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Hybrid and Eco-Friendly Vehicle Conference 2008

The University of Warwick, 8-9 December 2008

Controlled Cooling In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Nik Staunton, Volker Pickert
Newcastle University, UK.
Ryan Maughan
Comesys Europe Ltd., UK.

Hybrid and Eco-Friendly Vehicle Conference 2008 The University of Warwick. 8-9 December 2008 Contents Vehicle cooling – overview of main concept Sources of heat in a hybrid electric vehicle Main differences between traditional heat loads and hybrid-electric heat loads Misconceptions about heat load management Example calculations Benefits to moving to electrically controlled thermal management Conclusion References .

IC was the only source of heat in most road vehicles Heat is removed by forced convection of circulating coolant The cooling system topology for an IC engine has remained unchanged for many years .Hybrid and Eco-Friendly Vehicle Conference 2008 The University of Warwick. 8-9 December 2008 Vehicle Cooling Biggest source of heat – Internal combustion (IC) engine Very inefficient – approximately 40% Until recently.

Hybrid and Eco-Friendly Vehicle Conference 2008 The University of Warwick. 8-9 December 2008 Vehicle Cooling .

Hybrid and Eco-Friendly Vehicle Conference 2008 The University of Warwick.C ~80 deg.C Low heat Medium Heat High Heat . 8-9 December 2008 Sources of Heat in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Power Electronics Traction / Generation Machines M IC Engine G ~50 deg.C ~100 deg.

8-9 December 2008 Two main differences between electric and IC heat loads 1 Operating temperature IC – High temperature Power electronics / machines – relatively low temperature. IC or power electronics / machines? . Limited by semiconductor / magnet ratings 2 Heat load IC – High heat load – Inefficient and the primary source of power Power electronics / machines – relatively low and distributed loads Which is easier to cool.Hybrid and Eco-Friendly Vehicle Conference 2008 The University of Warwick.

8-9 December 2008 Misconceptions Temperature does not infer heat load A low heat load is not necessarily any easier to manage than a high heat load T d p c m Q This is because heat transfer is dependent on temperature change   .Hybrid and Eco-Friendly Vehicle Conference 2008 The University of Warwick.

Hybrid and Eco-Friendly Vehicle Conference 2008 The University of Warwick.100kW Coolant flow 200 l/min Maximum Temperature 90deg. of heat loads: No.C 3 Machines .C . 8-9 December 2008 Example Compare two systems that require cooling: IC engine cooling system HEV cooling system No.3 * 10kW 3 Controllers .3 * 5kW Coolant flow 60 l/min Maximum Temperature limited by power electronics – 55deg. if heat loads: 1 .

8-9 December 2008 Example Combine all heat loads into one cooling circuit .Hybrid and Eco-Friendly Vehicle Conference 2008 The University of Warwick.

C 8.C Drives 55 60 35 45 .2deg.C Engine 90 200 100 45 Machines 55 60 3  10 45   p Heat kW c m Q Coolant Flow l/min T d Temp Deg.C 11. 8-9 December 2008 Example Ambient Deg.1deg.Hybrid and Eco-Friendly Vehicle Conference 2008 The University of Warwick.

  p T d Temperature drop becomes:  3 7 . coolant flow unchanged Complexity and cost increase c m Q C . 8-9 December 2008 Example Solution: Split into separate cooling loops Heat load per loop is lower.Hybrid and Eco-Friendly Vehicle Conference 2008 The University of Warwick.

Hybrid and Eco-Friendly Vehicle Conference 2008 The University of Warwick. 8-9 December 2008 Example 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 Speed 20 Coolant In 10 0 1000 Coolant Out 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 .

8-9 December 2008 Benefits of moving to electrically controlled thermal management system Fan decoupled from engine – benefits parallel drive train Coolant pump decoupled from engine System layout not restricted by proximity to engine crankshaft Increased efficiency of electric loads Fault tolerance Improved vehicle maintenance – heat exchanger cleaning Control strategy optimised for minimum energy consumption – use lowest power consumer first .Hybrid and Eco-Friendly Vehicle Conference 2008 The University of Warwick.

Hybrid and Eco-Friendly Vehicle Conference 2008 The University of Warwick. 8-9 December 2008 Benefits of moving to electrically controlled thermal management system d e e p S  1 2 2     d e e p S 2          2   1 2   2  e z i S d e e p S r e w o P 1 1 3 e z i S r e w o P Power in terms of speed and size ratio 3    e z i S d e e p S y t i c a p a C 1 e z i S y t i c a p a C Capacity in terms of speed and size ratio 1 5 .

Hybrid and Eco-Friendly Vehicle Conference 2008 The University of Warwick. 8-9 December 2008 Conclusion Cooling system complexity increases as operating temperature decreases A new approach to cooling must be taken when managing HEV thermal loads There is a potential to save energy by optimising cooling system topology and control strategy .

Allen. Harbin. 8-9 December 2008 References J. Chalgren. Bryant. Krieger Publishing. A. “Assessment of Advanced Thermal Management Systems for Micro-Hybrid Trucks and Heavy Duty Diesel Vehicles”. IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference. 1998 R. Chorus Motors W. W. R. SAE Paper 2005-01-2020 R. D. M. Edelson. P. J. V. Sichel. London. “A Mini-Hybrid Transit Bus with Electrified Cooling System”. Siebert. Maughan. Bedogne. Klein. September 2008 . A. L. Pickert. Kays. China. Y. “Facing the Challenges of the Current Hybrid Electric Drivetrain”.Hybrid and Eco-Friendly Vehicle Conference 2008 The University of Warwick. Steinmetz. T. SAE Paper 2006-01-3475 N. R. A. D. Staunton. “Compact Heat Exchangers”. “Light Duty Diesel Advanced Thermal Management”. Page.