched ON !previously for the same section.0 [s] = 100.

PIPE = 10. BRANCH = 1. POSITION = SLUGKIL-1 Example 4: !*************************************************************************** ! Manual injection of slugs of fixed length at given times and positions !--------------------------------------------------------------------------SLUGTRACKING HYDRODYNAMIC = MANUAL.\ ILLEGALSECTION = ON.\ INITSLUGVOIDS = (2:0. 4.\ INITZONELENGTHS = (2:200). INITLENGTH = 2.\ HYDRODYNAMIC = ON. 1000).Page 314 Chapter 3: Input File Description.\ BUBBLEVOID = 0. BRANCH = 1. SECTION = 1 !*************************************************************************** ! Slugtracking !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! SLUGTRACKING LEVEL = OFF. HYDRODYNAMIC = OFF Example 2: **************************************************************************** ! Definition of Slugtracking !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! SLUGTRACKING LEVEL = OFF.\ SECTION = (1. SLUGTRACKING Examples: Example 1: !*************************************************************************** ! Definition of Slugtracking !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! SLUGTRACKING MAXNOSLUGS = 1.9).50E-01.2 !*************************************************************************** ! Definition for Illegal Slug Sections !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! SLUGTRACKING ILLEGALSECTION = ON.\ SECTION = (1. 13) SLUGTRACKING ILLEGALSECTION = ON. 2.. SLUGVOID = 0. ENDTIME = 0.\ SECTION = (11. SL2) INITSTARTTIMES = (100. PIPE = 2.50E-01. BRANCH = 1. INITLENGTH = 1. 12..\ INITBUBBLEVOIDS = (2:0. 3. PIPE = 1. 5. BRANCH = 1.\ INITPERIODS = (2:10).\ INITENDTIMES = (120.1. 3) SLUGTRACKING ILLEGALSECTION = ON. PIPE = 9.\ HYDRODYNAMIC = ON. 6) Example 3: !*************************************************************************** ! Definition for Position in Slugtracking !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! POSITION LABEL = SLUGKIL-1. 2.6. INITFREQUENCY = 0.1). SECTION = 2 SLUGTRACKING ILLEGALSECTION = ON. PIPE = 1. INITFREQUENCY = 0. LEVEL = ON.\ INITPOSITIONS = (SL1. 3600) .\ STARTTIME = 0. BRANCH = 1.

8.(m) The Y co-ordinates of the centre for each of the branches inside the grid.(W/m2oC) 1. PIPEXCOORD r. BRANCHES sym.3. Keyword: SOIL Dependencies: GRID.Chapter 3: Input File Description.(W/m C) 1. - Name of material the grid cells are filled with. The soil module is further described in section 2. use the keyword COVER to specify the appropriate materials for these cells. use the keyword COVER to place the other material in the appropriate grid cells.E+6 Heat transfer coefficient on the left side of the grid. placement of the flow lines. ENDPIPE sym. - Name of the pipe at the end position for each of the branches inside the grid. Multiple OLGA pipelines can reside inside the same soil grid.E+6 Heat transfer coefficient on the bottom side of the grid. GRID sym. MATERIAL.l. .l - Name of the branches that reside inside the grid. This keyword requires access to the soil module.l. and (3) the default material for the soil.53 SOIL This keyword is used to define a soil block: (1) the grid. If there are other solid media than the default in the grid cells. - The name of the grid that defines the discretization. LABEL Str.3. BRANCH Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set (Default: []) BOTHAMBIENT r. it is assumed that the heat transfer is axi-symmetric around the X (horizontal) axis going through the centre of the pipe. Similarly. If the centre of a pipeline is placed at the first or the last vertical grid lines (first or last X co-ordinates). - Name of the soil.l. it is assumed that the heat transfer is axi-symmetric around the Y (vertical) axis going through the centre of the pipe. there must be at least one grid cell between the pipes and the profile and discretization of the pipelines inside the same soil group must be the same.(m) - The X co-ordinates of the centre for each of the branches inside the grid. In this case. If some of the grid cells are of different materials. SOIL Page 315 3. PIPEYCOORD r. 2o Description LEFTHAMBIENT r. if the centre of a pipeline is placed at the first or the last horizontal gridlines (first or last Y coordinates). (2) the heat transfer coefficients to the ambient. MATERIAL sym.

2..).6. BOTHAMBIENT = 1. MATERIAL = SOIL.5. \ XGRIDCOORD = ( 0. SOILCOLUMN = (5-6). - Name of the pipe at the start position for each of the branches inside the grid. Example: Example 1: ! !*************************************************************************! MATERIAL Definition !-------------------------------------------------------------------------! MATERIAL LABEL = SOIL. 1. TOPAMBIENT = 500. SOILCOLUMN = 1-2. \ YGRIDCOORD = ( 0.. BRANCHES = BR-1.Page 316 Chapter 3: Input File Description. . DENSITY = 1800. RIGHTAMBIENT = 500 ! !*************************************************************************! COVER Definition !*************************************************************************! ! The sides of the rockdump cover ! COVER SOIL = TRENCH.E+6 Heat transfer coefficient on the right side of the grid. . TOPHAMBIENT r.. STARTPIPE = p-2. GRID = G-TRCH. SEA = ON. SOILCOLUMN = 1-3. SOILROW = 1 COVER SOIL = TRENCH. 1. \ ENDPIPE = p-6. .5. CONDUCT = 2.8.25.l. SEA = ON. STARTPIPE sym. SOILROW = 1 COVER SOIL = TRENCH.3. SOILROW = 2-3 ! .9. SOIL Key RIGHTHAMBIENT Type Unit: ( ) r.4.. CAPACITY = 1162 MATERIAL LABEL = ROCKD. SOILCOLUMN = (4-6).E+6 Heat transfer coefficient on the top side of the grid.). 1. 2.e+06.(W/m2oC) 1.55. PIPEYCOORD = \ 0.1.8.575 m. . . CONDUCT = 1.2. MATERIAL = ROCKD.. . SPOLROW = 2 ! ! Rockdump cover and trench ! COVER SOIL = TRENCH. MATERIAL = ROCKD. DENSITY = 1800.(W/m2oC) Parameter set (Default: []) Description 1. PIPEXCOORD = 0. CAPACITY = 1162 !*************************************************************************! GRID Definition !*************************************************************************! ! First cell has the size equal to pipe radius plus all wall layers ! = 25 cm ! !-------------------------------------------------------------------------! 1000 mm crossover to top of pipe with some below pipe: Trenched pipe !-------------------------------------------------------------------------! GRID LABEL = G-TRCH. .3. .\ ! !*************************************************************************! SOIL Definition !*************************************************************************! SOIL LABEL = TRENCH. .

There are two options to specify a mass source: 1. The mass flow rate is to be calculated based on the opening of the choke through which a mass source is introduced into or taken out of the pipe section. do the following: Use key: Specify: MASSFLOW GASFRACTION Total mass flow rate (if option 1) Gas mass fraction in gas and oil mixture at the source temperature and pressure. Free water is excluded. Both critical and subcritical flow through the choke are modelled. The mass flow rate is given. Only used together with MEG tracking. Only one of WATERFRACTION or TOTALWATERFRACTION could be defined. WATERFRACTION Mass fraction of free water in the gas-oil-water mixture at the source temperature and pressure. default value is zero for MEG tracking. Also. A drilling fluid used with the Advanced well module can be defined. OLGA uses mass flow rate for internal calculations. Default value is zero. 2. Default value is zero. users can specify the upstream pressure as well as the upstream temperature. If the upstream pressure is not given. the gas mass fraction is determined from the PVT table.3. For a positive mass source (flowing into the pipe). but input flow rate may also be given as volumetric flow at standard conditions. SOURCE Page 317 3. this statement may be used to specify the fraction of wax forming components in the inflow hydrocarbon mixture. i.e. If the upstream pressure is given in the input. When the mass flow rate is to be specified at the source temperature and pressure without compositional tracking. default value is zero for MEG tracking. If a controller is used. the upstream pressure is set to the pressure inside the pipe section where the source is introduced. no free water. MEGFRACTION Mass fraction of MEG in water phase at source temperature and pressure. As default. Only used together with MEG tracking. the actual mass rate into/out of the section is a fraction of the mass rate given in the time series with the fraction regulated by the controller. do the following: . the expansion from the upstream pressure to the pressure inside the pipe section will be taken into account for the temperature calculations. When the mass flow rate is to be specified at the source temperature and pressure with compositional tracking. The choke opening is regulated by a controller. TOTALMEGFRACTION Mass fraction of MEG in total water at source temperature and pressure. TOTALWATERFRACTION Mass fraction of total water in the gas-oil-water mixture at the source temperature and pressure.Chapter 3: Input File Description.54 SOURCE This statement specifies the input data needed for the simulation of sources.

i. Fraction of water mass flow relative to equilibrium flow at the source temperature and pressure. As default. Default is (Sm3/s). SOURCE Use key: Specify: FEEDMASSFLOW GASFRACEQ Total mass flow rate (if option 1) Fraction of gas mass flow relative to equilibrium flow at the source temperature and pressure. Other units can be defined by using the keyword UNITS. Gas/liquid ratio. By default.5 oC). When the volumetric flow rate at the standard conditions is given. Water cut. the GOR from PVT table is used. FILE.e. STDFLOWRATE. for the phase in question. Gas/oil ratio. Keyword: SOURCE Dependencies: BRANCH. OPTION. GLR. LIQUID. the total flow will not add up to the specified FEEDMASSFLOW. the gas density at the standard condition from the PVT table is used. PHASE GOR GLR WATERCUT MOLWEIGHT Available units for standard volumetric flow rate. If the equivalent gas volumetric flow rate is specified.e. water volume fraction in water and oil mixture. If the total volumetric flow is meant to represent equivalent gas flow instead of the single gas phase flow. at standard conditions. POSITION. The total source flow is determined so that the specified flow is obtained. Fraction of oil mass flow relative to equilibrium flow at the source temperature and pressure. PHASE together with GOR. For use of STDFLOWRATE. OIL. The allowed options are GAS. MOLWEIGHT see Mass sources under Process Equipment in Chapter 2. the molweight of the total flow must be given. GEOMETRY. the table for PVT-data must cover the standard conditions for pressure and temperature i. the gas mass flow is equal to the equilibrium flow determined from the feed file (equilibrium gas mass fraction) and FEEDMASSFLOW: (GG = FEEDMASSFLOW * RSEQ * GASFRACEQ). Note that GOR and GLR can not be used at the same time. the molecular weight of the total flow should be given in order to account for the density of the equivalent gas. FEED CONTROLLER. (Not available with OLGA GUI). do the following: Use key: Specify: STDFLOWRATE Volumetric flow rate at standard conditions for the specified phase (if option 1) The phase for which the volumetric flow rate is specified. OILFRACEQ WATERFRACEQ Note: If GASFRACEQ. . By default. When volumetric flow rate at standard conditions is used. OILFRACEQ or WATERFRACEQ is lower than 1 (default value). WATERCUT. are listed in Appendix B. WATER. 1 atm and 60 °F ( ~1 bara and 15.Page 318 Chapter 3: Input File Description.

Refer to the drilling fluid defined by the keyword DRILLINGFLUID. FEEDMASSFRACTION r. [0. FEEDMASSFLOW r. One item per time and feed. FEEDSTDFLOW r. [FROZEN] | Choice of critical flow model to be used. Omitted if the drillingfluid properties are given in a separate fluid property file.l. Homogenous frozen critical flow model or Henry-Fauske model. FEEDMOLEFLOW r. (m) - Maximum orifice diameter.Chapter 3: Input File Description.l. In addition. the controller determines the fraction of the mass flowrate actually injected or removed from the section.l. - Branch label. (-) Mass fraction of each feed (used when source valve is defined). (kmol/s) Mole rate for each feed (used when mass source is defined). a forced subcritical option is available. CONTROLLER sym. One item per time and feed. DENSITY r. - Controller label for regulating the mass flow. (-) Mole fraction of each feed (used when source valve is defined). Must be within the min and max density as specified in the keyword DRILLINGFLUID.l. SOURCE Page 319 Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] BRANCH sym. CD r. (kg/m3) - Density of the drilling fluid for each time point. DRILLINGFLUID sym.l. Requires access to the Advanced Well module.l. One item per time and feed. FEEDNAME sym. FEEDMOLEFRACTION r. One item per time and feed. (Sm3/s) Volumetric flow rate at standard condition of the specified PHASE for each feed specified by FEEDNAME (only for Blackoil model) . CRITFLOWMODEL sym. If valve diameter is given. (kg/s) Mass rate for each feed (used when mass source is defined). the controller determines the relative opening of the valve.l.84] Discharge coefficient. If the flowrate is given as a time series. Requires COMPOSITIONAL = ON under the OPTIONS keyword and access to the compositional module. Labels of feeds in mass source defining the fluid composition. HENRYFAUSKE| SUBCRITICAL Description DIAMETER r.

PHASE sym. For outflow. the GOR from the PVT table is used. (-) [1. and GASFRACEQ = 1.0] Gas mass fraction in gas and oil mixture. Pipe number.l. (-) GASFRACEQ r.l. But the user may specify a fraction of the oil equilibrium flow to be sent into the pipeline.l. and OILFRACEQ = 1.0] Mass fraction of MEG in the water phase. GAS | LIQUID | OIL | WATER The phase for which volumetric flow rate is specified. MOLWEIGHT r.l. This key is only available in the compositional module. (kg/kmol) OILFRACEQ r. (-) [-1.l. default is source number. By default. One item per time point. GASFRACTION r. MEGFRACTION r. (kg/s) - Total mass flow rate at all time points. the gas mass fraction from the PVT table is used for inflow (GASFRACTION < 0). PIPE sym. the equilibium gas fraction of the total flow is used for the gas flow in the compositional model. But the user may specify a fraction of the gas equilibrium flow to be sent into the pipeline. A list of both positive and negative values is not allowed. This key is only available in the compositional module. .Page 320 Chapter 3: Input File Description. One item per time point.l.l. MASSFLOW r.l. By default. LABEL str. the equilibirium oil fraction of the total flow is used for the oil flow in the compositional model.l. Volume fraction of each feed given in FEEDNAME for choke model (only for Blackoil model) (Sm3/Sm3) (Sm3/Sm3) Molecular weight of equivalent gas (total flow).0] By default. [Integer increment] Source label. By default. Gas/oil volumetric flow ratio. GLR r. the gas density at standard conditions from the PVT table is used to determine the molecular weight. the gas mass fraction can be specified as equal to the gas mass fraction in the source section by setting GASFRACTION < 0. Gas/liquid volumetric flow ratio GOR r.0] By default. SOURCE Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description FEEDVOLFRACTION r. (-) [0. (-) [1.

PIPE and SECTION should not be used. Position where the source is located.l. Section volume number where the source is located.l. WATERCUT r. (Ns/m2) - Viscosity of the drilling fluids for each time point. BRANCH.(-) [0. VISCOSITY r.l. (s) - The time points when the flow is to be changed.0] Mass fraction of total water in the total source flow mixture.l.l. Note that the value actually used by the program is interpolated between the values specified by the given timetable. Required key if source valve is used (option 2). Omitted if the drillingfluid properties are given in a separate fluid property file. TIME r. TOTALMEGFRACTION r. and free water + water in gas if ON).l. - PRESSURE r. TOTALWATERFRACTION r. source Downstream pressure for a negative source. Must be within the min and max viscosity as specified in the keyword DRILLINGFLUID. STDFLOWRATE r.(Pa) [Section pressure if given massflow] SECTION i. (m3/s) Volumetric flow rate at standard conditions. this key is ignored if GASFRACTION < 0 (the water fraction in the source section is used).0 the total water fraction is taken from the fluid table (interpreted as free water if WATERFLASH = OFF.(-) [0.0 the total water fraction is taken from the fluid table . TEMPERATURE r.l.0] Mass fraction of MEG in total water (water phase + water vapor).Chapter 3: Input File Description. With a value of -1. Either this key or the WATERFRACTION can be specified.0] Water volume fraction in oil/water mixture.l. For outflow. SOURCE Page 321 Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description POSITION sym. With a value of -1. If this is defined. (oC) - Fluid temperature at all time points. Requires PHASE = THREE under the OPTIONS keyword and access to the water module. Upstream pressure for a positive (flow into pipeline). (-) [0.

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Chapter 3: Input File Description, SOURCE

Key

Type
Unit: ( )

Parameter set
Default: [ ]

Description

WATERFRACEQ

r.l.(-)

[1.0]

By default, the equilibrium water
fraction of the total flow is used for
the water flow in the composiotional
model, and WATERFRACEQ = 1.
But the user may specify a fraction
of the water equilibrium to be sent
into the pipeline. This key is only
available in the compositional
module. One item per time point.

WATERFRACTION

r.l.(-)

[0.0]

Mass fraction of free water in the
total source flow mixture. Either this
key
or
the
TOTALWATERFRACTION can be
specified. For outflow, this key is
ignored if GASFRACTION < 0 (the
water fraction in the source section
is used).
Requires PHASE = THREE under
the OPTIONS keyword and access
to the water module.

WAXFRACTION

r.l. (-)

[1.0]

Scaling factor for determining the
amount of wax forming components
relative to HC mixture. The value
must be in the range [0,1]. 1 means
the amount of wax forming
components is equal to values from
the wax table.
Requires WAXDEPOSITION = ON
under the OPTIONS keyword and
access to the waxdeposition
module.

Required keys:

LABEL, TEMPERATURE, TIME

Internal dependencies of keys:
either
BRANCH
PIPE
SECTION
or
POSITION
end
TIME

=1
=1
= [1]
= SOURCE-1
= (0, 100 )

If the mass flow rate is given, then
CONTROLLER
either
MASSFLOW
GASFRACTION
PRESSURE
either
WATERFRACTION
MEGFRACTION
or

= C-101 ! Controls fraction of given mass flow
= (0.0, 10.0) [kg/s]
= [(-1,-1)]
= [Section pressure]
= [(0.0, 0.0)]
= [(0.0, 0.0)] ! only for MEG tracking

Chapter 3: Input File Description, SOURCE

Page 323

TOTALWATERFRACTION
= [(0.0, 0.0)]
either
MEGFRACTION = [(0.0, 0.0)] ! only for MEG tracking
or
TOTALMEGFRACTION
= [(0.0, 0.0)] ! only for MEG tracking
end
end
if WAXDEPOSITION=ON in OPTIONS
WAXFRACTION
= [2:1.0]
end if
or
STDFLOWRATE
WATERCUT
PRESSURE
PHASE
If PHASE = GAS
MOLWEIGHT
end if

= (0.0, 1000) STB/D
= (0.1, 0.1)
= [Section pressure]
= LIQUID
= (20.5) ! If equivalent gas stdflowrate (gas+liquid)

either
GLR

= (100, 100)

or
GOR
= (120, 120)
end
if WAXDEPOSITION=ON in OPTIONS
WAXFRACTION
= [2:1.0]
end if
or if the compositional tracking module is used
FEEDNAME
= (FEED-1, FEED-3)
either
FEEDMASSFLOW
= (20, 35.3, 20, 35.3) [kg/s]
or
FEEDMOLEFLOW
= (50, 30.5, 50, 30.5) [kmol/s]
end
PRESSURE
GASFRACEQ
OILFRACEQ
WATERFRACEQ
or if the black oil module is used
FEEDNAME
STDFLOWRATE
PHASE

= [section pressure]
= (0.5,0.5) ! override equilibrium phase fractions
= (0,0) ! override equilibrium phase fractions
= (0,0) ! override equilibrium phase fractions
= (BO-1, BO-3)
= (0.0, 0.0, 1000, 1000) STB/D
= GAS || OIL

or if a drilling fluid is simulated
MASSFLOW
= (0.0, 10.0) [kg/s]
PRESSURE
= [Section pressure]
DRILLINGFLUID
= DRILLINGFLUID-1
if drillingfluid properties are NOT given in a separate file, then
DENSITY
= (1000, 1000)
VISCOSITY
= (1, 1) cP
end
end
end if
If the mass flow is to be calculated based on the opening of the choke, then (standard
conditions not allowed)
CD
= [0.84]
DIAMETER
= 0.45
CONTROLLER
= C-101

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Chapter 3: Input File Description, SOURCE

PRESSURE
= 2:40 bara
either
GASFRACTION
= 2:-1
either
WATERFRACTION
= 2:0
MEGFRACTION
= [(0.0, 0.0)] ! only for MEG tracking
or
TOTALWATERFRACTION
= 2:0
TOTALMEGFRACTION
= [(0.0, 0.0)] ! only for MEG tracking
end
or if the compositional tracking module is used (multiple time and feeds, see note below)
FEEDNAME
= (FEED-1, FEED-3)
either
FEEDMASSFRACTION = (0.7, 0.3, 0.7, 0.3)
or
FEEDMOLEFRACTION = (0.6, 0.4, 0.5, 0.5)
end
WATERFRACEQ
= (0,0) ! override equilibrium phase fractions
or if the black oil module is used
FEEDNAME
FEEDVOLFRACTION
or if a drilling fluid is simulated
DRILLINGFLUID
DENSITY
VISCOSITY
end
end if

= (BO-1, BO-3)
= ( 0.7, 0.3, 0.7, 0.3 )
= DRILLINGFLUID-1
= 2:1000
= 2:1 cP

Note: For the subkeys FEEDMASSFLOW, FEEDMOLEFLOW, FEEDMASSFRACTION and
FEEDMOLEFRACTION, the array is a function of both feed and time as shown below.
FEEDMASSFRACTION = FEED-1 (T1), FEED-2(T1), FEED1(T2), FEED-2(T2))

Examples:
Example 1:
!***************************************************************************
!
Controllers
!--------------------------------------------------------------------------!
CONTROLLER LABEL = C-502, TYPE = MANUAL, TIME = 0,\
SETPOINT = 0.3E-01, STROKETIME = 33.33
.
.
.
!***************************************************************************
!
Source with VALVE Definition
!--------------------------------------------------------------------------!
SOURCE LABEL = SOVA-1-1, BRANCH = 1, PIPE = 1, SECTION = 1,\
CD = 1., DIAMETER = 0.1779, TIME = 0, PRESSURE = 0.168E+08,\
TEMPERATURE = 73., GASFRACTION = -1., WATERFRACTION = 0,\
CONTROLLER = C-502
.
.
.

Example 2:
!***************************************************************************
!
Massflow
!--------------------------------------------------------------------------!
SOURCE LABEL = SOUR-1, BRANCH = 1, PIPE = 1, SECTION = 1,\

Chapter 3: Input File Description, SOURCE

Page 325

TIME = (0., 0.1000E+07), TEMPERATURE = (2:98.),\
MASSFLOW = (2:17.77), GASFRACTION = (2:-1.), WATERFRACTION = (2:0)
.
.
.

Example 3:
!***************************************************************************
!
Standard flowrate
!--------------------------------------------------------------------------!
SOURCE LABEL = SOUR-1-1, POSITION = INLET, \
TIME = 0, TEMPERATURE = 62., STDFLOWRATE = 9000. STB/D, PHASE =
LIQUID,\
WATERCUT = 0.
!***************************************************************************
.
.
.

Example 4:
!***************************************************************************
!
Source with VALVE Definition and feed given
!--------------------------------------------------------------------------!
SOURCE LABEL = SOVA-1-1, BRANCH = 1, PIPE = 1, SECTION = 1,\
CD = 1., DIAMETER = 0.1779, TIME = 0, PRESSURE = 0.168E+08,\
TEMPERATURE = 73., FEEDNAME = (FEED-1, FEED-3),\
FEEDMASSFRAC = (0.3, 0.7), CONTROLLER = C-502
!***************************************************************************
.
.

Example 5:
!***************************************************************************
!
Source Definition using feeds
!--------------------------------------------------------------------------!
SOURCE LABEL = SOUR-1, BRANCH = 1, PIPE = 1, SECTION = 1,\
TIME = (0., 0.1000E+07), TEMPERATURE = (2:98.),\
FEEDNAME = (FEED_1, FEED_3),\
FEEDMOLEFLOW = (50, 30.5, 50, 30.5) kmol/s
!***************************************************************************
.
.

Example 6:
!***************************************************************************
!
Source using equivalent gas volumetric flow rate
!--------------------------------------------------------------------------!
SOURCE LABEL = SOURCE-1, BRANCH = BRANCH 1, CRITFLOWMODEL=FROZEN, \
GOR=20000000000 Sm3/Sm3, MOLWEIGHT=33.76 kg/kmol, PHASE=GAS, PIPE=PIPE-1, \
SECTION=1, STDFLOWRATE=2 Sm3/s, TEMPERATURE=30 C, TIME=0 s, WATERCUT=0 -PIPE
= 1, SECTION = 1,\
.
.
.

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Chapter 3: Input File Description, TABLE

3.3.55 TABLE

This statement defines a function in a tabular form for either valve sizing coefficient,
well flow parameters or gas lift valve curve (GLV defined in LEAK).
Keyword:

TABLE

Dependencies:

NONE

Key description table:
Key

Type
Unit: ( )

Parameter set
Default: [ ]

INJECTIONPRESSURE

r. (Pa)

-

The injection pressure for which the
GLV curve is defined

LABEL

str.

-

Table label.

POINT

r.l.

-

Define the list of both values of
independent and dependent
variables in the table.

XVARIABLE

sym.

OPEN |
DELTAP |

Independent variable name. Default
units: OPEN (-), DELTAP (Pa),
PRODUCTIONPRESSURE (Pa),
LEVEL (m).

PRODUCTION
PRESSURE |
LEVEL

YVARIABLE

sym.l.

CV | FLOW
etc. |
STDGASFLOW|
VOLUME

Required keys:

Description

Dependent variable name. Default
units: Cv (USgal/(min*psi1/2), FLOW
etc. (kg/s, kg/(Pa*s), -, s),
STDGASFLOW (Sm3/s), VOLUME
(m3).

LABEL, POINT, XVARIABLE, YVARIABLE

Internal dependencies of keys:

Allowed names of XVARIABLE:
For valve table:

OPEN

-

Opening of the valve (-)

For well table:

DELTAP

-

Pressure difference between reservoir
pressure and bottom-hole flowing pressure
(Pa)

For GLV table:

PRODUCTIONPRESSURE Pressure downstream of the GLV (Pa)

For separator table: LEVEL

-

Level (height) in separator for specifying nonsylindrical shape of separator (m)

-

Valve sizing coefficient
Cv in eq. (2.59) for PHASE = LIQUID
(gal/min / psi ½)
Cg in eq. (2.60) for PHASE = GAS

Allowed names of YVARIABLE:
For valve table:

CV

Chapter 3: Input File Description, TABLE

Page 327

(lb/hr / (psi x lb/ft3)1/2)
For well table:

FLOW
GASFL
LIQFL
PILIQ
WATFR
OILTC
GASTC
WATTC

-

For GLV table:

STDGASFLOW- Gas volume flow at standard condition; 1
atm, 60 F (Sm3/s).

For separator table: VOLUME -

Total flow rate at reservoir conditions (kg/s)
Gas flow rate at reservoir conditions (kg/s)
Liquid flow rate at reservoir conditions (kg/s)
Liquid productivity index (kg/Pa-s)
Water mass fraction in liquid (-)
Time constant for oil flow (s)
Time constant for gas flow (s)
Time constant for water flow (s)

Separator volume, for
cylindrical shapes (m3)

specifying

non-

Note that internal input check for over-specification of the YVARIABLES for the well
table is not available. OLGA reads the table and uses the variable(s) in the order of
priority as listed above, e.g. if both LIQFL and PILIQ is specified, PILIQ is ignored.
The use of the well parameters is described in sections 2.3.3 and 3.3.64.
Note that the valve sizing coefficient is equivalent to the gas sizing coefficient (Cg) when
the pressure drop equation for gas is used (Eq. 2.60).
Examples:
Example 1:
!***************************************************************************
!
TABLE Definition
!--------------------------------------------------------------------------TABLE LABEL = VALV-1, XVARIABLE = OPEN, YVARIABLE = CV
TABLE POINT = (0., 0.)
TABLE POINT = (0.3000, 100.0)
TABLE POINT = (0.6000, 200.0)
TABLE POINT = (1.000, 300.0)
!***************************************************************************
!
Valve Definition
!--------------------------------------------------------------------------!
VALVE LABEL = VALV-1, BRANCH = 1, PIPE = 1, SECTIONBOUNDARY = 3,\
PHASE = LIQUID, TABLE = VALV-1, TIME = (0., 10.00, 30.00),\
OPENING = (0.1000, 0.5000, 1.000)
!***************************************************************************

Example 2:
!***************************************************************************
! TABLE Definition for WELL
!--------------------------------------------------------------------------TABLE LABEL = TRAN-WEL, XVAR = DELTAP bar,\
YVAR = (
LIQFL,
GASFL,
WATFRAC, OILTC, GASTC)
TABLE POINT = (0,
0.00
, 0.0,
0.0,
0,
500)
TABLE POINT = (25.0, 3.03
, 0.0,
0.0,
0,
500)
TABLE POINT = (30.0, 3.636
, 0.1523, 0.0,
0,
500)
!
!***************************************************************************
!
WELL Definition
!--------------------------------------------------------------------------WELL LABEL = INLET, BRANCH = 1, PIPE = 1, SECT = 1,\
RESPRE = 100 BAR, RESTEM = 62,\
PRODOPTION = TABULAR, PRODTABLE = TRAN-WEL, \
INJOPTION = LIN, AINJ = 0, BINJ = 1.E-6 ,\

Page 328

Chapter 3: Input File Description, TABLE

LOCATION = BOTTOM, ISOTHERMAL = YES,\
GASDIS = 10, GFRTC = 100, GASPLIMIT = 75 bar
!
!***************************************************************************

Example 3:
!***************************************************************************
! TABLE Definition for WELL
!--------------------------------------------------------------------------TABLE LABEL = WEL-INFLOW, XVAR = DELTAP bar,\
YVAR = (FLOW)
TABLE POINT = (0,
0.00)
TABLE POINT = (25.0, 3.03)
TABLE POINT = (30.0, 3.636)
!
!***************************************************************************
!
WELL Definition
!--------------------------------------------------------------------------WELL LABEL = INLET, BRANCH = 1, PIPE = 1, SECT = 1,\
RESPRE = 100 BAR, RESTEM = 62, GASFRACTION = -1, WATERFRACTION = 0.12,\
PRODOPTION = TABULAR, PRODTABLE = WEL-INFLOW, \
INJOPTION = TABULAR, INJTABLE = WEL-INFLOW, \
LOCATION = BOTTOM, ISOTHERMAL = YES
!
!***************************************************************************

Example 4:
!***************************************************************************
! TABLE Definition for GLV
!--------------------------------------------------------------------------TABLE LABEL = GLV-11, XVARIABLE=PRODUCTIONPRESS PSIA, \
YVARIABLE=STDGASFLOW MMSCF/D, INJECTIONPRESS=2600 PSIA
TABLE POINT=(1600,0)
TABLE POINT=(1900,0.6)
TABLE POINT=(2100,1)
TABLE POINT=(2400,0.4)
TABLE POINT=(2600,0)
!
TABLE LABEL=GLV-12, XVARIABLE=PRODUCTIONPRESS PSIA, \
YVARIABLE=STDGASFLOW MMSCF/D, INJECTIONPRESS= 3600 PSIA
TABLE POINT=(1400,0.0)
TABLE POINT=(1700,1.5)
TABLE POINT=(2200,3.0)
TABLE POINT=(2400,4)
TABLE POINT=(2600,5)
TABLE POINT=(3200,2)
TABLE POINT=(3400,1)
TABLE POINT=(3600,0)
!
!***************************************************************************
!
LEAK Definition
!--------------------------------------------------------------------------LEAK LABEL=GLV-1, POSITION=UP-LEAK, TOPOSITION=DOWN-LEAK, \
TEMPDEPENDENCY=OFF, GASLIFTTABLES=(GLV-11, GLV-12)
!
!***************************************************************************

Example 5:
!***************************************************************************
! TABLE Definition for non-cylindrical separator
!--------------------------------------------------------------------------TABLE LABEL = SEPTABLE, XVARIABLE=LEVEL, YVARIABLE=VOLUME
TABLE POINT = (0., 0.)
TABLE POINT = (0.25, 0.01)
TABLE POINT = (2.75, 59.3957)
!
!***************************************************************************
!SEPARATOR Definition
!--------------------------------------------------------------------------SEPARATOR LABEL=SEP-1, LEVELTABLE=SEPTABLE, EFFICIENCY=1, \
EMGBACKPRESSURE=10 bar, EMGCD=1, EMGDIAMETER=0.05 m, HHOILHOLDUP=0.65 -,\
HHWATHOLDUP=0.3 -, INITOILLEVEL=0.358 m, INITWATLEVEL=0.291 m, \
LLOILHOLDUP=0.135 -, LLWATHOLDUP=0.05 -, OILBACKPRESSURE=14 bar, OILCD=1,\
OILTCONST=5 s, OILCONTROLLER=DRAIN, OILDIAMETER=0.05 m, OILTIME=0 s, \
ORIENTATION=VERTICAL, PHASE=THREE, POSITION=SEPARATOR, \
RESETHOLDUP=0.25 -, STROKETIME=15 s, TRAIN=GAS, WATBACKPRESSURE=14 bar, \

Chapter 3: Input File Description, TABLE

WATCD=1, WATTCONST=5 s, WATCONTROLLER=WDRAIN, WATDIAMETER=0.05 m, \
WATTIME=0 s

Page 329

Page 330

Chapter 3: Input File Description, TOOLJOINT

3.3.56 TOOLJOINT

This statement defines the geometrical data for internal and external pipe upsets in
the flow path. The purpose is to calculate a correction factor for the pipe wall
roughness due to the pipe upsets.
The TOOLJOINT keyord is part of the Advanced Well module.
Keyword:

TOOLJOINT

Dependencies:

BRANCH, GEOMETRY, POSITION

Key description table:
Key

Type
Unit: ( )

Parameter set
Default: [ ]

Description

D1EXUP

r. (m)

-

External upset of pipe/tubing.

