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INGLES BÁSICO I

DOCENTES
Dr Fernando Cornejo Sánchez
Lic Carmen Castañeda Chau
Lic Doris López Astocondor

2014 - II

UNIT

Do you have fever?
Warm –ups
1

1

Look at the following pictures and answer the following questions
what do they feel?
What do think they are their symptoms ?

Reading
2

Read the following dialogue and answer the following questions
Booking a Doctor's Appointment
Receptionist: Doctor's office. Jane speaking. How can I help you?
Caller: I need to make an appointment with Dr. Harris.
Receptionist: Do you know your chart number?
Caller: No, sorry. It's at home and I'm at work right now.
Receptionist: No problem. What's your name, please?
Caller: George Mason.
Receptionist: Okay Mr. Mason. Hold one moment while I grab your chart, please.
Caller: Sure.
Receptionist: Thanks for waiting. Now, what do you need to see the doctor about?
Caller: Well, I Have a cold , and I think I have a chest infection or something. My
cough is getting worse each day.
Receptionist: Hmm. Doctor Harris is off tomorrow. Do you think it can wait until
Wednesday?
Caller: Oh, it is urgent. I feel bad
Receptionist: No problem, I will help you.
Check your understanding
1. Why does the caller phone the doctor's office?
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a) He's running late for his
appointment.
b) He's booking an appointment with Dr.
Harris.
2. Which is true about George
Mason?
a) He has a bad cold.
b) he
sneezes
c) he has a stomachache d) he
bruises

c) He can't remember his chart
number.
d) His medication ran out.

.

Grammar

3

In this unit you are going to learn about the simple present tense . Look at the
following chart and do the following activities
SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
TO HAVE
Affirmative statements
SUBJECT
VERB
COMPLEMENT
I
have
fever
You
have
a cold stiff neck
We
have
a sunburn
They
have
He
has
fever
She
has
a cold
It
has
a stiff neck

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Have a headache
Have an earache
Have a toothache
Have a stomachache
Have a backache
Have a sore throat
Have fever

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8. Have a cold
9. Have a cough
10. Have a virus
11. Have an infection
12. Have a rash
13. Have an insect bite
14. Have a sunburn
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15. Have a stiff neck
16. Have a runny nose
17. Have a bloody nose
18. Have a cavity
19. Have a wart
20. Have (the) hiccups
SUBJECT
AUXILIARY
I
do not / don’t
You
We
They
He
does not /
She
doesn’t
It
INTERROGATIVE STATEMENTS
AUXILIARY
SUBJECT
Do

Does

I
you
we
they
he
she
it
AUXILIARY

“WH”
QUESTION
WORDS
How often do

When
Why

does
does

VERB

have
have
have
have
have
have
have
SUBJECT

I
you
we
they
he
she
it

21. Have (the) chills
22. Have cramps
23. Have diarrhea
24. Have chest pain
25. Have shortness of breath
26. Have laryngitis
VERB
COMPLEMENT
have
fever
have
a cold
have
a stiff neck
have
a sunburn
have
fever
have
a cold
have
a stiff neck

COMPLEMENT

QUESTION
MARK
?

fever
a cold
a stiff neck
a sunburn
fever
?
a cold
a stiff neck
VERB
COMPLEMENT QUESTION
MARK
have
have
have
have
have
have
have

fever
a cold
a stiff neck
a sunburn
fever
a cold
a stiff neck

?

?

TO BE

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27. Be faint/weak
28. Be dizzy
29. Feel nauseous

30. Be bloated
31. Be congested
32. Be exhausted

TYPE OF
SENTENCE

SUBJECT

AUXILIARY
VERB

+

I

am

a patient.

+

You

are

a physician.

-

She

is

not

insane.

-

We

are

not

swollen.

?

Is

he

weak.

?

Are

they

vitamins?

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NEGATIVE
FORM

COMPLEMENT

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OTHER VERBS

33. Cough
34. Sneeze
35. Wheeze
36. Burp
37. Vomit/throw up
38. Bleed
39. Twist
40. Sprain
41. Dislocate
42. Scratch
43. Scrape
44. Bruise
45. Burn
46. Break
47. Hurt
48. Cut
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49. Swell
50. Itch

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A.

ACTIVITIES
CHANGE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES INTO THE APPROPRIATE FORM.

-

affirmative sentences

-

negative sentences

?

interrogative sentences

1)
She has a cold or allergies (?)
__________________________________________________________________
2)
They sneeze every minute (-)
__________________________________________________________________
3)
My sister doesn’t cough (+)
_________________________________________________________________
4)
My husband is dizzy (?)
__________________________________________________________________
5)
Does he feel nauseous? (+)
__________________________________________________________________
6)
His brother is exhausted (-)
__________________________________________________________________
7)
You aren’t a good dentist (?)
__________________________________________________________________
8)
I don’t wait for anybody (+)
__________________________________________________________________
9)
It itches badly (-)
__________________________________________________________________
10) They aren’t here (+)
__________________________________________________________________
B.
PUT IN ORDER THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES.
1.
in / friends / I / have / don’t / class/ this / many.
__________________________________________________________________
2.
hospital / to / go / to / They / the / want.
__________________________________________________________________

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3.
aren’t / These / your / patients.
_________________________________________________________________
4.
need / I / a / don’t / psychologist
__________________________________________________________________
5.
burp / he / vomit /?/ Does / and/ often
__________________________________________________________________
C.
FIND THE MISTAKES IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES AND REWRITE
THEM.
1.
He don’t have measles
__________________________________________________________________
2.
The patients is dizzies
__________________________________________________________________
3.
Pediatrist ckeck children
__________________________________________________________________
4.
We has a sunburn and you feel nauseous
__________________________________________________________________
5.
Do she work in those medical facility?
__________________________________________________________________

write and speak
4

Write down a dialogue using the simple present tense and the vocabulary from
this unit . then act it out .Help Appendix A Communicating with patients .

our links
5

Here you have some link to practice the grammar from this unit.
http://www.englischhilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/simple_present_statements2.htm
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/questions/simple_present.htm
http://www.englischhilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/simple_present_negation_long.htm

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UNIT
HOSPITAL FACILITIES
Warm –ups

1

2

Look at the following pictures and answer the following questions
what can you see on the picture 1?
What can you see on the picture 2 ?
What can you see on the picture 3 ?

Reading

2

Read the following dialogue and answer the following questions

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ESSENTIAL FACILITIES
A NURSING HOME

Choosing a maternity hospital or nursing home for the birth of your baby can be
time consuming. There are so many factors to consider such as distance from your
home, how much it costs, what facilities they offer, the quality of medical staff and
so on.
You naturally want the best for you and your baby, but finding something suitable
within your budget is not always easy. To help you make your choice, we have
listed out five facilities that must be present so that you and your newborn can be
properly cared for. When you take a tour of the maternity hospitals or nursing
homes on your list, ask yourself the following five questions:
1. Is there a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)?
If your baby is premature, or unwell after she is born, she might need special
medical care. To handle such situations, the hospital or nursing home of your
choice should have a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) . As well as having
special medical equipment like incubators, feeding tubes, phototherapy lights,
respiratory monitors, and cardiac monitors, the NICU should have staff trained to
care for very small or ill babies.
2. Do they have access to a blood bank?
Having access to a blood bank is vital. If you bleed excessively after the birth, you
will need to be given a blood transfusion. Do make sure well in advance that the
hospital or nursing home you choose to deliver at has access to your blood type
and the quantity available is sufficient. If the hospital has its own blood bank, you
can enquire about its cleanliness, power arrangements and accessibility.
You should also check that medical equipment such as needles are opened in front
of you and then destroyed after use. Some hospitals only release blood from their
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bank if some is donated. The person donating blood does not necessarily need to
be of the same blood type as you. It is best to agree with a family member or friend
beforehand on who will donate blood if required.
3. What is the hygiene standard?
A good indication of the quality of a hospital or nursing home is the level of hygiene
of the equipment, staff, rooms and bathrooms. While taking a tour of a nursing
home or hospital try and check what the level of hygiene is.
 Is the linen changed regularly?
 Is the food prepared hygienically?
 Are the rooms cleaned daily?
 Is the medical equipment sterilized?
1 which factors do you need to choose a nursing home?
…………………………………………………………………
2.What kind of Nicu do premature babies need?
……………………………………………………………….
3. Which conditions do you need in a blood bank?
……………………………………………………….
4. do you need to take a tour before choosing a nursing home ? why
……………………………………………………………………………..

