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Window Operating

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Operating System I

.. 9 The charms................................................................................ 2 Design Mode.................................................................................................................... 3 Paging in x86 Processor................... 4 Device Management.................................. 4 Device Manager........................................................................................................................................ 1 History................................... 7 Why do files need to be managed?................................................................ 11 Shell Development Scenarios................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7 Temp Drive (Shared)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6 What is a File?....6 File Management.................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8 Desktop............................................................................... 2 Memory Management............................ 8 Taskbar................ 2 About Memory Management....................................................................................................................................... 8 Files and folders.............................................. 7 Folders......................................... 10 Autoplay......................Windows Operating System [Group 1] Table of Contents Overview.......................................7 My Computer............................................................................................................................................. 10 Start screen........................................................................................................................................................ 8 User Interface............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8 Special folders................. 7 Deleting Files.......................................................... 5 Device Management Architecture............................ 8 Windows Shell...... 12 2 ... 8 Deleting Folders (directories).......................................11 Bibliography................................................................................................... 3 Process Management.... 6 Disk/Hard Drives.........................................................................................................

3.Windows Operating System [Group 1] Overview Company / developer Microsoft Written in Assembly. 28 years ago. Windows CE and Windows NT Working state Publicly released Source model Closed / Shared source Initial release November 20. 2013. C. C++ OS family Windows 9x.0 Latest release 6. 10 months ago) Marketing target Personal computing Available in 137 languages Update method Windows Update Windows Anytime Upgrade Windows Store 1 .9600 (October 17. as Windows 1. 1985.

rather than typing commands and directory paths at a text prompt.Windows Operating System [Group 1] WSUS Package manager Windows Installer (. Approximately 90 percent of PCs run some version of Windows. Windows for the first time allowed DOS users to visually navigate a virtual desktop. Subsequent versions introduced greater functionality. had used for its Macintosh System Software. released in 1985. and others. including native Windows File Manager. including the networkable Windows for Workgroups and the high-powered Windows NT. Microsoft united its various Windows packages under a single banner. The highly successful XP standard was succeeded in late 2006 by Windows Vista.microsoft. Microsoft also developed specialized Windows packages. multimedia developers. offering multiple editions for consumers. opening graphical “windows” displaying the contents of electronic folders and files with the click of a mouse button. computer operating system (OS) developed by Microsoft Corporation to run personal computers (PCs). Featuring the first graphical user interface (GUI) for IBM-compatible PCs.appx) Platforms ARM. Based in part on licensed concepts that Apple Inc. an OS whose interface was similar to that of Vista but was met with enthusiasm for its noticeable speed improvement and its modest system requirements. IA-32. businesses. x86-64 Kernel type Windows NT family: Hybrid Windows 9x and earlier: Monolithic (MS-DOS) Default user interface Windows shell License Proprietary commercial software Official website windows. was simply a GUI offered as an extension of Microsoft’s existing disk operating system. the Windows OS soon dominated the PC market.com Windows OS. which experienced a troubled rollout and met with considerable marketplace resistance. and resource-consuming system. With the 2001 release of Windows XP. including the World Wide Web browser Internet Explorer. aimed at businesses.msi). Windows XP abandoned the longused Windows 95 kernel (core software code) for a more powerful code base and offered a more practical interface and improved application and memory management. slow. 2 . The 1995 consumer release Windows 95 fully integrated Windows and DOS and offered built-in Internet support. or MS-DOS. and a more dynamic interface. The first version of Windows. Responding to Vista’s disappointing adoption rate. Program Manager. Windows Store (. Itanium. and Print Manager programs. Microsoft developed Windows 7. quickly acquiring a reputation for being a large.