D2INUP

r. (m)

-

Internal upset in annulus/tubing.

DD1

r. (m)

-

Inner diameter in annulus.

DD2

r. (m)

-

Outer diameter in annulus.

GEOMETRY

Sym.

-

Geometry label where the tool-joint is
located.

LABEL

str.

-

Tool-joint label, default is tool-joint
number.

LJOINT

r. (m)

-

Length of pipe between upsets.

LUPSET

r. (m)

-

Length of upset.

PIPE

Sym.l.

[ALL]

Label of pipe(s) for which the wall
roughness shall be adjusted.

20. LUPSET. LJOINT = 9.015.015. \ DD1 = 0. D2INUP = 0. DD2.0 . D2INUP. DD1. Required keys: LABEL.5 Side view and cross section of flowpath with upsets.Chapter 3: Input File Description. D1EXUP = 0. GEOMETRY = GEOM_1. LJOINT Internal dependencies of keys: None Example: !*************************************************************************** ! TOOLJOINT Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! TOOLJOINT LABEL = UPSET_W1. GEOMETRY. D1EXUP. TOOLJOINT Page 331 Figure 3. DD2 = 0.2.08. LUPSET = 0.

Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description BRANCH sym.l - Branch numbers where the variables will be plotted. With DRILLING=ON in OPTIONS there are 15 available components as specified in Chapter 2 (Drilling option). also those read from the restart file. PIPE sym. If the bundle module is used.l. The sample period is calculated as ∆TIME / NPLOT. the fluid temperature for selected lines can be trended. NPLOT i. GEOMETRY. - Number data points for plotting. [ALL] Wall layer no's for plotting of wall temperatures.57 TREND This statement defines the trend option that prints data to a file for plotting of specific variables as a function of time. LINE sym. - Bundle line name. For the compositional model the names of the available components are given in the feed file. LAYER i. available components are HC. Keyword: TREND Dependencies: BRANCH. OPTIONS POSITION. If the Compositional Tracking.3.Page 332 Chapter 3: Input File Description.l. ON | [OFF] All trend variables defined before this keyword will be deleted from the list of trend variables.l. OLGA will only use the last one. variables for different components can be trended. DTPLOT should only be given once in the input file. (s) - Sample period for obtaining variable values. DTPLOT r. TREND 3. LINE.l. GRID. [ALL] Component names.l.l. If it is given more than once. DELETEPREVIOUS sym. - Pipe numbers where the variables will be plotted. If the soil module is used. See Appendix A for list of variables available for plotting. COMPONENT sym. With the MEG tracking module. . In both cases some additional information must be given. Layer no 1 is the innermost. A list of values for NPLOT refers to the time points given in TIME. MEG Tracking or Advanced Well (drilling) modules are used. the temperatures for selected cells can be trended. H2O and MEG. BUNDLE.

MASOUT) end if else if it is a volume variable. CHECKVALVE. If DELETEPREVIOUS is used. For the variables that are related to a processor equipment. and SECTION should not be used for the same variables. then either BRANCH =1 PIPE =1 . BRANCH. NB! The key POSITION is also used for referencing process equipment with label names. CONTROLLER. it should also be specified in a separate TREND keyword. NINTGR. SOURCE. COMPRESSOR. TREND Key Page 333 Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] POSITION sym. Units may be included in the list. SOILCOLUMN i. - Positions where the variables will be plotted out. VARIABLE sym. - ID numbers of slugs which will be plotted. TIME r. the LABEL of the process equipment should be used instead of a defined POSITION (BRANCH=xx. SEPARATOR. SLUG i.l.Chapter 3: Input File Description. PIG/PLUG. LEAK. then BRANCH VARIABLE =1 = (LIQC. (s) - Time point when the plot interval is changed. PIPE=xx. Required keys: Description DTPLOT or NPLOT Internal dependencies of keys: It is recommended to define DPLOT or NPLOT in a separate TREND statement above the TREND statements with variable specifications. - Section or section boundary numbers where the variables will be plotted. - ROW of soil cell that is printed for.l. MASSIN.l. Must be specified together with SOILROW. If this is defined for variables.l. If global variables are specified. SECTION i. PIPE. boundary variable or a slug variable in a specified position. SOILROW i.l. PUMP and WELL. VALVE. - Column of soil cells that TSOIL is printed for.l. - List of variables to be plotted. such as CHOKE.l. SECTION=xx) in the POSITION key. VOLGBL) else if branch variables are specified. HEATEXCHANGER. Must be specified together with SOILCOLUMN. then VARIABLE = (HT.

6) SOILCOLUMN = (6 . MEG) else if DRILLING=ON in OPTIONS COMPONENT = (HC. TREND SECTION =1 POSITION = POSITION-1 or end either VARIABLE or = (HOL. RET-LINE) PIPE =1 SECTION =1 VARIABLE = (TBUN.Page 334 Chapter 3: Input File Description. H2O. MeOH) !Defined in feed file else if COMPOSITIONAL=MEG in OPTIONS COMPONENT = (HC.8) else if it is a bundle line variable LINE = (CAR-LINE. 4. GVALVE) else if it is a slug variable for a specific unique slug. VARIABLE = ALEXP if VARIABLE = TW then see example end else VARIABLE = TSOIL. H2O. UG) !Slug variables can not be given in the !same keyword as volume and boundary !variables. then either BRANCH =1 PIPE =1 SECTION =1 or POSITION = POSITION-1 end VARIABLE = (XG. 1) or NPLOT = (1000. DENMIN. 100) either DTPLOT = (0. C2. then TIME = (0. TVALVE.1. CGDH) if COMPOSITIONAL=ON in OPTIONS COMPONENT = (C1. then either BRANCH =1 PIPE =1 SECTION =1 or POSITION = POSITION-1 end SOILROW = (2. 500) end end if . UVALUE) else if it is a process equipment variable (see sec. VISMIN) end if end if If DTPLOT needs to be changed. then SLUG = 100 !The slug number used is the ID of the !slug VARIABLE = (ALFSB. 3 of Appendix A for list of process equipment variables) POSITION = VALVE-1 !The position used is the label of the process !equipment VARIABLE = (PVALVE. ULFSB) else if it is a compositional variable.

RMERR. GLT. SECTION = 1. GA) TREND BRANCH = 1. SECTION = 34.3) Example 4: !*************************************************************************** ! TREND Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! TREND TIME = (0. 10). TM.0) TREND SLUG = 1.\ HOLEXP) TREND BRANCH = 1.2. PIPE = 17.2E+02 TREND BRANCH = 1. TREND Page 335 Examples: Example 1: !*************************************************************************** ! TREND Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! TREND DTPLOT = 0.\ ULTSB. UGTSB.LAYER = (1.PIPE_5 and pipe section no 7: ! either TREND BRANCH = BRANCH_1. HOL) TREND VARIABLE = (VOLGBL. HOLEXP) TREND BRANCH = 1. PIPE = PIPE_5. SECTION = 4.depending on the ! LAYER key (LAYER no 1 is the innermost wall layer): ! Plotting of all layer temperatures for a wall consisting of 4 layers in ! BRANCH_1. PIPE = PIPE_5.Chapter 3: Input File Description. VARIABLE = (LSLEXP.4) ! ! Plotting of selected layers. VARIABLE = (PT. PIPE = 13. TM. SECTION = 6. PIPE = 2. 10). VARIABLE = PT TREND BRANCH = 1.5. ZFSL. VARIABLE = (BE.\ VARIABLE = LSLEXP TREND BRANCH = 1. PIPE = 1.SECTION = 7. ULTSL. ULFSL. VARIABLE = (GT. PIPE = 4. USF. layer no 1 and 3 for the wall described ! above: . VARIABLE = TW ! or TREND BRANCH = BRANCH_1. PIPE = 1. UST.. SECTION = 1. ALFSB.\ VARIABLE = (ALEXP. VARIABLE = TW.. SECTION = 1. e.\ VARIABLE = LSLEXP TREND BRANCH = 1. PIPE = 4.\ VARIABLE = HOLEXP TREND VARIABLE = (VOLGBL.3.\ LAYER = (1-4) ! or . SECTION = 4. RMERR. SECTION = 1. 1. LSL) TREND BRANCH = 1. NSLUG) TREND BRANCH = 1. NPLOT = (20. PIPE = 1. LAYER = (1. PIPE = 2. 100) TREND BRANCH = 1. NINTGR) Example 3: !*************************************************************************** ! Plotting of wall layer temperatures !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! All or selected wall layer temperatures can be plotted . PIPE = 2.\ PT) TREND BRANCH = 1. NINTGR) .\ VARIABLE = (LSLEXP.\ VARIABLE = BEEXP Example 2: !*************************************************************************** ! TREND Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! TREND TIME = (0.SECTION = 7. ALTSB. DPLOT = (0. VARIABLE = (HOL. SECTION = 2. SECTION = 15. SECTION = 1.g. VARIABLE = LIQC TREND BRANCH = 1.\ GG) TREND VARIABLE = (HT. PIPE = 14.... VARIABLE = (ZTSL. BEEXP) TREND BRANCH = 1. SECTION = 2. PIPE = 16..

l.3. The TUNING keyword may be used for adjusting the OLGA model to specific sets of measured data or for sensitivity studies. depending on whether the tuned parameter is dynamically calculated by OLGA or if it is normally a case invariant (e. The exception is SLUGLENGTH which is interpreted directly as slug length in number of diameters. BRANCH sym. Pipe level and higher is allowed. [1.l. The slug front pressure drop is as follows: If Ufilm < DPonset⋅Ucrit: ∆p slugftont = DPfact ⋅ f (α .2) Sluglength If Ufilm > DPonset⋅Ucrit: ∆p slugftont = 0 Keyword: TUNING Dependencies: BRANCH. [ALL] Branch numbers or labels where the specified tuning parameters will be applied.1) where Umix is sum of superficial velocities. NOTE: Cannot be applied on individual sections. This keyword is available both in batch and server mode. . POSITION Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description AREA r. [1.58 TUNING This statement defines the tuning option. ρ l ) ⋅ (U film − DPonset ⋅ U crit ) 2 (3. which makes it possible to tune certain parameters in the model.l.g. Remark: The availability of the tuning option depends on the user’s licensing agreement with Scandpower Petroleum Technology. Pipe level and higher is allowed. DIAMETER r.0] Tuning coefficient for AREA in PIPE (used for equivalent pipes). The Taylor bubble velocity is calculated as U B = UBcoeff 1 ⋅ C0 ⋅ U mix + UBcoeff 2 ⋅ U 0 (3. NOTE: Cannot be applied on individual sections. TUNING should be applied with great care. as the validation and verification of the OLGA model may not be valid for such cases. The parameters available for tuning are listed in the table below. GEOMETRY. geometry information). TUNING 3.0] Tuning coefficient for diameter. The tuning coefficients will be multiplied with the related values which is calculated by OLGA or the original value set in the input file.Page 336 Chapter 3: Input File Description.

l. ENTRAINMENT r.0] Tuning coefficient for roughness from droplets LAM_LGI r.l. BRANCH.l. OILDENSITY r. [1. dP/dz is inversely proportional to SLUGLENGTH. of diameters) in slug front pressure drop correlation for unit cell model (ignored for SLUGTRACKING). NOTE: Cannot be applied on individual sections. If this key is defined.l.0] Tuning coefficient for interfacial friction factor between liquid and gas LAM_WOI r. [1. and SECTION can not be used in the same keyword statement.0] Tuning coefficient temperature.l. - Positions where the tuning parameters will be applied.0] Tuning coefficient for onset of slug front pressure drop (with and without SLUGTRACKING).l. SLUGLENGTH r. Pipe level and higher is allowed. [1. [1.l.0] Tuning coefficient 1 in Taylor bubble velocity calculation (with and without SLUGTRACKING) mass for transfer ambient . Has no effect for a large value of SLUGLENGTH when not SLUGTRACKING.0] Tuning coefficient for between gas and oil.0] Tuning coefficient for inner wall roughness. DPONSET r.0] Tuning coefficient for interfacial friction factor between oil and water LIQUIDVISC r. [1. TAMBIENT r. ROUGHNESS r. [1.0] Tuning coefficient for liquid viscosity MASSTRANSFER r. POSITION sym. TUNING Key Page 337 Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description DPFACT r. The slug front pressure drop is set to 0 when the film velocity in the slug bubble region is larger than a certain critical velocity which can be tuned.Chapter 3: Input File Description. [1. [1. SECTION i. [1. UBCOEFF1 r. [1.0] Tuning coefficient for oil density PIPE sym.l.l. [1E9] Slug length (no.0] Tuning coefficient for slug front pressure drop (with and without SLUGTRACKING). [1. [1.l. [ALL] Section or section boundary numbers where the tuning parameters will be applied.l.0] Tuning coefficient for entrainment rate of liquid droplets in gas GROUGHNESS r. [ALL] Pipe numbers or labels where the tuning parameters will be applied. PIPE.

The number of tuning entries must be either one or according to the multiple of the listed combination of branches.0] Tuning coefficient 2 in Taylor bubble velocity (with and without SLUGTRACKING) VOIDINSLUG r. . SLUGLENGTH. DPFACT. UBCOEFF1. DPONSET. TUNING Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description UBCOEFF2 r. UBCOEFF2 and VOIDINSLUG that are global coefficients with one value each that are used for the entire system. pipes and sections or according to the number of position entries.Page 338 Chapter 3: Input File Description. PIPE and SECTION will be processed in a nested manner.0] Tuning coefficient for void in slug (with and without SLUGTRACKING) Required keys: None Internal dependencies of keys: BRANCH. [1. The exception is the tuning coefficients GROUGHNESS. [1.

P2).P2).1 is set for sections 1.2 The mass transfer rate calculated dynamically by the standard OLGA model will be multiplied by the tuning coefficient values for the sections as listed above.P2.1 values are set for B1.P2 in both of the branches B1.B2.1. MASSTRANSFER = (1. MASSTRANSFER = (1.B2).2) 1.1.2 1.2 1.3. Example 3: TUNING BRANCH = (B1.1. TUNING Page 339 Examples: Example 1: TUNING BRANCH = (B1.1.1.2 set for B2 Example 4: TUNING BRANCH = (B1.P2 The inner pipe diameters set in the input file will be multiplied by the tuning coefficient values for the pipes as listed above.P1.1. PIPE = (P1.2 is set for POS-2 Example 6: TUNING MASSTRANSFER = 1.1.1 is set for POS-1 1.P1.2 values are set for B1.1.2.Chapter 3: Input File Description. \ MASSTRANSFER = 1.section 1.2 values are set for B2. section 1.1 values are set for B1.2.3 values are set for B2. PIPE = (P1.1.1 set for B1 1.B2). = 1.B2).2) 1. pipes P1.2 1.\ DIAMETER = (1.0.4) 1.B2).P2.1.4.3.2).1.4 values are set for B2.1.2. PIPE = (P1. DIAMETER. pipes P1.1. .1.1. Example 2: TUNING BRANCH = (B1. Example5: TUNING POSITION=(POS-1.0 Resetting masstransfer to standard calculated values and diameter to original values for the whole system.P2) . SECTION = (1.2 in both pipes P1.1 1.1.POS-2).P2 1.2).2) 1.section 1.section 1. SECTION = (1.\ MASSTRANSFER = (1.1.1.

[SI] | BRITISH Units used for data in PVT table. UNIT = MM. FACTOR r. PVTDATA sym. . QUANTITY sym.3.0E-3 endif Example: !*************************************************************************** ** ! UNIT Definition !---------------------------------------------------------------------------UNIT QUANTITY = LENGTH. UNITS (NOT AVAILABLE WITH OLGA GUI) 3. Internal dependencies of keys: If a new unit is to be defined. UNIT str. then UNIT QUANTITY FACTOR = MM. . . FACTOR = 1.Page 340 Chapter 3: Input File Description. See Appendix B.59 UNITS (Not available with OLGA GUI) This statement defines the units option. - The physical definition of the quantity for which a new unit is to be defined. With this option. the user can define units which are not available in the code. The name of the unit to be specified for the quantity. PRESSURE | FLOW | ENERGY etc. Keyword: UNIT Dependencies: NONE Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description COMPRESSORDATA sym. [SI] | BRITISH Units used for data in compressor table. = LENGTH.0 E-3 . - The conversion factor from the user defined unit to the code default unit. = 1.

Of the same reason no valve can be defined on the first section boundary of the branch coming from a MERGE node. If this value is defined. OPENING r. [FROZEN] HENRYFAUSKE | SUBCRITICAL Choice of critical flow model to be used. POSITION sym. - Label of the table which contains the valve characteristics.84] Discharge coefficient. CD r. (m) - Maximum choke diameter.l. In addition. since the last section volume is used as the control volume for the SPLIT node. PIPE. - Relative openings in the valve opening time table. - Branch number where the valve is located. default is valve number.60 VALVE This statement defines the valve option. TABLE sym. CONTROLLER sym. POSITION Key description table: Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description BACKPRESSURE r. and SECTIONBOUNDARY should not be used.2.l. Option TWO and THREE are reserved to future use. CRITFLOWMODEL sym. The position can also be a separator label. LABEL str. Keyword: VALVE Dependencies: BRANCH. CONTROLLER.3. Note that a valve cannot be defined at the last section boundary of the last branch of the branches going into a SPLIT node. - Section boundary number where the valve is located. The choke and valve models are described in section 2. - Controller label for relative valve flow area. This option is used to calculate the pressure drop over a valve using the critical choke model and a valve sizing equation. [0. STROKETIME r. PHASE sym. - Ratio between gas and liquid sizing coefficient. GEOMETRY. GAS | LIQUID | TWO | THREE The type of the flow through the valve. In this OLGA version they are equivalent to the LIQUID option.(s) - Stroke time of the emergency drain valve. SECTIONBOUNDARY i. Homogenous frozen critical flow model or Henry-Fauske model. DIAMETER r.Chapter 3: Input File Description. VALVE Page 341 3.9.(Pa) - Backpressure for valves referred to in SEPARATOR keyword (for singletrain separators) BRANCH sym. CF r. BRANCH. For two or three phase flow. . PIPE sym. a forced subcritical option is available. use LIQUID. [Integer increment] Valve label. - Pipe number where the valve is located. - Position where the valve is located.

200) [s] = (0.Page 342 Chapter 3: Input File Description.84] = 0.l. end if end if If valve opening is regulated by a controller.5 [m] else if valve characteristic table is used. 200) [s] = (50. then CD DIAMETER = [0. then CF = 17 ! Depending on valve type. 1. 100. VALVE Key TIME Required keys: Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] r. then PHASE TABLE = GAS ¦ LIQUID ¦ TWO ¦ THREE = VALVE-1 if PHASE = GAS. LABEL Internal dependencies of keys: either BRANCH PIPE SECTIONBOUNDARY =1 =1 =1 POSITION = POSTION-1 or end If the choke model is used. then TIME OPENING = (0.0. Typically 16 to 38. 0. 60. 20) bara = 10 [s] ! If valve is emergency valve endif CRITFLOWMODEL = [FROZEN] | HENRYFAUSKE | SUBCRITICAL . 100.0.0.5.(s) - Description Time points for valve opening table and backpressure values.0) endif If valve is used by a separator (singletrain) TIME BACKPRESSURE STROKETIME = (0. then CONTROLLER = C-101 elseif valve opening is given by time series.

005 -. CD = 1. LENGTH=25 m.\ OPENING = (0. TIME=0 s. OPENING=1. . PHASE=TWO. \ ORIENTATION=HORIZONTAL.0) !*************************************************************************** ! Valve Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! VALVE LABEL = VALV-1. SECTIONBOUNDARY = 3. CD=0. .0) TABLE POINT = (0. 200.Chapter 3: Input File Description. CONTROLLER = C-101. Example 4: !*************************************************************************** !Valve Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------VALVE LABEL=EMGVALVE. Example 2: !*************************************************************************** ! TABLE Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------TABLE LABEL = VALV-1. BRANCH = 1.\ DIA = 0.0000E+00. . YVARIABLE = CV TABLE POINT = (0.5000. . 1000000 ) s. DIAMETER=1 m.. OILTIME=( 0.) TABLE POINT = (0. PIPE = 1. 0. 10.0) ! !--------------------------------------------------------------------------.00..1000E+07).05 m. . STROKETIME=10 s !*************************************************************************** !SEPARATOR Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------SEPARATOR LABEL=SEPA-2-3.5 . RESETHOLDUP=0. 100. PIPE = 53.1. !*************************************************************************** ! Valve Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! VALVE LABEL = CHOK1. \ LLOILHOLDUP=0. . \ OILCONTROLLER=C-105.000. PIPE=PIPE-2. HHOILHOLDUP=0.3000. TIME = (0. INITOILLEVEL=0 m. \ POSITION="SEPA-2-3". TRAIN=GAS . 1. EFFICIENCY=1.41574. TIME = (0. 300.05 m. 30.\ PHASE = LIQUID. OILBACKPRESSURE=2:4000000 Pa.1. BACKPRESSURE=40 bara.6000. Example 3: !*************************************************************************** ! Definition for POSITIONS !--------------------------------------------------------------------------POSITION LABEL = UP-SEP. SECTIONBOUNDARY = 3. 0.. BRANCH = 1. PIPE = 1. BRANCH=BRAN-2. \ EMGTRAINVALVE=EMGVALVE. SECT = 2 .0) TABLE POINT = (1.000) .00).\ OPENING = (2:1. TABLE = VALV-1. \ SECTION=3. . DIAMETER=0. DIAMETER = 0. POSITION = UP-SEP. XVARIABLE = OPEN. OILDIAMETER=0. 0.5 -.\ CD = 1. .3 -. BRANCH = 1. OILCD=0.000. VALVE Page 343 Examples: Example 1: !*************************************************************************** ! Choke Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! VALVE LABEL = CHOKE-1-1.1000.

heating DISCRETIZATION Sym. (W/m) - Power per unit length for el. heating time series Key Description . and no power supplied at all can be specified in the same OLGA case. This keyword is required if the TEMPERATURE option is "WALL" or "FASTWALL". TEMPERATURE Key description table: Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] CONTROLLERLABEL str. or heat controlled by a controller can be specified. The pipewall may consist of different material layers. GEOMETRY. The user also specifies the required data if the walls are to be heated. WALL 3. specified by subkeys "MATERIAL" and "THICKNESS". i.05. Constant heat. OPTIONS. [2] Max ratio of outer to inner radius of a sublayer. [OFF] | ON Electric heating ON/OFF INNERDIAMETER r. - Names of materials that are used in the wall layers.l.l. Each material layer can be divided into sublayers either by specifying each sublayer as a new material layer or by automatic discretization of the material layers by the use of the key "DISCRETIZATION".e. In the wall statement the user specifies the wall layer geometry and the name of the wall.l. MATERIAL Sym. See section for Vital Numerical Recommendations in Chapter 2. power controlled by a controller.61 WALL This statement specifies the wall data for pipes. - Name of controller for el.l. A combination of walls having constant power supply. POWER r. - Label of the wall. If the maxratio is set to less than 1.number of sublayers allowed for each of the wall material layers MAXRATIO r. heat varying with time.5. the heat per unit length supplied to the wall is constant along the pipe having this specific wall.l. The heat sources may vary along the pipelines by specifying different walls along the line. The WALL keyword is required if the TEMPERATURE option is "WALL" or "FASTWALL". MAXNOLAYERS i.(m) - Pipe inner diameter LABEL str.3. Keyword: WALL Dependencies: BRANCH. - Max.05 is used. Each wall in OLGA may contain only one heat source.Page 344 Chapter 3: Input File Description. Heated walls can only be used together with TEMPERATURE = WALL. [OFF] | ON Switch on or off auto-discretization option for each wall material layer ELECTRICHEAT Sym.3 for hints regarding discretization. Heat can be provided to a user specified wall layer in each wall. 1.

400) if DISCRETIZATION = ON. then = C-POW-1 = 1500 = ( 0.\ 2:0.\ MATERIAL = (MATER-1. MATERIAL. 14800. THICKNESS Internal dependencies of keys: if ELECTRICHEAT = ON.) [0. 14400.1 !*************************************************************************** ! WALL Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! WALL LABEL = WALL-1.l.\ CONDUCTIVITY = 48. CAPACITY = 0.a controller signal of 2 will give twice the power specified in POWERMAX. 0.\ CONDUCTIVITY = 0.l.65E+03. DENSITY = 0.1270E-01. then INNERDIAMETER = 0.4000E-02. MATERIAL LABEL = MATER-2.202E-01 MATERIAL LABEL = MATER-4.381E-01). WALL Page 345 Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] POWERCONTROL Sym. [OFF] | ON Power control ON/OFF POWERMAX r. 400. DENSITY = 0.78E+04.187 MATERIAL LABEL = MATER-3.23E+04. - Wall layer for el. heating corresponding to a controller output signal of 1 E. THICKNESS r.15E+04.05 MAXNOLAYERS = 10 end if Examples: Example 1 (Walls with no heating): !*************************************************************************** ! MATERIAL Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! MATERIAL LABEL = MATER-1.\ CONDUCTIVITY = 0. DENSITY = 0. MATER-3. MATERIAL = (MATER-1. heating Key Required keys: Description LABEL. THICKNESS = (0.Chapter 3: Input File Description. CAPACITY = 0. MATER-2) WALL LABEL = WALL-2.g.15E+04. CAPACITY = 0. (W/m) - Power per unit length for el. THICKNESS = (0.1270E-01.\ CONDUCTIVITY = 1.5 MAXRATIO = 1.1E+04. DENSITY = 0. MATER-4) . (s.. 200.0] Power time series WALLAYER i. 0. MATER-2. then WALLAYER If POWERCONTROL CONTROLLERLABEL POWERMAX else TIME POWER end if end if =2 = ON.45E+03.6E+03.4000E-02). CAPACITY = 0. TIME r.e6) = (200. (m) - Thickness of each wall layer. 1.

DERIVATCONST = 0.005.12 W/m-K.e6 ).\ STROKETIME = 10.008. CONDUCTIVITY = 0. MAXSIGNAL = 1. POLYPROP) . 14400. \ MAXNOLAYERS = (3. INTEGRALCONST = 20.\ TIME = ( 0.05. ISOLAT ). DISCRETIZATION = (ON.17 m. No heating WALL LABEL = WALL-H3.5 MATERIAL LABEL = ISOLAT. BRANCH = BRANCH-1.\ THICKNESS = ( 0. SETPOINT = 40. ISOLAT ). CSTEEL. 200. 400) ! ! Riser wall. .\ THICKNESS = ( 0. 0.008. POWERCONTROL = ON CONTROLLER = C-POW-1. . MINSIGNAL = 0. 1).008. CAPACITY=1675 J/kg-C.008.014 ). POWERMAX = 1500 ! ! Topside wall. DENSITY = 2250. 1. SECTION = 2. CONCRETE. \ MATERIAL = ( CSTEEL.014 ) . 400. 1.6. DENSITY = 7850. \ THICKNESS = (1. Example 3 (Automatic discretization): !*************************************************************************** !MATERIAL Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------MATERIAL LABEL = STEEL. WALL Example 2 (Heated walls): !*************************************************************************** ! MATERIAL Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! MATERIAL LABEL = CSTEEL.5 !*************************************************************************** ! WALL Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! ! Pipeline wall WALL LABEL = WALL-H1. MAXRATIO = (1. MATERIAL LABEL = CONCRETE. 0.05.\ ELECTRICHEAT = ON. 2. INNERDIAMETER = 0. 1). WALLAYER = 2. CAPACITY = 880.\ POWER = ( 200. TYPE = PID.\ AMPLIFICATION = -0. WALLAYER = 2. CAPACITY = 480. CONDUCTIVITY = 1.14 !*************************************************************************** ! CONTROLLER Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! CONTROLLER LABEL = C-POW-1.008. Heat controlled by controller WALL LABEL = WALL-H2. CONDUCTIVITY=0. 0.\ ELECTRICHEAT = ON. TIME = 0. CSTEEL. 0. CAPACITY = 485. DENSITY=960 kg/m3 !*************************************************************************** !WALL Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------WALL LABEL = PIPELINE. CONDUCTIVITY = 50.008.Page 346 Chapter 3: Input File Description. 14800. MATERIAL = (STEEL. 0. 0. OFF). CSTEEL. .0. CAPACITY = 1250.\ PIPE = TOP. 0. \ MATERIAL = ( CSTEEL.014 ). DENSITY = 700. \ MATERIAL = ( CSTEEL. CONDUCTIVITY = 43.7 MATERIAL LABEL= POLYPROP. VARIABLE = TM. ON. BIAS = 0.\ THICKNESS = ( 0.3) cm. DENSITY = 7850. 0. ISOLAT ).

but the rest of the keys in WATEROPTIONS affect these simulations in the same way as simulations using PVT tables. Remark: The availability of the water option depends on the user’s licensing agreement with Scandpower Petroleum Technology. Volume weighting of oil and water viscosities by setting WATERSLIP=OFF or CONSTANT.Chapter 3: Input File Description. Use the Pal & Rhodes model with experimental data by setting DISPMODEL=EXPERIMENT.62 WATEROPTIONS This statement defines the water option used for three phase simulations.3. Use the Rønningsen model by setting DISPMODEL=RONNINGSEN. It is described in section 2. WATERFLASH has no effect on Compositional Tracking simulations (flashing of water decided by FLASHTYPE in COMPOPTIONS) or MEG Tracking simulations. Use the Pal & Rhodes model by setting DISPMODEL=PALRHODES. This is the default viscosity option. 2. 3. Set the key PHI100 or use the default value. You can choose between 3 different options for modelling the dispersion viscosity by setting DISPERSIONVISC =ON: 1.2. 2. Set the keys VISCREL and PHIREL. 3. Viscosity of continuous phase only (from fluid tables) by setting WATERSLIP=ON. . The tuning is set using the keys VISCMOD and WATERCUT. You can use other options by setting DISPERSIONVISC=OFF: 1. or leave them open to use default values. Volume weighting of oil and water viscosities with tuning of effective viscosity as a function of water cut by setting WATERSLIP=OFF. There are several options for defining the viscosity used in the simulations.3. WATEROPTIONS Page 347 3.

given by PHIREL and VISCREL INVERSIONWATERFRAC r. Should be used with great care. if WATERSLIP = CONSTANT. [0. [ON] | OFF Description =ON: Dispersion viscosity calculated according to DISPMODEL settings. viscosity = 100 PHIREL r. VISCMOD r. - Viscosity tuning factors for given WC's. Used to calculate PHI100 in Pal and Rhodes equation when DISPMODEL = EXPERIMENT . Possible to use PHI100 to tune the correlation. viscosity (exp. Viscosity from tables for continuous phase if WATERSLIP = ON. VISCREL r. May be used when WATERSLIP = OFF and DISPERSIONVISC = OFF. Φ µ rel =100 calculated from exp. PHI100 r. Any DISPMODEL entries are ignored if DISPERSIONVISC=OFF. Used to calculate PHI100 in Pal and Rhodes equation when DISPMODEL = EXPERIMENT Constant difference between oil and water velocity=Uoil-Uwater. [0. point. point).765] Value of dispersed phase volume fraction when rel. DISPMODEL Sym. =EXPERIMENT : Use Pal &Rhodes with PHI100.765] VELOCITYDIFFERENCE r. WATEROPTIONS Keyword: WATEROPTIONS Dependencies: OPTIONS Key description table: Key DISPERSIONVISC Type Unit() Parameter set Default: [ ] sym. =RONNINGSEN: Use Rønningsen correlation. [100] Value of rel. 1. [0. =OFF: Viscosity volume weighting if WATERSLIP = OFF or CONSTANT. [PALRHODES] | RONNINGSEN | EXPERIMENT Specify how dispersion viscosity is to be calculated. =PALRHODES: Use Pal & Rhodes eq.(m/s) [0] Value of dispersed phase volume fraction with given rel.5] Flowing water volume fraction at inversion point. viscosity at PHIREL.Page 348 Chapter 3: Input File Description.l.