Grammar
3

In this unit you are going to learn about there is – there are and preposition of
location. Look at the following chart and do the following activities
THERE IS/ THERE ARE
Both expressions are used to state the something exists or to point out something
in the distance.
There is/There are can be used as the sentences subject.
1. "There is" - is used with the following subjects:
 Singular nouns
 Uncountable nouns
 3rd person singular (he, she, my physician, his outpatient, etc.).
Examples:
There is my specialist on the corner.
There is a lot of blood on the highway. There must have been an accident.
There is a fracture here.
2. "There are" - is used with the following subjects:
 3rd person plural (they, my doctors, the nurses, the practitioners, etc.)
Examples:
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There are many nurses in this nursing station.
There are practitioners there.
There are three sites on the internet that are really good to study Medical English.
PREPOSITIONS

ACTIVITIES
A.

THERE IS/THERE ARE. Choose the appropriate expression from the
parentheses.
1. ___________ a fly in that doctor's soup.
(There is, There are)
2. ______________many health centers in Huaycan.
(There isn't, There aren't)
3. ________________ any viruses in this area.
(There isn't, There aren't)
4. _____________________ lots of clinics in big cities.
(There is, There are)
5. ______________ a blood bank here?
(Is there, Are there)
6. _________________ survivors in the mine?
(Is there, Are there)
7. _____________________ a blood donor I can call?
(Is there, Are there)
8. _______________ an important surgery tomorrow.
(There is, There are)
9. _____________________ 8 students in my Medical English class.
(There is, There are)
10._________________________ many inpatients in this hospital.
(There isn't, There aren't)

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Medical Specialists
Medical specialists are experts in certain fields of medicine. They treat specific
parts of the body, such as the stomach or the heart, or they specialize in certain
diseases, such as AIDS. Family doctors keep a list of local specialists and can help
patients choose the right specialist for each medical issue. In many cases,
specialists require a referral from a family doctor before they will see a patient.
Here is a list of the most common types of specialists. Study the list and then
check your understanding by taking the quiz.
Allergist: specializes in determining food and environmental allergies
Anesthesiologist: specializes in pain prevention during surgery
Cardiologist: heart specialist
Chiropractor: back specialist
Dentist: tooth specialist
Dermatologist: skin specialist
Fertility specialist: helps people who have difficulty getting pregnant
Gynecologist: specializes in women's needs
Massage therapist: specializes in muscle relaxation
Midwife: helps women deliver babies in a natural way
Naturopath: specializes in natural cures and remedies
Neurologist: brain specialist
Obstetrician: specialist for pregnant women
Occupational therapist: specializes in workplace health
Oncologist: tumor specialist, including cancer
Ophthalmologist: specializes in eye diseases
Pediatrician: specialist for babies and children
Physical therapist: specializes in the body's movement
Podiatrist: foot specialist
Psychiatrist: specialist in mental health
Radiologist: specializes in imaging tests
ACTIVITIES
A.
Read the patient complaints and say which specialist each patient
needs.
1. I have a terrible rash on my arms and legs. I think I'm allergic to dairy food, but it
also might be grass.
a) chiropractor
c) allergist
b) ophthalmologist
d) psychiatrist
2. My husband and I just took a home pregnancy test, and it came out positive. We
want to know when we are due and we want to make sure the fetus is healthy.
a) podiatrist
c) obstetrician
b) pediatrician
d) pharmacist
3. I still can't walk and it's been three months since my accident. I hate being stuck in
a wheelchair.
a) anesthesiologist
c) radiologist
b) physical therapist
d) dentist
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4. The test results show that I have an advanced form of blood cancer.
a) oncologist
c) midwife
b) neurologist
d) allergist
5. My left eye has an infection that won't go away and my vision has been blurry for
two weeks now.
a) podiatrist
c) ophthalmologist
b) massage therapist
d) radiologist
6. I don't want to take any drugs that will cause me to become addicted to them, but I
do need some sort of pain relief.
a) naturopath
c) cardiologist
b) dentist
d) dermatologist
7. I've been having major chest pains this week. I'm also having trouble breathing.
a) gynecologist
c) oncologist
b) cardiologist
d) dermatologist
8. I get terrible acne and I have tried all of the products in the pharmacy. I don't
know what to do now.
a) massage therapist
c) occupational therapist
b) podiatrist
d) dermatologist
9. My baby is not developing properly. She hasn't put on any weight in two months
and she keeps getting ear infections.
a) anesthesiologist
c) midwife
b) pediatrician
d) massage therapist
10. My husband and I have been trying to get pregnant for three years. We have tried
everything that the books suggest.
a) fertility specialist
c) psychiatrist
b) oncologist
d) dentist
B. Which are they specialties? Choose the right word for each number.

write and speak
X-ray technician; gynecologist; psychiatrist; emergency medical technician; surgeon; pediatrician;

a dialogue
using theobstetrician;
simple present
,there
/ there
are and the
optometrist,
dentist;tense
doctor;
nurse;islab
technician.
4 Write downcardiologist;
vocabulary from this unit . then act it out .Help Appendix A Communicating with
patients

Our links
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5

Here you have some link to practice the grammar from this unit
http://www.adelescorner.org/grammar/there_is/thereis.html
http://www.english-room.com/index.php?option=com_wrapper&Itemid=34

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UNIT

THE HEAD
Warm –ups
1

3

Look at the following pictures and answer the following questions
1 is the frontal bone underneath the skull?
2 Is the mandible at the bottom of the person´s head ?
3 Are temporals at the sides of the head?

Reading
2 Read the following dialogue and answer the following questions
BONES OF THE HEAD AND NECK
The bones of the head and neck play the vital role of supporting the brain, sensory
organs, nerves, and blood vessels of the head and protecting these structures from
mechanical damage. Movements of these bones by the attached muscles of the
head provide for facial expressions, eating, speech, and head movement.
The skull consists of 22 cranial and facial bones, which, with the exception of the
mandible, are tightly fused together. The skull encases and protects the brain as
well as the special sense organs of vision, hearing, balance, taste and smell....
Attachment points for the muscles of the head and neck are located on the
exterior surfaces of the skull and allow for important movement like chewing,
speech, and facial expressions. Teeth are rooted into deep sockets in the mandible
and maxillary bones. The upper portions of the digestive and respiratory tracts are
also housed within the hollow oral and nasal cavities of the skull.
Another important bone of the head and neck is the hyoid bone. The hyoid is
closely associated with the skull but is a “floating bone” that does not form a joint
with any other bone. It anchors muscles of the tongue and throat and holds open
the larynx of the respiratory tract. The auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, and
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stapes) of each ear are also bones in the head separate from the skull. They form
a bridge connecting the eardrum to the inner ear and function to transmit vibrations
between these parts.
The 7 cervical vertebrae form the bones of the neck that support the skull and
organs of the head. The first cervical vertebra (atlas) supports and balances the
head. The second vertebra (axis) allows the head to rotate laterally to the left and
the right. Hollow spaces within the cervical vertebrae protect and conduct the
spinal cord and vertebral arteries through the neck. Muscle attachment sites on the
cervical vertebrae provide movement and posture to the head and neck.
1. How many cranial bones are there in the skull?
……………………………………………………..
2. What is the function of the skull?
………………………………………………………
3. Where are the teeth located ?
………………………………………………………
4. What is the function of the hyoid bone?
………………………………………………………
5. What is the function of atlas and axis ?
………………………………………………………….