this was achieved by increasing the amount of the operating system that could be swapped. was released in August 1981.0. Again.0 release. The size of the resident portion did not change. this release did not take advantage of the processor capabilities of the PS/2. DOS 1. Heretofore.0. These were not used by DOS. it was too limited for a hard disk. When IBM developed a hard disk-based personal computer. which is the ability to change the input or output identity for a given application. By this time. released in 1984.1. It consisted of 4000 lines of assembly language source code and ran in 8 Kbytes of memory using the Intel 8086 microprocessor. the memory requirement grew to 36 Kbytes. To remain compatible with previous releases. It contained support for the hard disk and provided for hierarchical directories. which incorporated some of the user friendly features of Macintosh. While this was adequate in the era of floppy disks."" The operating system did provide support for new keyboard and hard disk peripherals. 3 . The AT contained the Intel 80286 processor. Meanwhile. provided support for the new line of IBM machines. supporting a maximum of 64 files. and the singledirectory restriction was too clumsy. The initial version. The new release also contained a richer set of commands embedded in the operating system to provide functions that had to be performed by external programs provided as utilities with release 1. Among the capabilities added were several UNIX-like features. As the world's most popular operating system. which provided extended addressing and memory protection features. known as Windows 3. developed by Microsoft for the first IBM personal computer and referred to as MS-DOS or PC-DOS. released in 1987. Microsoft began development of a graphical user interface (GUI) that would be interposed between the user and DOS. contained support for networking of PCs. When IBM announced the PC AT in 1984. a disk could contain only one directory of files. it was still hamstrung by the need to run on top of DOS.0. Check out some of the past versions and features that paved the road to Windows 8. the PS/2. but that success wasn't easily attained. and background printing. There were several notable upgrades to the 3. beginning in the early 1980s. such as I/O redirection. with more required if certain optional extensions were selected. Microsoft had a version of the GUI. Even so. DOS 3. By 1990. This new release allowed directories to contain subdirectories as well as files. released in 1983. Microsoft introduced DOS 3. Microsoft developed DOS 2. whose operating system was unsurpassed for ease of use.0. After an abortive attempt by Microsoft to develop with IBM a next-generation operating system. Bumps along the way are what helped Windows move from an obscure operating system to the dominating power in computers it is today. However. The memory-resident portion grew to 24 Kbytes. DOS was being used in an environment far beyond its capabilities. The introduction of the 80486 and then the Intel Pentium chip provided power and features that simply could not be exploited by the simple-minded DOS. the PC XT. provided by the 80286 and the 32-bit 80386 chips. Microsoft's intent was to compete with Macintosh. it enjoys huge success. The resident portion at this stage had grown to a minimum of 46 Kbytes. DOS 3. "The story of Windows begins with a very different operating system. the operating system simply used the 80286 as a ""fast 8086.3.Windows Operating System [Group 1] History Windows has been a mainstay in the computer market for so long that it's nearly impossible to imagine life without it.

known as Windows XP. The potential drawback is that these graphics functions now have access to low-level system services. now called Windows 2000.1. but Server includes some services required to use as a network server.0. both 32-bit and 64 bit versions are available. Microsoft introduced a new server version. ia64.1 was a new 32-bit operating system with the ability to support older DOS and Windows applications as well as provide OS/2 support. but new features have been added. Both home PC and business workstation versions of XP are offered.1) was released in 1993. However. One final general point to make about Windows 2000 is the distinction between Windows 2000 Server and Windows 2000 desktop. and amd64 Multiple vendors build hardware Software-portable     POSIX. In 2000. Windows NT exploits the capabilities of contemporary microprocessors and provides multitasking in a single-user or multiple-user environment. In 2001. OS2. PowerPC and Alpha Currently supports x86. and Win32 subsystems OS2 is dead POSIX is still supported—separate product Lots of Win32 software out there in the world 4 .0 has essentially the same internal architecture as 3. In essence. Microsoft released NT 4. with the same GUI as Windows 3. Also in 2001. NT 3. Microsoft introduced the next major upgrade. the underlying Executive and kernel architecture is fundamentally the same as in NT 4. which is a distributed directory service able to map names of arbitrary objects to any kind of information about those objects. The most notable external change is that NT 4. Windows NT. the latest desktop version of Windows was released.0 provides the same user interface as Windows 95. which runs in kernel mode. Microsoft struck out on its own and developed a new operating system from the ground up. NT 4. The major architectural change is that several graphics components that ran in user mode as part of the Win32 subsystem in 3. After several versions of NT 3.x. The 64-bit versions of XP and Server 2003 are designed specifically for the 64-bit Intel Itanium hardware.Windows Operating System [Group 1] which would exploit the power of the new microprocessors and which would incorporate the ease-of-use features of Windows. The benefit of this change is to speed up the operation of these important functions. The central element of Windows 2000's new features is Active Directory. Again.0). In 2003.x. The first version of Windows NT (3.0. which could impact the reliability of the operating system. another Microsoft operating system (the follow-on to Windows 3. the kernel and executive architecture and services remain the same. a 64-bit version of XP was introduced." Design Mode Hardware-portable    Used to support MIPS. The emphasis in Windows 2000 is the addition of services and functions to support distributed processing.x have been moved into the Windows NT Executive. known as Windows Server 2003.