WATERSLIP=OFF . 2. Required keys: WATERSLIP. WATERFLASH = ON is disregarded.765] ! These settings will give same result VISCREL = [100] ! as default PALRHODES end if else if DISPERSIONVISC = OFF. 0. INVERSIONWATERFRAC = 0. then ! No settings for DISPMODEL=RONNINGSEN If DISPMODEL = PALRHODES. then PHIREL = [0. then if WATERSLIP = OFF. OFF: No velocity difference. \ WATERFLASH=ON. \ WATERFLASH=ON.1 ) . Examples: Example 1: Pal & Rhodes dispersion viscosity model with water slip ! WATEROPTIONS DISPERSIONVISC=ON. 1. 0. If a two-phase table is applied.2. DISPMODEL=PALRHODES. WATERFLASH sym. [ON] | OFF Specify if mass transfer between free water and gas phase is to be considered. then PHI100 = [0.765] else if DISPMODEL = EXPERIMENT.765 .Chapter 3: Input File Description. \ WATERFLASH=ON. 0. then ! if define table for viscosity tuning factors WATERCUT = (0.1. 0.0.9) VISCMOD = (0. DISPERSIONVISC. Should be used with great care.1.5 . WATERFLASH. \ VISCMOD=( 1. INVERSIONWATERFRAC (default values can be used) Internal dependencies of keys: If DISPERSIONVISC=ON . PHI100 = 0.3) end if Note: WATERSLIP=CONSTANT and VELOCITYDIFFERENCE = <value> should only be used with great care in special cases for tuning purposes.9 ). CONSTANT: A constant velocity difference between oil and water is specified. INVERSIONWATERFRAC = 0. WATEROPTIONS Key Page 349 Type Unit() Parameter set Default: [ ] Description WATERCUT r. \ INVERSIONWATERFRAC=0. 0. May be used when WATERSLIP = OFF and DISPERSIONVISC = OFF. [ON] | OFF | CONSTANT ON: Velocity difference between oil and water calculated by solving the steady state force balance between the oil and water fields. - Watercut (WC) values with given viscosity tuning factor.5.1. WATERSLIP=ON Example 2: Volume weighting of viscosity with no water slip ! WATEROPTIONS DISPERSIONVISC=OFF.1.l.5.5. WATERSLIP sym. WATERCUT=( 0.5. 0. WATERSLIP=OFF Example 3: Volume weighting of viscosity with tuning of viscosity as function of watercut ! WATEROPTIONS DISPERSIONVISC=OFF.

4 for details. BRANCH . Wax deposition is defined for all branches. See Section 2. If multiple wax tables are used in a network. WAXDEPOSITION 3. see section 4. Keyword: WAXDEPOSITION Dependencies: OPTIONS. the fluid properties must be generated in a specific manner. For format of the wax file.3.3. Remarks: The availability of the wax deposition option depends on the user's licensing agreement with Scandpower Petroleum Technology. See section 4. all branches must have assigned a wax table. The wax file is generated in PVTSim. that is.Page 350 Chapter 3: Input File Description. The derivative of wax porosity (if AGEINGOPT=AGEING) is defined in this manner: (INITPOROSITY-HARDPOROSITY)/AGEINGTIME Full temperature calculation (OPTIONS TEMPERATURE = WALL) is necessary when simulating wax deposition.4.63 WAXDEPOSITION This group is used to define input parameters for the wax deposition module.11 for a presentation of this module. The wax deposition module cannot be applied together with the slugtracking or corrosion modules.

New deposits will still have the porosity according to WAXPOROSITY settings. Branchwise input.l. CONSTANT: No aging mechanism is activated. Used if CONDUCTOPT = MANUAL.l. [CONSTANT]| AGEING Options for treatment of porosity of deposited wax as function of time. HARDPOROSITY and AGEINGTIME will be used to find change in porosity with time. Branchwise input DIFFCOEFFMULT r.l.l. WAXDEPOSITION Page 351 Key description table: Key AGEINGOPT Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description sym. Applied for all branches given in keyword. If TABLE is chosen. WAXPOROSITY must be set to the same values. 2 r. AGEING: INITPOROSITY. If INITPOROSITY is to be used as porosity values of new deposits.l. AGEINGTIME r.(d) [7 d] Time for reduction of porosity from INITPOROSITY to HARDPOROSITY.Chapter 3: Input File Description. the wax conductivity is taken from the wax tables. Branchwise input CONDUCTIVITY r. See Section 2. Branchwise input DISSOLPRESS r.11. [MANUAL]| TABLE Options for pure wax thermal conductivity.l. Branchwise input BRANCH COEFSHEAR sym. NOTE! Works only for MODEL = RRR. If MANUAL is chosen.(W/mK) [0. the conductivity is given through the key CONDUCTIVITY.0] Linear multiplier for modification of the component specific diffusion coefficients given in the wax-table. Used to describe change in porosity with time due to aging. The porosity will either be directly given by WAXPOROSITY or an average value calculated by OLGA .l.3. .242] Pure paraffin wax thermal conductivity.(kg/m ) [0.(Pa) [All pressures] Pressures at which the values of DISSOLTDIFF apply**.0] Name(s) of branch(es) Shear deposition rate constant for deposition of precipitated wax. [1. CONDUCTOPT sym.

l. [AUTOMATIC] | MANUAL Options for calculating instantaneous porosity of deposited wax. Has the following purposes: Difference between dissolution temperature and wax appearance temperature as function of pressure**.(kg/m2s) [1. l. given by WAXPOROSITY. When AUTOMATIC is chosen. the porosity will be calculated by the internal flow dependent model. Works only for MODEL = RRR. If AUTOMATIC. Works only for MODEL = RRR. • To describe change in porosity with time due to aging • Giving lower limit for porosity if porosity is calculated by the code (WAXPOROSITY=-1). and the average porosity seen at a given point may be different from the instantaneous porosity given by the internal porosity model. DISSOLUTION sym. the wax porosity may be changing with changing flow conditions.0e+12] Maximum total dissolution rate.(-) [0. Applied for all branches given in keyword. used for describing change in porosity with time due to aging. If MANUAL. Branchwise input INITPOROSITY r. Branchwise input. Branchwise input INSTPOROSITYOPT sym.Page 352 Chapter 3: Input File Description.8] Initial porosity of deposited wax. Only applicable with RRR model. When AUTOMATIC is chosen. . a constant value is used.(C) [0.2] Lower limit of porosity. the keys MINPOROSITY and MAXPOROSITY are used to determine the minimum and maximum limits for the porosity. (-) [0.l.l. WAXDEPOSITION Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description DISSOLTDIFF r.0] DISSOLRATE r.l. [OFF] | ON Switch for turning on/off dissolution. HARDPOROSITY r.

see sec. [1. (-) [0. see sec.Chapter 3: Input File Description.11. See section 2.3.(m) [1.8] The maximum limit for the calculated porosity is given by this key.3.11 for correlation.l. The porosity of new deposits is calculated by OLGA and an volume averaging of the porosity of new and old layers will be performed.l. [CALSEP] | TABULAR Option for calculating the wax/oil dispersion viscosity*** TABULAR: Viscosity multiplier given as function of volume fraction of wax.0] Tuning multiplier for empirical constant C3 in MATZAIN wax deposition model. Branchwise input MAXROUGHNESS r. [1.l. 1)] Ratio of viscosity of wax/oil dispersion to oil viscosity****.l. Branchwise input MINPOROSITY r. [RRR]| Wax deposition model* MATZAIN | HEATANALOGY SHEARMULTC2 r.3. (-) [0.l. See section 2. See also sec. Branchwise input . 2. Used when INSTPOROSITYOPT = AUTOMATIC.0] Tuning multiplier for the “D” parameter in the internal nonnewtonian viscosity correlation.11.l.0] Tuning multiplier for empirical constant C2 in MATZAIN wax deposition model.11 for correlation. [(1. Branchwise input SHEARMULTC3 r.0E6] Maximum wax layer roughness allowed Branchwise input MODEL sym.3. Only used when VISCOPTION = CALSEP. The porosity of new deposits is calculated by OLGA and an volume averaging of the porosity of new and old layers will be performed. [1. CALSEP: Use internal model VISMULTIPLIER r. 2. Branchwise input VISCOPTION sym. 2.2] The minimum limit for the calculated porosity is given by this key.3.11. Used when INSTPOROSITYOPT = AUTOMATIC.l. WAXDEPOSITION Key Page 353 Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description MAXPOROSITY r. Corresponding to the wax volume fractions given in WAXVOLFRACTION VISCMULTD r.

(-) [0. then VISCMULTD = [(1. 1)] WAXVOLFRACTION = [(0.l. DISSOLTDIFF and DISSOLPRESS) will apply to all branches referred to in the BRANCH list.3. 2.3.l. 2. separate WAXDEPOSITON statements must be given for each branch. 1. then ! Definition of viscosity multiplier table VISMULTIPLIER = [(1.l. wall roughness). If different tables are wanted.Page 354 Chapter 3: Input File Description.0)] VISCMULTE = [(1. BRANCH-2) if VISCOPTION = TABULAR.11.6] Porosity of new deposits in wax layer.0] Fraction of wax layer thickness that is interpreted as wax layer roughness (i. Branchwise input WAXTABLE sym.11 The melting/dissolve table (defined by DISSOLRATE. See also sec.0. Linear interpolation between table values.0.0] Tuning multiplier for the “E” parameter in the internal nonnewtonian viscosity correlation. Only used when VISCOPTION = CALSEP. Branchwise input VISCMULTF r. Limited by MAXROUGHNESS.(-) [0.0] Tuning multiplier for the “F” parameter in the internal nonnewtonian viscosity correlation. [1. [1. 1. 1. - Name of wax table Branchwise input WAXVOLFRACTION * ** *** **** r. Branchwise input WAXPOROSITY r. Used when INSTPOROSITYOPT = MANUAL. See also sec. separate WAXDEPOSITON statements must be given for each branch. Only used when VISCOPTION = CALSEP. 1)] Volume fractions of precipitated wax dispersed in oil corresponding to the viscosity multiplier values given in VISMULTIPLIER**** See chapter 2.0)] VISCMULTF = [(1. The viscosity multiplier table (defined by VISMULTIPLIER and WAXVOLFRACTION) will apply to all branches referred to in the BRANCH list.0.l. Linear interpolation between table values. VISCOPTION must be selected for the whole system of branches.l. Required keys: BRANCH. 1)] else if VISCOPTION = CALSEP. If different tables are wanted.e. Branchwise input WAXROUGHNESS r. WAXDEPOSITION Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description VISCMULTE r.3.11. WAXTABLE Internal dependencies of keys: BRANCH = (BRANCH-1.(-) [(0.l.0)] .

2.242)] end if .8)] end if if MODEL = MATZAIN or MODEL = HEATANALOGY SHEARMULTC2 = [(1.2)] if MODEL = RRR and DISSOLUTION = ON ! Definition of ! melting/dissolve table if ! melting/dissolving is to be calculated DISSOLTDIFF = (0.0.6. 0.8.0. 0.0.e+12) DISSOLPRESS = (2e6.0.8)] = [(0. 3e6.2)] MAXPOROSITY = [(0.0. 7)] d = [(0. 0. WAXDEPOSITION Page 355 end if if AGEINGOPT = AGEING AGEINGTIME INITPOROSITY HARDPOROSITY end if = [(7. 1.8. 1.0)] end if if CONDUCTOPT = MANUAL CONDUCTIVITY = [(0. 4e6) Pa if only one value for DISSOLTDIFF/DISSOLRATE DISSOLPRESS = [All pressures] ! Other values ignored end if end if if INSTPOROSITYOPT = MANUAL WAXPOROSITY = [(0.6)] else if INSTPOROSITYOPT = AUTOMATIC MINPOROSITY = [(0.Chapter 3: Input File Description. 1.0)] SHEARMULTC3 = [(1.2.242. 2) DISSOLRATE = (3:1.

75.7.5. WAXTABLE = WAXTAB. INSTPOROSITYOPT = MANUAL. WAXTABLE = \ (WAXTAB. MODEL = RRR. VISCOPTION = \ CALSEP.0. VISMULTIPLIER = (1. DISSOLUTION = ON.10.) ! . WAXPOROSITY = (0.. RRR-model. \ AGEINGTIME = 5 d.15. VISCOPTION = TABULAR.. HARDPOROSITY = 0.Page 356 Chapter 3: Input File Description. WAXDEPOSITION Examples: Example 1: Viscosity multiplier from table. INITPOROSITY = 0. Example 2: MATZAIN-model with ageing and dissolution. \ DISSOLRATE = 1. WAXVOLFRACTION = (0. !*************************************************************************** ! Definition of Waxdeposition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! WAXDEPOSITION BRANCH = BRANCH-1.WAXTAB). WAXPOROSITY = 0.8). DISSOLTDIFF = 4 C.BRANCH-2).0. \ AGEINGOPT = AGEING.75.0e+12 ! DISSOLPRESS omitted since only one value for DISSOLTDIFF and DISSOLRATE .8.1). \ INSTPOROSITYOPT = MANUAL. !*************************************************************************** ! Definition of Waxdeposition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------! WAXDEPOSITION BRANCH = (BRANCH-1.

Less than zero if a minimum pressure difference is required for fluid flow from well into reservoir. Vogels. Unit: kg/s for the linear formula. Single Forchheimer. the well/reservoir variables are translated into the coefficients used in the inflow correlations. The linear coefficient BPROD cannot be zero if the well is located in the first (inlet) section of a branch. Note that the well reservoir variables are ignored if the cofficients are also specified. WELL Page 357 3. There are two ways of specifying the data for flow between the reservoir and the well. This module requires a separate license. respectively. You may either specify the coefficients used in the inflow correlations directly.3. The Well option is described in sections 2. OPTIONS. The reservoir is assumed “not fractured” in the sense that INJPOSTFRACFACTOR and PRODPOSTFRACFACTOR will not have any effect and that INJPREFRACFACTOR and PRODPREFRACFACTOR will be used for injection and production rate. When you use the latter. - Description Coefficient "A" in well flow equation. l.Chapter 3: Input File Description. the production and injection coefficients are used for all bottom-hole (BH) pressures. The Advanced Well module consists of the well inflow models Forchheimer. Note: If FRACPR and INJTHRESHOLD are not given by the user. APROD r. POSITION. l. Unit: kg/s for the linear formula. Pa2 for the non-linear (quadratic) formula. Also. or you may specify traditional well/reservoir variables like permeability and net pay. - Coefficient "A" in well flow equation. Less than zero if a minimum pressure difference is required for fluid flow from reservoir into well. GEOMETRY. Keyword: WELL Dependencies: BRANCH. Backpressure and Normalized Backpressure and Undersaturated.3-4. The well/reservoir variables are marked with w) in the table below. . the statement may be used to specify the fraction of wax forming components in the inflow hydrocarbon mixture.3. FEED Key description table: Key AINJ Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] r. Pa2 for the non-linear (quadratic) formula. for all BH pressures.64 WELL The well statement is used to define required data for calculating the flow performance of wells.

psi2-d2/scf2 for Forchheimer. CINJ r. Productivity index for linear inflow equation.Page 358 Chapter 3: Input File Description. psi-d/scf for Single Forchheimer. - Coefficient "C" in well flow equation. FEEDMOLEFRACTION r. FEEDMASSFRACTION r. Unit: kg/s/Pa for the linear formula. psi2-d/scf for Forchheimer. CPROD r. Unit: Pa2-s2/kg2 for the non-linear formula. EXPONENTNw) r.l. (-) - Mass fraction of each feed. - Coefficient "C" in well flow equation.(Pa) - Bubble point pressure at reservoir temperature for Undersaturated oil wells.0] Constant in Backpressure inflow equation. BOOILw) 3 3 r. psi-d2/scf2 for Single Forchheimer. Unit: kg/s/Pa for the linear formula. - Branch number or label for well. It normally varies between 0.0. psi-d2/scf2 for Single Forchheimer. Unit: Pa2-s2/kg2 for the non-linear formula. One item per time and feed. One item per time and feed. l.(Rm /Sm ) w) Oil formation volume factor BPPRESSURE r. - Description Coefficient "B" in well flow equation. Pa2-s/kg for the nonlinear formula. l.l. BRANCH sym. . - Coefficient "B" in well flow equation. psi2-d2/scf2 for Forchheimer. WELL Key BINJ Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] r. (-) - Mole fraction of each feed.l. l. Injectivity index for linear inflow equation. l. scf/d/psi2n for Backpressure (dependent on EXPONENTN).(-) [1. psi-d/scf for Single Forchheimer. scf/d/psi2n for Backpressure (dependent on EXPONENTN). BPROD r. psi2-d/scf for Forchheimer.5 and 1. Pa2-s/kg for the nonlinear formula.

(m) Net pay from inflow zone. Requires PRODOPTION = TABULAR GORSTw) r. Requires PRODOPTION = TABULAR.l. HOLESw) r. (Pa) [INJTHRESHOLD] GASDIS r.l. GASINJw) r.Chapter 3: Input File Description.0] Distance gas front has to travel before it reaches the well bore. (Pa) - Pressure at which the gas front will be at the well bore at steadystate conditions.l. . (Sm3/Sm3) [from PVT tables] Gas/oil volumetric ratio. (m) [0. -1 indicates equilibrium. WELL Key Page 359 Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] FEEDNAME sym. Requires COMPOSITIONAL = ON under the OPTIONS keyword and access to the compositional module. Labels of feeds used in well stream defining the fluid composition (from feed file and FEED keyword).l. QUADRATIC and TABULAR requires the Advanced Well module (Sm3/s/Pa) INJOPTION sym.l. (-) FRACPRw) r. (-) [-1] Gas mass fraction in the gas + oil mixture for positive flow. r. - FEEDVOLFRACTION r. Normally given in (Sm3/d/bar).l. Volume fraction of each feed given in FEEDNAME (only for Blackoil model) see Note above table Fracture pressure Linear injectivity index for gas entering the well section. All types except LINEAR. Normally given in inches (in). A list of both positive and negative values is not allowed. (Sm3/s/Pa) HPAYw) Description - Injectivity LINEAR | QUADRATIC | TABULAR | FORCHHEIMER | SINGLEFORCHHEIMER| VOGELS | BACKPRESSURE | NORMALIZEDBACKPR | UNDERSATURATED Negative well flow equation type. (s) - Time constant for the gas front movement. By default value from PVT table is used. GASFRACTION r. Requires PRODOPTION = TABULAR GFRTC r. INJECTIVITY w) r. (m) Hole size (diameter).l. GASPLIMIT r.

INJTABLE sym. Requires PRODOPTION = TABULAR OILINJw) r. KPERM r. sym. INJTHRESHOLD w) r. [1] Multiplier for injection rate when BH pressure is above fracture pressure. If BH pressure has been above fracture pressure the injection rate multiplied by the INJPOSTFRACFACTOR will be used when the BH pressure is above INJTHRESHOLD. w) w) ISOTHERMAL w) (Sm3/s/Pa) Description . If BH pressure has been above fracture pressure this is a multiplier when BH pressure is above INJTHRESHOLD as well. - Linear injectivity index for oil entering the well section.l. (s) - Time constant for the oil front movement. [Numerical increment] Well label. ignored otherwise. [YES] | NO Turn on or off isothermal. (mD) - Effective permeability LABEL str. Normally given in (Sm3/d/bar). OFRTC r. If the BH pressure has been above fracture pressure this is a multiplier only below INJTHRESHOLD. Requires PRODOPTION = TABULAR OILDIS r. MIDDLE if the reservoir pressure at the middle of the zone is specified.l.BOTTOM if the reservoir pressure given is at the bottom of the zone. Only applicable when well/reservoir variables are given for NORMALIZEDBACKPR or LINEAR. [1] Multiplier for injection rate when BH pressure is below fracture pressure.l. OILPLIMIT r. INJPREFRACFACTOR r. WELL Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] INJPOSTFRACFACTOR r. Requires PRODOPTION = TABULAR PHASE w) sym GAS | [OIL] | WATER | LIQUID The phase for which productivity index or absolute open flowrate is given. pressure] Pressure at which the oil front will be at the well bore at steady-state conditions. (m) - Distance oil front has to travel before it reaches the well bore. (Pa) [FRACPR] see Note above table Pressure.Page 360 Chapter 3: Input File Description. - Table reference for negative well flow performance. BOTTOM | [MIDDLE] Well location in the well section. LOCATION sym. (Pa) [Res..

Use when the well parameters are given for conditions before the reservoir is fractured. - Pipe number for well.l. RESEXTw) r. SKINSw) r. RESPRESSURE r. Note that the value actually used by the program is interpolated between the values specified by the time table.l. QMAXw) r. ROGST r.(1/Sm3/s) - Turbulent non-darcy skin. SECTION i. BRANCH. - Position where the well is located. - Mechanical damage skin.l. - Table reference for positive flow performance. ROLSTw) r. (Pa) - Reservoir pressure. POSITION sym. All types except LINEAR. PRODI w) r. w) w) w) . TIME r. Used when the well parameters are given for conditions after the reservoir is fractured. If POSITION is defined. - Section number for well.Chapter 3: Input File Description. PRODOPTION sym. Normally given in (Sm3/s/Pa) Description (Sm3/d/bar). [1] Multiplier for production rate after the reservoir is fractured. By default value from PVT table is used. PRODTABLE sym. By default value from PVT table is used. QUADRATIC and TABULAR requires the Advanced Well module PRODPOSTFRACFACTOR r.l.0] Time points when the reservoir conditions are to be changed. (°C) - Reservoir temperature. Normally given in (1/SCF/d). PIPE. (kg/Sm3) [from PVT tables] Oil density at standard conditions. LINEAR | QUADRATIC | TABULAR | FORCHHEIMER | SINGLEFORCHHEIMER| VOGELS | BACKPRESSURE | NORMALIZEDBACKPR | UNDERSATURATED Positive well flow equation type. SKINDw) r. and SECTION should not be used. (m) - Reservoir extension.l. PRODPREFRACFACTOR r. RESTEMPERATURE r. - Productivity index for linear inflow equation.(s) [0. (kg/Sm3) [from PVT tables] Gas density at standard conditions. (Sm3/s) - Maximum flow in Vogels and Normalized Backpressure inflow equation. WELL Key Page 361 Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] PIPE sym. [1] Multiplier for production rate before the reservoir is fractured.

With a value of -1. By default value from PVT table is used.0] Mass fraction of total water in the total fluid mixture of the reservoir. and free water + water in gas if ON). Either this key or the TOTALWATERFRACTION can be specified. Non-zero values are ignored for two-phase simulations.(Ns/m2) - Viscosity of oil reservoir conditions. This key can only be used if water option is available. With a value of -1. Requires PRODOPTION = TABULAR (Sm3/s/Pa) . WELL Key Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description TOTALWATERFRACTION r. VISLRESw) r.l. (-) [0. Requires PRODOPTION = TABULAR WATERCUT r.(-) [0. and 60 oF.(-) [0. WATPLIMIT r.0 the total water fraction is taken from the fluid table (interpreted as free water if WATERFLASH = OFF. Requires PHASE = THREE under the OPTIONS keyword and access to the water module.0] Mass fraction of free water in the total flow mixture in the reservoir. even if the water option is available.Page 362 Chapter 3: Input File Description. By default value from PVT table is used WATDIS r. Normally given in (Sm3/d/bar).l. VISGRESw) r. Either this key or the WATERFRACTION can be specified. (Pa) - Pressure at which the water front will be at the well bore at steadystate conditions.0] Water cut at 1 atm. WATERFRACTION r. WATINJw) r. (m) - Distance water front has to travel before it reaches the well bore.(Ns/m2) - Viscosity of gas at reservoir conditions. Requires PHASE = THREE under the OPTIONS keyword and access to the water module. - Linear injectivity index for water entering the well section.0 the total water fraction is taken from the fluid table. This key can only be used if water option is available.l.

0 [Pa2] = [0.Chapter 3: Input File Description.1]. Requires PRODOPTION = TABULAR r. INJOPTION. WFRTC ZFACTw) ZONELENGTH w) ZONETOP w) Required keys: r. then AINJ = 0. PRODOPTION. This key can only be used if water option is available. (m) Section length Length of the reservoir zone r. RESPRESSURE. Internal dependencies of keys: ! Alphanumeric values are only ! given as samples either BRANCH PIPE SECTION =1 =1 =1 POSITION = POSITION-1 or end If you want to use the coefficients directly for standard inflow types: If PHASE = THREE in OPTION. r. LOCATION (Default values can be used if specified).0 [kg/s] BINJ = 0.(-) [1. ISOTHERMAL.0] . [1] Gas compressibility factor. Requires WAXDEPOSITION = ON under the OPTIONS keyword and access to the waxdeposition module. The value must be in the range [0. then AINJ = 0. (m) 0. (s) - Time constant for the water front movement.1E-5 [kg/s/Pa] else if INJOPTION = QUADRATIC.0 The distance of the reservoir zone top from the top of the section. 1 means the amount of wax forming components is equal to values from the wax table.0] = [0. then either WATERFRACTION or TOTALWATERFRACTION end end if GASFRACTION = -1 If INJOPTION = LINEAR. WELL Key WAXFRACTION Page 363 Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] r.0] Description Scaling factor for determining the amount of wax forming components relative to HC mixture. LABEL. RESTEMPERATURE.

3354E08 [Pa2-s2/kg2] else if PRODOPTION = TABULAR. then BINJ = 0.0 [Pa2-s/kg] CINJ = 0.0 [Pa2-s/kg] CPROD = 0.E-9 [psi-d2/scf2] else if INJOPTION = BACKPRESSURE. WELL BINJ = 0.0 [kg/s] BPROD = 0.0] [m] WATPLIMIT = [RESPRESSURE] [Pa] WFRTC = [0. then BPROD = 1.0] [s] WATDIS = [0. then GASDIS = [0.1E-5 [kg/s/Pa] else if PRODOPTION = QUADRATIC.0] [s] OILDIS = [0.3354E08 [Pa2-s2/kg2] else if INJOPTION = TABULAR.0 [Pa2] BPROD = 0.E-9 [psi2-d2/scf2] else if INJOPTION = SINGLEFORCHHEIMER. then PRODTABLE = TABLE-2 If phase front transient is to be simulated. then APROD = 0. then BPROD = 0.0] [s] end if end if If you want to use the coefficients directly for Advanced Well inflow types: If PHASE = THREE in OPTION. then APROD = 0.6 [psi2-d/scf] CINJ = 1.E-4 [psi-d/scf] CINJ = 1. then EXPONENTN =1 CPROD = 1 [scf/d/psi2] end if .0] [m] GASPLIMIT = [RESPRESSURE] [Pa] GFRTC = [0. then WATERCUT = [0. then INJTABLE = TABLE-1 end if If PRODOPTION = LINEAR.Page 364 Chapter 3: Input File Description.E-9 [psi2-d2/scf2] else if PRODOPTION = SINGLEFORCHHEIMER.0] [-] end if ROGST ROLST GORST = [from PVT tables] [kg/Sm3] = [from PVT tables] [kg/Sm3] = [from PVT tables] [kg/Sm3] if INJOPTION = FORCHHEIMER.0] [m] OILPLIMIT = [RESPRESSURE] [Pa] OFRTC = [0.6 [psi2-d/scf] CPROD = 1.E-4 [psi-d/scf] CPROD = 1. then BINJ = 1. then EXPONENTN =1 CINJ = 1 [scf/d/psi2] end if if PRODOPTION = FORCHHEIMER.E-9 [psi-d2/scf2] else if PRODOPTION = BACKPRESSURE.

8 [kg/Sm3] ROLST = 700 [kg/Sm3] GORST = 1000 [Sm3/Sm3] PHASE = [OIL] or FRACPR = 1000 bar ROGST = 0.5 in SKINS =3 SKIND = 0.8 [kg/Sm3] ROLST = 700 [kg/Sm3] GORST = 1000 [Sm3/Sm3] VISLRES = 0.8 [kg/Sm3] ROLST = 700 [kg/Sm3] GORST = 1000 [Sm3/Sm3] VISGRES = 0. then WATERCUT = [0.5 in SKINS =3 SKIND = 0.Chapter 3: Input File Description.01 else if INJOPTION = VOGELS.03 cP ZFACT =1 KPERM = 20 mD HPAY = 20 [m] RESEXT = 1000 [m] HOLES = 8.4 KPERM = 20 mD HPAY = 20 [m] RESEXT = 1000 [m] HOLES = 8.2 cP BOOIL = 1. then FRACPR = 1000 bara ROGST = 0.5 in SKINS =3 end else if INJOPTION = FORCHHEIMER.0] [-] end if If INJOPTION = LINEAR. then FRACPR = 1000 bara ROGST = 0. then FRACPR = 1000 bara ROGST = 0.8 [kg/Sm3] ROLST = 700 [kg/Sm3] GORST = 1000 [Sm3/Sm3] QMAX = 10 000 Sm3/d else if INJOPTION = BACKPRESSURE. WELL If you want to use well/reservoir variables: If PHASE = THREE in OPTION.8 [kg/Sm3] ROLST = 700 [kg/Sm3] GORST = 1000 [Sm3/Sm3] VISGRES = 0. then FRACPR = 1000 bara ROGST = 0.01 else if INJOPTION = SINGLEFORCHHEIMER.03 cP ZFACT =1 KPERM = 20 mD HPAY = 20 [m] RESEXT = 1000 [m] HOLES = 8.8 [kg/Sm3] Page 365 . then either INJECTIVITY = 240 stb/d/Psi FRACPR = 1000 bar ROGST = 0.

4 KPERM = 20 mD HPAY = 20 [m] RESEXT = 1000 [m] HOLES = 8.8 [kg/Sm3] ROLST = 700 [kg/Sm3] GORST = 1000 [Sm3/Sm3] VISLRES = 0.5 in SKINS =3 SKIND = 0.Page 366 Chapter 3: Input File Description.8 [kg/Sm3] ROLST = 700 [kg/Sm3] GORST = 1000 [Sm3/Sm3] VISLRES = 0. then FRACPR = 1000 bara ROGST = 0.4 KPERM = 20 mD HPAY = 20 [m] RESEXT = 1000 [m] HOLES = 8. then either PRODI = 240 stb/d/Psi FRACPR = 1000 bara ROGST = 0.5 in SKINS =3 end .8 [kg/Sm3] ROLST = 700 [kg/Sm3] GORST = 1000 [Sm3/Sm3] QMAX = 10 000 Sm3/d EXPONENTN =1 PHASE = [OIL] else if INJOPTION = UNDERSATURATED.5 in SKINS =3 BPPRESSURE = 600 bar end if If the user wants to define a specific linear injectivity index for one or more of the phases GASINJ = 100 stb/d/Psi OILINJ = 100 stb/d/Psi WATINJ = 180 stb/d/Psi end if If PRODOPTION = LINEAR. WELL ROLST = 700 [kg/Sm3] GORST = 1000 [Sm3/Sm3] VISGRES = 0.2 cP BOOIL = 1.01 EXPONENTN =1 else if INJOPTION = NORMALIZEDBACKPR. then FRACPR = 1000 bara ROGST = 0.8 [kg/Sm3] ROLST = 700 [kg/Sm3] GORST = 1000 [Sm3/Sm3] PHASE = [OIL] or FRACPR = 1000 bara ROGST = 0.2 cP BOOIL = 1.03 cP ZFACT =1 KPERM = 20 mD HPAY = 20 [m] RESEXT = 1000 [m] HOLES = 8.

then FRACPR = 1000 bara ROGST = 0. then FRACPR = 1000 bara ROGST = 0. then FRACPR = 1000 bara ROGST = 0.Chapter 3: Input File Description. then FRACPR = 1000 bara ROGST = 0.8 [kg/Sm3] ROLST = 700 [kg/Sm3] GORST = 1000 [Sm3/Sm3] VISGRES = 0. then FRACPR = 1000 bara ROGST = 0.2 cP BOOIL = 1.03 cP ZFACT =1 KPERM = 20 mD HPAY = 20 [m] RESEXT = 1000 [m] HOLES = 8.4 Page 367 .5 in SKINS =3 SKIND = 0.03 cP ZFACT =1 KPERM = 20 mD HPAY = 20 [m] RESEXT = 1000 [m] HOLES = 8.01 EXPONENTN =1 else if PRODOPTION = NORMALIZEDBACKPR. then FRACPR = 1000 bara ROGST = 0.8 [kg/Sm3] ROLST = 700 [kg/Sm3] GORST = 1000 [Sm3/Sm3] QMAX = 10 000 Sm3/d EXPONENTN =1 PHASE = [OIL] else if PRODOPTION = UNDERSATURATED.01 else if PRODOPTION = SINGLEFORCHHEIMER.5 in SKINS =3 SKIND = 0.8 [kg/Sm3] ROLST = 700 [kg/Sm3] GORST = 1000 [Sm3/Sm3] QMAX = 10 000 Sm3/d else if PRODOPTION = BACKPRESSURE.03 cP ZFACT =1 KPERM = 20 mD HPAY = 20 [m] RESEXT = 1000 [m] HOLES = 8.8 [kg/Sm3] ROLST = 700 [kg/Sm3] GORST = 1000 [Sm3/Sm3] VISLRES = 0.8 [kg/Sm3] ROLST = 700 [kg/Sm3] GORST = 1000 [Sm3/Sm3] VISGRES = 0.01 else if PRODOPTION = VOGELS.5 in SKINS =3 SKIND = 0. WELL else if PRODOPTION = FORCHHEIMER.8 [kg/Sm3] ROLST = 700 [kg/Sm3] GORST = 1000 [Sm3/Sm3] VISGRES = 0.