Grammar
3 In this unit you are going to learn about the present progressive . Look at the
following chart and do the following activities

Present Progressive
We use the present continuous tense to talk about:
 action happening now
 action in the future
SUBJECT

AUXILIARY VERB

MAIN VERB

COMPLEMENT

+

I

am

examining

a patient.

+

You

are

prescribing

the medicine

-

She

is

not

sleeping

-

We

are

not

coughing

?

Is

he

vaccinating

the children?

?

Are

they

taking

vitamins?

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in the hospital.

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ACTIVITIES
A.
Complete the following sentences with the present continuous.
1. The doctors _______________ (vaccinate) the children right now.
2. The gynecologist ________________________ (examine) Lucia these days.
3. The doctor __________________ (prescribe) medicines right now.
4. Listen! Michael_____________________ (cough) a lot.
5. I ______________________ (drink) cough syrup at this moment.
6. Jake _________________________ (suffer) a terrible disease.
7. Doctor, ______________________ you ________________ (cure) Mr. Baker?
8. Look! A biologist _____________________ (analyze) a microbe.
9. My children __________________________ (catch) a cold.
10. _______________ you _______________(arrange ) an appointment?

Write and speak
4

Write down a dialogue using the present progressive and the vocabulary from this
unit . then act it out .Help Appendix A Communicating with patients

Our links
5

Here you have some link to practice the grammar from this unit
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/presentprogressive/form/exercises?form02
http://www.englischhilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/present_progressive_statements_long.htm
http://www.englischhilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/present_progressive_statements_long.htm

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UNIT

Digestive System
Warm –ups
1

4

Look at the following pictures and answer the following questions Which organ is
it?

Reading
2

Read the following dialogue and answer the following questions
Main Structures of the Digestive System
The digestive tract is a long continuous tube that starts with the mouth and ends
with the anus. It includes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine,
and large intestine. The tongue and teeth located in the mouth are accessory
structures. The salivary glands, gallbladder, liver, and pancreas are the other
accessory organs of the digestive system that secretes digestive enzymes into the
digestive tract that are involved in the process of digestion.
Mouth: The mouth contains tongue and teeth. With the help of these the food is
chewed (broken into tiny pieces) and mixes with saliva (secreted by salivary
glands)
Pharynx: Is a funnel shaped opening through which the food from mouth passes
to esophagus.
Esophagus: Is a long tubular structure that with the help of peristalsis movement
passes food to the stomach.
Stomach: A large sac-like structure that holds the food for a while where it gets
mixed with the hydrochloric acid and gastric juice.
Small intestine: It is a long muscular tube that is divisible into the duodenum, the
jejunum, and ileum. Secretions of liver, gallbladder, and pancreas are passed into
the small intestine, where the major part of the digestion occurs.
Large intestine: Minor part of the digestion occurs in large intestine and is
divisible into cecum, colon, and rectum. Reabsorption of water and absorption of
food material takes place in large intestine.
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Anus: The indigested food is excreted out through anus.
Liver: Liver is the largest organ of the human body and it is involved in synthesis
and secretion of bile that plays a role in emulsification of fats. Liver secreted from
live is stored in gallbladder, from which it flows into small intestine.
Pancreas: Pancreas secretes pancreatic juice.
Answer the questions
What is the function of the esophagus ?
………………………………………………………………………….
What is the function of stomach?
………………………………………………………………………….
What is the function of the liver ?
………………………………………………………………………….

Grammar
3

In this unit you are going to learn about the plural form of nouns . Look at the
following chart and do the following activities

CASE
General rule

When nouns end in
-ch, -x, -s, -sh, -z or
s-like sounds

PLURAL FORM OF NOUNS
DESCRIPTION
STRUCTURE
OF THE RULE
The plural form
NOUN + “-S”
of most nouns is
created simply by
adding the letter
“s” to the end of
the word.
The plural is
NOUN + “-ES”
formed by adding
“es”

Nouns ending in “o” When they are
preceded by a
consonant.
Except: newly
created words or
words with
Spanish or Italian
origin.
Medical English 1

NOUN + “-ES”

NOUN + “-S”

EXAMPLE
minute - minutes

church - churches
box -boxes
index -= indexes ( also
indices)
gas - gases
bush - bushes
ass -asses
quiz – quizzes
potato - potatoes
tomato – tomatoes
volcano - volcanoes
photo - photos
piano - pianos
portico - porticos

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Noun ending in “y”

Noun ending in “f”
or “fe”

When they are
preceded by a
consonant, they
drop the “y” and
add “ies”

NOUN – “Y” +”
IES”

party - parties
lady - ladies

When they are
preceded by a
VOWEL, add a
“s”
Drop the “f” or
“fe” and add
“ves”

NOUN + “-S”

Boy - boys
Toy - toys
Ray – rays

NOUN – “F” +
VES

calf – calves
half - halves
wolf - wolves
wife – wives

NOUN – “FE” +
VES
NOUN – IS + ES

Nouns ending in
“is”

Drop the “-is”
and add “-es”

Irregular plural

Some nouns
change their
structure to form
their plural form.

ODD PLURAL
FORM

Identical singular
and plural form

Some nouns
have identical
plural and
singular forms,
although they are
still considered
to have a plural
form.
These nouns
exist only in the
plural form and
take a plural
verb.

NO CHANGE

In compound
nouns the plural
ending is usually

MAIN NOUN + -S

Collective words or
nouns associated
with two parts.

Compound nouns

Medical English 1

ONLY PLURAL
FORM

crisis - crises
hypothesis - hypotheses
oasis - oases
child - children
ox - oxen
man – men
woman - women
person - people
foot - feet
tooth - teeth
mouse - mice
louse - lice
aircraft - aircraft
fish - fish
sheep - sheep
deer - deer
species - species
headquarters headquarters
cattle
scissors
trousers
tweezers
congratulations
pajamas
court martial - courts
martial
son-in-law - sons-in-law
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Uncountable noun

added to the
main noun.
Uncountable
nouns on the
other hand have
no plural form
and take a
singular verb (is /
was ...).

passer-by - passers-by
NO PLURAL
FORM

advice
information
luggage
headquarters headquarters
news - news

NOTES:
Third person of singular in simple present tense conjugation uses the same rules
that plural forms.
1 GRAMMAR
A. Write the s plural form of the following words.
1. thesis

____________

11. watch

______________

2. stimulus

____________

12. mountain

______________

3. alumnus

____________

13. louse

______________

4. loaf

____________

14. family

______________

5. medium

____________

15. shelf

______________

6. crisis

____________

16. cloud

______________

7. veto

____________

17. area

______________

8. fireman

____________

18. photo

______________

9. diagnosis

____________

19. home

______________

10. ox

____________

20. logo

______________

B. Next to each word in the list, write correctly the plural for that word. If that
word cannot be pluralized because it's a non-count noun, write the letter X.
1. man