This is due to the fact that the processor’s address bus which is 32 lines or 32 bits can only access address range from 0x00000000 to 0xFFFFFFFF which is 4GB. About Memory Management Each process on 32-bit Microsoft Windows has its own virtual address space that enables addressing up to 4 gigabytes of memory. The Windows virtual memory manager controls how memory is allocated and how paging is performed. each of which points to a Page Table. The lower 2GB of this address space is available for the user mode process and upper 2GB is reserved for Windows Kernel mode code. How does Windows give 4GB address space each to multiple processes when the total memory it can access is also limited to 4GB.Windows Operating System [Group 1] High performance       Anticipated PC speeds approaching minicomputers and mainframes Async IO model is standard Support for large physical memories SMP was an early design goal Designed to support multi-threaded processes Kernel has to be reentrant Memory Management The memory manager implements virtual memory. You can think of it as a two dimensional matrix of 1024x1024 elements. large memory support. PowerPC. Each page table in turn 5 . copy-on-write memory. and MIPS platforms have 4096 bytes per page and DEC Alpha platforms have 8192 bytes per page. Thus to address 4GB of memory. Paging in x86 Processor The x86 processor divides the physical address space (or physical memory) in 4 KB pages. This will allow us to have 1024 page tables. The first dimension is known as Page Directory and second dimension is known as Page Table. The memory manager is designed to operate over a variety of platforms and use page sizes ranging from 4 Kbytes to 64 Kbytes. The processor uses a two level structure to refer to these 1 Mega pages. Windows on 32 bit x86 systems can access up to 4GB of physical memory. Intel. and underlying support for the cache manager. To achieve this Windows uses a feature of x86 processor (386 and above) known as paging. let us first take a look at how the paging in x86 works. threads cannot access memory that belongs to another process. The Processor’s paging unit translates this logical address to the physical address transparently. This allows every process in the system to have its own 4GB logical address space. To understand this in more details. provides a core set of services such as memory mapped files. Paging allows the software to use a different memory address (known as logical address) than the physical memory address. which protects a process from being corrupted by another process. However. Each process on 64-bit Windows has a virtual address space of 8 terabytes. All threads of a process can access its virtual address space. Windows also allows each process to have its own 4GB logical address space. Thus we can create 1 Page directory with 1024 entries. we will need 1 Mega (1024x1024) 4KB pages.

each Windows process includes resources such as the following components: One or more threads. One or more code segments. Details on protection bits and other bits in the lower 12 bits can be found in here Process Management Every process contains one or more threads. So when a PDE or PTE is used. One or more data segments containing global variables. we will need a total memory of 4 x 1024 x 1024 bytes i. The upper 20 bits which represents the actual physical address are known as Page Frame Number (or PFN). and so on. From the programmer's perspective. 4MB.e. As discussed above. we need 4 MB of memory. Similarly each Page Table Entry (or PTE) is 4 bytes and points to a physical address of a 4KB page. A virtual address space that is distinct from other processes' address spaces. To store 1024 PDE each containing 1024 PTE. and the Windows thread is the basic executable unit. fairness. so threads can be allocated to separate processors within a computer. Graphically it looks something like: Each Page Directory Entry (or PDE) is 4 bytes in size and points to a Page Table. Note that shared memory-mapped files share physical memory. including code in DLLs. priority. each of which points to a 4 KB page. Threads are scheduled on the basis of the usual factors: availability of resources such as CPUs and physical memory. see the next chapter for a threads introduction. its upper 20 bits gives a 4KB page aligned address and lower 12 bits are used to store the page protection information and some other house-keeping information required by an OS for proper functioning. Thus to divide the whole 4GB address space into 4 KB pages. such 6 .Windows Operating System [Group 1] can have 1024 entries. Windows has long supported multiprocessor systems. the whole address space is divided in 4KB pages. Environment strings with environment variable information. but the sharing processes will probably use different virtual addresses to access the mapped file.