BINJ = 1. then TIME = (0.3. 500) TABLE POINT = (25. 0.7.\ PRODOPTION = TABULAR. 0. two phase): !*************************************************************************** ! TABLE Definition for WELL ! Well inflow characteristics.\ PRODOPTION = LINEAR. APROD = 0. . 10. FEED-2(T2)) Examples: Example 1: !*************************************************************************** ! Well Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------WELL LABEL = WELL-1.5] endif Note: For the subkeys FEEDMASSFRACTION. BRANCH = 1. GASTC) TABLE POINT = (0. GASPLIMIT = 75 bar ! !*************************************************************************** Example 3 (Prodoption=tabular. BRANCH = 3. 500) ! !*************************************************************************** ! WELL Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------WELL LABEL = INLET. 10.0.1523. 0. XVAR = DELTAP bar. 0. 0.E-6 . liquid PI is given !--------------------------------------------------------------------------TABLE LABEL = TRAN-WEL. Example 2 (Dynamic well inflow. 0. FEED1(T2). 0.\ GASDIS = 10. 0. 0. 0. PIPE = 1. 0.5 in =3 = 600 bar end if If COMPOSITIONAL = ON in OPTION. ISOTHERMAL = YES.1E-05 .0. 0. option 1.\ WATERFRACTION = 0. 500) TABLE POINT = (30. RESTEMPERATURE = 62.\ RESPRESSURE = 100 BAR.0.1212E-5. WELL KPERM HPAY RESEXT HOLES SKINS BPPRESSURE = 20 mD = 20 [m] = 1000 [m] = 8.0. RESTEMPERATURE = 62.268E+08.5) end or if COMPOSITIONAL = BLACKOIL in OPTIONS. GASFL.3) or FEEDMOLEFRACTION = (0. FEED-3) either FEEDMASSFRACTION = (0. SECT = 1.1212E-5.4. gasfraction & waterfraction in WELL) : . 0. RESPRESSURE = 0. PIPE = 1. 5) h FEEDNAME = (BO-1.6. the array is a function of both feed and time as shown below. AINJ = 0. FEED-2(T1).Page 368 Chapter 3: Input File Description. 0.0. and FEEDMASSFRACTION = FEED-1 (T1).\ YVAR = ( PILIQ.0.0.0.5. GASFRACTION = 0. 0. 10. 0. 5) h FEEDNAME = (FEED-1.\ LOCATION = BOTTOM.0. 0.5. OILTC. WATFRAC. BPROD = 0. PRODTABLE = tran-wel. 0. BO-2) FEEDVOLFRACTION = [1. GFRTC = 100.1212E-5. then (multiple time and feeds.1E-05. see note below) TIME = (0. SECTION = 1.\ BINJ = 0.7. \ INJOPTION = LINEAR. LOCATION = MIDDLE.. AINJ = 0.\ INJOPTION = LINEAR. FEEDMOLEFRACTION FEEDVOLFRACTION.

01 1/mmscf/d. . ISOTHERMAL = YES ! !*************************************************************************** . \ RESTEMPERATURE=43.12. XVAR = DELTAP bar. KPERM=500 mD. 3. \ ISOTHERMAL=YES.5 in. RESPRESSURE=41200000 Pa. RESEXT=1000 m.4 kg/Sm3. 3.\ RESPRE = 100 BAR. \ SKINS=3.00) TABLE POINT = (25. SECT = 1. ROLST=817. GORST=157158 Sm3/Sm3. VISGRES=0. \ INJOPTION=LINEAR.0. LOCATION=BOTTOM. HPAY=14 m.03) TABLE POINT = (30.\ PRODOPTION = TABULAR. FRACPR=1000 bar. \ LOCATION = BOTTOM. BRANCH = 1.0.0312 cp. \ INJOPTION = TABULAR.Chapter 3: Input File Description.\ YVAR = (FLOW) TABLE POINT = (0. WELL Page 369 !*************************************************************************** ! TABLE Definition for WELL !--------------------------------------------------------------------------TABLE LABEL = WEL-INFLOW. PRODTABLE = WEL-INFLOW. HOLES=8.73 kg/Sm3. PIPE=PIPE_1. BRANCH=BRAN-1.02. WATERFRACTION = 0. 0.636) ! !*************************************************************************** ! WELL Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------WELL LABEL = INLET. SKIND=0. SECTION=1. three phase): !*************************************************************************** ! WELL Definition !--------------------------------------------------------------------------WELL LABEL=WELL-1. ZFACT=1 . INJECTIVITY=240 Stb/d/Psi. GASFRACTION = -1. \ WATERCUT=0. . INJTABLE = WEL-INFLOW. PIPE = 1. RESTEM = 62. Example 4 (The Advanced well module. ROGST=0.\ PRODOPTION=FORCHHEIMER.5 C.

.............. FLUID PROPERTIES AND OTHER DATA FILES ............................1........................2..1.............. 380 4...2........... 388 4..........................1 The syntax of the keyword 380 4.................1 Standard format for fluid properties .....................................1...........................................2 Pump Data Table for Displacement Pumps ............................1 Fluid properties file.................1.............1 Pump Data Table for Centrifugal Pumps...................4 Examples 385 4.......1............. 393 4.............................Chapter 4: Fluid Properties and other Data Files Page 370 CHAPTER 4 FLUID PROPERTIES AND OTHER DATA FILES 4.. 371 4. 395 ..............2 Keyword based format for fluid properties..........2 Table Structure 381 4...2.................................3 Pump Data Files.......................1..3 Keyword PVTTABLE (Not available with OLGA GUI) 381 4...1.............................................2 Compressor data file ...............4 Wax table file ...........................1....2..........3....3 Feed file for compositional tracking .. 389 4.......... 391 4............. 371 4..... 371 4... 391 4...............................1......3.......1 Complex fluid module 378 4................................................

they all have to have the same format. These cannot be obtained from the densities by interpolation in the tables since the partial derivatives in that case would also include phase mass transfer/changes in phase compositions. 4. If a compressor is present in the pipeline. The partial derivatives of gas and liquid densities with respect to pressure and temperature are required as separate tables. or a feed file that contains the component data used for compositional tracking. water properties are also needed. OLGA always requires a file that contains a description of the fluid properties as a unique function of temperature and pressure. a file specifying the compressor characteristics is also required. These files have to be written in certain formats that are described in the following sections. in the fluid identifier. If pumps are used in the simulation. at the actual thermodynamic conditions. the wax data are specified through a wax file. A complete set of pump characteristics is given in the code.2. FLUIDF. Liquid properties must be for the mixture of oil and water. or a file that have fluid properties as a function of temperature and pressure. If the fluid contains water and it is decided to use the two phase option in OLGA. There are two valid formats of the latter file. the pump characteristics are specified through a pump file. or may be calculated by the code itself. A more refined interpolation in the fluid property tables close to the two-phase envelope is performed only for the gas mass fraction utilising the bubble point pressure given in the file. These properties may be given as tables in the fluid properties file. FLUID PROPERTIES AND OTHER DATA FILES In addition to the file giving the case description. gas or liquid. given in the fluid properties file. refer sections 4. If OLGA is used with the water option. This is determined by the text. Figure 4. The reason is that the partial derivatives should be those of the isolated phase.1.1. This set can be used if no pump characteristics are available.1. This table of properties can be equidistant or non-equidistant in pressure and temperature. If wax deposition is simulated. is either a feed file with data for each component used in compositional tracking.Chapter 4: Fluid Properties and other Data Files Page 371 4.1 Fluid properties file The file that contains the fluid data.1 and 4. When more than one fluid properties file is used. either the standard format or a keyword based format. . 4. only two-phase tables for fluid properties must be used.1 shows the above mentioned two-phase envelope as a function of pressure and temperature.1 Standard format for fluid properties The fluid properties are given as functions of pressure and temperature. The dew point pressures are not used in the present OLGA version.

always be set to zero. Variables : Name Unit Definition File identification (60 characters) Number of fluids in this file. J = 1. NTABT . I=1. entropy tables for gas. 2. For pressures above the bubble point pressure. three phase tables are expected in the file. Fluid label The label must be unique and may be a number or a text string.LAB_NCOMP) NTABP (-) Number of pressure points in the table NTABT (-) Number of temperature points in the table RSWTOTB (kg/kg) Total water mass fraction for the feed. The input variables FILEID. as follows: If the sub-string "WATER-OPTION" is present. NONEQ or ENTROPY the tables will be read as explained above. The content of the fluid identifier. NTABT Dew point pressures. DP DT PP(I) TT(J) (N/m2) (°C) (N/m2) (°C) PBB(J) (N/m2) PDEW(J) (N/m2) default value = 0 (Only used together with threephase tables) Pressure step in the table Temperature step in the table Pressure values in the table. If FLUIDF contains the sub-string WATEROPTION. NCOMP and LC can be collectively omitted for single branch cases. Optionally.. FLUIDF.. oil and eventually water are expected. Indicators for the fluid file content: The interpretation of tables in the fluid properties file is determined from: 1. however.LAB_2.NTABP Temperature values in the table. non-equidistant spacing in the tables are expected. Whether there is more than one fluid. J = 1. . .Page 372 Chapter 4: Fluid Properties and other Data Files Remarks: -The gas mass fraction may not be zero for pressures above the bubble point pressure due to linear interpolation in the tables. J = 1. NTABT Bubble point pressures. If the sub-string "ENTROPY" is present. (LAB_1. [FILEID] [NCOMP] The following data are repeated for each fluid: FLUIDF (-) [LC] Fluid identifier enclosed in apostrophes. the gas mass fraction calculated from the tables will. If the sub-string "NONEQ" is present.

the corresponding bubble point pressures must be greater than the largest pressure point in the tables. J = 1.I) (J/kg) HOTB(J. see Fig.I) () TKWTB(J. the For all tables below.I) (J/kg) TKGTB(J. All values in this table must be set to a constant (between 0 and 1) (for all points) in case of no interphase mass transfer. Gas mass fraction in gas and oil mixture.I) (s2/m2) ROOTB(J. REMARK: The gas may also contain water vapour.I) (J/kgC) HGTB(J.I) (kg/m3C) DROTTB(J.I) (s2/m2) DRWPTB(J.I) (kg/m3C) RSGTB(J.I) (J/kg) HWTB(J.1).I) VSOTB(J. NTABT and I = 1. NTABP ROGTB(J. 4.I) (Ns/m2) CPGTB(J. ( = 0 gives single phase liquid.I) (J/kgC) CPOTB(J.I) VSGTB(J.I) (J/kgC) CPWTB(J. The dew point pressures are not used in the present OLGA version TABTEX(L) (-) NB! Text string to identify different properties.I) ROWTB(J.I) (kg/kg) (kg/kg) (Ns/m2) (Ns/m2) VSWTB(J. =1 gives single phase gas).I) (N/m) SIGWGT(J.I) (W/mC) SIGOGT(J.Chapter 4: Fluid Properties and other Data Files Variables : Name Page 373 Unit Definition For temperatures in the table which indicate single phase flow for the whole range of pressures (all points are outside the two-phase envelope for a specific temperature.I) (kg/m3C) DRWTTB(J. Partial derivatives of gas densities with respect to temperature Partial derivatives of oil densities with respect to temperature Partial derivatives of water densities with respect to temperature.I) Gas densities Oil densities Water densities Partial derivatives of gas densities with respect to pressure Partial derivatives of oil densities with respect to pressure Partial derivatives of water densities with respect to pressure. Water vapour mass fraction in the gas phase Dynamic viscosities for gas Dynamic viscosities for oil Dynamic viscosities for water Gas heat capacities at constant pressure Oil heat capacities at constant pressure Water heat capacities at constant pressure Gas enthalpies Oil enthalpies Water enthalpies Gas thermal conductivities Oil thermal conductivities Water thermal conductivities Surface tension between gas and oil Surface tension between gas and water . the gas mass divided by the gas and oil mass.I) (s2/m2) DRGTTB(J.I) (N/m) RSWTB(J.I) DROPTB(J.I) (W/mC) TKOTB(J.I) (kg/m3) (kg/m3) (kg/m3) DRGPTB(J.

I) SWTB(J.I) SGTB(J.I) SOTB(J. 4. .I) Fig. Example of the use of the bubble and dew point pressures in relation to the two-phase envelope and the fluid property table points (NTABT=6 and NTABP=5).1 (N/m) (J/kgC) (J/kgC) (J/kgC) Surface tension between water and oil Gas specific entropy Oil specific entropy Water specific entropy. The figure does not correspond to the tables of fluid properties used in the sample case.Page 374 Chapter 4: Fluid Properties and other Data Files SIGWOT(J.

NTABP) . . . Note that RSWTOTB is set to zero by OLGA if omitted: FLUIDF [LC] NTABP PP(1) TT(1) NTABT RSWTOTB . . . . . . . . .1) . .NTABP) if FLUIDF contains substring WATER-OPTION. The file heading for equidistant tables. DROPTB(1. . then TABTEX(3) ROWTB(1. . . . . .NTABP) . . ROOTB(1. . .1) . DROPTB(NTABT. . . . .1) .1) . . . . . . . .NTABP) .NTABP) end WATER-OPTION TABTEX(4) DRGPTB(1. [FILEID] [NCOMP] The following data are repeated for each fluid composition. .1) . .NTABP) if FLUIDF contains substring WATER-OPTION. . . . . . . Note that RSWTOTB is set to zero by OLGA if omitted: FLUIDF [LC] NTABP DP PP(1) NTABT DT TT(1) RSWTOTB The file heading for non-equidistant tables. DRGPTB(NTABT. . .NTABP). .NTABP) . . then TABTEX(6) DRWPTB(1. . . .NTABP) TABTEX(2) ROOTB(1. . . . . . DRWPTB(1. ROOTB(NTABT. . . PDEW(NTABT) TABTEX(1) ROGTB(1.1). PP(NTABP) TT(NTABT) The fluid property tables: PBB(1) . DRWPTB(NTABT. DRWPTB(NTABT. . . ROGTB(1. .NTABP). . . DROPTB(NTABT. DRGPTB(1. . . . ROWTB(NTABT. . . .Chapter 4: Fluid Properties and other Data Files Page 375 Data file structure: The data enclosed in brackets can collectively be omitted for single branch cases. . ROWTB(1. .NTABP). . . . . . .1) . .NTABP) . ROGTB(NTABT. ROGTB(NTABT. . ROWTB(NTABT.1). . .1). . . . .1) . DRGPTB(NTABT. .1) . PBB(NTABT) PDEW(1) . . . ROOTB(NTABT. . . . . TABTEX(5) DROPTB(1. .1) . . .

.1) . VSWTB(NTABT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NTABP) TABTEX(13) VSOTB(1.NTABP) TABTEX(16) CPOTB(1. . . CPOTB(1.1) .Page 376 Chapter 4: Fluid Properties and other Data Files end WATER-OPTION TABTEX(7) DRGTTB(1. .1) . .NTABP) if FLUIDF contains substring WATER-OPTION. . . DRGTTB(NTABT.1) . . . . . DROTTB(NTABT. . . . .1) . . . .NTABP) .1) . then TABTEX(17) .NTABP) end WATER-OPTION TABTEX(12) VSGTB(1. . DRWTTB(1.1) . . . . . . . DRGTTB(1. . .NTABP) if FLUIDF contains substring WATER-OPTION. CPGTB(NTABT.NTABP) .1) . .1) . RSGTB(1.NTABP) TABTEX(8) DROTTB(1. . .NTABP) .1) .1) . DRGTTB(NTABT. .1) . then TABTEX(11) RSWTB(1. . .1).NTABP) if FLUIDF contains substring WATER-OPTION.1). . . . . RSWTB(NTABT. . CPOTB(NTABT. . .1). . VSWTB(NTABT. VSWTB(1. DRWTTB(NTABT. . . . . CPGTB(NTABT. . . . DRWTTB(NTABT. . VSGTB(1. VSOTB(NTABT.NTABP) end WATER-OPTION TABTEX(10) RSGTB(1. .NTABP) end WATER-OPTION TABTEX(15) CPGTB(1.1) .NTABP).NTABP). VSGTB(NTABT. .1) . . . . .NTABP) if FLUIDF contains substring WATER-OPTION. . CPGTB(1. . . .NTABP) . DROTTB(NTABT.NTABP) . then TABTEX(9) DRWTTB(1. . RSGTB(NTABT. . . . . VSGTB(NTABT. . . . . . . RSWTB(NTABT.1). CPOTB(NTABT. VSOTB(NTABT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RSGTB(NTABT. . . DROTTB(1. then TABTEX(14) VSWTB(1.NTABP) . . . . .NTABP).1) . . . RSWTB(1.1) .NTABP). . . VSOTB(1.

. .1) .NTABP) .NTABP) end WATER-OPTION TABTEX(21) TKGTB(1. . . . . .1) . . . . . HOTB(NTABT. . . SIGWOT(NTABT. . . . . . .1) . then TABTEX(20) HWTB(1. . . TKGTB(NTABT. . .NTABP) .NTABP). SIGOGT(NTABT. . SIGOGT(NTABT. . SIGWOT(1. . .1) .NTABP) . . TKOTB(1.1). . then TABTEX(27) Page 377 . .NTABP) if FLUIDF contains substring WATER-OPTION. . . . . TKWTB(1.NTABP) TABTEX(19) HOTB(1. . . . . HOTB(1. . . . SIGOGT(1. . . SIGWGT(NTABT.NTABP) .NTABP).1) .NTABP) . . . TKWTB(NTABT. . . HGTB(1. . .NTABP) .NTABP) end WATER-OPTION if FLUIDF contains substring ENTROPY. HGTB(NTABT.1) .1) . . SIGWGT(NTABT. .1) . . . . . . .NTABP) end WATER-OPTION TABTEX(18) HGTB(1. SIGWGT(1. . . . . .1) . .1) .NTABP). .1) . TKGTB(NTABT. then TABTEX(23) TKWTB(1.1) .Chapter 4: Fluid Properties and other Data Files CPWTB(1. . . . .NTABP) if FLUIDF contains substring WATER-OPTION. . . . then TABTEX(25) SIGWGT(1. . .NTABP) if FLUIDF contains substring WATER-OPTION. . . .NTABP) TABTEX(26) SIGWOT(1. . . . . .1) . . .1) . TKOTB(NTABT. . . . TKOTB(NTABT. SIGWOT(NTABT. . . TKGTB(1. . . HOTB(NTABT. . CPWTB(1. HGTB(NTABT.1) . .NTABP). . . . . . . . HWTB(NTABT. . . . HWTB(1. . . . .NTABP) TABTEX(22) TKOTB(1.1) . . . . CPWTB(NTABT.1) .1) . . . . HWTB(NTABT. . CPWTB(NTABT.1) . TKWTB(NTABT.NTABP) end WATER-OPTION TABTEX(24) SIGOGT(1.

If the entropy is not given. SWTB(NTABT. .1) . see section 2.1 Complex fluid module The table for liquid viscosity in this file is used for different but related roles in the three different rheology models in the complex liquid module. SOTB(1. Examples of fluid property tables are given electronically with the OLGA software package. . .1) . . enthalpy and thermal conductivity are used only for temperature calculations. . .1) . this is the only table that has to be given to describe liquid rheology in the PVT file. If the simple mode (FULL = NO in FLUID keyword in input file) of input is used.1. see section 4.1. . . this table gives the original data. SGTB(NTABT. . CFLUML = POWERLAW in the input file) this table gives the consistency factor K. SWTB(NTABT. If the Bingham fluid model is chosen (FLUID TYPE = COMPLEXFLUID. SWTB(1. SOTB(NTABT.NTABP). .NTABP). . .Page 378 Chapter 4: Fluid Properties and other Data Files SGTB(1.NTABP) if FLUIDF also contains substring WATER-OPTION. The tables for heat capacity. . . . Naturally if the Newtonian option is chosen (FLUID TYPE = COMPLEXFLUID.1. the entropy data will be computed by the code. must include certain text strings to enable correct understanding of the fluid property file by OLGA: • POWEXPL: The fluid property file contains a table for the power law exponent for the oil phase • YIELDSTRL: The fluid property file contains a table for yield stress for the oil phase . . .NTABP) . However if the FULL input mode is used either the power law exponent or the yield stress must be given following the liquid viscosity table. .NTABP) TABTEX(28) SOTB(1. . . CFLUML = BINGHAM in the input file) this table gives the coefficient of rigidity. . SGTB(NTABT.1) . The water tables are used only if the water option is used. . 4.1) . . SGTB(1.2. The fluid identifier FLUIDF. . . CFLUML = NEWTONIAN in the input file). .NTABP) end WATER-OPTION end if The entropy data will be used if a Henry-Fauske type critical flow model is chosen for the flow through a valve. . SOTB(NTABT. .9 (valves). . . . . If the power law model is chosen (FLUID TYPE = COMPLEXFLUID. . .1) . then TABTEX(29) SWTB(1. .1.

see section 4. .NTABP) .1) . . .NTABP) . TAUITB (NTABT.1. POWNTB(NTABT. . .1) .NTABP) . .1) . . VSOTB(1. . then TABTEX(:) TAUITB(1. .NTABP) . . POWNWTB(1. . . . VSWTB(1.1) . . POWNWTB(NTABT. .1) . .NTABP) end if FLUIDF contains substring YIELDSTRW. . .1) . . POWNTB(1. . . . Example: TABTEX(:) VSOTB(1. . . TAUITB (1. . . .1) .1) . . . .NTABP) if FLUIDF contains substring WATER-OPTION. .NTABP) end if FLUIDF contains substring YIELDSTRL. .1) . . . . . CPGTB(1. .NTABP) end WATER-OPTION if FLUIDF contains substring POWEXPL. . . CPGTB(NTABT. . . .NTABP) . . . . . . . .NTABP) . VSOTB(NTABT. . TAUIWTB (NTABT.1) . then TABTEX(:) VSWTB(1.1) .Chapter 4: Fluid Properties and other Data Files Page 379 • POWEXPW: The fluid property file contains a table for the power law exponent for the water phase • YIELDSTRW: The fluid property file contains a table for yield stress for the water phase The text string that identifies the different properties TABTEX(). . . . . TAUIWTB (1. . . TAUITB (NTABT. . . . VSWTB(NTABT. . . VSWTB(NTABT. POWNWTB(NTABT. . CPGTB(NTABT. . . . . . . . must also include the same text strings as described above.1) .NTABP) . then TABTEX(:) POWNWTB(1. . then TABTEX(:) POWNTB(1. .1) . then TABTEX(:) TAUIWTB(1. . .NTABP) end if FLUIDF contains substring POWEXPW. POWNTB(NTABT. . TAUIWTB (NTABT.NTABP) end TABTEX(:) CPGTB(1.1) . . . . VSOTB(NTABT. .1. .NTABP) .

. each identified by a KEY (e. Line continuation: An input statement can be written on several lines by ending each line with the continuation character: \ (backslash) Comments: Comments are indicated with the comments mark: ! (exclamation mark) Any information on a line after a comment mark is ignored.g. The comment mark can be put anywhere on the line... ) . String protector: A string that contains spaces or commas should be protected with double quotes: " (double quote) List protector: Any list should be put inside a parenthesis: ( . The KEYWORD identifies the input statement..1.1. where the ellipses (.1 The syntax of the keyword The syntax of OLGA input applies to the new table format. Facilitate conversion between mass flowrate and volumetric flowrate at standard conditions (Not implemented yet) 5. and some additional ones. Easily export pvt data to spreadsheets 4.).2. Improve the readability of PVT table 2.. Each keyword has a set of variables. Use different units for the various pvt parameters 4.Page 380 Chapter 4: Fluid Properties and other Data Files 4. an input statement has the general form: KEYWORD KEY = Parameter list..2 Keyword based format for fluid properties The keyword format has all the possibilities as the standard format.. Make a format that is easily extendable for new parameters 7. Provide composition information to help custom support for pvt related problems 8. Tabulation is treated as one single space. Be able to give bubble points and dew points curve to improve the accuracy close to the saturation line 3. The intension of this format is to: 1. Separators: Items are separated by commas (.) indicate that the statement may contain more than one "KEY = Parameter list" combinations. Be able to adapt more easily the temperature and pressure mesh to the phase envelope 6. Commas separate such combinations. SETPOINT). Specifically.

[STANDARD] | FREEPRES | FREETEMP STANDARD: Both temperature and pressure points are fixed independently FREEPRES: Temperature points are fixed first and the pressure points are specified for each of the individual temperature points. MESHTYPE sym.Chapter 4: Fluid Properties and other Data Files 4. 1 COMPONENTS1 str. MOLES1 r. Subkey not used by OLGA.2 Page 381 Table Structure A table is defined through the keyword: PVTTABLE The structure of the fluid property table is as follows: For each of the tables PVTTABLE LABEL = fluid-1. Optional. etc For each of the pressure and temperature points PVTTABLE POINT = (…) End of pressure and temperature points End of tables The values of all parameters except POINT must be written in a single line. 4. Mole fraction for each of the components in the composition.3 for the definitions of subkeys under the main keyword PVTTABLE. Fluid properties for each pressure/temperature point must subsequently be specified through the PVTTABLE POINT structure.2. repeated for each pressure/temperature point.2. FREETEMP: Pressure points are fixed first and the temperature points are specified for each of the individual pressure points. Optional. List of names of the components in the composition.2.1.1. [TWO] | THREE Two or three phase table Equation of state used in generating the pvt table. Parameter set Default: [ ] Description Name of the table. .1.l. PHASE sym EOS1 str. Optional.l.3 Keyword PVTTABLE (Not available with OLGA GUI) Key Type Unit: ( ) LABEL str. See Section 4.

The subkeys DEWPRESSURES and DEWTEMPERATURES are optional. (kg/m3) Density for each of the components in the composition. (g/mol) Molecular weight for each of the components in the composition. (Pa) Dewpoint pressures. STDOILDENSITY1 r. (Pa) Bubble point pressures Only if PHASE = THREE. GLR1 r. STDWATDENSITY1. GOR is interpreted as gas/liquid ratio.l.l. set GOR = -999. DEWPRESSURES r.Page 382 Chapter 4: Fluid Properties and other Data Files Key 2 Type Unit: ( ) Parameter set Default: [ ] Description DENSITY1 r. Optional. STDGASDENSITY1 r. (-) Mass fraction of water component in the composition. TOTWATERFRACTION2 r. MOLWEIGHT1 r. (°C) [15. Optional.l. WC1. .5 °C] Temperature at standard conditions (15. (kg/m3) Water density at standard conditions. (°C) Dewpoint temperatures corresponding to the dewpoint pressure given in keyword DEWPRESSURES. it is ratio of gas volume fraction to the liquid volume fraction at standard conditions. BUBBLEPRESSURES r. Optional.2 r. Ignored if PHASE = TWO. Leave out these two subkeys if no dew point curve is found DEWTEMPERATURES r. set GLR = -999. GOR1 r. For cases where there is no oil/liquid. i. for three-phase table only. (kg/m3) Gas density at standard conditions. Set to –999 if not available.2 r.5 oC). For cases where there is no liquid. (-) Water cut standard conditions. For two-phase flow. STDPRESSURE1 r.e.l.l. (Pa) [ 1 ATM] Pressure at standard conditions (1 atm) . (kg/m3) Oil density at standard conditions. (Sm3/Sm3) Gas/liquid ratio at standard conditions. (Sm3/Sm3) Gas/oil ratio at standard conditions. Optional STDTEMPERATURE1 r.

either set the values of critical pressure and temperature to –999. NOPRES i. If the critical point is not found. The default unit is given in parenthesis Specify orders and units of parameters for a table point. Number of pressure points for each of temperature points given in subkey TEMPERATURE.r.l. or leave out these two subkeys. TM (°C) Temperature PT (Pa) Pressure RS (-) Gas mass fraction in gas/oil mixture RSW (-) Water vapour mass fraction in gas phase2 ROG (kg/m3) Gas density DROGDP (s2/m2) Derivative of gas density w. (Pa) Pressure at the critical point CRITICALTEMPERATURE r.Chapter 4: Fluid Properties and other Data Files Key BUBBLETEMPERATURES Type Unit: ( ) Page 383 Parameter set Default: [ ] r.l. The subkeys CRITICALPRESSURE and CRITICALTEMPERATURE are optional.t temperature ROHL (kg/m3) Oil density .l. (°C) Temperature at the critical point. CRITICALPRESSURE r. Number of temperature points for each of pressure points given in subkey PRESSURE.l. (°C) Temperature points if MESHTYPE = FREEPRES or STANDARD NOTEMP i.l. (pa) Pressure points if MESHTYPE = FREETEMP or STANDARD COLUMNS sym.r. Leave out these two subkeys if no bubble point curve is found. Only if MESHTYPE = FREETEMP PRESSURE r. (°C) Description Bubble point temperatures corresponding to the bubble point pressures given in keyword BUBBLEPRESSURES The subkeys BUBBLEPRESSURE and BUBBLETEMPERATURE are optional. Only if MESHTYPE = FREEPRES TEMPERATURE r.l.t pressure DROGDT (kg/m3°C) Derivative of gas density w.

see section 4. . HWT (J/kg) Water enthalpy.1. Note 1: The pressure and temperature values must be the same as specified in the keys PRESSURE and TEMPERATURE for mesh type STANDARD. Temperature must be the same as specified in the keys TEMPERATURE for mesh type FREEPRES. CPG (J/kg°C) Gas thermal capacity. Note 2: The order and the units must be the same as specified in the key COLUMNS.r. 2 SIGHLWT (N/m) Surface tension between oil and water.2 VISG (Ns/m2) Gas viscosity.r.2 SEG (J/kg°C) Gas entropy.Page 384 Chapter 4: Fluid Properties and other Data Files Key POINT Type Unit: ( ) r. see note 1 and 2 below. CPWT (J/kg°C) Water thermal capacity.2 SIGGHL (N/m) Surface tension between gas and oil.t temperature.t temperature ROWT (kg/m3) Water density.r. VISHL (Ns/m2) Oil viscosity. SEHL (J/kg°C) Oil entropy. CPHL (J/kg°C) Oil thermal capacity.t pressure DROHLDT (kg/m3°C) Derivative of oil density w. SIGGWT (N/m) Surface tension between gas and water. Pressure must be the same as specified in the keys PRESSURE for mesh type FREETEMP. SEWT (J/kg°C) Water entropy.2 TCG (W/m°C) Gas thermal conductivity.t pressure. VISWT (Ns/m2) Water viscosity.l. Parameter set Default: [ ] Description DROHLDP (s2/m2) Derivative of oil density w. TCHL (W/m°C) Oil thermal conductivity.2 DROWTDP (s2/m2) Derivative of water density w.1.1.2 Values of parameters. TCWT (W/m°C) Water thermal conductivity.r. Note 3: The use of pressure and temperature dependant values in the complex fluid module is not yet implemented. HHL (J/kg) Oil enthalpy.2 HG (J/kg) Gas enthalpy.2 DROWTDT (kg/m3°C) Derivative of water density w.