________________

2. furniture

________________

3. experience

________________

4. Kennedy

________________

5. ski

________________

6. gas

________________

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7. box

________________

8. peace

________________

9. cactus

________________

10. criterion

________________

11. baby

________________

12. memo

________________

13. work

________________

14. self

________________

15. applause

________________

16. dancing

________________

17. 1990

________________

18. aluminum

________________

19. fax

________________

20. roof

________________

21. fish

________________

22. child

________________

23. difficulty

________________

24. knowledge

________________

25. goose

________________

26. video

________________

27. curriculum

________________

28. biology

________________

29. URL

________________

30. dish

________________

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C. Write the plural form of the following medical nouns.
1.

mouth

______________

2.

pharynx

______________

3.

anus

______________

4.

trachea

______________

5.

pancreas

______________

6.

enzyme

______________

7.

duodenum

______________

8.

cecum

______________

9.

rectum

______________

10.

bronchus

______________

Write and speak
4 Write down a dialogue using the vocabulary from this unit . then act it out .Help
Appendix A Communicating with patients

Our links
5 Here you have some link to practice the grammar from this unit
http://babelnet.sbg.ac.at/themepark/castle/pluralform.htm

http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-exerciseplural.php#.UzhLFKh5N6k

UNIT
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Warm –ups

5

Look at the following picture and answer the following questions:
What is the picture about?
Do you know these parts of the body?

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Page1

Reading
2

WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM?
When you breathe in and out, your respiratory system is working. The respiratory
system if made up of various organs that allow you to take in oxygen and expel carbon
dioxide. If you don’t have oxygen, and you can’t get rid of carbon dioxide, your body
can’t live for longer than a few minutes. Which organs make up the respiratory
system? What are the functions of the respiratory system?

What Are the Components of the Respiratory System?
The respiratory system is made up of several organs that work in tandem to help you
breathe. If something goes wrong with one of these organs, then the rest of them don’t
work as well. The list below includes the various components of your respiratory
system.

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Major Organs

Nose, mouth, larynx, pharynx, trachea, lungs,
bronchi

Upper Respiratory
Tract

The nose, nasal cavity, sinuses (ethmoid, frontal,
maxillary, and sphenoid). Larnyx and trachea.

Lower Respiratory
Tract

The lungs, airways (bronchi and bronchioles), and
air sacs, or alveoli.

What Is the Function of the Respiratory System?
Each part of your body works together seamlessly to create the breathing that you
need to survive. Here are the functions of the respiratory system and how each organ
works in tandem with the rest to create seamless, effortless breathing.
1. Breathing-Inhalation and Exhalation
The Act of Breathing:
When you inhale air through your nose or mouth, it goes straight to the trachea, or
windpipe. Just below that, the trachea divided into several tubes known as bronchial
tubes. The air you breathe goes into these, then into bronchioles in the lungs, which
are even smaller tubes. The air then fills little sacs in the lungs, called alveoli. There
are over 300 million of these in the typical human body.
The alveoli are surrounded by tiny blood vessels. These blood vessels suck the
oxygen out of the air you have just taken in and send it to the blood, where it goes to
the heart, where it is then pumped around your body to give your cells the oxygen they
need.
As this happens, carbon dioxide is formed. The blood carries that back to your lungs,
where the process reverses. When you breathe out, you are exhaling the carbon
dioxide that was created inside your body. With each breath, the process continues.
Role of Diaphragm in Breathing:
One of the most important components of your body is the diaphragm. This is a large
muscle shaped like a dome that sits right underneath your lungs. When you take a
breath, the diaphragm pushes downward, creating a vacuum that then sucks the air
into your lungs. When you exhale, the diaphragm pushes upward and outward, forcing
the carbon dioxide from your body. An injury to the diaphragm can make it difficult to
breathe, even if there is nothing wrong with the rest of your respiratory system.
2. Clearing the Air
The respiratory system also plays defense for you. The nose is filled with tiny hairs
that filter out large particles. These hairs are also found among the air passages,
where they move back and forth to “sweep” the air clean. The mucus produced in your
respiratory system works to trap foreign invaders, such as bacteria, and prevent it from
going deeper into your body. Finally, the things that do get past these defense
systems can be coughed up from the lungs and expelled.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
Why Do I Yawn?
When you are sleepy or drowsy the lungs do not take enough oxygen from the air.
This causes a shortage of oxygen in our bodies. The brain senses this shortage of
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oxygen and sends a message that causes you to take a deep long breath - a YAWN.
Why Do I Sneeze?
Sneezing is like a cough in the upper breathing passages. It is the body's way of
removing an irritant from the sensitive mucous membranes of the nose. Many things
can irritate the mucous membranes. Dust, pollen, pepper or even a cold blast of air are
just some of the many things that may cause you to sneeze.
What Causes Hiccups?
Hiccups are the sudden movements of the diaphragm. It is involuntary. You have no
control over hiccups, as you well know. There are many causes of hiccups. The
diaphragm may get irritated, you may have eaten to fast, or maybe some substance in
the blood could even have brought on the hiccups.

Grammar
3 In this unit you are going to learn about the imperative. Look at the following chart and
do the following activities

THE IMPERATIVE
(imperativo)
Es usado para expresar órdenes, avisos y recomendaciones.
Imperativo en afirmativo:
Verbo en infinitivo sin sujeto y sin "to".






Go!
Come here!
Speak up!
Shut up!
Sit down!
Stand up!
Wake up!

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

!vaya!
¡ven aquí!
¡Habla más fuerte!
¡Cállate!
¡Siéntate!
¡Levántate!
¡Despierta!

Imperativo en negativo:
Don't + verbo en infinitivo sin sujeto y sin "to".





Don't shout!
Don't worry
Don’t move!
Don't open the window!
Don't eat the orange!
Don’t smoke!

Medical English 1

= ¡No grites!
= ¡No te preocupes!
= ¡No te muevas!
= ¡No abras la ventana!
= ¡No comas la naranja!
= ¡No fumas!
Page4

El imperativo de primera persona del plural
Se utiliza cuando te quieres incluir tú mismo en la orden
Let's + verbo en infinitivo y sin "to".




Let's play.
Let's study
Let’s sing
Let's find a solution
Let's revise the lesson

= Juguemos.
= Estudiemos.
= Cantemos.
= encontremos una solución
= revisemos la lección

Estructura negativa de let's:
Let's + not + verbo en infinitivo sin "to".


Let's not do it
Let's not play
Let's not write

= No lo hagamos.
= No juguemos.
= No escribamos.

SELECT THE CORRECT ALTERNATIVE
1. ______ up! We'll be late for the party.
a)
Don't hurry
b) Hurry you

c) Hurry

2. _____ your books. We'll need them in class today.
a)
Forget not
b) Don't forget

c) Forget

3. _____ that music! I can't hear you.
a)
Turn down
b) Turn up

c) Don't turn down

4. _____. I'm trying to concentrate.
a)
Are you quiet
b) Be quiet

c) Be you quiet

5. Please _____ your seats. Class will begin soon.
a)
takes
b) take

c) you take

6. _____ time before the exam.
a)
Don't you waste
b) Don't waste

c) Waste not

7. _____ to the end of this street and turn left.
a)
Drives
b) Drive

c) Drive you

8. _____ early for work tomorrow.
a)
Arrives
b) Do you arrive

c) Arrive

9. ______. I'll help you.
a)
Worry not

c) Don't worry

Medical English 1

b) Don't you worry

Page5

10. _____ your exam in 15 minutes.
a)
Finish
b) Finishes

c) You Finish

PUT IN ORDER TO MAKE SENTENCES
1. to / supermarket / go / don't / the.
……………………………………………………………………………………………….
2. first / street / take / the
……………………………………………………………………………………………….
3. don't / road / cross / this
……………………………………………………………………………………………….
4. down / go / avenue / this
……………………………………………………………………………………………….
5. right / turn / don't.
……………………………………………………………………………………………….

FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH THE IMPERATIVE FORM.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

________________ upstairs! (to go)
________________ during the lesson. (not/to talk)
________________ the instructions. (to read)
________________ soccer near the windows. (not to play)
________________ your teeth. (to brush)
________________ the animals in the zoo. (not / to feed)
________________ your mobiles. (swich off)

Write and speak
4 Write down a dialogue using the imperative form and the vocabulary from this unit.
Then act it out.

Our links
5 Here you have some links to practice the grammar from this unit.
http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/330/grammar/imperat1.htm
http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-exercise-imperative.php
http://www.newhealthguide.org/What-Is-The-Function-Of-The-Respiratory-System.html

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UNIT
READING COMPREHENSION
Read the following text and answer the questions below.

6

Human Digestive System
How does food get digested?
Digestion involves mechanical as well as chemical changes in the food taken.
Mechanical alteration is brought about by teeth, grinding organs and muscular
contraction of stomach and intestinal walls. Breaking food into small pieces increases
the surface area exposed to the enzymes of digestive juices.

INTRODUCTION OF FOOD DIGESTION PROCESS
Chemical changes, whether in protozoans or in animals from sponges to man, involve
cleaving of complex, insoluble macro molecules into simpler, soluble sub units, and
are brought about by the action of enzyme.
Food Digestion Process
Food Intake: Different organisms obtain food in different ways but carry out similar
reactions. To take food, protozoans use pseudopodia, flagella or cilia; sponges and
muscles use a current of water; hydra uses tentacles beset with stinging cells;
planarians and earthworms use a muscular pharynx; flukes and leeches use oral
succer.
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Digestive System and process: Parts of the body concerned with the uptake and
digestion of food and elimination of indigestible remains from the digestive system,
also called elementary system. The digestive system consists of two sets of organs:
Alimentary canal: It is a tube comprising many specialized organs. It provides and
helps in the process of:
(i)An inlet, the mouth, to ingest food
(ii)A cavity, the lumen, where food is digested
(iii)A surface for the absorption of digested food
(iv)A space where indigestible remains are changed in to faeces
(v)An outlet the anus for elimination of faeces.
Digestive glands and their function in the process: These are the structures
associated with the different regions of the alimentary canal. They sent into the
digestive track their secretions which contains enzyme and other materials to help in
the digestion of food. Most of the alimentary canal and certain digestive glands are
supported and held in place by mesenteries, the double sheets of peritoneum with a
layer of connective tissues in between.
Summary for Food Digestion Process
The digestive system serves three major functions are:
1. Nutrition: The digestive track primarily serves to provide food to the tissues to the
body.
2. Breathing: The interior part of the alimentary canal also plays a role in respiration in
the chordates.
3. Excretion: The digestive system brings about sum excretion too. Excretion is the
elimination of unwanted materials from the body.
QUESTIONS
1. Does digestion only involve mechanical changes?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
2. Why are enzymes important during the digestion process?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
3. Which is the final step of the digestion process?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
4. How is the alimentary canal supported?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

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2. Matching
Match the numbers with the letters
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.




Cleave
Intake
Lumen
Faeces
Canal

a) excrement
b) the cavity of a tubular organ or part
c) tube
d) the amount taken in
e) divide

ON-LINE EXERCISES
The following links could provide you further information and resources on plural form.
Find mistakes
http://www.englishteststore.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=707:F
ind-Mistakes-Basic-Level-Test-001&catid=117:find-mistakes&Itemid=365
Plural forms
http://www.learnenglishfeelgood.com/english-grammar-nouns-plural3.html
http://www.clafoti.com/Imagenes/PLURALNOUNS.htm
http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/quizzes/cross/plurals_gap.htm

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UNIT
THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
Warm –ups
1

7

Look at the following picture and answer the following question
Do you know this organ?
Do you know that our blood circulate through it?

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Reading
THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

2

The circulatory system is made up of the vessels and the muscles that help and
control the flow of the blood around the body. This process is called circulation. The
main parts of the system are the heart, arteries, capillaries and veins.
As blood begins to circulate, it leaves the heart from the left ventricle and goes into the
aorta. The aorta is the largest artery in the body. The blood leaving the aorta is full of
oxygen. This is important for the cells in the brain and the body to do their work. The
oxygen rich blood travels throughout the body in its system of arteries into the smallest
arterioles.
On its way back to the heart, the blood travels through a system of veins. As it reaches
the lungs, the carbon dioxide (a waste product) is removed from the blood and replace
with fresh oxygen that we have inhaled through the lungs.

Arteries
Arteries are tough, elastic tubes that carry blood away from the heart. As the arteries
move away from the heart, they divide into smaller vessels. The largest arteries are
about as thick as a thumb. The smallest arteries are thinner than hair. These thinner

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arteries are called arterioles. Arteries carry bright red blood! The color comes from the
oxygen that it carries.
Veins
Veins carry the blood to the heart. The smallest veins, also called venules, are very
thin. They join larger veins that open into the heart. The veins carry dark red blood that
doesn't have much oxygen. Veins have thin walls. They don't need to be as strong as
the arteries because as blood is returned to the heart, it is under less pressure
Heart
Did you know that your heart is the strongest muscle? Your heart is divided into two
sides. The right side pumps blood to your lungs where it picks up oxygen. The left side
pumps oxygen-soaked blood out to your body. They do not work on their own, but
together as a team. The body's blood is circulated through the heart more than 1,000
times per day. Between five and six thousand quarts of blood are pumped each day.
Your heart is about the same size as your fist.
Blood is thicker than water and has a little bit salty taste. In an adult body there is 10.6
pints of blood circulating around. In their blood there is billions of living blood cells
floating in a liquid called plasma. If you took a small sample of this blood and poured it
into a test tube and then put it in a machine called a centrifuge, you would be able to
see the layers of this blood. This machine spins the blood around so fast that it
separates the red blood cells, from the white blood cells, from the platelets. The red
blood cells sink to the bottom because they are the heavier, more solid parts, but the
plasma remains at the top because it is lighter. The plasma is 95% water and the other
5% is made up of dissolved substances including salts.

Grammar
3 In this unit you are going to learn about the object pronouns, demonstrative adjectives
and demonstrative pronouns, possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns. Look at
the following charts and do the following activities.
PRONOUNS
A pronoun is a word that can be used instead of another word.
Examples:
The X-ray machine is automatic, so it does not need to be programmed.
Helen was diagnosed as hypertensive, so the doctor gave her some beta-blockers.
If you did not pass one or more laboratories, you must take them this semester.