Device Manager calls the Hardware Update wizard. maintained by the kernel. Each thread in a process shares code. An argument on the stack. 7 . power messages notify applications of power management events. For example. Device messages notify applications of device change events. Windows uses the Device Manager snap-in to dynamically track and manage devices and drivers on a system. such as the removal of a hardware device. which is usually unique for each thread. Thread Local Storage (TLS)-An array like collection of pointers giving each thread the ability to allocate storage to create its own unique data environment. and resources. interrupts. Figure 6-1 shows a process with several threads. If you request to update a driver. global variables. This figure is schematic and does not indicate actual memory addresses. you can view device status and set device properties through Device Manager. Applications and system components use and process device messages between the operating system and devices to take advantage of new resources when they become available and to prevent loss of data when existing resources become unavailable. exception handlers. Resources such as open handles and other heaps.Windows Operating System [Group 1] as the current search path. The process heap. nor is it drawn to scale. A context structure. as illustrated in the following figure. and automatic storage. from the creating thread. and a thread has the following elements: A stack for procedure calls. Each thread is independently scheduled. with machine register values. Figure 6-1 A Process and Its Threads Device Management Device management provides a way for Microsoft Windows to uniformly notify all applications and system components of changes that may affect their operation or access to resources. Device Manager displays all devices installed in the system. Applications and device drivers can also define and use custom messages to enable notification of other types of events. environment strings.

assigned to devices Device Manager can be used to check the hardware status and update device drivers on a computer. The Device Manager display is recreated each time the computer is started and whenever a dynamic change to the computer configuration occurs. such as the addition of a new device while the system is running. Device Manager allows you to do the following:          Determine whether the hardware on your computer is working properly Change hardware configuration settings Identify the device drivers that are loaded for each device and obtain information about each device driver Change advanced settings and properties for devices Install updated device drivers Disable. Device Manager cannot be used to change resource 8 .Windows Operating System [Group 1] Device Manager The Device Manager display represents the computer's hardware configuration. such as interrupt requests (IRQs). enable. and uninstall devices Roll back to the previous version of a driver Print a summary of the devices that are installed on the computer Change resources.

these resource assignments can be assigned through Device Manager. When you create data on your computer.Windows Operating System [Group 1] allocation settings. Programs may also enable command-line utilities. (Eg CP1010_Designing_a_Multimedia_Page) 9 . Some hardware cannot handle dynamic resource assignments. Device Manager manages devices on a local computer only. If they are not stored in an ordered. You designate the file name. resources are automatically allocated by the system during hardware setup. but will also have meaning in the future. firstly computer files need to be found. move. at your direction the computer will save it as a file. recover. or compare files and directories. If only there was another copy on another disk. methodical way you may never be able to find them again or a lot of time may be wasted trying to find a particular file.. Secondly. It is also possible to delete important files by mistake . Diskettes. File Management is very important. You should give your file a name that not only has meaning now. CD’s and even hard drives can become corrupted. In order to manage device drivers through Device Manager. However. Software in this category may offer both document management and disk management features. What is a File? Computer information is stored in a file. create a virtual drive. Device Management Architecture The following diagram shows an overview of how device drivers and device management components are organized on a system. convert. monitor free space on your drives. files need to be backed up. or monitor your computer files. you must be a member of the Administrators group.leading to the loss of that important assignment.. Device Manager works only in read-only mode. File Management The File Management category includes software programs designed to manage.human errors occur frequently when a person is very tired . delete. On a remote computer.