\ 247.86.56.1..69.02. 14. C6. 70.816E+02.194.40.0.79.04.296.79) BARA.28.\ MOLES = ( 4.304.4. 0.331.34.\ MOLES = ( 4.50. \ CRITICALTEMPERATURE = 156. 67.85.335. 1.39.31.285.328.5.66.RS.154.CO2.919E+02. DROGDP.0 KG/M3. \ CRITICALPRESSURE (345.65.666E-06.\ -13. 9.50.00. 7.01.1.324.48.313.52.15. C3.65.2.55.3.12.15. \ 102.66. C3.1.330.62.30. IC4.44.44.300.78.0.302. 2.301.1.46.5 C.90. \ BUBBLETEMPERATURE=( 139.1.0..56.0.00.SIGGHL.39. \ MESHTYPE = STANDARD. 1.41.74.C1.154.0.0.85.44.00.3) DENSITY = (0.66. DROHLDP.86) C. PHASE = TWO.358.74 . 4.125. \ 18.13.0. 26.56.68) BARA.247.2.1.85.213. \ 328.59 C.346. \ BUBBLEPRESSURE=( 352.5.330.20.841E+02.37.309.64. 1. \ COMPONENTS =(N2. ROG KG/M3.04.1.317.312.0. TM C. \ STDGASDENSITY = 1. 22. -3.0.81.58.15.91.738E-02.13.296.CO2.39.289.1.12. \ GLR = 768 SM3/SM3.SEG.02.73.\ MOLWEIGHT = (28. 9.NC5.32.87.39.58.01. \ 307.\ 14.6.85.85.0. \ 4.5.81.28. 55.963E+03.331.39.1. IC5.11.4.92.…) Example 2: Two-phase.99.02.07.71.343.CPHL.0.\ 73..96.0.27.04.0.30.298.15.0.0.278.3.7 KG/M3 .789) g/cm3 .5.357.TCHL.CPG. 2.C7) .358.84.284E-02.49.290. 10.-17. \ -7.220.1.) … ) PVTTABLE POINT = (5.0. IC4.Chapter 4: Fluid Properties and other Data Files 4.65. 35.HG. HHL.65.57.0 KG/M3.96.85.0.3.00.32.NC5. \ COMPONENTS =(N2. ROHL KG/M3.\ DENSITY = (0.789) g/cm3 STDPRESSURE = 1 ATM.267.170.228.5) BARA.72.125.56.278. 5.50.5 C.59) C.\ PRESSURE = (1.291. NC4. \ -5.44.53.SEHL) PVTTABLE POINT = (1.1.44.321.TCG.557E-03.302. \ 284.1.931E-01.88.44.32.44.04.3.0.0.C2. -3.65.1.72.VISHL.97.81.95.15. 1. \ 354.1.27. Standard mesh type PVTTABLE LABEL = FLUID-1.2. \ STDOILDENSITY = 787.810E+02) PVTTABLE POINT = (1. 84.330. \ STDTEMPERATURE = 15. IC5.46.331.72.) … ) PVTTABLE POINT = (5.36.C1.97.91.5.62.2.0. 11.0.0. \ .295.13.01.58.72. 8.35.03. -1.VISG.\ 328.64.3) .09.\ 2.7 KG/M3. \ DEWTEMPERATURE = ( 281.84.…) … PVTTABLE POINT = (1. C6.0.\ 179.2. \ 304.52.55.-9.103.92. NC4.16.1. 6.1.0.\ 327.C7) . \ ! !both temperature points and pressure points are fixed ! TEMPERATURE =(1.72.65. \ GLR = 768 SM3/SM3.317.5) C. 18.37.86. 3.16.72.-32. 28.74.85.41.152.617E-01.85. \ 321.317..338.321.628E-01.21.325. \ DEWPRESSURE = ( 5.0. \ 332.76. 1. \ DROHLDT.58.81.67. \ STDOILDENSITY = 787. 9.\ 307.805E+03.331.\ MOLWEIGHT = (28.112.0.299E-03.6.291.62.22.320.884E+05.184. 18.1.2.54.379E-01.156.0.2. 36. 7. freepressure mesh type PVTTABLE LABEL = FLUID-1.16.054E-05.96. \ STDGASDENSITY = 1. \ 44.03.03). 54.4 Page 385 Examples Example 1: Two-phase.330.44. \ COLUMNS =(PT BARA.345.85.513E-07.312.1.0.321.85.41.160.2.90. DROGDT.68.01.325.67.\ 261.39.\ STDPRESSURE = 1 ATM.74.03) .312. \ STDTEMPERATURE = 15. PHASE = TWO.254.15.1.68) BARA.54.78.\ DEWTEMPERATURE = ( 281.C2.356.321.72.285..

46.358.15.0. \ CRITICALTEMPERATURE = 156. \ 1..4.02.85.96.328. \ TCHL.79) BARA.ROG KG/M3.35.39. \ MESHTYPE = FREEPRES.92.313. 14.01.84.37.) PVTTABLE POINT = (7.72.49.SEHL) ! first temp.34.39.345.1.1.09.0.4.628E-01. \ ! ! temperature points are specified here.CPG.HG.160.0.0..358.301.44.338.69.5.5..56. \ CRITICALPESSURE (345.) PVTTABLE POINT = (5.TCG.65. 2.00.0. \ 247.5.346.152.290.13.57.85.44..14.…) PVTTABLE POINT = (5.74.92. \ BUBBLEPRESSURE=( 352. 18.…) PVTTABLE POINT = (3.35.0.0.59 C. \ 354.170.the pressure values are given in subkey POINT TEMPERATURE =(1.…) ! ! more temperature points.103.0..666E-06.85..55. DROHLDP.21. \ DEWPRESSURE = (5.5.) PVTTABLE POINT = (8.Page 386 Chapter 4: Fluid Properties and other Data Files 327.40.247.1.66.617E-01. 9. \ 28. \ -3.22.96..18.70.0.295.289.-5.. \ 321..278.85. 9.125.324.304.48. 4.88.321.5.\ 2.-9.41.11.55.41.6). -1.39.317.59) C.78.62.278.0.78.3.85..0.805E+03.810E+02) PVTTABLE POINT = (2. 36.5.44.) PVTTABLE POINT = (9.0.85.VISHL.2.357. TM C.96.5.65.0.9.76.841E+02. 6.0.213.379E-01. 26.16. \ 1. 1.0.85.74.55.228.963E+03. \ 73.15.SIGGHL. 10.312.112.267. \ 284. 1. 2.01.0.0.0) C.52.194. \ 179.53.22.37.00.85.39.52.816E+02.) PVTTABLE POINT = (6.5. 8.32.67.15.5. 54.56.0.12.557E-03.\ COLUMNS =(PT BARA. \ 261..71.RS.81.\ NOPRES =(5.5.300.5.07.343.-32.12.7.67.321. -7.99.320.68) BARA.184. 1.054E-05.50.0.738E-02..356.86) C. ROHL KG/M3.31. \ 18.1.46.15.DROHLDT. ! … ! !last temperature point contains six pressure points ! PVTTABLE POINT = (1.309. DROGDP.41.5.919E+02. ! number of pressure points for each of the temperature points are given here !. point contains five pressure points ranging from 1 to 10 bara PVTTABLE POINT = (1.0.CPHL.73.0.VISG.00. 0.…) PVTTABLE POINT = (10.0. Each has five pressure points.87.-17.125.79.1.0.67. -3.0.299E-03.81.HHL.95.\ -13. ! number of pressure points and pressure values can be different for ! (be dependent on) different temperature points.884E+05. \ 332.931E-01..220.0. \ DROGDT.) .00.SEG.298.335.20.0.36.284E-02.. \ 304. \ 102. 3.254.68.11.513E-07.68) BARA.156. 7. \ BUBBLETEMPERATURE=( 139.

32. \ STDTEMPERATURE = 15.0. IC4.46. \ PRESSURE =(1.0.0.10.358.324..267.184.09.14. \ 284.44.284E-02.331.\ COLUMNS =(PT BARA.125.. 2. 4.SEG.152.92. \ 1.03.0. 2.92. 14.0.68) BARA.81. 9.41.302.-17.RS.20.15.88. 1.6).55.0.00. 6.13.1.317.…) PVTTABLE POINT = (1. ! Number of temperature points and temperature values can change for ! (be dependent on) different pressure points.3).85.04.300.11.358. \ CRITICALTEMPERATURE = 156.0.5.170.299E-03.16.0.0..27.379E-01.CO2.52. \ 18.0 KG/M3. 2.48. \ STDGASDENSITY = 1.16. \ 1.13.0.7 KG/M3.228.331.5. 10.321.86) C.65.\ MOLWEIGHT = (28.) PVTTABLE POINT = (5.1.330.30.0.22..356.01. ROG KG/M3.0. PHASE = TWO.56.DROHLDT.15. \ 304.66.04. 4.58..0.28.0. 1.1.789) g/cm3.15.289. NC4.59) C.2.28.309.1.85.C1..67.9. 1.…) ! ! more pressure points. DROGDP.96.CPG.74.290.81.0.SIGGHL.317.49.78.) PVTTABLE POINT = (5.78. C6.85.1.44.301.55.) PVTTABLE POINT = (5. \ GLR = 768 SM3/SM3.312.39. 3.154.18.6.00. 7.44.0.346.278.18.7.\ 2. 9.68) BARA.87.79) BARA.\ DENSITY = (0.919E+02.931E-01.57.0.5.85.50.3.39.72. \ ! ! Pressure points are specified here.CPHL. 1.. 8.58.00.79. IC5.321.64.69..20. freetemperature mesh type PVTTABLE LABEL = FLUID-1.054E-05. \ HHL.72.TCG.291.738E-02.194.2.65.330.12. \ BUBBLEPRESSURE=( 352. \ BUBBLETEMPERATURE=(139.160..TCHL.0..0.338. \ 321.321.72.02.34.1.37.32.15.1. TM C.335.65.74.\ 22.213.628E-01. C3.343.125.0.VISHL.\ -13.03).53.07.85.35. 4.02.810E+02) PVTTABLE POINT = (1.304. \ DROHLDP.…) PVTTABLE POINT = (1.328.\ 261. ROHL KG/M3.85.39.-32. \ -3.0.39.666E-06.0.44.\ 328. ! Number of temperature points for each of the pressure points are given here !.54.-5. \ 354.254. 5.SEHL) ! First pressure point contains five temperature points ! Temperature ranging from 1 to 20 C PVTTABLE POINT = (1. -7. \ COMPONENTS =(N2.0.0.20.312.13. -1.11.805E+03.56.70.103.52.\ NOTEMP =(5. \ 332.14.71.99.\ 327.0.50.39.95.0.) .285.…) PVTTABLE POINT = (1.12.0.44.72.01.884E+05.55.0.5.816E+02.59 C.DROGDT.0.85.73. \ STDOILDENSITY = 787.65.5..220.85.01.56. \ DEWPRESSURE = (5.21.0. \ CRITICALPRESSURE (345.37.1.NC5.5 C.5.41.The temperature values are given in subkey POINT MESHTYP = FREETEMP.3.0.15.. Each has five temperature points.96.0.36. 36.) PVTTABLE POINT = (5.296.0.C7) .278. \ 84.295.VISG.0.90.298.74.40.31.320.112.617E-01.C2. ! … ! !last pressure point contains six temperature points ! PVTTABLE POINT = (5.86.HG.66.68. 1.67.Chapter 4: Fluid Properties and other Data Files Page 387 Example 3: Two-phase.0.313.557E-03.325.62.841E+02.345.15.156.62. \ STDPRESSURE = 1 ATM.357.84.. \ DEWTEMPERATURE = ( 281.0.85.81.44.\ MOLES = ( 4.0.5.963E+03.0.41.\ 307. 26.46.0.4.54.-3.513E-07.\ 179.102.-9.97..67. \ 247.91.00.247.0.76.96.0.) PVTTABLE POINT = (5.35.2.0) BARA.\ 73.

4.ROHL.335. PHASE = THREE.591224E-02.. \ STDTEMPERATURE = 15.0.267.66. \ TCHL.SIGHLWT.2.86.CPWT. \ DROWTDT.317.\ TEMPERATURE =(1.39.289.113188E-04.\ 307.74 .TCWT.330..52. 7.C2.15.Page 388 Chapter 4: Fluid Properties and other Data Files Example 4: Three-phase..20.317.176425E+04.5.320.DROHLDT. \ DEWPRESSURE = ( 5.2. and is not explained here.00. IC5.254.309.01.39.1.263150E-02.\ 73.5. KG/M3.66.85.156. \ GLR = 768 SM3/SM3.1. \ .418187E-02.3.. C6. \ ! !both temperature points and pressure points are fixed ! TOTWATERFRACTION = 0..1.79.HHL.SEWT) ! PVTTABLE POINT = (1.2.44. IC4. 84.331..56.81.65.07.\ 328.67.0.5 C.28.76.CO2.15.00.1.228.85.90.298.84.301.04. 9.72.02.708593E+03.0.67.296.HG. 5..449390E+04.1.41. \ .22.213. .50.356.03.71.SIGGWT.44.535346E+00. \ 354..58. 18.220..112510E+01.312.6.247.TCG.\ MOLES = ( 4.96.278.02.-.SIGGHL.21. \ BUBBLEPRESSURE=( 352.338. as the feed and component names can be chosen directly from the OLGA GUI when a feed file has been specified.979882E-05. 36.345943E+06.196628E+07. \ 304.. \ 321. 6.3 Feed file for compositional tracking This file is generated in PVTSim.-32.37. 35.0.54.DROWTDP. \ STDOILDENSITY = 787.62.2.39.VISHL.0.ROG.170.) … ) PVTTABLE POINT = (5. \ WC=.39. \ CRITICALTEMPERATURE = 156.59) C.\ PRESSURE = (1.346.79) BARA.16.112.62.40.372160E-01.\ 14.321.78.544038E-01. 22.55. \ COLUMNS = (PT.2.295.13.59 C.5.00.68. \ BUBBLETEMPERATURE=( 139.5) BARA.96.01.SEHL.-. \ ..321.04.72..68) BARA.44.86) C.) … ) PVTTABLE POINT = (5.85.358.85.330.11. \ COMPONENTS =(N2.332632E+00.\ 327.731026E+02.48.304.15. \ 332.92.182867E-02.36.85.302.202253E+04.34. 54. and contains data for each fluid component as well as the fluid composition (component mole fractions) for one or more feeds.72. There should be no need to view the contents of the file.C1.65.13.3) DENSITY = (0.112.81.0.\ -13..DROGDP.78.31. 67.49.85.35.248102E-01.184. \ -..32.435748E+03.291.41.91.27.5.58.30.…) 4. \ STDGASDENSITY = 1.VISG..00..325.0.148744E+00. \ 247.RS.103.1.537537E+04) PVTTABLE POINT = (1.677649E+03.125. Standard mesh type PVTTABLE LABEL = FLUID-1. C3..3.358.CPG.\ 2..15.0.755188E-01.489380E-02.\ MOLWEIGHT = (28.44.57.4.. 26.570657E+00. NC4.85.1. 0.56.41.NC5.52.55.87. 18.88.278.69.154.5) C.56.92.46.3.357. -1.1.118942E-01.0 KG/M3.12.32. \ 284.CPHL. \ STDWATDENSITY = 998. \ 44.312.\ 261.-9. \ MESHTYPE = STANDARD.03). 28.VISWT...37.1.64.44.\ 179. 55.1.-.65.RSW.DROHLDP.12.96.125. 11. \ 102.0. \ CRITICALPRESSURE (345.-17.68) BARA.0.50. 14.631419E+03. The syntax of the file is complex.324.16.345. 70.DROGDT.99.1.TM.0.194.7 KG/M3.343.73. 10. \ 18.520848E-06.95.85.160..285.81..HWT.0.C7) .-.53.789) g/cm3 STDPRESSURE = 1 ATM.-.331. \ .328.15.…) … PVTTABLE POINT = (1.85.74.0..74. \ DEWTEMPERATURE = ( 281.01.97.0.ROWT.SEG.09.72.46.39.152.156303E-06.290.321.313.300.65.

as functions of reduced RPM and reduced inlet mass flow.K.5 / δ Reduced surge mass flow : MREDSU = G SURGE * Θ 0.5 G GSURGE RPM Θ δ = inlet mass flow (kg/s) = surge mass flow (kg/s) = rotational speed (r/min) = normalized inlet temp = inlet temp / 288 K (-) 5 = normalized inlet pressure = inlet pressure / (1. compressor(I) (40 characters) Temperature ratio.2 Compressor data file This file contains tables of the compressor characteristics. compressor(I) Reduced RPM. compressor(I) K=1.NTABOM J=1. compressor(I) (40 characters) Note! All characters after a blank in a character string are omitted.NTABOM(I) Reduced inlet mass flow.NTABOM(I). Compressor(I) K=1.NTABWG(I) .013*10 Pa) (-) The table values can be equidistant or non-equidistant.I) (kg/s) COTEXT(1. compressor(I) J=1. Q. δ.NTABWG(I) Heading. NCOMTA) Number of reduced mass flow points.I) (r/min) MASSRE(J. Variables The definitions of reduced mass flows and reduced RPM are as follows: Reduced inlet mass flow : MASSRE = G * Θ 0. is to obtain one table for several inlet conditions (pressure.5 / δ Reduced RPM : RPMRED = RPM / Θ 0. J=1. compressor(I) Number of reduced RPM points. instead of having one table for each inlet condition. defined below.I)(-) COTEXT(2.K. pressure ratio table. (I = 1.Chapter 4: Fluid Properties and other Data Files Page 389 4. Variables: Name Unit IDENTF NCOMTA COMPID(I) (-) NTABWG(I) (-) NTABOM(I) (-) RPMRED(K. compressor(I) (40 characters) Pressure ratio. The reason for giving the characteristics as functions of reduced RPM and reduced inlet mass flow. temperature ratio table.I) PRATIO(J. temperature).I) (-) Definition File identification (40 characters) Number of compressors Compressor identification.NTABWG(I) Heading.I) TRATIO(J. compressor(I) K=1.

. .I) . .1. . . reduced surge mass-flow table. . MASSRE(1. compressor(I) (40 characters) Reduced surge mass flow. .I) (kg/s) Heading.NTABOM(I).I). . TRATIO(NTABWG(I). . . . . . COTEXT(1. COTEXT(3.I) MREDSU(1. TRATIO(NTABWG(I).I). . . MREDSU(NTABOM(I). The tables must be given in increasing order. PRATIO(1.I) TRATIO(1.I) MREDSU(K. . . . PRATIO(NTABWG(I).1.I) . . the first table is for compressor number one etc.NTABOM(I). .Page 390 Chapter 4: Fluid Properties and other Data Files COTEXT(3. PRATIO(NTABWG(I). . .NTABOM(I). . .I).I).1.I) PRATIO(1. TRATIO(1. . .I). . .I) .NTABOM(I) Data file structure: IDENTF NCOMTA The following data is repeated for each compressor : COMPID(I) NTABWG(I) NTABOM(I) RPMRED(1. COTEXT(2. .1. .I) . MASSRE(NTABWG(I).I). RPMRED(NTABOM(I).I) .I) Note that the number of compressor tables must equal the number of compressors.I). . .I) . . . .NTABOM(I). compressor(I) K=1.

Single phase head HS Two phase head HT Single phase torque THS Two phase torque THT Each set of homologous curves consists of four curves. two dependent variables each as function of two independent variables.head ratio q= Q . These are based on experimental data and are representative for centrifugal pumps. 3.torque ratio TH R where subscript R means rated value. These curves are empirically developed by the pump manufacturer.1 Pump Data Table for Centrifugal Pumps The pump characteristics for the centrifugal pump are presented in the form of four quadrant curves.10. A complete default set of homologous curves is tabulated in the code. For each table the number of dependent and independent variables must be the same. the users can change these data easily by specifying their own experimental data through the pump data table. .Chapter 4: Fluid Properties and other Data Files Page 391 4.flow ratio QR ω= N NR .3. For the independent variables QOMEG is used for q/ ω and OMEGQ is used for ω /q.3 Pump Data Files 4. However. The four quadrant curves are converted to a simpler form by the development of homologous curves where the head and torque ratios (actual value to rated value) are functions of the pump speed and flow rate ratios. The reading of the input is based on keywords. A more detailed description is given in chapter 2. In order to interpret the homologous curves.2. the following variables are defined: h= H HR .speed ratio β= TH . but the sequence of the keywords must be as shown in the example. 4. The transfer from single phase to fully degraded two phase conditions is described by the two phase head and two phase torque multipliers. 2. The structure of the table is as shown in the example below. Four sets of homologous curves are tabulated: 1.

x2. y2. … . xTHS1) TORQS1 = (y1. x2. … . YHS3) ! HS4 QOMEG = (x1. YHT4) ! !************************************************************************************************* ! Table for single phase torque THS !************************************************************************************************* ! THS1 QOMEG = (x1. … . YHS1) ! HS2 OMEGQ = (x1. … . … . x2. x2. … . … . y2. YHT1) ! HT2 OMEGQ = (x1. … . y2. … . … . y2. xHT3) HEADT3 = (y1. … . y2. xTHT1) TORQS1 = (y1. … . y2. YTHT4) . … . x2. xHS1) HEADS1 = (y1. xHS4) HEADS4 = (y1. y2. xHS3) HEADS3 = (y1. YHS4) ! !************************************************************************************************* ! Table for two phase head HT !************************************************************************************************* ! HT1 QOMEG = (x1. x2. … . … . y2. y2. x2. … . YTHS1) ! THS2 OMEGQ = (x1. xHT1) HEADT1 = (y1. YTHT3) ! THT4 QOMEG = (x1. … . YTHS3) ! THS4 QOMEG = (x1. xTHS3) TORQS3 = (y1. … . … . y2. xHS2) HEADS2 = (y1. … . … . x2. YTHT2) ! THT3 OMEGQ = (x1. xTHT2) TORQS2 = (y1. YHS2) ! HS3 OMEGQ = (x1. x2. … . xTHT3) TORQS3 = (y1. YHT3) ! HT4 QOMEG = (x1. … . … . x2. x2. x2. … . … . xTHT4) TORQS4 = (y1. LABEL = Label of the table ! !************************************************************************************************* ! Table for single phase head HS !************************************************************************************************* ! HS1 QOMEG = (x1. y2. x2. YHT2) ! HT3 OMEGQ = (x1.Page 392 Chapter 4: Fluid Properties and other Data Files !************************************************************************************************* ! Pump type and label !************************************************************************************************* TYPE = CENTRIFUGAL. … . y2. y2. x2. xTHS4) TORQS4 = (y1. … . y2. xHT2) HEADT2 = (y1. xHT4) HEADT4 = (y1. x2. y2. … . … . YTHS2) ! THS3 OMEGQ = (x1. xTHS2) TORQS2 = (y1. x2. … . YTHS4) ! !************************************************************************************************* ! Table for two phase torque THT !************************************************************************************************* ! THT1 QOMEG = (x1. … . YTHT1) ! THT2 OMEGQ = (x1. y2.

y2. LABEL = Label of the table ! !************************************************************************* ! First pump speed (1) !------------------------------------------------------------------------------------PUMPSPEED= N1 ! !************************************************************************* ! First suction pressure (2) !------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INPRESSURE = Pl. The structure of the table is as shown in the example below. Pump inlet pressure Pump pressure increase Volumetric back flow Liquid kinematic viscosity Gas volume fraction Pump speed The units can also be specified by users.Pa. … . ∆P. Qb = f ( N . ∆P. . but the sequence of the keywords must be as shown in the example. is a function of PI . x2.rpm. 4.m3 / s.1 ! . Linear interpolation is used to calculate the Qb-value and its partial derivatives at the operating point. . The default units of the variables in the table: PI. The structure of the table is: !************************************************************************* ! Pump type and label !************************************************************************* TYPE = DISPLACEMENT. ∆P Qb νl αI N . YTV) ! !************************************************************************************************* ! End of the table !************************************************************************************************* END ! NOTE ! The number of elements for each curve is limited to 10.α I . Qb . … . xTV) TORQM = (y1. … . x2. .3.(-). . … . PI . xHV) HEADM = (y1. The reading of the input is based on keywords.m2 / s. ν I ) In order to define Qb a complete table with 5 independent variables and one dependent variable should be defined. αI.Pa. y2. νl . . and N.2 Pump Data Table for Displacement Pumps The back flow rate.Chapter 4: Fluid Properties and other Data Files Page 393 ! !************************************************************************************************* ! Table for two phase head multiplier !************************************************************************************************* VOID = (x1. YHV) ! !************************************************************************************************* ! Table for two phase torque multiplier !************************************************************************************************* VOID = (x1.

αI. … . !------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VISCOSITY = νl.2.1.2 : : ! !************************************************************************* ! (2)+(3)+(4) is repeated for each suction pressure ! associated with the first pump speed. !------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INPRESSURE = Pl. … .2. Qb. Qb. ∆PK) ! !************************************************************************* ! First viscosity (4). . !------------------------------------------------------------------------------------PUMPSPEED = N2 ! : : !************************************************************************* ! End of the table !------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ENDTABLE ! NOTE! The number of pump speeds and suction pressures are limited to 5.1.1.J) ! DELTAP = (∆P1. Qb. DELTAP and VISCOSITY are limited to 10.1. ! Different values for suction pressure.2.2.2. … .J) BACKFLOW = (Qb.2.J) : : BACKFLOW = (Qb. Qb.K. (3) !------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VOIDFRACTION = (αI. … . αI. while the number of VOIDFRACTION.1 ! BACKFLOW = (Qb. deltap and viscosity can ! be used for each suction pressure.J) ! !************************************************************************* ! Second viscosity.1.1. ! ! For each viscosity back flow is listed as function of void! fraction and ∆P. Qb. !------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VISCOSITY = νl.2. ! Different values for voidfraction. Qb. ∆P2.K.Page 394 Chapter 4: Fluid Properties and other Data Files !************************************************************************* ! Lists of voidfractions and deltap for first pump speed and ! suction pressure. Each BACKFLOW entry is for one ! ∆P and runs over all voidfractions.K. deltap ! and viscosity can be used for each suction pressure. voidfraction.1.2 ! : : ! !************************************************************************* ! (1)+(2)+(3)+(4) is repeated for each pump speed. … .

'C40-C50' Molecular weights (g/mol) of wax components. Heat of melting (J/kg) of wax components. 13. Pressure points (Pa). 6.'C35'. 2. Generate OLGA and wax tables for each fluid made by “same pseudos” and mix. 20 characters. If the temperature is above the cloud point temperature. No blanks. Example: 'C10-C20'. 7. 8. Add the inlet fluids as separate fluids. 10. number of temperature points. Wax phase density (kg/m3) Gas phase molecular weight (g/mol) Liquid phase molecular weight (g/mol) Wax phase molecular weight (g/mol) Enthalpy of wax (J/kg) Heat capacity of wax (J/kg K) Thermal conductivity of wax (W/m K) Second pressure point etc. 9. 11.4 Wax table file This file can contain tables with the properties of the wax forming components for multiple fluids. Resulting fluids with same pseudos available at bottom of fluid table from database) 3. Each name may take up max. Use Fluids-> Same pseudos (Select the resulting fluids for inlets. 5. First pressure point. Repeat 1-14 for next fluid Comment lines start with an !. 3. No more than 20 characters and no blanks. • All fluids in one wax data file. 15 Name of table. The wax file is generated in PVTSim. Component names encircled by apostrophes and separated by commas. oil properties should be used. Number of pressure points. 12. Number of wax components. Concentration (mol/mol) of wax components in HC mixture. The table for each fluid should have the following format: 1.Chapter 4: Fluid Properties and other Data Files Page 395 4. . Columns with Temperature (C) Solubility of wax component 1 (mol/mol) in oil including wax forming components Solubility of wax component 2 (mol/mol) in oil including wax forming components etc. 14. Liquid densities of wax components (kg/m3). Procedure for generating PVT tables in PVTSIM: 1. NOTE! The following requirements need to be fulfilled when using multiple fluids in networks: • Same pseudo-components (number of components and lumping) for all fluids. Cloud point temperatures (C) for each pressure point. 2. Use Mix to mix “same pseudos” inlet fluids in proper ratios 4. 4. Names of wax components.

........... and Pump Data .......................... 398 5...5 Initial Value Pre-processor ............................................................... 398 5......................................7 Postprocessor Output......1................1................................. 5 and 6..1 Printed Output Page width........................... 406 5............6 Calculated Results ..................3 Print of Input File 1........... 397 5..............................1........... 399 5................... 399 5....................................1............ 401 5.................................4 Print of Input File 2..........................2 Printed Output Structure.9 Error Messages ...........................................................2 Plot files .............................1................................. Case Data ...... 406 ...Page 396 Chapter 5: Output Description CHAPTER 5 OUTPUT DESCRIPTION 5.....1............................... Fluid Properties.....1................. 397 5............................................ OUTPUT DESCRIPTION ............................................................... 397 5................................................................. 398 5...1..... 398 5..................................................1 Printed Output ...............8 Warning Messages.........................................................1.................... 397 5....... Compressor Data..3 Restart Files .........................

etc. 5.1. 5.1. It contains time series of the variables defined with the keyword TREND. Page 397 OUTPUT DESCRIPTION OLGA generates up to seven different output files: 1.Chapter 5: Output Description 5. 3. 7. 5.2 Printed Output Structure The output from OLGA appears in the following order: - OLGA heading and code version reflex output of input file 1.1 Printed Output The time intervals for the printed output is user specified through the keywords OUTPUT. 4.out.cut file for each BUNDLE placed in a CROSSSECTION. Some guidelines for the definition of the output are given in chapter 2. A restart file is with extension .tpl is optional. compressor table (optional) initial values (results at t=0) calculated results at subsequent output intervals with time step and CPU time information summary of results from output postprocessor (optional) .osi file for each CROSSSECTION. It stores the 2D temperature for the triangular mesh and is used for visualisation in FEMTherm Viewer.1 Printed Output Page width There is an output option (COLUMN) in the keyword OUTPUT whereby the maximum width of the data written on a page is specified. The fourth output file with extension . 2. It contains data for the variables defined with keyword PROFILE that can be used for profile plots at selected time points. containing all necessary data to continue a job. The third output file with extension . It contains data for the variables defined with keyword PLOT and can be used for visualisation in OLGA Viewer.ppl is optional. as well as one . There will be generated one .2. This facilitates the use of printed results in documents.1. The structure of this file is given in 5.osi will be written if keyword CROSSSECTION is defined (FEMTherm module).plt is optional.rsw is also produced. where the format is limited to A4. case data formatted output of input data (optional) contents of input file 2. It stores the cross section geometry required to generate a grid. fluid properties (optional) contents of input file 4. There will be generated one .cut file for each CROSSSECTION. The output file with standard output for printing results has the extension . The seventh output file with extension . The fifth output file with extension . The sixth output file with extension . 5. 6. which can be used for later graphical presentation of the calculated results.cut is also written if CROSSSECTION is defined.

are defined for each branch. The secondary variables are derived from the primary ones and all available output variables with appropriate units are listed in appendix A. a few branch variables. the volumetric phase fractions. GAWT. the code distinguishes between boundary and volume variables. .4. For a network case. Compressor Data.). BEHL. ROHL. the values are calculated based on the boundary conditions. Case Data The first printout of the input follows immediately after the OLGA heading. If the boundary type is closed. Then follows the bubble and dew point pressures. MLHL. Each variable is defined by a variable name and unit given in appendix B. and Pump Data The printed output of the fluid properties file starts with the fluid header. PT. MG. MDHL. ROG. MDWT.5 Initial Value Pre-processor If the steady state option is ON. densities.2. BEWT. etc. volumetric fractions. The primary variables (those solved directly from the conservation and constitutive equations by the code) are the average phase velocities UG. If it is of pressure type. and ROWT are computed from the fluid property tables as functions of pressure and temperature. TM. 5.1. the output of the steady state calculation is the results at time t=0. In a branch of n sections the estimated values of the volume variables at the branch boundaries are printed in the sections numbered 0 and n+1.). the results at time t=0 corresponds to the user given initial values.3. information about the state of the equipment is printed without any specification.1. Then follows information about any process equipment and finally the volume variables. MLWT. see fig. etc. UL.3). AL. The values at the boundaries of each branch are dependent on the boundary conditions. defined at the mid-points of section volumes. 5 and 6. the pressure.1. flows. the latter are bulk variables (pressures.1. In addition some global variables. and finally an edited list of the fluid property tables. The printed output is structured so that all boundary variables are printed first. GAHL. The former are flow variables (velocities. In a restart case the start values will be equal to the final values from the run that is continued. Next.1. RMLGT.Page 398 Chapter 5: Output Description 5. If process equipment is simulated. This is an unprocessed copy of the input file. If the steady state option is OFF. 2. a formatted version of HEATTRANSFER data and GEOMETRY data are printed. the specific masses for each phase. Fluid Properties. friction factors. and the fluid temperature. 5. such as the total liquid content in a branch. such as the total amount of mass in the system. defined at section boundaries. The phase densities. As stated in section 2. (see section 2.3 Print of Input File 1.6 Calculated Results The user has to specify the printout variables and the time intervals between printouts with the keyword OUTPUT. 5. A comment is necessary on the printout of volume variables. LIQC.1. then the global variables and the flow regime information.4 Print of Input File 2. the values are set to zero. are defined for the whole pipeline.

key AT LINE: 12 If DEBUG = ON. It gives no information on the dynamic solution except for minimum and maximum values of selected variables during execution time and time step information. if the end co-ordinates of the branches do not meet each other at the junction. 3.Chapter 5: Output Description Page 399 The printed output is terminated with the message: NORMAL STOP IN EXECUTION If the key POSTPROCESSOR = ON has been specified in the keyword OPTION.1. for example: WARNING: ALL ENTHALPY VALUES INCREASED DH = 0. For some data when specified after keyword RESTART. all warnings regarding the fluid file will be written. 4. 3. 2. They are only informative. NODE If any thing is detected in the fluid table that should cause the user's attention. a summary of the warning message is given. In the network case. Case description External boundary conditions Global (branchwise) information Dominating flow regimes Minimum and maximum values of selected variables with corresponding sections and time Time step information No information from the process module is available in the postprocessor output. a warning message will be given. the code will adjust them according to the first coming branch and give the warning message: WARNING: X OF BRANCH BRAN-4 IN FILE: test.8 Warning Messages During the input processing and initialisation stages some minor format errors in the input file will result in warning messages. 6.2460E+07 IN FILE: test.key AT LINE: 86 2. 5. Some examples follows: 1. The report contains the following items: 1. the output from it will be the last one. warning messages will appear: . This information is printed at the end of the printout provided that the key POSTPROCESSOR = ON has been specified. When DEBUG = OFF. 5.1. This output is therefore most relevant for cases where a steady state solution is obtained. NOT MEET X OF DES. and do not stop the program. These will be printed to standard output (normally screen) directly.7 Postprocessor Output The postprocessor gives a summary of main results of a simulation. 5.

key AT LINE: 104 CHOKE-1-1 The geometry definition must not be modified in a restart run. .key AT LINE: 98 WARNING: >>> REDEFINITION OF CHOKE IN FILE: test. and the code will stop. an error message will appear on the screen and in the output file.Page 400 Chapter 5: Output Description WARNING: >>> REDEFINITION OF SOURCE SOUR-1-1 IN FILE: test. If so.

e.Chapter 5: Output Description Page 401 5. the message will be: ERROR IN THE INPUT FILE: >>> KEY NOT DEFINED: UVALVE OCCURRED IN MAINKEY HEATTRANSFER IN FILE: test.g. e. There are two kinds of errors leading to a termination of the execution. If a required key is missing in the input.9 Error Messages If an error occurs and the execution is terminated. the name of PVTFILE is missing. the error message will be: ERROR IN THE INPUT FILE: .1. If an incorrect key name is used in the input file. Type I: 1.g. the type of the boundary. Errors during input processing. PVTFILE If any incorrect parameter is defined for a key.g. e. If a parameter value for a key is missing. e.key AT LINE: 97 3.g.g. the following message is written to the output file and to standard output: ************************************* * * * OLGA STOP * * * ************************************* THE OLGA SIMULATION ABORTED AT TIME followed by the time of termination and a specific message explaining the cause of the stop.key AT LINE: 245 2.key AT LINE: 53 4. the message will be: ERROR IN THE INPUT FILE: >>> KEYWORD MISSING: INTEGRATION IN FILE: test. e. then the error message will be: ERROR IN THE INPUT FILE: >>> PARAMETER MISSING FOR KEY: OCCURRED IN MAINKEY FILES IN FILE: test. Some examples follows: If a required keyword is missing in the input.key AT LINE: 12 5. a controller type is OVERRIDE and the sub-key SUBCONTROLLER is missing. keyword INTEGRATION. misspelling the key name UVALUE as UVALVE. then the error message will be: ERROR IN THE INPUT FILE: >>> KEY MISSING: SUBCONTROLLER OCCURRED IN MAINKEY CONTROLLER WITH LABEL C-103 IN FILE: test.