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SUBJECT
PRONOUNS
I
You
He
She
It
We
You
They

OBJECT
PRONOUNS
Me
You
Him
Her
It
Us
You
Them

When pronouns are used as subjects of clauses they are called SUBJECT
PRONOUNS (SP). Their position is before verbs.
They have discovered the cure.
SP
We are wasting time.
SP
OBJECT PRONOUNS (OP) are located after verbs or prepositions.
They fight cancer
They fight it.
I gave one scalpel and three tweezers to the surgeon

OP

I gave them to him
OP

NOTE:
A pronoun acts as a subject or an object in a clause, so it is an error to repeat the
noun it refers to in the same clause.
Example
The administrators they are willing to discuss your queries.
Bottle-feeding them young children is as nutritious for them as breast feeding.
Demonstrative adjectives vs. demonstrative pronouns
DISTANCE
SINGULAR
PLURAL
NEAR
This
These
FAR
That
Those
This, that, these, those are words used to refer to nouns that are near or further away
in time or space.
They work as adjectives when they modify a noun (the noun is written or pronounced
in the same clause). If they replace a noun these words work as pronouns.
Example:




This chocolate tastes delicious. (ADJECTIVE)
This tastes delicious. (PRONOUN)
I don't like this prognosis. (ADJECTIVE)
I don't like this. (PRONOUN)
That athlete will run for an hour. (ADJECTIVE)

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OP





That will run for an hour (PRONOUN)
Jim wrote that prescription. (ADJECTIVE)
Jim wrote that. (PRONOUN)
These patients look good. (ADJECTIVE)
These look good. (PRONOUN)

Possessive adjective vs. possessive pronouns
Possessive adjectives modify a noun (that is written or pronounced in the clause) and
show that there is a possession relation.
Possessive pronouns are used when we want to substitute a group of words that are
indicating a possession relation.

POSSESSIVE
ADJECTIVE
My
Your
His
Her
Its
Our
Your
Their

POSSESSIVE
PRONOUN
Mine
Yours
His
Hers
Its
Ours
Yours
Theirs

For example:
 This is my book. (ADJECTIVE)
 This is mine. (PRONOUN)

Their patients are in the intensive care unit (ADJECTIVE).
Theirs are in the intensive care unit. (PRONOUN)


This is your disk and that's mine. (ADJECTIVE – PRONOUN)
The smallest stethoscope is hers. (PRONOUN)

NOTE
Read the following sentence
When you drive to Manitoba, will you take your car or theirs?
 The possessive adjective "your" depends on the noun "car."
 The possessive pronoun, "theirs," stands in the place of the noun phrase, "their
car."

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ACTIVITIES
A. Underline the object in each sentence and replace it using an object pronoun.
a) Please help doctor Takashi.
_______________________________________________________________
b) Peter loves chemistry
_______________________________________________________________
c) Read page 104.
_______________________________________________________________
d) Ask doctor Huapaya and doctor Carhuancho.
_______________________________________________________________
e) Buy five syringes for Miss La Rosa.
_______________________________________________________________
B. Unscramble the words groups to write sentences. Use the correct punctuation
and capitalization.
a) lend / him / money / some / always / I
________________________________________________________________
b) the / showing / the / something / women / is / man / to.
________________________________________________________________
c) them / she / help / some / gives / rarely.
________________________________________________________________
d) you / tell / the / him / do / ? / answers
________________________________________________________________
e) this / us / does / explain / kind / exercises / of / she / not / to.
C. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate possessive adjective, then use possessive
pronouns to replace the group of words expressing possession relation.
1. What’s the boy’s name? _____________ name is Ben Scott.
__________________________________________________________________
2. Debbie has a dog. ____________ dog is very lively.
__________________________________________________________________
3. The dog is very lively. _____________ name is Ben.
__________________________________________________________________
4. We are at school. _______________ school is very nice.
__________________________________________________________________
5. I have a new laptop. _____________ laptop is white.
__________________________________________________________________
6. I'm from Chester. Most of ______________ friends are from Chester, too.
__________________________________________________________________
7. The Guptas have a restaurant. _____________ restaurant is great.
__________________________________________________________________
8. The rabbit is white. ______________ cage is in the garden.
__________________________________________________________________
9. You are not English. ______________ name is not an English name.
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__________________________________________________________________
10. Sandra and Jenny are friends. ________________school is in Chester.
__________________________________________________________________
11. The Scotts have a new car. _________________ car is blue.
__________________________________________________________________
12. Emma Peel has a brother. ________________ name is Paul.
__________________________________________________________________
13. Nick Baker has a sister._______________ name is Debbie.
__________________________________________________________________
14. Yes, we have a dog. _____________ dog is very old.
__________________________________________________________________
15. The
Snows
have
a
tortoise.
____________
name
is
Trundle.______________________________________________________________

Write and speak
4

Write down a dialogue using the object pronouns, demonstrative adjectives and
demonstrative pronouns, possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns and the
vocabulary from this unit. Then act it out.

Our links
5

Here you have some links to practice the grammar from this unit.
http://www.englischhilfen.de/en/exercises/pronouns/personal_pronouns3.htm
http://www.language-worksheets.com/demonstrative-pronouns-elementary.html
http://rojo5th.net/flash/ciencia/chapter3/eReview_P5_C3_L4.swf

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UNIT
THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM
Warm –ups
1

8

Look at the following words and answer the following questions:
Have you ever heard about these words?
What are they part of?

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Reading
THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM

2

Excretion - Excretion is the removal of the metabolic wastes of an organism. Wastes
that are removed include carbon dioxide, water, salt, urea and uric acid. All excreted
wastes travel at some time in the blood.
Organs of the Excretory System
Lungs - removal of excess carbon dioxide
Liver - produces urea and uric acid as a by-product of the breakdown of proteins
Skin - removal of excess water, salt, urea and uric acid
Urinary System - kidneys filter the blood to form urine, which is excess water, salt,
urea and uric acid
THE SKIN
Layers of the skin
Epidermis - outer protective layer without blood vessels
Dermis - inner layer containing blood vessels, sensory nerve endings, sweat and oil
glands, hairs, and fat cells
Functions of the skin
Excretion - Wastes such as excess water, salt, urea and uric acid are removed from
the body in sweat.
Waterproofing - The skin with its oil glands prevents the entry of water into, and loss
of water out of the body.
Protection from disease - The intact skin prevents invasion of micro-organisms and
dust into the body.
Protection from ultraviolet rays - Pigments reduce the intake of UV rays.
Regulation of body temperature - The thin layer of fat cells in the dermis insulates
the body. Contraction of small muscles attached to hairs forms 'goosebumps' and
creates an insulating blanket of warm air. Also, sweat produced by sweat glands uses
excess body heat to evaporate, providing a cooling effect.
Sensory Detection - The nerve endings or receptors in the dermis detect heat, cold,
touch, pressure and pain.

Grammar
3

In this unit you are going to learn about the quantifiers with countable and uncountable
nouns. Look at the following charts and do the following activities

STATEMENT
Affirmative
statement
Negative
statements

Medical English 1

SOME / ANY
SOME
I have some health nuisances.
They will need some calories
_

ANY
_

I do not
transfusion.

need

any

Page18

blood

Interrogative
statements

Do you need any help?
Does she have any classmates?

_
Exception:
Offer: Would you like some help?
Request: Can you lend me some
money?

QUANTIFIERS WITH COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS
Some adjectives and adjectival phrases describe quantity. Some can only go with
countable nouns (nurses, inpatients, outpatients), and some can only go with
uncountable nouns (sugar, fat, blood, advice). However, there are quantifiers that can
be used with both countable and uncountable nouns.

ONLY WITH
UNCOUNTABLE
NOUNS

WITH UNCOUNTABLE
AND COUNTABLE
NOUNS

How much?

How much? or
How many?

How many?

a little

no/none

a few

a bit (of)

not any

a number (of)

-

some (any)

several

a great deal of

a lot of

a large number of

a large amount of

plenty of

a great number of

-

lots of

-

ONLY WITH
COUNTABLE NOUNS

Notes:
1. Much and many are used in negative and question forms.
Example:
How much sugar do you consume?
How many cigarettes do you smoke?
There's not much blood in the blood bank.
There weren't many physicians at the meeting.
2. They are also used with too, (not) so, and (not) as :
Examples
There were too many physicians at the meeting.
It's a problem when there are so many patients.
There's not so much work to do this week.
3. In positive statements, we use a lot of:
Examples:
I have a lot of work this week.
There were a lot of physicians at the meeting.