For instance. If files were placed in a filing cabinet in no particular order. or H :) and the 10 . to store all your data for the year 2010. (F:) to save or read data from a CD Rom or DVD. you may create a folder called 2010. To see what is in these drives you can double click on the drive (E: F.it is easy to lose an entire assignment or your thesis due to a corrupt disk. My Computer You will have access to save or read data from a removable USB stick. by subject codes. which has a maximum capacity of 20 Gigabyte. Furthermore this space is temporary and all files and documents will be DELETED in the early hours of each morning. It is also really easy to delete a file or forget to save it properly when you are very tired or in a hurry.Windows Operating System [Group 1] Disk/Hard Drives Disk/Hard drives are the storage devices for your files. your disk can be broken up into a series of folders and subfolders. that means that if you place your document on this space ANYONE can look at your documentation. methodical way you may never be able to find them again or a lot of time may be wasted trying to find a particular file. This storage space is communal. to make them easier to locate. in which you can create folders to store your files. You could then save your first assignment for CN3300. Within that folder you could create folders for each of your subjects. Why do files need to be managed? Computer files need to be found.    Removable USB Flash Hard Drives (H :\) Removable CD/CD-Writer/DVD Drives (F :\) Temp Drive (E :\) Temp Drive (Shared) There is a temporary storage space. Folders Folders (directories) are storage units. say CN3300 you could then create other folders such as Assignments and Notes. If they are not stored in an ordered. folders and subfolders. They are therefore placed in drawers. then they would be difficult or even impossible to find. The concept is similar to that of a filing cabinet. Equivalently. Finding this file should then be relatively easy. (H:) to save data to the Share Drive. You could save as One_AssignmentTitleName. Computer files need to be backed up . in the Assignment directory within the CN3300 directory (which is in 2010 directory). Inside your subject folder.

and then from the menu bar choose File and then delete. allowing users to launch installed software. When asked if you want to delete the folder and its contents. Naturally. Unlike ordinary folders. Special folders Apart from ordinary files and folders. The most numerous and familiar of these objects are the folders and files that reside on computer disk drives.Windows Operating System [Group 1] contents of the drive should appear in the Contents Window to the right of the window. To delete the file click the file you want to delete. Once you delete a file in My Computer it's gone for good! User Interface Windows Shell The Windows UI provides users with access to a wide variety of objects necessary for running applications and managing the operating system. on a newly-installed version of Windows. Software installers commonly place files known as shortcuts on the desktop. Deleting Files Click on the file that you wish to delete. It hosts user's wallpaper and an array of computer icons representing: Files and folders Users and software may store computer files and folders on Windows desktop. they may open a folder whose location differs from computer to computer (e. such items do not exist. You can explore further by double clicking on each folder until you ether locate the file you are searching for or the location you wish to save your file in. Otherwise choose No. special folders do not point to an absolute location on a hard disk drive.g.g. Be sure that this is what you want to do before answering yes to the prompts. Documents). The Shell organizes these objects into a hierarchical namespace and provides users and applications with a consistent and efficient way to access and manage objects. Deleting Folders (directories) You can delete a folder and its contents if you wish. special folders (also known as "shell folders") may appear on the desktop. You will be asked if you want to delete this file. Rather. Recycle Bin or Libraries) or 11 . a virtual folder whose contents is an aggregate of several folders on disk (e. Users may store personal documents on the desktop. There are also a number of virtual objects that allow the user to perform tasks such as sending files to remote printers or accessing the Recycle Bin. Desktop Windows Desktop is a full-screen window rendered behind all other windows. Click on the folder that you wish to delete and continue as per Deleting Files. Note that deleting a folder will delete all files and folders within that folder. if you do choose yes and the file will be deleted.

Taskbar Windows taskbar is a toolbar-like element that by default. Once the mouse cursor is hovered upon for a second. 12 . Clicking it again reverts the action. its size can be changed. Invoked by rightclicking on the Start button. and multiple open windows for the same program can be accessed by clicking the program's icon. Until Windows 7. shows the desktop without switching to it. Starting with Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008. Starting with Windows 98.Windows Operating System [Group 1] a folder window whose content is not files. "Show desktop" button: Allows users to access their desktops. network status.g. Windows Desktop Gadgets may appear on the desktop. It may be relocated to the top. Network). the following elements may appear on the taskbar respectively from left to right: Start button: Provides access to the Start menu. Grants access to several frequently used features of Windows.g. but rather user interface elements rendered as icons for convenience (e. or pressing ⊞ Win+X. Control Panel). Action Center. the taskbar can be changed to function more as it does with older versions of Windows. Quick Links menu: Added in Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012. It is added in Windows 7. Starting with Windows 7. date and time are displayed in this area. By default. Windows volume control. appears as a horizontal bar at the bottom of the desktop. Depending on the version of operating system installed. the operating system displayed active windows as a depressed button in this list. Deskbands: Toolbars provided by Windows or other programs for easier access to that program's functions. similar to the desktop. Shortcuts: An update to Windows 95 and Windows NT 4 added a Quick Launch Bar that could hold file shortcuts. the icon for each open window is framed by a translucent box. The taskbar can be configured to stay on top of all applications or to collapse and hide when it is not used. Removed in Windows 8. such as accessing the desktop or File Explorer. These gadgets are discontinued with Windows Server 2012 and Windows 8. Clicking the button dismisses all open windows and transfers the focus to the desktop. Notification area: Allows programs to display icons representing their status as well as pop-up notifications associated with those icons.1. They may even open windows that do not resemble a folder at all (e. only to be reinstated in Windows 8. left or right edges of the screen. However. in favor of the Start charm (see below). List of open windows: Most of the taskbar area is by default dedicated to the list open windows. Not initially visible in Windows 8. Windows 7 merged this area into the list of open windows by adding "pinning" and "jump list" features.