DEFINED OPTIONS ARE: TERMINAL. but NODE-4 has not been defined under the keyword NODE. If any inconsistency between the parameters or values is detected.key AT LINE: 45 8. e. the error message will be: ERROR IN THE INPUT FILE: >>> BRANCH MUST BE DEFINED BEFORE THIS STATEMENT OCCURRED IN MAINKEY HEATTRANSFER IN FILE: test. if a BRANCH routing from NODE4 to NODE-5 is defined. then the error message will be: ERROR IN THE INPUT FILE: >>> ILLEGAL PARAMETER FOR KEY: SEPARATOR VOLUME NOT EQUAL TO SECTION VOLUME OCCURRED IN MAINKEY SEPARATOR WITH LABEL SEPA-2 IN FILE: test.key AT LINE: 23 6. If a referenced key label is not defined.key AT LINE: 53 9. e.Page 402 Chapter 5: Output Description >>> ILLEGAL OPTION FOR KEY TYPE. If not. the error message will be: ERROR IN THE INPUT FILE: >>> NOT FOUND: ORIGIN NODE NODE-4 OCCURRED IN MAINKEY BRANCH WITH LABEL BRAN-4 IN FILE: test. e. a BRANCH should be defined before it is referenced in defining a of a choke location. if the separator volume defined under the keyword SEPARATOR is larger than the volume in the section where the separator is located. OCCURRED IN MAINKEY NODE WITH LABEL NODE-1 IN FILE: test.key AT LINE: 52 . The keys should be defined before they are referenced. the error message will appear: ERROR IN THE INPUT FILE: >>> SECTION LENGTH DOES NOT SUM UP TO PIPE LENGTH OOCURRED IN MAINKEY PIPE WITH LABEL PIPE-1 IN FILE: test.g.g. If any inconsistency between the sum of the section lengths and the pipe length is detected. MERG.key AT LINE: 193 7.g.

If a referenced data file doesn't exist in the working directory. the error message will be: ERROR IN THE INPUT FILE: >>> NOT FOUND: CASE1.Chapter 5: Output Description 10. the error message will ERROR IN THE INPUT FILE: >>> NOT FOUND: VARIABLE BEA OCCURRED IN MAINKEY OUTPUT IN FILE: test. the error message will be: ERROR IN THE INPUT FILE: >>> MULTI-DEFINITION FOR KEY: OCCURRED IN MAINKEY CASE IN FILE: test.g.g. if HGMM is used as a unit for PRESSURE. the error message will be: ERROR IN THE INPUT FILE: >>> INVALID UNIT FOR KEY: PRESSURE OCCURRED IN MAINKEY BOUNDARY IN FILE: test. e. If an invalid unit for a key parameter is used. If the keyword ENDCASE for end of file is missing. If a key is defined twice.key AT LINE: 14 13. same first letter as TIME.g.key AT LINE: 68 11.g. the error message will be: ERROR IN THE INPUT FILE: >>> KEY NOT UNIQUE: T OCCURRED IN MAINKEY BOUNDARY IN FILE: test.tab.key AT LINE: 110 15. e. key TITLE. PVT table case1.key AT LINE: 7 TITLE .key AT LINE: 247 12. BEA.TAB OCCURRED IN MAINKEY FILES IN FILE: test. the error message will be: ERROR IN THE INPUT FILE: >>> END OF FILE: MISSING ENDCASE IN FILE: test. e.key AT LINE: 111 14. e. e. If a key name is abbreviated so that it is not longer unique.g. if TEMPERATURE is written with only a T. be: Page 403 If a non-existing variable name is specified.

D.key AT LINE: 23 17. Misspelled the name of the input file.inp . For example: ERROR IN THE INPUT FILE: ERROR IN COMPRESSOR TABLE. e. LABEL ALREADY USED FOR ANOTHER NODE NODE-1 OCCURRED IN MAINKEY NODE WITH LABEL NODE-1 IN FILE: test. For example: ERROR IN DATA ARE OCCURRED IN FILE: AT LINE: 18. THE INPUT FILE: NOT RECOGNIZED WHEN READING IN MAINKEY FILES test.Page 404 16. Chapter 5: Output Description If a label name is used twice. DATA NOT RECOGNIZED IN TABLE TEMPERATURE COMPRESSOR NUMBER IS 1.key 13 GAS DENSITY Error messages from reading compressor data table. the error message will be: ERROR IN THE INPUT FILE: >>> I. Error messages from reading fluid property table.key AT LINE: 13 19. OCCURRED IN MAINKEY FILES IN FILE: test. or the input file does not exist on the working directory: NON-EXISTING INPUT FILE: test. RATIO.g. NODE-1.

THE COMPILATION OPTIMALISATION LEVEL IS PROBABLY TOO HIGH IN SOME ROUTINES.g.g. e.g. INITIALISATION FAILED. 7.: AN ERROR IN THE STEADY STATE PREPROCESSOR. 6.: AN ERROR IN THE SOIL MODULE CALCULATION. e. Page 405 Errors during execution of the code.000 SECONDS 3. Range errors in the calculation for determining flow regime: AN ERROR IN THE CALCULATION OF GAS TEST VELOCITY FOR DISTRIBUTED FLOW. THE NUMBER OF ITERATIONS IS GREATER THAN 40. 4.: AN ERROR IN BACK SUBSTITUTION IN THE MATRIX SOLVER FOR NETWORKS. Problems in the initialisation of variables. 2 2. A PIG WAS TRIED INITIATED INSIDE AN ALREADY EXISTING SLUG. CHOKE NO. e. 3 RESTART FILE WAS LAST UPDATED AT TIME 4000.g. AL IS OUT OF RANGE. 5.: AN ERROR WHEN INTERPOLATING IN THE PVT TABLES PRESSURE BELOW TABLE VALUES IN BRANCH 1 PIPE NO. 4 SECTION NO.: AN ERROR IN THE PIG MODULE.g. Trying to extract a fluid property from the PVT tables when the pressure or temperature is out of their ranges. e. TIME OUTSIDE RANGE OF TIME POINT ARRAY FOR CHOKE FLOW AREA.Chapter 5: Output Description Type II: 1. . e. Some examples follows: Problems during execution of the choke model: AN ERROR IN THE CHOKE CALCULATION. Errors in the matrix solver. Wrong initialisations in the pig module. TOO LOW INLET PRESSURE OR TOO HIGH OUTLET FLOW RATE. A problem in the soil module.

the stand-alone tool FEMThermTool can be used for both 2D thermal computation in a cross section and visualisation of the triangular grid generated when using the FEMTherm module. A graphical package is supplied as part of the OLGA GUI. Both the trend plot file and the profile plot file consist of a heading and the time and variables specified with the keyword statement TREND and PROFILE in the input file (extension inp). it is first rewound so that it only contains data for the last output time point. . the stand-alone tools OLGA Viewer (. The .plt and .osi files are in binary format. It consists of all variables necessary to continue the calculation and the data are written to the file each time data are written to the printed output file.3 Restart Files The restart file is written unformatted (binary).Page 406 Chapter 5: Output Description 5. In addition to the OLGA GUI graphical package.plt files) and FEMTherm Viewer (. 5. Also. Each time data are written to this file.2 Plot files The graphical presentation of results should be considered the primary source to an understanding of the calculated state in the pipeline.osi) are available for visualisation of results. The trend plot file and the profile plot file are in ASCII format. The ASCII format files can be used to interface the results from OLGA with any graphical package the user might have access to.

........................... REFERENCES..2 Non-referenced papers describing the OLGA model:.Chapter 6: References Page 407 CHAPTER 6 REFERENCES 6.......................................411 .......1 Referenced papers ...........................411 6...........................................................................3 Non-referenced papers describing applications of the OLGA model:.......408 6..................408 6......................

Shoham and J.B. France. Young: Applied Drilling Engineering. CORROSION/2000. Magnus Nordsveen and Kjell Bendiksen: Numerical simulation of slugging in pipelines. Millheim. Chapter 6: References REFERENCES 6. 301-362. D. drilling and well control applications. Rydahl and H.B. Brill: Upward Vertical Two-Phase Flow Velocity and Flow Through an Annulus. O. Bradley: Petroleum Engineering Handbook. Bourgoyne. R. ASME Symposium on Multiphase Flow in Wells and Pipelines. Anaheim. Nyborg. A. BHR Group 1999 Multiphase ’99. Rygg. pp. E. Peter Andersson and Magnus Nordsveen: Implementation of CO2 Corrosion Models in a Three-Phase Fluid Flow Model.P. Society of Petroleum Engineers. 48 (Houston.F. and F. Paper No. IADC Well Control Conference for Europe.E. Canada. 2000) 9. 1987 2. Rolf Nyborg.E. Journal of Heat Transfer. Friedmann and J.B. Nossen: Advanced well flow model used for production. BHRA. Terje Straume. Multi-Phase Flow . June 1998 7.K. J. Nice. May 1971. 1991 3.K. Part II: Modelling Bubble. K. O.K. Part I: Single-Phase Friction Factor. Henry and H. ISBN 1 86058 212 5 6. Slug and Annular Flow. A. R. Banff.Proceedings of the 4th International Conference. TX: NACE International. Nordsveen. Volume 31. M. CA (1992) 5. Society of Petroleum Engineers. orifices and short tubes. May 1996 .1 Referenced papers 1. Rygg. Fauske: The two-phase critical flow of one-component mixtures in nozzles. Chenevert. Hovden: Implementation of CO2 corrosion models in the OLGA three-phase flow code. 1989 10. H. Caetano.Page 408 6. L.T. M.P. 179-187 4.S. p. Taylor Bubble Rise Velocity and Flow Pattern Prediction. Aberdeen. O. 8. Rønningsen Wax Deposition in offshore pipeline systems BHRGroup Multiphase Technology. Calsep: PVTSIM Method documentation: Modelling of wax formation -> Viscosity of oilwax suspensions.

No.. Proceeding ETCE.T. Rønningsen.472. H. ISBN 0-471-30460-3 15. December 28. Zhang.: How to predict the friction factors for flow of Bingham plastics Chemical Engineering. no. John Wiley & Sons. 5. pp. Volk. 22. Pedersen. K. P. of Rheology. March 1969 21. J.Chapter 6: References Page 409 11. 4th ed. February 14-17. GAS. 1999. Singh. 46. US. no. H. 23-26 (2003) 18. 30-35. May 1939 20. NACE. Incropera & DeWitt: Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. Skelland: Non-Newtonian Flow and Heat Transfer. 33. Vol.: Correlations for Predicting Viscosity of W/O Emulsions based on North Sea Crude Oils.: Effect of precipitated wax on viscosity Presentation at AIChE Spring National Meeting. P.Venkatesan..: Viscosity of ’live’ water-in-crude-oil emulsions: experimental work and validation of correlations. 7. Darby R. 14. E. Rønningsen.G. Hammerschmidt. March 14-18. J. 5. Brill. Apte and Creek: Multiphase flow wax deposition modelling. Pal. H. Vol. Melson J. 1967 12. Stein Olsen and Arne Dugstad: Corrosion under Dewing Conditions CORROSION/91. A.: Viscosity/Concentration Relationships for Emulsions. Houston. Winkler. 1995 17. R. San Antonio. Houston USA 13. Rhodes. AIChE Journal. New York. Matzain. Vol. 1991 19. of Petroleum Science and Engineering 38. 1021-1045 (1989) 16. Paper No. TX. pp. February 2001. presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry..: Gas Hydrate Formations: A Further Study on Their Prevention and Elimination from Natural Gas Pipe Lines. P. and Rønningsen H. E. H. P.: Algorithm for More Accurately Predicting Nitrogen-Charged Gas-Lift Valve Operation at High Pressures and Temperatures. Redus.. Texas. and Eads. Nagarajan: Formation and Aging of Incipient Thin Film Wax-Oil Gels.W. S.Fogler. 15. SPE 18871. pp. SPE Paper 28968. 1981 . P.

Page 410

Chapter 6: References

23.

White, F.M.:
Fluid Mechanics
2nd ed., ISBN 0-07-066525-7

24.

Turian, R.M., Hsu, F.L. and Ma, T.W.:
Estimation of the Critical Velocity in Pipeline Flow of Slurries
Powder Technology, 51, pp 35-47, 1987

25.

Krieger, I.M. and Dougherty, T.J.:
A mechanism for Non-Newtonian Flow in Suspensions of Rigid Spheres
Trans. Soc. Rheol. III 137-152., 1959

26.

Thomas, A.D.:
Slurry Pipeline Rheology
2nd Conference on Rheology, Sydney, Australia.

27.

Lasater, J. A.:
Bubble Point Pressure Calculation
Trans. AIME(1958), 379.

28.

McCain W. D.:
The properties of petroleum fluids
PennWell P. C. 1990

29.

Vazquez and Beggs:
Correlations for Fluid Physical Property Prediction
M.S. Thesis, Tulsa Univ. 1976.

30.

Glaso, Oistein.:
Generalized Pressure-Volume-Temperature Correlations
Journal of Petroleum Technology, pp. 785-795, May 1980

Chapter 6: References

6.2

Page 411

Non-referenced papers describing the OLGA model:
Bendiksen, K.H., Malnes, D., Moe, R. and Nuland, S.: The Dynamic Two-Fluid Model
OLGA: Theory and Application. SPE Production Engineering, May 1991, pp. 171-180
Rygg, O.B. and Ellul, I.R.: The Dynamic Two-Phase Modeling of Offshore Live Crude
Lines Under Rupture Conditions. OTC 6747, presented at the 23rd annual Offshore
Technology Conference, Houston, U.S.A (May 16-9, 1991)
Shea, R.H., Rasmussen, J., Hedne, P. and Malnes, D.: Holdup predictions for wetgas pipelines compared. Oil & Gas Journal, May 19, 1997

6.3

Non-referenced papers describing applications of the OLGA
model:
Burke, N.E. and Kashou, S.F.: Slug Sizing/Slug Volume Prediction, State of the Art
Review and Simulation, OTC 7744, presented at the 27th annual Offshore Technology
Conference, Houston, U.S.A (May 1-4, 1995)
Burke, N.E., Kashou, S.F. and Hawker, P.C.: History Matching of a North Sea
Flowline Startup. Journal of Petroleum Technology, May 1993, pp. 470-476
Courbot, A.: Prevention of Severe Slugging in the Dunbar 16" Multiphase Pipeline.
OTC 8196, presented at the 28th annual Offshore Technology Conference, Houston,
U.S.A (May 6-9, 1996)
Erickson, D.D. and Mai, M.C.: A Transient Multiphase Temperature Prediction
Program. SPE 24790, 1992, Presented at the 6th Annual Technical Conference and
Exhibition of the SPE, Washington, D.C., October 4-7, 1992
Flaten, G., Nunes, G.C. and Assayaga, S.: Evaluation of the dynamic flow behavior
for the Petroboost system. Presented at the 8th Int. Conf. on Multi-Phase Production,
Cannes, 1997, BHR Group Conference Series No. 24, pp. 185-198
Hustvedt, E.: Determination of Slug Length Distribution by the Use of the OLGA Slug
Tracking Model. Presented at the 6th Int. Conf. on Multi-Phase Production, Cannes,
1993, BHR Group Conference Series No. 4, pp 147-163
Hærdig, A. and Moe, R.: Dynamic simulations of multiphase flow in flowline bundles
on Åsgård. Presented at the 8th Int. Conf. on Multi-Phase Production, Cannes, 1997,
BHR Group Conference Series No. 24, pp. 275-289
Klemp, S., Meland, B., and Hustvedt, E.: Operational experiences from multiphase
transfer at Troll. Presented at the 8th Int. Conf. on Multi-Phase Production, Cannes,
1997, BHR Group Conference Series No. 24, pp. 477-496
Lingelem, M.N.: TOGI Multiphase Flow From Troll to Oseberg. OTC 6670, presented
at the 23rd annual Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, U.S.A (May 16-9,
1991)
Mazzoni, A., Villa, M., Bonuccelli, M., De Toma, G., Mazzei, D., and Crescezi, T.:

Page 412

Chapter 6: References

Capability of the OLGA Computer Code to Simulate Measured Data From AGIP Oil
Field. Presented at the 6th Int. Conf. on Multi-Phase Production, Cannes, 1993, BHR
Group Conference Series No. 4
Mazzoni, A. and Bonuccelli, M.: OLGA and WOLGA dynamic codes validation with
Trecate test loop three-phase transient data. Presented at the 8th Int. Conf. on MultiPhase Production, Cannes, 1997, BHR Group Conference Series No. 24, pp. 257274
Rygg, O.B., Friedemann, J.D. and Nossen, J.: Advanced Well Flow Model Used for
Production, Drilling and Well Control Applications. Presented at The IDAC Well
Control Conference for Europe, Aberdeen, May 22-24, 1996
Straume, T., Nordsveen, M. and Bendiksen, K.: Numerical Simulation of Slugging in
Pipelines, ASME Int. Symp. On Multiphase Flow in Wells and Pipelines, Anaheim, 813 Nov., 1992
Xu, G.Z., Gayton, P., Hall, A. and Rambaek, J.: Simulation study and field
measurement for mitigation of slugging problem in The Hudson Transportation lines.
Presented at the 8th Int. Conf. on Multi-Phase Production, Cannes, 1997, BHR Group
Conference Series No. 24, pp. 497-512
Xu, Z.G.: Solutions to Slugging Problems Using Multiphase Simulations.
Conference on Multiphase Metering, March 12-13, 1997, Aberdeen, U.K.

Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables

Page 417

APPENDIX A
Complete list of Output Variables

LIST OF CONTENTS FOR THIS APPENDIX:
1.

GENERAL INFORMATION

418

2.

BOUNDARY VARIABLES

419

3.

VOLUME VARIABLES

423

4.

PROCESS EQUIPMENT VARIABLES

426

5.

BRANCH VARIABLES

434

6.

GLOBAL VARIABLES

436

7.

SLUG TRACKING VARIABLES

437

8.

BUNDLE VARIABLES (VOLUME VARIABLES)

442

9.

SOIL VARIABLES (VOLUME VARIABLES)

442

10.

CORROSION VARIABLES (VOLUME VARIABLES)

442

11.

WAX DEPOSITION VARIABLES

443

12.

COMPOSITIONAL / MEG-TRACKING VARIABLES

444

13.

DRILLING VARIABLES

445

14.

NODE VARIABLES

446

15.

REMARKS

447

Page 418

1.

Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables

GENERAL INFORMATION
This Appendix gives a complete list of all output variables, available for printed
output and plotting of time trend, profile, or for OlgaViewer.
The variables belonging to a section in the pipeline are divided between boundary
variables and volume variables. This is due to the staggered mesh used in the
numeric solution of the problem, where some variables are computed at the section
boundaries (boundary variables) while others are computed in the middle of the
section (volume variables).
Branch variables will give quantities, relating to the branch, such as, for instance,
liquid content. Global variables will give quantities relating to the total system, such
as total mass in the system, or relating to the integration, such as the time step.
In addition to the variables describing the pipeline, we have variables describing the
process equipment, such as compressors, sources etc.
The variables belonging to each of these groups are listed in separate sections.
However, the variables used with the slug tracking, bundle and soil modules are
listed in three separate sections.
All variables listed can either be written to the trend plot data file, the output file or
both. Variables defined as boundary or volume variables can also be written to the
profile plot data file. The abbreviations for the use of the variables (in the «Use as»
column in the listing) are as follows:
O:
TP:
PP:
C:
S:

Printed output variable (to be specified with keyword OUTPUT).
Trend plot variable (to be specified with keyword TREND).
Profile plot variable (to be specified with keyword PROFILE).
Controller signal input variable (to be specified as the controlled variable
for a controller, input group CONTROLLER).
Only for server output

Variables belonging to different groups cannot be specified together in the input for
trend plotting (except the boundary and volume variable groups). A new TREND
entry has to be specified for each variable group.
Most variables are available for OlgaViewer (to be specified with keyword PLOT). If
a variable is available, all the other variables in the group are also available (with a
few exceptions). This is noted at the start of each section.
The numbers in the "Use as" column below refer to the comments following the
variable list in REMARKS.

Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables

2.

Page 419

BOUNDARY VARIABLES
Note: All variables are available for OlgaViewer.
Use as

Name

Units

Definition

O/TP/PP
O/TP/PP
O/TP/PP
O/TP/PP
O/TP/PP
O/TP/PP
O/TP/PP
O/TP/PP
O/TP/PP/C

ACCGAG
ACCGAQ
ACCLIG
ACCLIQ
ACCOIG
ACCOIQ
ACCWAG
ACCWAQ
DPZF

kg
m3
kg
m3
kg
m3
kg
m3
Pa/m

O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C

DPZG
DPZA

Pa/m
Pa/m

O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP**
O/TP/PP
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C

DS
DUG
DUL
EVR
GASMFRBOUN
GD
GDHL
GDWT
GG
GL
GLHL
GLT
GLTHL
GLTWT
GLWT
GLWV

m/s2
m/s2
kg/s
kg/s
kg/s
kg/s
kg/s
kg/s
kg/s
kg/s
kg/s
kg/s
kg/s

O/TP/PP/C

GLWVT

kg/s

O/TP/PP/C*

GLRST

Sm3/ Sm3

O/TP/PP/C*

GORST

Sm3/ Sm3

O/TP/PP
O/TP/PP
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP

GRINNER
GROUTER
GT
HOLNS

kg/s
-

O/TP/PP

HOLHLNS

-

O/TP/PP

HOLWTNS

-

S

HORBOU

m

Accumulated gas mass flow
Accumulated gas volume flow
Accumulated liquid mass flow
Accumulated liquid volume flow
Accumulated oil mass flow
Accumulated oil volume flow
Accumulated water mass flow
Accumulated water volume flow
Frictional pressure drop gradient - positive means
pressure drop
Gravitational pressure drop gradient
Additional pressure drop gradient (acceleration,
contraction/expansion, pump, chokes, etc.)
Distribution slip ratio
Time derivative of gas velocity
Time derivative of liquid velocity
Erosional velocity ratio
Gas (HC + vapour) mass fraction of gas+oil
Total liquid droplet mass flow rate
Oil droplet mass flow rate
Water droplet mass flow rate
Gas mass flow rate
Total liquid film mass flow rate
Oil film mass flow rate
Total liquid mass flow rate
Total oil mass flow rate
Total water mass flow rate (excluding vapour)
Water film mass flow rate
Water vapour mass flow rate (zero if WATERFLASH
= OFF)
Total water mass flow rate (including vapour). Equal
to GLWT if WATERFLASH=OFF
GLR at standard conditions, single stage flash as
described below
GOR at standard conditions, single stage flash as
described below
Grashof number, by wall inside
Grashof number, by wall outside
Total mass flow rate
Total no-slip liquid volume fraction including droplets
(based on superficial velocities)
No-slip oil volume fraction including droplets (based
on superficial velocities)
No-slip water volume fraction including droplets
(based on superficial velocities)
Horizontal distance from branch inlet boundary to
section boundary

Page 420

Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables

Use as

Name

O/TP/PP/C

ID

Units

Definition
Flow regime indicator
ID = 1: Stratified
ID = 2: Annular
ID = 3: Slug
ID = 4: Bubble
The Steady State Preprocessor distinguishes
between
two categories of stratified flow, i.e.:
ID = 0: Stratified smooth
ID = 1: Stratified wavy
Oil/water flowregime indicator for slug bubble
ID = 0: Stratified smooth
ID = 1: Stratified wavy
ID = 2: Dispersed
ID = -1: Undefined/not applicable
Oil/water flowregime indicator for seperated flow and
for two-phase oil/water flow
ID = 0: Stratified smooth
ID = 1: Stratified wavy
ID = 2: Dispersed
ID = -1: Undefined/not applicable

O/TP/PP

IDWHBUB

O/TP/PP

IDWHSEP

O/TP/PP

IDWHSLU

O/TP/PP

JUD

O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP

JUG
JUL
MEGMFRBOUN

-

O/TP/PP
O/TP/PP
O/TP/PP
O/TP/PP
O/TP/PP
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C*

PRAMBIENT
PRINNER
PROUTER
PSID
PSIE
QD
QDHL
QDWT
QG
QGST

kg/m3s
kg/m3s
m3/s
m3/s
m3/s
m3/s
Sm3/s

O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C*

QL
QLHL
QLST

m3/s
m3/s
Sm3/s

O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C*

QLT
QLTHL
QLTWT
QLWT
QOST

m3/s
m3/s
m3/s
m3/s
Sm3/s

O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C*

QT
QWST

m3/s
Sm3/s

O/TP/PP/C

SLAG

kg/m3s

Oil/water flowregime indicator for slug
ID = 0: Stratified smooth
ID = 1: Stratified wavy
ID = 2: Dispersed
ID = -1: Undefined/not applicable
Directional index of droplet flow (0: positive, 1:
negative)
Directional index of gas flow (0: positive, 1: negative)
Directional index of liquid flow (0: positive, 1: negative)
MEG mass fraction of aqueous phase (MEG+water).
Only applicable for MEG Tracking.
Prandtl number, ambient
Prandtl number, by wall inside
Prandtl number, by wall outside
Deposition rate
Entrainment rate
Total liquid droplet volume flow rate
Oil droplet volume flow rate
Water droplet volume flow rate
Gas volume flow rate
Gas volume flow rate at standard conditions, single
stage flash as described below
Total liquid film volume flow rate
Oil film volume flow rate
Liquid volume flow rate at standard conditions, single
stage flash as described below
Total liquid volume flow rate
Total oil volume flow rate
Total water volume flow rate
Water film volume flow rate
Oil volume flow rate at standard conditions, single
stage flash as described below
Total volume flow rate
Water volume flow rate at standard conditions, single
stage flash as described below
Gas frictional pressure drop divided by gas velocity

Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables

Use as

Name

Page 421

Units
3

O/TP/PP/C

SLAI

kg/m s

O/TP/PP/C

SLAL

kg/m3s

O/TP/PP
O/TP/PP
O/TP/PP
O/TP/PP
O/TP/PP

TAUWG
TAUWHL
TAUWL
TAUWWT

Pa
Pa
Pa
Pa
TMEGMFRBOUN -

O/TP/PP

TWATMFRBOUN -

O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP

UD
UDHL
UDO
UDWT
UG
UL
ULHL
ULWT
UO
USD
USDHL
USDWT
USG
USL
USLHL
USLWT
USLT
USLTHL
USLTWT
WATMFRBOUN

m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
m/s
-

O/TP/PP/C*

WCST

-

O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
O/TP/PP/C
S

WD
WDHL
WDWT
WG
WL
WLHL
WLWT
YBOU

kg/m2s
kg/m2s
kg/m2s
kg/m2s
kg/m2s
kg/m2s
kg/m2s
m

S

ZZBOU

m

Definition
Interfacial frictional pressure drop divided by
difference in phase velocities (Ug - Ul)
Liquid frictional pressure drop divided by liquid
velocity
Gas - wall shear stress
Oil film - wall shear stress
Liquid film - wall shear stress
Water film - wall shear stress
MEG mass fraction of aqueous phase (MEG+water)
+ vapour. Only applicable for MEG Tracking.
Aqueous phase (water+MEG) + vapour mass
fraction of total mass
Average liquid droplet velocity
Oil droplet velocity
Relative velocity, droplets
Water droplet velocity
Gas velocity
Average liquid velocity in film field
Oil velocity in film field
Water velocity in film field
Relative velocity
Superficial velocity, total liquid droplets
Superficial velocity, oil droplets
Superficial velocity, water droplets
Superficial velocity, gas
Superficial velocity, total liquid film
Superficial velocity, oil film
Superficial velocity, water film
Superficial velocity, total liquid (USL+USD)
Superficial velocity, total oil (USLHL+USDHL)
Superficial velocity, total water (USLWT+USDWT)
Aqueous phase (water+MEG) mass fraction of total
mass
Watercut at standard conditions, single stage flash as
described below
Total liquid droplet mass flux
Oil droplet mass flux
Water droplet mass flux
Gas mass flux
Total liquid film mass flux
Oil film mass flux
Water film mass flux
Vertical distance from branch inlet boundary to
section boundary
Distance from branch inlet boundary along pipeline to
section boundary

WCST, GORST, QGST, QLST, QOST and QWST are given at standard
conditions (60 oF, 1 atm). A single stage flash from in-situ to standard conditions has
been performed, that is, mass transfer between the phases from in-situ to standard
conditions is taken into account. The gas is not dehydrated unless WATERFLASH =
OFF. For table-based simulations, OLGA uses the gas mass fractions and densities
from the fluid property file to perform the conversion. Note: These variables are CPU
demanding for Compositional Tracking simulations since a flash must be
performed for each section and time they are plotted, and should be used with
care.