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4.

A few (for countable nouns) and a little (for uncountable nouns) describe the quantity
in a positive way:
Examples:
I have a few patients (= maybe not many, but enough)
I have a little money (= I have enough to live on)
Few and little describe the quantity in a negative way:
Few people visited him in hospital (= he had almost no visitors)
He had little money (= almost no money)

5.

ACTIVITIES
QUANTIFIERS. In the following sentences, fill in the gaps with one of the
following quantifiers:

A.

much, many, a lot of, most, a little, little, a few, few

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

It seems to me that we haven't had ____________ assignments in English this term.
How _______________ material can we be expected to read in one week?
I've unfortunately had _________________ headaches already because of stress.
Our yard looks awful this summer. There are too _____________ weeds.
I didn't use _____________ fertilizer last spring, and that has made a difference.
Also, I've paid very_________________ attention to how rain we've had.
I'm afraid it's rained ________________ times this summer, and that is why the grass
is turning brown and dying. Farmers are very upset.
How _______________ good would it do if we watered the plants ourselves?
________________ advice I have ever received from so-called "experts" has been
useless.
They said that just _________________ help could make a big difference.
________________________ people know as much about computers as Tomas
does.
It does us _________________________ good when the banking system collapses.

Write and speak
4 Write down a dialogue using quantifiers with countable and uncountable nouns and
the vocabulary from this unit. Then act it out.

Our links
5

Here you have some links to practice the grammar from this unit.
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/confusing_words/some_any.htm
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/vocabulary/some-any/exercises
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/vocabulary/some-any/exercises?02
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UNIT
THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
Warm –ups
1

9

Look at the following pictures and answer the following questions
How do they feel?
What are their physical appearances?

Reading
2 Read the following and answer the questions
Introduction
The endocrine system is made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones.
These hormones regulate the body's growth, metabolism (the physical and
chemical processes of the body), and sexual development and function. The
hormones are released into the bloodstream and may affect one or several organs
throughout the body. Hormones are chemical messengers created by the body.
They transfer information from one set of cells to another to coordinate the
functions of different parts of the body. The major glands of the endocrine system
are the hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal body, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, the
páncreas and the reproductive organs (ovaries and testes).

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ENDOCRINE GLADS
1. Hypothalamus
The hypothalamus is located in the lower central part of the brain. This part of the
brain is important in regulation of satiety, metabolism, and body temperature. In
addition, it secretes hormones that stimulate or suppress the release of hormones
in the pituitary gland. Many of these hormones are releasing hormones, which are
secreted into an artery (the hypophyseal portal system) that carries them directly to
the pituitary gland. In the pituitary gland, these releasing hormones signal secretion
of stimulating hormones. The hypothalamus also secretes a hormone called
somatostatin, which causes the pituitary gland to stop the release of growth
hormone.
2. Pituitary Gland
The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain beneath the hypothalamus
and is no larger than a pea. It is often considered the most important part of the
endocrine system because it produces hormones that control many functions of
other endocrine glands. When the pituitary gland does not produce one or more of
its hormones or not enough of them, it is called hypopituitarism.
The pituitary gland is divided into two parts: the anterior lobe and the posterior
lobe. The anterior lobe produces the following hormones, which are regulated by
the hypothalamus:

Growth hormone - Stimulates growth of bone and tissue (growth hormone
deficiency in children results in growth failure. Growth hormone deficiency in adults
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results in problems in maintaining proper amounts of body fat and muscle and
bone mass. It is also involved in emotional well-being.)
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) - Stimulates the thyroid gland to produce
thyroid hormones (A lack of thyroid hormones either because of a defect in the
pituitary or the thyroid itself is called hypothyroidism.)
Adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) - Stimulates the adrenal gland to produce
several related steroid hormones
Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) - Hormones
that control sexual function and production of the sex steroids, estrogen and
progesterone in females or testosterone in males
Prolactin - Hormone that stimulates milk production in females
The posterior lobe produces the following hormones, which are not regulated by
the hypothalamus:
Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) - Controls water loss by the kidneys
Oxytocin - Contracts the uterus during childbirth and stimulates milk production
The hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary are actually produced in the brain
and carried to the pituitary gland through nerves. They are stored in the pituitary
gland.

3. Pineal Body
The pineal body, or pineal gland, is located in the middle of the brain. It secretes a
hormone called melatonin, which may help regulate the wake-sleep cycle of the
body.
4. Thyroid Gland
The thyroid gland is located in the lower front part of the neck. It produces thyroid
hormones that regulate the body's metabolism. It also plays a role in bone growth
and development of the brain and nervous system in children. The pituitary gland
controls the release of thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones also help maintain
normal blood pressure, heart rate, digestion, muscle tone, and reproductive
functions.
5. Parathyroid Glands
The parathyroid glands are two pairs of small glands embedded in the surface of
the thyroid gland, one pair on each side. They release parathyroid hormone,
which plays a role in regulating calcium levels in the blood and bone metabolism.
6. Adrenal Glands
The adrenal glands are triangular-shaped glands located on top of each kidney.
The adrenal glands are made up of two parts. The outer part is called the adrenal
cortex, and the inner part is called the adrenal medulla. The outer part produces
hormones called corticosteroids, which regulate the body's metabolism, the
balance of salt and water in the body, the immune system, and sexual function.
The inner part, or adrenal medulla, produces hormones called catecholamines

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(for example, adrenaline). These hormones help the body cope with physical and
emotional stress by increasing the heart rate and blood pressure.
7. Pancreas
Is an elongated organ located toward the back of the abdomen behind the
stomach. The pancreas has digestive and hormonal functions. One part of the
pancreas, the exocrine pancreas, secretes digestive enzymes. The other part of
the pancreas, the endocrine pancreas, secretes hormones called insulin and
glucagon. These hormones regulate the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood.
8. Testis
In males, the testes, located in the scrotum, secrete hormones called androgens;
the most important of which is testosterone. These hormones affect many male
characteristics (for example, sexual development, growth of facial hair and pubic
hair) as well as sperm production.
9. Ovary
In females, the ovaries, located on both sides of the uterus, produce estrogen and
progesterone as well as eggs. These hormones control the development of
female characteristics (for example, breast growth), and they are also involved in
reproductive functions (for example, menstruation, pregnancy).
Check your understanding
1. Are the hormones important? Why?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________

What is the function of the hormone somatostatin?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________
2.

Where is located the pituitary gland ?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________
3.

4. How many parts are divided the pituitary gland?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________

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5. What the Luteinizing and follicle hormones control?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________
6. What is the role of the Oxytocin ?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________
7. What secretes the pineal body?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________
8. Why are important the insulin and glucagon in our body?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________
Grammar

3 In this unit you are going to learn about indefinite Pronouns Look at the following
chart and do the following activities
some

every

no

any

something
somebody
someone
somewhere

everything
everybody
everyone
everywhere

nothing
nobody
no one
nowhere

anything
anybody
anyone
anywhere

1. Rewrite the sentences using anything, anybody, anyone.
a) There was nobody at the hospital when I phoned.
____________________________________________
b) There was nothing in the emergency room..
____________________________________________
c) The doctor listens to no one.
____________________________________________
d) I have got nothing in my bag.
____________________________________________
e) He likes nobody.
____________________________________________
2. Rewrite the sentences using nothing, nobody, no one.
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E.g.: There isn´t anything in the cupboard.
There is nothing in the cupboard.
There isn´t anyone at the clinic.
1. I don´t have anything to operate.
2. I don´t know anybody in neighbourhood.
3. I don´t have anything in the fridge.