Control Panel.Windows Operating System [Group 1] The charms Windows 8 adds a bar containing a set of five shortcuts known as the "charms". Depending on the version of Windows. behaves similarly to the former Start button "Devices": Sends content to another device. the Start menu was a mean of invoking special folders such as Computer. formerly the Start menu. such as a printer (not installed by default in Windows Server) "Settings": Allows access to system and application settings Except for the "Start". In Windows 8 and 13 . applications. Network. allowing users to launch them. or by swiping from the right edge of a compatible touchpad or touch screen. invoked by moving the mouse cursor into the top or bottom right-hand corners of the screen. The charms consist of: "Search": Searches for files. etc. or content provided by applications "Share": Sends content to another app (not installed by default in Windows Server) "Start": Opens the Start screen. each charm opens a sidebar with options relevant to the application in focus Start screen The Start screen. system settings. the Start screen features the following: Launching applications: The Start screen's primary function is to present a list of shortcuts for installed software. is a form of start menu in Microsoft Windows. as its name suggests. Invoking special folders: Until Windows 8.

Searching: Starting with Windows Vista.1. Ending the user session: Logging off and shutdown has always been a function of the Start menu. only to be brought back in Windows 8. Autoplay Autoplay is a feature introduced in Windows XP that examines newly inserted removable media for content and displays a dialog containing options related to that media. files and folders became a function of the Start menu. which consists of creating a data source (versus consuming the Shell data model) Implementing a subset of the Shell data source tasks Supporting libraries and item views in Windows Explorer Using the common file dialog Implementing Control Panel items Managing notifications The following development scenarios relate to file format ownership: Implementing a subset of the Shell data source tasks Supporting desktop search The following development scenarios relate to data storage ownership: Supporting desktop search and OpenSearch Implementing a subset of the Shell data source tasks (virtual folders) Supporting libraries in Windows Explorer The following development scenario relates to device support:  Auto run and auto play 14 . the only special folder that can be invoked from the Start screen is the desktop. In Windows 8. Shell Development Scenarios The following development scenarios relate to application development:              Extending the Shell.Windows Operating System [Group 1] Windows Server 2012. the shutdown function was moved out of the Start screen. searching for installed software.

85). Retrieved from Answers. (2008).).aspx Windows Shell. (23.com/engb/library/windows/desktop/bb773177(v=vs. Retrieved from www.com/engb/library/cc753280.answers.org/wiki/Windows_shell 15 .aspx Microsoft Windows.org/wiki/Microsoft_Windows Stallings.pdf The Windows Operating System. (2005).microsoft.d. Retrieved from Microsoft Technet: http://technet.wikipedia. Retrieved from MSDN: http://msdn.usal. 08 2014).com: http://www.cs. THE WIINDOWS OPERATIING SYSTEM.wikipedia.com/engb/library/windows/desktop/aa364229(v=vs.85). (n.microsoft.ppt Understanding Processor Management in Windows System Resource Manager.microsoft. Retrieved from Wikipedia: https://en.aspx What is the process management in window 7? (2014). Retrieved from MSDN: http://msdn. (2013). Retrieved from avellano.edu/~gkesden/412-18/fall02/applications/ln/earhart.Windows Operating System [Group 1] Bibliography File Management. W.fis. Retrieved from Wikipedia: https://en.cmu.es/~lalonso/amp_inf/windows. 08 09). (2014).com/Q/What_is_the_process_management_in_window_7 Windows Shell. (2014.

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