*

**

EVR = Vactualmax

Page 422

Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables

Vactual = Usg + Usl + Usd
Vmax = C / (Rons)1/2
Rons = [ ρ g Usg + ρ l(Usl + Usd)]/(Usg+ Usl + Usd)
C
= 100 for U in ft/s and ρ in Lb/ft3
C
= 121.99 for U in m/s and ρ in kg/m3

water Time derivative of specific mass. liquid Volume fraction of total liquid (hold-up BE + GA) Volume fraction of oil (oil hold-up BEHL + GAHL) Volume fraction of water (water hold-up BEWT + GAWT ) m Horizontal distance from branch inlet section midpoint to section midpoint . K/s Time derivative of temperature °C Difference between adiabatic wall temperature and bulk Total droplet volume fraction Oil droplet volume fraction Gas mass fraction of total mass (HC + aqueous) Water droplet volume fraction m Hydraulic diameter J/kg Enthalpy. gas Specific heat. Page 423 VOLUME VARIABLES Note: All variables except TW are available for OlgaViewer.Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables 3. gas J/kg Enthalpy. old Pa/m Space derivative of pressure kg/m Pressure derivative of gas density N kg/m3 Temperature derivative of gas density K kg/m Pressure derivative of liquid density N kg/m3 Temperature derivative of liquid density K o C Difference between hydrate temperature and section temperature for a given section pressure (Positive means hydrate will be formed). oil Specific heat. liquid Difference between section pressure and hydrate formation pressure for a given section temperature (Positive means hydrate will be formed). gas Time derivative of specific mass. Use as Name Units Definition O/TP/PP/C ACCDPZF Pa O/TP/PP/C ACCDPZG Pa O/TP/PP/C ACCDPZA Pa TP/PP TP/PP TP/PP O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP ACCLIQBR ACCOILBR ACCWATBR AL BE BEHL BEWT CPG O/TP/PP CPHL O/TP/PP CPWT O/TP/PP/C DMG O/TP/PP/C DML O/TP/PP DPHYD m3 m3 m3 J/(kg K) J/(kg K) J/(kg K) kg/m3 s kg/m3 s Pa O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP/C DPT DPTO DPZ DRGP O/TP/PP/C DRGT O/TP/PP/C DRLP O/TP/PP/C DRLT O/TP/PP DTHYD O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP O/TP/PP/C TP/PP O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP/C S DTM DTMA GA GAHL GASMFR GAWT HDIAM HG HL HOL HOLHL HOLWT HORVOL Frictional pressure drop gradient (DPZF) integrated along branch Gravitational pressure drop gradient (DPZG) integrated along branch Additional pressure drop gradient (DPZA) integrated along branch Accumulated liquid volume along branch Accumulated oil volume along branch Accumulated water volume along branch Void fraction (gas volume fraction) Total liquid film volume fraction Oil film volume fraction Water film volume fraction Specific heat. Pa/s Time derivative of pressure Pa/s Time derivative of pressure.

gas K) W/(m Thermal conductivity. total liquid (ML+MD) kg/m3 Specific mass. MG/(MG + ML + MD) from PVT table Relative mass fraction of water vapour in gas J/kgK Gas entropy J/kgK Liquid entropy N/m Surface tension kg/m3 Standard gas density kg/m3 Standard oil density kg/m3 Standard water density W/(m Thermal conductivity. water K) °C Fluid temperature °C Adiabatic wall temperature MEG mass fraction of aqueous phase + water in gas °C Maximum temperature since start of simulation °C Minimum temperature since start of simulation °C Ambient temperature °C Pipe wall temperatures Total water (free water + water in gas) mass fraction of total mass (HC + aqueous) °C Pipe inner wall surface temperature . oil droplets kg/m3 Specific mass. oil film kg/m3 Specific mass. water film kg/m3 Specific mass. oil K) W/(m Thermal conductivity. kg/m3 Mass transfer rate (from oil to gas) s Pa Pressure Pa Maximum pressure since start of simulation Pa Minimum pressure since start of simulation m Pipe inner wall roughness W/m2 Overall heat transfer coefficient through pipe walls based K on inner diameter assuming steady state conditions in wall. total oil (MLHL+MDHL) kg/m3 Specific mass. gas kg/m3 Specific mass. W/m Heat flux from pipe wall to fluid kg/m3 Density of gas kg/m3 Density of hydrocarbon in liquid phase kg/m3 Density of liquid kg/m3 Density of water in liquid phase Gas mass fraction. The range is 0-1. water droplets MEG mass fraction of aqueous phase (MEG + free water) kg/m3 Specific mass.Page 424 Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables Use as Name Units Definition O/TP/PP/C HTK O/TP/PP HTKO TP/PP(1) TP/PP(1) O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP IDIAM INCL MD MDHL MDWT MEGMFR O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP O/TP/PP MG ML MLHL MLWT MLT MLTHL MLTWT OILMFR POWFRC O/TP/PP/C PSI O/TP/PP/C TP/PP TP/PP TP/PP(1) O/TP/PP/C PT PTMAX PTMIN ROUGH Q2 O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP QM ROG ROHL ROL ROWT RS RSW SEG SEL SIG STDROG STDROHL STDROWT TCONG O/TP/PP TCONHL O/TP/PP TCONWT O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP TP/PP TP/PP O/TP/PP O(2)/TP/PP O/TP/PP TM TMA TMEGMFR TMMAX TMMIN TU TW TWATMFR O/TP/PP/C TWS W/m2 Heat transfer coefficient of inner wall K W/m2 Heat transfer coefficient of outer wall K m Inner diameter o Inclination from horizontal kg/m3 Specific mass. total water (MLWT+MDWT) Oil mass fraction of total mass (HC + aqueous) Fraction of supplied electrical power to pipe wall which is received by the fluid. total liquid droplets kg/m3 Specific mass. total liquid film kg/m3 Specific mass.

Less than one if only water droplets in continuous oil phase. Equal to one if continuous water in film.or compositional 2 tracking inactive. Volume fraction of continuous water in liquid film to total liquid in film Volume fraction of continuous water in liquid film to total water in film Free water mass fraction of total mass (HC + aqueous) In-situ watercut. If MEGtracking or comptrack active. defined as HOLWT / HOL Watercut near wall. If MEGtracking or comptrack active.Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables Use as Name Units Definition O/TP/PP O/TP/PP/C TWSO VISG °C Outer wall surface temperature Ns/m Gas viscosity O/TP/PP/C VISHL O/TP/PP/C VISHLEFF O/TP/PP/C VISHLTAB O/TP/PP/C VISL O/TP/PP/C VISWT O/TP/PP/C VISWTEFF O/TP/PP/C VISWTTAB O/TP/PP/C O/TP/PP VOL VOLMAX O/TP/PP WACBEWA O/TP/PP WACWA O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP WATMFR WC WCWALL O/TP/PP S WALPOW YVOL S ZZVOL Page 425 2 Ns/m Viscosity of oil including MEG and dispersed wax effects 2 Ns/m Effective oil viscosity. MEG and dispersed wax effects 2 2 Ns/m Effective water viscosity. VISHL including oil/water dispersion effects Ns/m Oil viscosity from tables if MEG. Trend and profile file: Max volume error (in a section) since last write to file. VISWT including oil/water dispersion effects Ns/m Water viscosity from tables if MEG. W/m Electrical power supplied to pipe wall m Vertical distance from branch inlet section midpoint to section midpoint m Distance from branch inlet section midpoint along pipeline to section midpoint 2 . same as VISWT Volume error Output: Max volume error (in a section) since last printout.or compositional 2 tracking inactive. same as VISHL Ns/m Oil viscosity from tables (only meaning if two phase 2 case) Ns/m Viscosity of water incl.

Page 426 4. heat exchanger in compressor recycle loop Enthalpy source of a compressor Enthalpy source from the recycle loop into the input section Compressor speed RPM Total mass flow rate of a compressor Total mass flow rate of the recycle loop Compressor information will automatically be written to the output file. . Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables PROCESS EQUIPMENT VARIABLES For use: Refer to the label of the process equipment (1) Check Valve Variables Note: No variables are available for OlgaViewer. Use as Name Units Definition TP DHRCOO W TP TP HCOMP HREC W W TP TP TP RPM GCOMP GREC r/min kg/s kg/s Enthalpy decrease. (3) Compressor Variables Note: No variables are available for OlgaViewer. Use as Name Units Definition O/TP CHECK - Check valve position: = 0: Open = 1: Closed (2) Choke and Valve Variables Note: No variables are available for OlgaViewer. Use as Name Units Definition TP TP TP TP TP TP TP TP TP TP GCRIT GVALVE PVALVE TTHRC TVALVE UCRIT UVALVE VALVAR VALVOP WCRIT kg/s kg/s Pa °C °C m/s m/s m2 kg/sm2 Critical choke or valve mass flow rate Choke or valve mass flow Choke or valve pressure Critical choke or valve throat temperature Choke or valve throat temperature Critical choke or valve throat velocity Choke or valve throat velocity Valve flow area Relative valve opening Critical mass flux at throat Choke or valve information will automatically be written to the output file.

QOSTSOUR and QWSTSOUR are given at standard conditions (60 oF. The gas is not dehydrated unless WATERFLASH = OFF. pressure Pressure derivative w. OLGA uses the gas mass fractions and densities from the fluid property file to perform the conversion. mass transfer between the phases from in-situ to standard conditions is taken into account. Use as Name Units Definition O/TP TP CONTR PMCAS - Controller signal Averaged primary controller variable (only for extended cascade controller) . (5) Controller Variables Note: No variables are available for OlgaViewer.t.r. water mass flow Gas volume flow of a source at standard conditions.r. For table-based simulations. oil mass flow Pressure derivative w.r. single stage flash as described below Liquid volume flow of a source at standard conditions. A single stage flash from in-situ to standard conditions has been performed. single stage flash as described below Oil volume flow of a source at standard conditions. Source information will automatically be written to the output file. Used for server interface with only SI units applied.t.r. 1 atm).t. Use as Name Units Definition TP/C TP* TP/C TP/C TP* TP/C TP* TP/C TP* TP TP(15)* TP(15) TP S** S** S** S** S** S** TP/C*** GGSOUR GGSVEX GLHLMA GLSOUR GLSVEX GLWTMA GOSVEX GTSOUR GWSVEX HSOURC PTSOUR TMSOUR USGSOU DGGSDP DGLTHLSDP DGLTWTSDP DPDGGS DPDGLTHLS DPDFLTWTS QGSTSOUR kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s W Pa °C m/s kg/(s Pa) kg/(s Pa) kg/(s Pa) (Pa s)/kg (Pa s)/kg (Pa s)/kg Sm3/s TP/C*** QLSTSOUR Sm3/s TP/C*** QOSTSOUR Sm3/s TP/C*** QWSTSOUR Sm3/s Gas mass flow rate of a mass source Gas mass flow rate downstream of a source Oil mass flow rate of a mass source Liquid mass flow rate of a mass source Total liquid mass flow downstream of a source Water mass flow of a mass source Oil mass flow downstream of a source Total mass flow rate of a mass source Water mass flow downstream of a source Enthalpy source of a mass source Pressure outside a section with a source Source temperature Superficial gas velocity of a mass source Gas mass flow derivative w.t.t. pressure Oil mass flow derivative w.t. gas mass flow Pressure derivative w. that is. pressure Water mass flow derivative w. ***: QGSTSOUR. QLSTSOUR. **: Dimension not possible to convert for derivatives.r. and should be used with care. single stage flash as described below *: Only available for sources with valves. Note: These variables are CPU demanding for Compositional Tracking simulations since a flash must be performed for each section and time they are plotted. single stage flash as described below Water volume flow of a source at standard conditions.r.Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables Page 427 (4) Source Variables Note: No variables are available for OlgaViewer.

Use as Name Units Definition TP DHCOOL W Enthalpy source of a heat exchanger for trend plot file (7) Leak Variables Note: No variables are available for OlgaViewer.Page 428 Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables Use as Name Units Definition TP SETPOINT - TP MODE - Setpoint of secondary controller (only for extended cascade controller) Controller mode (1:AUTOMATIC. 4:EXTERNALSETPOINT. 2:MANUAL. 5:FREEZE) (6) Heat Exchanger Variables Note: No variables are available for OlgaViewer. Use as Name Units Definition TP ACGLK kg TP ACGLKEX kg TP ACHLLK kg TP ACHLLKEX kg TP TP ACMLK ACQGLKEX kg m3 TP ACQOLKEX m3 TP ACQWLKEX m3 TP ACWTLK kg TP ACWTLKEX kg TP DPPROD Pa TP/C GGLEAK kg/s TP TP/C GGLKEX GLHLLK kg/s kg/s TP/C TP GLLEAK GLLKEX kg/s kg/s Accumulated gas mass through leakage at upstream conditions Accumulated gas mass through leakage at downstream conditions Accumulated oil mass through leakage at upstream conditions Accumulated oil mass through leakage at downstream conditions Accumulated total mass from leakage Accumulated gas volume through leakage at downstream conditions Accumulated oil volume through leakage at downstream conditions Accumulated water volume through leakage at downstream conditions Accumulated water mass through leakage at upstream conditions Accumulated water mass through leakage at downstream conditions (equal to ACWTLK) Change in opening production pressure due to temperature effect (applicable for Gas Lift Valve) Gas mass flow rate through leakage at upstream conditions Gas mass flow rate downstream of leakage Oil mass flow rate through leakage at upstream conditions Liquid mass flow rate upstream of leakage Liquid mass flow rate downstream of leakage TP TP/C GLVTEMP GLWTLK C kg/s TP TP TP GOLKEX GTLEAK GWLKEX kg/s kg/s kg/s TP HLEAK W Temperature in Gas Lift Valve bellow/dome Water mass flow rate through leakage at upstream conditions Oil mass flow rate downstream of leakage Total leakage mass flow rate Water mass flow rate downstream of leakage (equal to GLWTLK) Enthalpy from leakage . 3:EXTERNALSIGNAL.

Use as Name Units Definition O/TP ALGL - O/TP ALGR - O/TP O/TP O/TP O/TP O/TP O(3)/TP O/TP O(3)/TP APLUG HOLHLL HOLHLR HOLWTL HOLWTR UPIG ZHYDR ZZPIG m2 m/s M M Void fraction to the left of a pig/hydrate plug (behind the pig) Void fraction to the right of a pig/hydrate plug (ahead of the pig) Area blocked by a hydrate plug Oil holdup behind the pig Oil holdup ahead of the pig Water holdup behind the pig Water holdup ahead of the pig Pig velocity Length of hydrate plug Distance a pig travelled from launching position (9) Pigtracking Variables . For tablebased simulations. OLGA uses the gas mass fractions and densities from the fluid property file to perform the conversion. single stage flash as described below Water volume flow rate through leakage at standard conditions.Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables Page 429 Use as Name Units Definition TP LMLEAK kg TP TP TP TP PTLKUP PTLEAK TLEAEX QGLKEX Pa Pa °C m3/s TP QOLKEX m3/s TP QTLKEX m3/s TP QWLKEX m3/s TP/C* QGSTLK Sm3/s TP/C* QLSTLK Sm3/s TP/C * QOSTLK Sm3/s TP/C * QWSTLK Sm3/s Accumulated liquid mass release from leakage at upstream conditions Leakage upstream pressure Leakage back pressure Fluid temperature downstream of leakage Gas volume flow rate through leakage at downstream conditions Oil volume flow rate through leakage at downstream conditions Total volume flow rate through leakage at downstream conditions Water volume flow rate through leakage at downstream conditions Gas volume flow rate through leakage at standard conditions. that is. QLSTLK. mass transfer between the phases from in-situ to standard conditions is taken into account. single stage flash as described below Liquid volume flow rate through leakage at standard conditions. 1 atm). (8) Pig/Plug Variables Note: No variables are available for OlgaViewer. QOSTLK and QWSTLK are given at standard conditions (60 oF. Note: These variables are CPU demanding for Compositional Tracking simulations since a flash must be performed for each section and time they are plotted. A single stage flash from in-situ to standard conditions has been performed. See also section for wax-specific variables for combined pig-wax variables. The gas is not dehydrated unless WATERFLASH = OFF. single stage flash as described below *: QGSTLK. and should be used with care. single stage flash as described below Oil volume flow rate through leakage at standard conditions. Leak information will automatically be written to the output file.

Pig variable Equivalent slugtracking variable ALGL ALGR HOLHLL HOLHLR HOLWTL HOLWTR UPIG ZZPIG ALTSB ALTSL BEHLTSB + GAHLTSB BEHLTSL BEWTTSB + GAWTTSB BEWTTSL UST ZTSL The slugtracking variables are described in detail in section 7. (10) Separator Variables Separator information will automatically be written to the output file. Use as Name Units Definition TP ACMDGS Kg TP ACMDHL Kg TP ACMDWT Kg TP ACMEDHL Kg TP ACMEDWT Kg TP ACMFDGS Kg TP ACMGDGS Kg TP TP ACMODHL ACMODWT Kg Kg TP ACMWDHL Kg TP ACMWDWT Kg TP ACVDGS m3 TP ACVDHL m3 TP ACVDWT m3 TP ACVEDHL m3 TP ACVEDWT m3 TP ACVFDGS m3 Accumulated gas mass outflow from separator gas and flare outlets Accumulated oil mass outflow from separator oil and water drains Accumulated water mass outflow from separator oil and water drains Accumulated oil mass outflow from separator emergency drain Accumulated water mass outflow from separator emergency drain Accumulated gas mass outflow from separator flare outlet Accumulated gas mass outflow from separator gas outlet Accumulated oil mass outflow from separator oil drain Accumulated water mass outflow from separator oil drain Accumulated oil mass outflow from separator water drain Accumulated water mass outflow from separator water drain Accumulated gas volume outflow from separator gas and flare outlets Accumulated oil volume outflow from separator oil and water drains Accumulated water volume outflow from separator oil and water drains Accumulated oil volume outflow from separator emergency drain Accumulated water volume outflow from separator emergency drain Accumulated gas volume outflow from separator flare outlet . have equivalent slug tracking variables. However.Page 430 Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables All the variables that are available for Slug tracking can be used with Pigtracking. which are for hydrate plugs. Of the above-tabulated pig/plug variables all except APLUG and ZHYDR. Note: All variables are available for OlgaViewer. The pig variables with their equivalent slugtracking variables are listed below. not all of the variables are relevant.

single stage flash as described below Gas volume flow from flare outlet at standard conditions.Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables Use as Name Units 3 TP ACVGDGS m TP ACVODHL m3 TP ACVODWT m3 TP ACVWDHL m3 TP ACVWDWT m3 TP TP TP TP TP TP/C TP TP TP/C TP TP TP/C TP GEODHL GEODWT GNFDGS GNFDHL GNFDWT GNGDGS GNGDHL GNGDWT GNODHL GNODWT GNWDHL GNWDWT GTDGS kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s TP TP TP TP/C TP* GTDHL GTDWT HDRAIN LIQLV QGSTED kg/s kg/s w m Sm3/s TP* QGSTFD Sm3/s TP* QGSTGD Sm3/s TP* QGSTOD Sm3/s TP* QGSTWD Sm3/s TP/C TP* OILLV QLSTED m Sm3/s TP* QLSTFD Sm3/s TP* QLSTGD Sm3/s TP* QLSTOD Sm3/s TP* QLSTWD Sm3/s TP* QOSTED Sm3/s TP* QOSTFD Sm3/s TP* QOSTGD Sm3/s TP* QOSTOD Sm3/s TP* QOSTWD Sm3/s Page 431 Definition Accumulated gas volume outflow from separator gas outlet Accumulated olil volume outflow from separator oil drain Accumulated water volume outflow from separator oil drain Accumulated oil volume outflow from separator water drain Accumulated water volume outflow from separator water drain Oil mass flow rate at separator emergency oil drain Water mass flow rate at separator emergency oil drain Gas mass flow rate at separator flare outlet Oil mass flow rate at separator flare outlet Water mass flow rate at separator flare outlet Gas mass flow rate at separator gas outlet Oil mass flow rate at separator gas outlet Water mass flow rate at separator gas outlet Oil mass flow rate at separator normal oil drain Water mass flow rate at separator normal oil drain Oil mass flow rate at separator normal water drain Water mass flow rate at separator normal water drain Total gas mass flow rate from separator gas and flare outlets Total separator oil mass drain Total separator water mass drain Enthalpy. single stage flash as described below Gas volume flow from oil drain at standard conditions. single stage flash as described below Oil volume flow from gas outlet at standard conditions. single stage flash as described below Oil volume flow from emergency drain at standard conditions. single stage flash as described below Separator oil level Liquid volume flow from emergency drain at standard conditions. single stage flash as described below Liquid volume flow from flare outlet at standard conditions. single stage flash as described below Oil volume flow from oil drain at standard conditions. single stage flash as described below Liquid volume flow from oil drain at standard conditions. single stage flash as described below Gas volume flow from gas outlet at standard conditions. single stage flash as described below . single stage flash as described below Liquid volume flow from water drain at standard conditions. single stage flash as described below Oil volume flow from flare outlet at standard conditions. single stage flash as described below Liquid volume flow from gas outlet at standard conditions. single stage flash as described below Oil volume flow from water drain at standard conditions. separator drain Total separator liquid level Gas volume flow from emergency drain at standard conditions. single stage flash as described below Gas volume flow from water drain at standard conditions.

and should be used with care. QOSTxD and QWSTxD (x = E. single stage flash as described below Water volume flow from gas outlet at standard conditions. Note: These variables are CPU demanding for Compositional Tracking simulations since a flash must be performed for each section and time they are plotted. single stage flash as described below Water volume flow from water drain at standard conditions. A single stage flash from in-situ to standard conditions has been performed. O and W) are given at standard conditions (60 oF.Page 432 Use as Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables Name Units 3 TP/C QTDGS m /s TP/C TP/C TP* QTDHL QTDWT QWSTED m3/s m3/s Sm3/s TP* QWSTFD Sm3/s TP* QWSTGD Sm3/s TP* QWSTOD Sm3/s TP* QWSTWD Sm3/s TP/C WATLV m Definition Total gas volume flow rate from separator gas and flare outlets Total separator oil volume drain Total separator water volume drain Water volume flow from emergency drain at standard conditions. mass transfer between the phases from in-situ to standard conditions is taken into account. OLGA uses the gas mass fractions and densities from the fluid property file to perform the conversion. D. QLSTxD. The gas is not dehydrated unless WATERFLASH = OFF. (11) Well Variables Note: No variables are available for OlgaViewer. Use as Name Units Definition TP TP TP/C TP TP/C TP TP TP/C TP/C TP TP TP TP TP/C * GASFRT GGSWST GGWELL GHLWST GLHLWE GLTWST GLWELL GLWTWE GTWELL GWTWST HWELL OILFRT WATFRT QGSTWELL m kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s W m m TP/C * QLSTWELL TP/C * QOSTWELL TP/C * QWSTWELL Gas cone front Steady-state gas mass flow rate in a well Gas mass flow rate in a well Steady-state oil mass flow rate in a well Oil mass flow rate in a well Steady-state liquid mass flow rate in a well Liquid mass flow rate in well Water mass flow rate in a well Total mass flow rate in a well Steady-state water mass flow rate in a well Enthalpy source in a well Oil cone front Water cone front Gas volume flow in a well at standard conditions. single stage flash as described below Water volume flow in a well at standard conditions. single stage flash as described below Water volume flow from oil drain at standard conditions. For table-based simulations. single stage flash as described below Oil volume flow in a well at standard conditions. single stage flash as described below Water volume flow from flare outlet at standard conditions. single stage flash as described below Liquid volume flow in a well at standard conditions. single stage flash as described below Sm3/s Sm3/s Sm3/s Sm3/s . that is. the variables for each drain is not accurate since the flashing is performed using the PVT tables for the total composition. It should be noted that for simulations using PVT tables (not CompTrack). 1 atm). single stage flash as described below Separator water level *: QGSTxD.

and should be used with care. Note: The standard gas density can be given in the well input as ROGST. For table-based simulations. Use as Name Units Definition TP BITNDP Pa Pressure drop over bitnozzle . since ROGST is used to convert to gas mass rate and the value in the fluid property file is used to convert back to QGSTWELL (correspondingly for ROLST and QOSTWELL/QLSTWELL). Use as Name Units Definition TP/C TP/C TP/C TP/C TP/C TP/C TP/C TP/C TP TP TP TP TP/C TP/C TP/C TP/C TP/C TP/C TP/C TP/C PUBYGG PUBYGL PUBYGT PUMPDP PUMPGG PUMPGL PUMPGT PUMPHEAT PUMPHP PUMPTH PUMPTT PUMPQB PUMPQG PUMPQL PUMPQT PUMPSPEED PUREGG PUREGL PUREGT PUREGW kg/s kg/s kg/s Pa kg/s kg/s kg/s W W Nm W m3/s m3/s m3/s m3/s l/min kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s Gas mass flow through bypass line Liquid mass flow through bypass line Total mass flow through bypass line Pressure difference between pump outlet and inlet Gas mass flow through the pump Liquid mass flow through the pump Total mass flow through the pump Heat added to fluid in pump Hydraulic horsepower for pump battery Pump hydraulic torque Total pump power Back flow of displacement pump Gas volume flow through the pump Liquid volume flow through the pump Total volume flow through the pump Pump speed Recycle gas flow Recycle liquid flow Total recycle flow Recycle water flow Pump information will automatically be written to the output file. QLSTWELL. QOSTWELL and QWSTWELL are given at standard conditions. This means that there will be a difference between the given QGSTWELL and the standard gas flowrate given by the well equations. Well information will automatically be written to the output file. The gas is not dehydrated unless WATERFLASH = OFF. but this is not used when calculating QGSTWELL. OLGA uses the gas mass fractions and densities from the fluid property file to perform the conversion.Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables Page 433 *: QGSTWELL. (13) Bitnozzle Variable Note: No variables are available for OlgaViewer. Note: These variables are CPU demanding for Compositional Tracking simulations since a flash must be performed for each section and time they are plotted. (12) Pump Variables Note: All variables are available for OlgaViewer. A single stage flash from in-situ to standard conditions has been performed.

Use as Name Units O TP BOU DPFBR Pa TP DPGBR Pa TP DPABR Pa O(6)/TP O(7)/TP O(7)/TP O(6)/TP O(6)/TP/C TP O(6)/TP O(7)/TP O(7)/TP O(7)/TP O(7)/TP TP TP TP TP TP TP m3 kg kg m3 m3 m3 m3 kg kg kg kg Pa/s MAXHOLHLBRCT MAXHOLWTBRCT MAXPTBR Pa MAXPTBRLST Pa TP TP MAXPTPOS MAXPTPOSLST m m TP TP MAXTMBR MAXTMBRLST o TP TP MAXTMPOS m MAXTMPOSLST m TP TP TP TP TP MINPTBR MINDPTBRCT MINHOLBRCT GASC GASIN GASOUT LIQBC LIQC LIQCNS LIQDC LIQIN LIQOUT MASSIN MASOUT MAXDPTBRCT MAXHOLBRCT C C o TP Pa Pa/s MINHOLHLBRCT MINHOLWTBRC T MINPTBRLST Pa TP TP MINPTPOS MINPTPOSLST m m TP TP MINTMBR MINTMBRLST o TP TP MINTMPOS MINTMPOSLST m m TP MDPHYD Pa TP MDPHYDC Pa TP MDPPOS m C C o Definition External boundary conditions Total frictional pressure drop in branch (equal to ACCDPZF in last section) Total gravitational pressure drop in branch (equal to ACCDPZG in last section) Total additional pressure drop in branch (equal to ACCDPZA in last section) Gas content in a branch Accumulated gas mass flow over inlet boundary Accumulated gas mass flow over outlet boundary Liquid film content in a branch Total liquid content in a branch Total liquid content in a branch excluding separators Liquid droplet content in a branch Accumulated liquid mass flow over inlet boundary Accumulated liquid mass flow over outlet boundary Accumulated mass flow over inlet boundary Accumulated mass flow over outlet boundary Max pressure time derivative in branch at current time Max holdup in branch at current time Max oil volume fraction in branch at current time Max water volume fraction in branch at current time Maximum pressure in branch since start of simulation Maximum pressure in branch since last time data is written to TREND or PLOT file Distance from branch inlet where MAXPTBR occurs Distance from branch inlet where MAXPTBRLST occurs Maximum temperature in branch since start of sim. Max. Maximum temperature in branch since last time data is written to TREND or PLOT file Distance from branch inlet where MAXTMBR occurs Distance from branch inlet where MAXTMBRLST occurs Minimum pressure in branch since start of simulation Min pressure time derivative in branch at current time Min holdup in branch at current time Min oil volume fraction in branch at current time Min water volume fraction in branch at current time Minimum pressure in branch since last time data is written to TREND or PLOT file Distance from branch inlet where MINPTBR occurs Distance from branch inlet where MINPTBRLST occurs Minimum temperature in branch since start of sim.Page 434 5. value for DPHYD in a branch at current time step Distance from the branch inlet where MDPHYD . Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables BRANCH VARIABLES Note: All variables are available for OlgaViewer. value for DPHYD in a branch since last time data is written to TREND or PLOT file. Minimum temperature in branch since last time data is written to TREND or PLOT file Distance from branch inlet where MINTMBR occurs Distance from branch inlet where MINTMBRLST occurs Max.

total mass flow after restart.Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables Page 435 Use as Name Units TP MDPPOSC m TP MDTHYD o TP TP MDTHYDC MDTPOS o TP MDTPOSC m TP TP TP TP TP TP TP TP TP TP TP TP OILBC OILBCNS OILC OILCNS OILDC OILDCNS OILIN OILOUT RGASIN RGASUT RLIQIN RLIQUT m3 m3 m3 m3 m3 m3 kg kg kg kg kg kg TP TP TP TP TP TP TP/C RMASIN RMASUT ROILIN ROILUT RWATIN RWATUT RWMEGTOT kg kg kg kg kg kg - TP TP TP TP WATBC WATBCNS WATC WATCNS m3 m3 m3 m3 TP TP WATDC WATDCNS m3 m3 TP TP WATIN WATOUT kg kg C C m Definition occurs. inlet boundary Acc. outlet boundary Acc. total mass flow after restart. outlet boundary Total mass fraction in water phase in a branch for MEG (MEG tracking only) Water film content in the branch Water film content in the branch excluding separators Total water content in the branch Total water content in the branch excluding separators Water droplet content in the branch Water droplet content in the branch excluding separators Accumulated water mass flow. total liquid mass flow after restart. Distance from the branch inlet where MDTHYDC occurs. inlet boundary Acc. outlet boundary Acc. value of DTHYD in a branch at current time step Distance from the branch inlet where MDTHYD occurs. oil mass flow after restart. gas mass flow after restart. inlet boundary Acc. value of DTHYD in a branch since last time data is written to TREND or PLOT file Max. inlet boundary Accumulated oil mass flow. Distance from the branch inlet where MDPHYDC occurs. inlet boundary. gas mass flow after restart. total liquid mass flow after restart. Oil film content in the branch Oil film content in the branch excluding separators Total oil content in the branch Total oil content in the branch excluding separators Oil droplet content in the branch Oil droplet content in the branch excluding separators Accumulated oil mass flow. inlet boundary Accumulated water mass flow. outlet boundary Acc. oil mass flow after restart. oil mass flow after restart. water mass flow after restart. outlet boundary . inlet boundary Acc. Acc. outlet boundary Acc. Max. outlet boundary Acc.

. Trend file: Maximum volume error in the whole system since last write to the trend file. Total amount of energy in the system Total amount of energy corrected for accumulated energy flow in and out of the system Initial total amount of energy Relative mass changes from start Accumulated mass balance error relative to initial mass Total amount of mass in the system Cumulative mass release from pipeline exit (the outlet branch that is defined last) Total amount of mass corrected for accumulated mass flow in and out of the system Initial total amount of mass Output: Maximum volume error in the whole pipeline system since last printout. Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables GLOBAL VARIABLES Note: All variables are available for OlgaViewer. Use as Name Units Definition TP TP O(5)/TP O(5)/TP HT NINTGR REDEL REERR s - O(5)/TP O(5) /TP RELGT RETOT J J O/TP O(4)/TP O(4)/TP O(4)/TP O/TP RETOT0 RMDEL RMERR RMLGT RMOUT J kg kg O(4)/TP RMTOT kg O/TP O/TP RMTOT0 VOLGBL kg - Time step Total number of integrations Relative energy changes from start Accumulated energy balance error relative to initial energy.Page 436 6.

see Chapter 2. ALFSL. ULWTEXP. QFEXP. HOLHLEXP. ULWTTSL These variables show the development of unique slugs as they pass through the pipeline. Variables for plotting properties of slugs passing at a specified section boundary: SIDEXP. DPSB. BEWTFSL. LSLEXP. Variables for plotting properties of a specific unique slug: ALFSB. DPSBF. Note: A table containing slug statistics will be written to the . ULWTFSB. BEHLFSL. UDWTEXP . ULTSB.Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables 7. UGFSB. UDEXP. ZTSL. LSL. BEHLEXP. BEEXP. UGTSB. GATSB. HOLEXP. BEWTFSB. UST. GAEXP. ZSFEXP These variables are nonzero only when the specified integer pipeline position is within a liquid slug. ZSTEXP. 4. ULHLFSL. GAWTFSL. UGEXP. GAHLTSB. UGFSL. Page 437 SLUG TRACKING VARIABLES Three figures are included to further define some of the plot variables. BETSB. GAFSL. BEHLTSB. PTJF. SLTYPF. DPSLG. ULWTTSB. LSB. DPSLF. ALTSL. ULHLFSB.1. GAHLTSL.out file for positions where LSLEXP has been defined in TREND. UGTSL. BEWTTSL. There are four main groups of slug tracking variables: 1. ALTSB. ULWTFSL. 3. PTJT. USF. LSBEXP. ZFSL. GAWTEXP. GAHLEXP.1. Global variables: NSLUG. USTEXP. GAHLFSB. GAWTTSB. BEWTEXP. ULHLEXP. BEHLTSL. GAWTFSB. GAFSB. SLUQT. DPSL. USFEXP. ULFSL. ULTSL. ULEXP. BEHLFSB. BEWTTSB. GAWTTSL. JSLF. GATSL. Modified "standard" OLGA variables accounting for the effects of the slug tracking option at a specified section boundary: ALEXP. ULHLTSB. ULHLTSL. ULFSB. JSLT. SLUPRO 2. GAHLFSL. SLUQF. BETSL. HOLWTEXP. QTEXP. UDHLEXP.3. SLTYPT. BEFSL. BEFSB.

group 1: Note: All variables are available for OlgaViewer. Use as (9) O /TP TP Name Units Definition NSLUG SLUPRO - Total number of slugs in the pipeline Number of slugs initiated Slug tracking variables(8) group 2: Note: No variables are available for OlgaViewer.Page 438 Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables Slug tracking variables. Use as Name Units Definition TP ALFSB - TP ALFSL - TP ALTSB - TP ALTSL - TP BEFSB - TP BEFSL - TP BETSB - TP BETSL - TP BEHLFSB - TP BEHLFSL - TP BEHLTSB - TP BEHLTSL - TP BEWTFSB - TP BEWTFSL - TP BEWTTSB - TP BEWTTSL - TP GAFSB - TP GATSB - TP GAHLFSB - TP GAHLTSB - TP GAWTFSB - TP GAWTTSB - TP TP DPSB DPSBF Pa/m Pa/m Void fraction ahead of the front of the slug with the specified identification number Void fraction behind the front of the slug with the specified identification number Void fraction behind the tail of the slug with the specified identification number Void fraction ahead of the tail of the slug with the specified identification number Liquid film fraction ahead of the front of the slug with the specified identification number Liquid film fraction behind the front of the slug with the specified identification number Liquid film fraction behind the tail of the slug with the specified identification number Liquid film fraction ahead of the tail of the slug with the specified identification number Oil film fraction ahead of the front of the slug with the specified identification number Oil film fraction behind the front of the slug with the specified identification number Oil film fraction behind the tail of the slug with the specified identification number Oil film fraction ahead of the tail of the slug with the specified identification number Water film fraction ahead of the front of the slug with the specified identification number Water film fraction behind the front of the slug with the specified identification number Water film fraction behind the tail of the slug with the specified identification number Water film fraction ahead of the tail of the slug with the specified identification number Droplet fraction ahead of the front of the slug with the specified identification number Droplet fraction behind the tail of the slug with the specified identification number Oil droplet fraction ahead of the front of the slug with the specified identification number Oil droplet fraction behind the tail of the slug with the specified identification number Water droplet fraction ahead of the front of the slug with the specified identification number Water droplet fraction behind the tail of the slug with the specified identification number Total pressure gradient in slug bubble Frictional pressure gradient in slug bubble .

2=nose) Type of slug front of the slug with the specified id. number. (1=level. number.Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables Page 439 Use as Name Units Definition TP TP TP TP DPSL DPSLG DPSLF JSLT Pa/m Pa/m Pa/m - TP JSLF - TP LSB m TP LSL m TP PTJF N/m² TP PTJT N/m² TP SLUQT m/s TP SLUQF m/s TP SLTYPT - TP SLTYPF - TP UGFSB m/s TP UGFSL m/s TP UGTSB m/s TP UGTSL m/s TP ULFSB m/s TP ULFSL m/s TP ULHLFSB m/s TP ULHLFSL m/s TP ULWTFSB m/s TP ULWTFSL m/s TP ULTSB m/s TP ULTSL m/s TP ULHLTSB m/s TP ULHLTSL m/s TP ULWTTSB m/s TP ULWTTSL m/s Total pressure gradient in liquid slug Gravitational pressure gradient in liquid slug Frictional pressure gradient in liquid slug Section number of the tail of the slug with the specified identification number Section number of the front of the slug with the specified identification number Bubble length (distance from the slug tail to its neighbour slug front) of the slug with he specified identification number Length of the slug with the specified identification number Pressure at the slug front of the slug with the specified identification number Pressure at the slug tail of the slug with the specified identification number Volume flux per area through the slug tail of the slug with the specified identification number. Type of slug tail of the slug with the specified id.2=nose) Gas velocity ahead of the front of the slug with the specified identification number Gas velocity behind the front of the slug with the specified identification number Gas velocity behind the tail of the slug with the specified identification number Gas velocity ahead of the tail of the slug with the specified identification number Liquid velocity ahead of the front of the slug with the specified identification number Liquid velocity behind the front of the slug with the specified identification number Oil velocity ahead of the front of the slug with the specified identification number Oil velocity behind the front of the slug with the specified identification number Water velocity ahead of the front of the slug with the specified identification number Water velocity behind the front of the slug with the specified identification number Liquid velocity behind the tail of the slug with the specified identification number Liquid velocity ahead of the tail of the slug with the specified identification number Oil velocity behind the tail of the slug with the specified identification number Oil velocity ahead of the tail of the slug with the specified identification number Water velocity behind the tail of the slug with the specified identification number Water velocity ahead of the tail of the slug with the specified identification number . Volume flux per area through the slug front of the slug with the specified id. number. (1=level. (Positive if direction is into liquid slug). (Positive if direction is into liquid slug).

Water droplet fraction (γ) at the specified section boundary. no. group 4: Note: All variables are available for OlgaViewer. Tail position of the slug currently at the specified section boundary. Droplet fraction (γ) at the specified section boundary. Slug tracking variables. Front velocity of the slug currently at the specified section boundary.Page 440 Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables Use as Name Units Definition TP USF m/s TP UST m/s TP ZFSL m TP ZTSL m Front velocity of the slug with the specified identification number Tail velocity of the slug with the specified identification number Front position of the slug with the specified identification number Tail position of the slug with the specified identification number Slug tracking variables. of the slug currently at the specified section boundary. Hold-up (β+γ) at the specified section boundary. Water film fraction (β) at the specified section boundary. Length of the slug currently at the specified section boundary. Tail velocity of the slug currently in the specified section boundary. Oil droplet fraction (γ) at the specified section boundary. group 3: Note: All variables are available for OlgaViewer. (positive if into liquid slug) Slug ident. Volume flux per area through slug front of the slug currently at the specified integer pipeline position (positive if into liquid slug) Volume flux per area through slugtail of the slug currently at the specified section boundary. Oil film fraction (β) at the specified section boundary. Liquid film fraction (β) at the specified section boundary. Oil hold-up (β+γ) at the specified section boundary. . Use as Name Units Definition TP TP ALEXP BEEXP - TP TP BEHLEXP BEWTEXP - TP TP GAEXP GAHLEXP - TP GAWTEXP - TP TP TP TP HOLEXP HOLHLEXP HOLWTEXP UGEXP m/s Void fraction (α) at the specified section boundary. Front position of the slug currently at the specified section boundary. Water hold-up (β+γ) at the specified section boundary. Gas velocity at the specified section boundary. Use as Name Units Definition TP LSBEXP m TP LSLEXP m TP QFEXP m/s TP QTEXP m/s TP SIDEXP - TP USFEXP m/s TP USTEXP m/s TP ZSFEXP m TP ZSTEXP m Bubble length (distance from the slug tail to its neighbour slug front) of the slug currently at the specified section boundary.

3 JF UGTSL ULTSL UGFSL ULFSL UGFSB ULFSB Definition sketch of velocity plot variables for the slug tracking option . JT JT JF LSB ZTSL JF LSL ZFSL Fig. Water film velocity at the specified section boundary. Water droplet velocity at the specified section boundary.Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables Page 441 Use as Name Units Definition TP TP TP TP TP TP ULEXP ULHLEXP ULWTEXP UDEXP UDHLEXP UDWTEXP m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s Liquid film velocity at the specified section boundary. 1 Definition sketch of position and length plot variables for the slug tracking option ALTSL JT ALFSL JF JT JF ALTSB Fig. 2 ALFSB Definition sketch of void plot variables for the slug tracking option UST USF JT JF JT UGTSB ULTSB Fig. Oil film velocity at the specified section boundary. Oil droplet velocity at the specified section boundary. Droplet velocity at the specified section boundary.

1 (12) Corrosion rate based on model 2 (13) Corrosion rate based on model 3 (14) Corr. Line fluid velocity Line overall wall heat transfer coefficient based on inner diameter of the line.full water wetting . Not used for the OLGA lines. rate .3 (14) Glycol concentration in weight % (unit in GUI will be -) Inhibitor efficiency (unit in GUI will be -) Ionic strength concentration (unit in GUI will be -) Partial pressure of CO2 in gas pH for model 1 (12) pH for model 2 (13) pH for model 3 (14) Solubility of iron (Top of Line) . Total mass flow of line Heat transfer from a line to the carrier line. Heat transfer from inner pipe wall to fluid mixture.mod. Name Units 2 O/TP/PP HHIN W/m K O/TP/PP HHOUT W/m2K O/TP/PP O/TP/PP LINEGT QBUN kg/s W/m O/TP/PP/C(10) O/TP/PP(10) O/TP/PP TBUN ULINE UVALUE °C m/s W/m2K Definition Line inner wall heat transfer coefficient based on inner diameter of the line. Fluid temperature in a soil cell. Note: Variables that are not relevant for a simulation (e.full water wetting . 10. Use as Name Units Definition O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP(11) QSOIL QIN TSOIL W/m W/m °C Heat transfer from soil to outer OLGA pipe wall layer. Use as 9.g.Page 442 8. SOIL VARIABLES (VOLUME VARIABLES) Note: No variables are available for OlgaViewer. Not used for the OLGA lines. CORR1 if Model 1 is not used) will be given the value -999 if plotted Use as Name Units Definition O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP COBICARB CONDRATE CORR1 CORRW1 CORR2 CORR3 CORRW3 GLYCOL INHIB IONIC PCO2 PH1 PH2 PH3 SOLFE Molar kg/m²s mm/y mm/y mm/y mm/y mm/y % % Molar Pa ppm Bicarbonate concentration (unit in GUI will be -) Condensation rate in upper half of pipe (Top of Line) Corrosion rate based on model 1 (12) Corr. Line outer wall heat transfer coefficient based on inner diameter of the line.mod. CORROSION VARIABLES (VOLUME VARIABLES) Note: All variables are available for OlgaViewer. For a carrier line it is the heat transfer to ambient conditions. Fluid temperature in a bundle line. Not used for the OLGA lines. Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables BUNDLE VARIABLES (VOLUME VARIABLES) Note: No variables are available for OlgaViewer. rate .

11 kg/s Volume/component variables: NOTE! Using COMPONENT key in TREND keyword specifies the components. taking into account oil trapped in film. Use as Name Units Definition O/TP/PP BEWX - O/TP/PP GAWX - O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP DXWX MWXDIP MWXDIS WAXAP WAXPOROSITY m kg/m3 kg/m3 °C - O/TP/PP WAX_TCOND W/(mK) O/TP/PP O/TP/PP TP/PP TP/PP WXDIFFC WXAVDC WXDR WXMTRW m2/s m2/s m kg/s TP/PP TP/PP TP/PP MWXWAL WXMTRWD WXMTRWS kg/m3 kg/s kg/s Volume fraction of wax crystals dispersed in oil film Volume fraction of wax crystals dispersed in droplet field Thickness of wax layer deposited on wall Mass of wax dispersed in oil Mass of wax dissolved in oil Wax appearance temperature Porosity of wax deposit (oil volume fraction of wax film) Thermal conductivity of wax deposit film. Apparent diffusion coefficient* Average molar diffusion coefficient Laminar boundary layer thickness Net wax mass transport rate to wall (diffusion + shear related) Specific wax mass at wall Wax mass transport rate to wall due to diffusion Wax mass transport rate to wall due to shear related effects Wax mass precipitation rate TP/PP WXMPREC * See Section 2.3. Use as Name Units Definition TP/PP TP/PP TP/PP TP/PP LEWIS SCHMIDT WXCDIFFC WXCMCDB m2/s - TP/PP TP/PP WXCMCDW WXCDCDR 1/m Lewis number Schmidt number Diffusion coefficient Molar concentration of dissolved wax component in bulk Molar concentration of dissolved wax near wall Concentration gradient near wall Boundary variables: Use as Name Units Definition TP TP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP ACCGLTWL ACCGLTWS GWXDIP GWXDIS kg kg kg/s kg/s Accumulated dissolved wax mass flow Accumulated suspended wax mass flow Mass flow rate of wax dispersed in oil Mass flow rate of wax dissolved in oil . Either component number or label is applicable.Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables Page 443 11. WAX DEPOSITION VARIABLES Volume variables: Note: All variables are available for OlgaViewer.

Use as Name Units Definition TP TP ACCPWXM ACCPWXV kg m3 TP TP TP TP TP PIGWXBRF PIGWXPFF PIGWXPLEN PIGWXYIELDS PIGWXPLASTV N N m Pa N-s/m2 Accumulated wax mass removed from film by pig. Use as Name Units Definition O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP TP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP CGDH CGDW CGG CGHT CGLH CGLW CGPSI CGWT CHPSI CMG CMHD CMHL CMTOT CMWD CMWL CWPSI DMGE DMHE DMWE MWGAS MWOIL MWWAT kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/m3s kg/s kg/m3s kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3s kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/kmol kg/kmol kg/kmol Mass flow rate in oil droplets for component Mass flow rate in water droplets for component Mass flow rate in gas phase for component Mass flow rate in oil phase for component Mass flow rate in oil film for component Mass flow rate in water film for component Mass rate of flashing to gas phase for component Mass flow rate in water phase for component Mass rate of flashing to oil phase for component Specific mass in gas for component Specific mass in oil droplets for component Specific mass in oil film for component Total mass in branch for component Specific mass in water droplets for component Specific mass in water film for component Mass rate of flashing to water phase for component (Equilibrium mass . Accumulated volume of wax removed from film by pig. Note: All variables except CMTOT are available for OlgaViewer. Specific for each plug. MWOIL and MWWAT (variables without associated components) are available for unit conversion in the Olga GUI. COMPOSITIONAL / MEG-TRACKING VARIABLES Only MWGAS. Porosity not included. TREND keyword syntax as for standard PIG/PLUG variables. Use as Name Units Definition TP TP TP TP TP MLTWLBR MLTWSBR MTWXBR WAXMASBR WAXVOLBR kg kg kg kg m3 Mass of dissolved wax in branch Mass of suspended wax in branch Total mass of wax species in branch Total mass of solid wax in waxfilm in branch Total volume of wax film in a branch Pig variables: Note: No variables are available for OlgaViewer.mass) in gas phase for component (Equilibrium mass – mass) in oil phase for component (Equilibrium mass .mass) in water phase for component Molar weight for gas phase Molar weight for oil phase Molar weight for water phase . Pig-wax layer breaking force Pig/wax plug friction force Pig/wax plug friction length Pig/wax plug yield stress Pig/wax plug plastic viscosity 12.Page 444 Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables Branch variables: Note: No variables are available for OlgaViewer.

Use as Name Units 3 TP DRLFROGSTD kg/m O/TP/PP(17) ECD kg/m3 O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP MDOMUD MDPH2O MDPHC kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 O/TP/PP MDWMUD kg/m3 Definition Gas density at standard conditions. Equivalent Circulating Density. Specific mass of oil-based mud in droplet phase Specific mass of produced water in droplet phase Specific mass of produced Hydrocarbon in droplet phase Specific mass of water-based mud in droplet phase . Use as Name Units Definition TP TP TP BITMD BITBRAN BITPIPE M - TP BITSEC - TP TP TP TP TP TP TP TP DRDMD DRDPIP DRDSEC DRNPTD DRNPTF DRNPTA DRNPTASEC ROP M Pa Pa Pa Pa m/s Measured depth where the bit is located Number of the branch where the bit is positioned Number of the pipe where the bit is positioned (from top of drilling string) Number of the section where the bit is positioned (from top of drilling string) Measured depth that has been drilled Drilled pipe number from top of drilling string Drilled section number from top of drilling string Pressure at bit position for drilling string Pressure at bit position for formation branch Pressure at bit position for annulus branch Pressure in bit section for annulus branch Penetration rate Volume variables: Note: No variables are available for OlgaViewer.Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables 13. Page 445 Use as Name Units Definition O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP PTG XG XGE XGM XGME XH XHE XHM XHME XW XWE XWM XWME Z ZM Pa - Partial pressure in gas phase for component Mole fraction in gas phase for component Equilibrium mole fraction in gas phase for component Mass fraction in gas phase for component Equilibrium mass fraction in gas phase for component Mole fraction in oil phase for component Equilibrium mole fraction in oil phase for component Mass fraction in oil phase for component Equilibrium mass fraction in oil phase for component Mole fraction in water phase for component Equilibrium mole fraction in water phase for component Mass fraction in water phase for component Equilibrium mass fraction in water phase for component Total mole fraction (all phases) for component Total mass fraction (all phases) for component DRILLING VARIABLES Components defined for drilling (see Chapter 2. Drilling bit (bitnode) variables: Note: No variables are available for OlgaViewer. only defined for branches associated with BITNODE (DRILLSTRING.4.3. ANNULULS and FORMATION).2) can be tracked using the component variables listed in Section 12. adjusted for any gaseous drilling fluids.

Use as Name Units Definition O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP GDOMUD GDPH2O GDPHC kg/s kg/s kg/s O/TP/PP GDWMUD kg/s O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP GGGMUD GGOMUD GGPH2O GGPHC kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP GGWMUD GLOMUD GLPH2O GLPHC kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP GLWMUD GTOMUD GTPH2O GTPHC GTWMUD kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s kg/s Mass flow rate of oil-based mud in droplet phase Mass flow rate of produced water in droplet phase Mass flow rate of produced Hydrocarbon in droplet phase Mass flow rate of water-based mud in droplet phase Mass flow rate of gas-based mud Mass flow rate of oil-based mud in gas phase Mass flow rate of produced water in gas phase Mass flow rate of produced Hydrocarbon in gas phase Mass flow rate of water-based mud in gas phase Mass flow rate of oil-based mud in film phase Mass flow rate of produced water in film phase Mass flow rate of produced Hydrocarbon in film phase Mass flow rate of water-based mud in film phase Total mass flow rate of oil-based mud Total mass flow rate of produced water Total mass flow rate of produced Hydrocarbon Total mass flow rate of water-based mud 14. Use as Name Units Definition . NODE VARIABLES Note: No variables are available for OlgaViewer.Page 446 Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables Use as Name Units Definition O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP MFAMUD MFGMUD MFOMUD MFPH2O MFPHC - O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP MFWMUD MGGMUD MGOMUD MGPH2O MGPHC kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP MGWMUD MLOMUD MLPH2O MLPHC kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP O/TP/PP MLWMUD MTAMUD MTOMUD MTPH2O MTPHC MTWMUD kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 Mass fraction of all muds in total mass Mass fraction of gas-based mud in total mass Mass fraction of oil-based mud in total mass Mass fraction of produced water in total mass Mass fraction of produced Hydrocarbon in total mass Mass fraction of water-based mud in total mass Specific mass of gas-based mud Specific mass of oil-based mud in gas phase Specific mass of produced water in gas phase Specific mass of produced Hydrocarbon in gas phase Specific mass of water-based mud in gas phase Specific mass of oil-based mud in film phase Specific mass of produced water in film phase Specific mass of produced Hydrocarbon in film phase Specific mass of water-based mud in film phase Specific mass of all muds Specific mass of oil-based mud Specific mass of produced water Specific mass of produced Hydrocarbon Specific mass of water-based mud Boundary variables: Note: No variables are available for OlgaViewer.

the soil columns and rows of soil cells must be specified. 15. ref. pressure Water mass flow derivative w. . REMARKS (1) Pipe inner diameter.r. (4) If RMTOT is specified in the OUTPUT group. (11) For trend and profile plotting of TSOIL. gas mass flow Pressure derivative w. pressure Pressure derivative w. the indicated information (4) will be written to the output file. all these variables will be written to the output file. LIQIN. keywords TREND and PROFILE in Ch.r.r.r.r.r. the bundle line label must be specified. 3 . (6) If GASC. program determined information about individual slugs will be written to the output file (SLUG TRACKING option only). LIQDC or LIQC is specified in the OUTPUT group.t. (9) If NSLUG is specified in the OUTPUT group.t. water mass flow Boundary node gas mass flow Boundary node oil mass flow Boundary node water mass flow Boundary node pressure Boundary node temperature *: Dimension not possible to convert for derivatives. GASOUT. program determined information about the plug/pig will be written to the output file.t.t. the indicated information (3) will be written to the output file. LIQOUT. (5) If RETOT is specified in the OUTPUT group. Used for server interface with only SI units applied. (10) For trend and profile plotting of TBUN. LIQBC. oil mass flow Pressure derivative w. (3) If UPIG or ZZPIG is specified in the OUTPUT group.Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables Use as S S S S S S S S S S S Name DGGDPB Units kg/(s Pa)* kg/(s Pa)* kg/(s Pa)* (Pa s)/kg* (Pa s)/kg* (Pa s)/kg* GGBOU kg/s GLTHLBOU kg/s GLTWTBOU kg/s PTBOU Pa TMBOU °C DGLTHLDPB DGLTWTDPB DPBDGG DPBDGLTHL DPBDGLTWT Page 447 Definition Gas mass flow derivative w. (7) If GASIN. (8) For trend plotting a slug identification number is specified instead of the usual section number (SLUG TRACKING option only).t. 15. roughness and inclination will be written to the output file if KEYWORD=GEOMETRY in PRINTINPUT. MASSIN or MASOUT is specified in the OUTPUT group all these variables will be written to the output file. pressure Oil mass flow derivative w. See also remark (16) in sec.t. (2) The temperature (TW) of all and any wall layer can be plotted.

PRESSURE keyword. (15) PTSOUR: Backpressure as given in SOURCE. TMBOU is set to TM in the first real (user defined) section adjacent to the node. In SI units the equation is written like this: ECD [kg/m3] = dP [Pa]/(g[m/s2]*L[m]): The relation between the two units is: ECD[kg/m3] = 119. E.826*ECD[ppg]. In the above equation p is pressure minus atmospheric pressure in psi. ECD is set to zero. Value as given in BOUNDARY. as calculated by OLGA Flow related variables are taken from the section boundary closest to the node. as the modular program design allows the current corrosion models to be replaced without changing the main program. If L is less than 1 mm. TMBOU: Upstream temperature at section boundary adjacent to node. and D is length in feet from drillstring inlet.g. Model 1 is currently NORSOK. as the modular program design allows the current corrosion models to be replaced without changing the main program. This is accomplished by calculating the equivalent mud density which is defined by: rho_e=p/(0.Page 448 Appendix A: Complete list of Output Variables (12) Generic names are used. PRESSURE keyword TMSOUR: Temperature as given in SOURCE. TEMPERATURE keyword (16) PTBOU: From dummy section.052*D)" In OLGA this is called Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD). as the modular program design allows the current corrosion models to be replaced without changing the main program. TEMPERATURE. TMBOU is as given in BOUNDARY. YOFFSET_ECD in keyword BITNODE can be used to change the reference point for ECD: L = L_default + YOFFSET_ECD . (17) From “Applied Drilling Engineering” /2/: "Field experience in a given area often allows guidelines to be developed for the maximum mud density that formations at a given depth will withstand without fracturing during normal drilling operations. The resulting unit is ppg. Model 2 is currently the top-of-line corrosion model. (14) Generic names are used. It is sometimes helpful to compare a complex well fluid column to an equivalent single-fluid column that is open to the atmosphere. Model 3 is currently de Waard 95. regardless of whether it is an inlet or outlet.: If positive inflow at inlet. If negative flow at inlet. (13) Generic names are used.

5493 60. # 7-8). The first unit is default.Appendix B: List of Units and Conversion Factors Page 449 APPENDIX B List of Units and Conversion Factors Alternative units for each quantity are listed below. The user can also define additional units by using the keyword UNITS.016667 1.00 M2 FT2 CM2 IN2 0. multiply by 1000 0.55556 1.00 1440.92903E-01 0.000 60.55556 .2832 RPM (Revolutions per minute) RAD/S 1/S 9.30480 0.1.0000 0.000 1/RPM S M H D 0.10000E-01 0.10000E-03 0.64512E-03 ANGULAR ACCELERATION ANGULAR VELOCITY 1/ANGULAR VELOCITY AREA CORROSION RATE MM/Y DARCY MD D C R K F KG/M3-K DELTA TEMPERATURE DENSITY DERIVATIVE DENSITY DERIVATIVE WITH RESPECT TO TIME KG/M3-S Conversion to the first unit. The other units can be specified after the number in the input file (see section 3.3.25400E-01 RAD/S2 R/S2 (R = Revolution) 6. Quantity Unit name ACCELERATION M/S2 FT/S2 CM/S2 IN/S2 0.

1868 J/M3 BTU/FT3 CAL/M3 37256.4482 % 0.1869 N DYN KGF LBF 0.1869 J/KG BTU/LB CAL/KG 2326.1868 J/KG-K BTU/LB-R CAL/KG-K 4186.7 4.819 4.41339E-03 0.187 4.27780E-03 J BTU CAL 1055.000277778 DYNAMIC VISCOSITY ENTHALPY ENTHALPY/MASS ENTHALPY/VOLUME ENTROPY ENTROPY/MASS ENTROPY/MOL ENTROPY/VOLUME FORCE FRACTION TO PERCENT FREQUENCY FRICTION FACTOR NS/M Conversion to the first unit.Page 450 Appendix B: List of Units and Conversion Factors Quantity Unit name DENSITY DERIVATIVE WITH RESPECT TO PRESSURE KG/M-N DENSITY DERIVATIVE WITH RESPECT TO TEMPERATURE KG/M3-K DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT CM2/S M2/S 10000 N-S/M2 LB/FT-H CP KG/M-H 0.1 4.10000E-01 1/S 1/M 1/H 0.187 J/M3-K BTU/FT3-R CAL/M3-K 37256. 4.00001 9.1869 J/K BTU/R CAL/K 1899.1867 J/MOL-K BTU/LBMOL-R CAL/MOL-K 4.10000E-02 0.0 4.1 4. multiply by .0166667 0. 4.

/LENGTH Page 451 Conversion to the first unit.0 10000.0 27680.45359 0.26376E+07 W/M BTU/S-FT KW/M 3461.10000E-01 0.0 KG/M2 G/M2 G/CM2 KG/FT2 G/FT2 G/IN2 0. 11356.5 1000.0107639 1.6783 1.5500 KG/M3 LB/FT3 G/CM3 LB/IN3 16. ANGLE KINEMATIC VISCOSITY LENGTH LIQ VALVE DISCHARGE MASS MASS/AREA MASS DENSITY .4516E-04 M FT CM IN MILES KM MM 0.0 HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT W/M2-C BTU/FT2-H-F CAL/M2-H-C 5.5806E-05 6.3 1000 0.7639 0.1630E-03 HEATFLUX W/M2 KW/M2 W/CM2 BTU/FT2-S BTU/IN2-S 1000. KG LB G OZ T 0. 0.16353E+07 DEGREE RAD 57.1000E-02 SET1 SET2 41620.10000E-02 0.30480 0.2958 M2/S CST FT2/HR IN2/S 1.0 1.001 10 10. multiply by 1.Appendix B: List of Units and Conversion Factors Quantity Unit name GAS OIL RATIO SM3/SM3 M3/M3 SCF/STB SET1 SET2 GAS VALVE DISCHARGE HEAT TRANS.018 1000.25400E-01 1609.28350E-01 1000.7811E-01 0.0E-06 2.

10000E+06 6894.10000E+10 PA/M PSI/FT 2.S/KG PSI2.2621E+04 PA BARA PSIA ATM BAR KP/CM2 0.8 0.29306 1000. multiply by 0.45359 2.70 0.10133E+06 KG/PA-S LB/PSI-S 6.10000E+06 98066. 0.47538E+08 PA2.7778E-04 1.5 PA/S BAR/S PSI/S ATM/S 0.7778E-04 1.10000E+07 0.10133E+06 0.S/LB 0.45359 2.8317E-02 .10000E+06 6894.57873E-05 QUAD.2600E-04 10000.23105E+09 W HP BTU/H KW 745.8 0.S/KG PSI2.10480E+09 PA2.Page 452 Appendix B: List of Units and Conversion Factors Quantity Unit name MASS FLOW KG/S LB/S KG/H LB/H KG/S-M2 KG/S-CM2 LB/S-M2 KG/H-M2 LB/H-M2 MASS FLUX NON-LINEAR WELL A NON-LINEAR WELL B NON-LINEAR WELL C POWER POWERS OF TEN PRESSURE/DISTANCE PRESSURE PRESSURE/TIME PRODUCTIVITY INDEX Conversion to the first unit.0 K M G 0.2600E-04 PA2 PSI2 0. FRICTION FACTOR NS2/M2 RESVOLUME/STDVOLUME RM3/SM3 SPECIFIC CAPACITY M3/R FT3/R 2.S/LB 0.

1574E-10 4.37858E-02 N/M DYNE/CM 0.15) K = C + 273.1574E-05 3. multiply by 1.7533E-11 2.0000 4168.Appendix B: List of Units and Conversion Factors Quantity Unit name SPECIFIC HEAT J/KG-C J/KG-K BTU/LBM-R BTU/LBM-F Page 453 Conversion to the first unit.8 STANDARD DENSITY KG/SM3 STANDARD FLOWRATE SM3/S SM3/H SM3/D SCF/D MMSCF/D STB/D STB/M 2.2774E-07 3.1631E-03 1/C 1/R 1/K 1/F 1.15 F = 9/5C + 32 W/M-K W/M-C BTU/FT-H-R CAL/M-H-K 1. /TIME TEMPERATURE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY THERMAL EXPANSION .0 1.2832E-01 SM3 SCF SCM3 SL SGAL 0.0E-6 0.7778E-04 1.55556 1.8 1 1.864E-01 0.10000E-02 C/S R/S K/S R/S 0.55556 C R K F R = 9/5(C + 273.7307 1.8 4168.30512E+01 0.10000E-05 0.2774E-01 1.10000E-02 0.8 STDFLOWRATE/PRESSURE 1/STANDARD FLOWRATE STANDARD VOLUME SURFACE TENSION TEMP.6687E-10 1/SM3/S 1/MSM3/S 1/SM3/D 1/MSM3/D 1/SCF/D 1/MMSCF/D 1/SCF/S 1.8408E-06 2.0000 0.864E+05 0.28320E-01 0.6508E-03 SM3/S/PA SM3/D/BAR SCF/D/PSI STB/D/PSI 1.30512E+07 0.

28320E-01 2.18408E-05 2.7778E-04 0.62428E-01 0.27778E-03 0.35582 M/S FT/S M/H FT/H MILES/H 0.000 3600.44704 M3 FT3 CM3 L USGAL BBL 0.000 NM FT-LB 1. 60.37858E-02 0. multiply by .27119E+05 5.43396E+05 377.28320E-01 0.3107 3600 86400 1.11574E-04 7.6508E-03 1/M3/S 1/FT3/S 1/M3/H 1/M3/D 1/FT3/H 1/BBL/D 1/BBL/M 35.3583 M3/KG FT3/LB CM3/G IN3/LB 0.8658E-06 0.10000E-05 0.10000E-02 0.Page 454 Appendix B: List of Units and Conversion Factors Quantity Unit name TIME UNITS S M H D 1/RPM 60.0 86400.84667E-04 0.10000E-02 0.30480 0.36127E-04 TORQUE VELOCITY VOLUME VOLUME FLOW 1/VOLUME FLOW VOLUME/MASS Conversion to the first unit.159 M3/S FT3/S M3/H M3/D FT3/H BBL/D BBL/M 0.

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