___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________

Choose the correct answer:
a) Who did you meet at the party? I met _______ ( something/ no one)
b) The fridge is empty. There´s ________ in it. ( nothing / anything)
c) I´m going to tell you a secret. Don´t tell ______ ( anybody / someone)
d) I left my keys _____________. But where? (everywhere/ somewhere)
e) People look at him _____________ he goes. He’s a celebrity. (everywhere/
anything)

Write and speak
4

Write down a dialogue using the indefinite Pronouns and the vocabulary from this
unit. Then act it out.

Our links
5

Here you have some link to practice the grammar from this unit.
http://www.grammar.cl/Basic/ indefinite Pronouns .htm
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/ indefinite Pronouns .htm

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UNIT
THE URINARY SYSTEM
Warm –ups
1

10

Look at the following pictures and answer the following questions
How do they feel?
What are their symptoms?

Reading
2

Read the following and answer the questions
Urine
The first nitrogenous waste to be formed from the breakdown of protein is
ammonia, a highly toxic chemical that is quickly converted by the liver to urea and
uric acid. These are less toxic than ammonia and are transported in the blood to
the kidneys for excretion in urine. Urine consists of excess water, excess salt, urea
and uric acid.

Parts of the Urinary System

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Renal Arteries
Two renal arteries constantly transport blood to the kidneys.
Renal Veins
Two renal veins return useful nutrients back into the bloodstream.
Ureters
Two ureters carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
Urinary Bladder
The urinary bladder temporarily stores urine until it is released from the body.
Urethra
The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of
the body. The outer end of the urethra is controlled by a circular muscle called a
sphincter.
Kidneys
The human kidneys are the major organs of bodily excretion .They are beanshaped organs located on either side of the backbone at about the level of the
stomach and liver. Blood always enters the kidneys through renal arteries and
leaves through renal veins. Tubes called ureters carry waste products from the
kidneys to the urinary bladder for storage or for release.
The product of the kidneys is urine, a watery solution of waste products, salts,
organic compounds, and two important nitrogen compounds: uric acid and urea.
Uric acid results from nucleic acid decomposition, and urea results from amino acid
breakdown in the liver. Both of these nitrogen products can be poisonous to the
body and must be removed in the urine.
Nephron
The nephron is the basic functional and structural unit of the kidney. Its main
function is to regulate the amount of water and soluble substances by filtering the
blood and reabsorbing what is needed.
Check your understanding
1. What does urine contain?
________________________________________________________________
2. What are the parts of the urinary system?
________________________________________________________________
3. What are the functions of the renal veins?
________________________________________________________________
4. What is the main function of the nephron?
______________________________________________________________

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UNIT
THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Warm –ups

11

1 Look at the following pictures and answer the following questions
How do they feel?
What are their symptoms?

Reading

2

Read the following and answer the questions
Introduction
Sexual reproduction is the process of producing offspring for the survival of the
species, and passing on hereditary traits from one generation to the next. The male
and female reproductive systems contribute to the events leading to fertilization.
Then, the female organs assume responsibility for the developing human, birth,
and nursing. The male and female gonads (testes and ovaries) produce sex cells
(ova and sperm) and the hormones necessary for the proper development,
maintenance, and functioning of the organs of reproduction and other organs and
tissues.

1. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
These external structures include the penis, scrotum, and testicles.
 Penis: This is the male organ used in sexual intercourse. It has three parts: the
root, which attaches to the wall of the abdomen; the body, or shaft; and the glans,
which is the cone-shaped part at the end of the penis. The glans, also called the
head of the penis, is covered with a loose layer of skin called foreskin. This skin is
sometimes removed in a procedure called circumcision. The opening of the
urethra, the tube that transports semen and urine, is at the tip of the penis. The
penis also contains a number of sensitive nerve endings.

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Scrotum: This is the loose pouch-like sac of skin that hangs behind and below the
penis. It contains the testicles (also called testes), as well as many nerves and
blood vessels. The scrotum acts as a "climate control system" for the testes. For
normal sperm development, the testes must be at a temperature slightly cooler
than body temperature. Special muscles in the wall of the scrotum allow it to
contract and relax, moving the testicles closer to the body for warmth or farther
away from the body to cool the temperature.

Testicles (testes): These are oval organs about the size of large olives that lie in
the scrotum, secured at either end by a structure called the spermatic cord. Most
men have two testes. The testes are responsible for making testosterone, the
primary male sex hormone, and for generating sperm. Within the testes are coiled
masses of tubes called seminiferous tubules. These tubes are responsible for
producing sperm cells.

The internal organs of the male reproductive system, also called accessory organs,
include the following:
Epididymis: The epididymis is a long, coiled tube that rests on the backside of
each testicle. It transports and stores sperm cells that are produced in the testes. It
also is the job of the epididymis to bring the sperm to maturity, since the sperm that
emerge from the testes are immature and incapable of fertilization. During sexual
arousal, contractions force the sperm into the vas deferens.

Vas deferens: The vas deferens is a long, muscular tube that travels from the
epididymis into the pelvic cavity, to just behind the bladder. The vas deferens
transports mature sperm to the urethra, the tube that carries urine or sperm to
outside of the body, in preparation for ejaculation.

Ejaculatory ducts: These are formed by the fusion of the vas deferens and the
seminal vesicles. The ejaculatory ducts empty into the urethra.
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Urethra: The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside of
the body. In males, it has the additional function of ejaculating semen when the
man reaches orgasm. When the penis is erect during sex, the flow of urine is
blocked from the urethra, allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm.

Seminal vesicles: The seminal vesicles are sac-like pouches that attach to the
vas deferens near the base of the bladder. The seminal vesicles produce a sugarrich fluid (fructose) that provides sperm with a source of energy to help them move.
The fluid of the seminal vesicles makes up most of the volume of a man's
ejaculatory fluid, or ejaculate.

Prostate gland: The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure that is located
below the urinary bladder in front of the rectum. The prostate gland contributes
additional fluid to the ejaculate. Prostate fluids also help to nourish the sperm. The
urethra, which carries the ejaculate to be expelled during orgasm, runs through the
center of the prostate gland.

Bulbourethral glands: Also called Cowper's glands, these are pea-sized
structures located on the sides of the urethra just below the prostate gland. These
glands produce a clear, slippery fluid that empties directly into the urethra. This
fluid serves to lubricate the urethra and to neutralize any acidity that may be
present due to residual drops of urine in the urethra.

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Check your understanding
1.
What is sexual reproduction?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
______________
2.
What are the external structures of the male reproductive system?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
______________
3.
What are the parts of the penis?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
______________
4.
What is the main role of the testicles?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
______________
5.
Where is located the prostate gland?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
______________

Grammar
3 In this unit you are going to learn about Simple Past. Look at the following chart
and do the following activities
AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENTS
SUBJECT
VERB
I
analyzed
You
removed
We
caught
They
drank
He
had
She
had
It
had

COMPLEMENT
a microbe
a tumor
a cold
a cough syrup
genital herpes
chlamydia
syphilis

REGULAR VERBS
1.- Verbs ending in "e," then just add "d".
Analyze
analyzed
Remove
removed
Describe
described
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2.- Verbs ending in a consonant + y you have to turn the “y” into - ied
Study
studied
Carry
carried
Hurry
hurried
3.- Verbs ending in a vowel (a,e,i,o,u) + “y”, you have to add only – ed.
Play
played
Stay
stayed
4.- When you have a consonant after a short stressed vowel at the end of the word
Stop
stopped
Plan
planned
5.- for the rest of the regular verbs you have to add only – ed.
Work
worked
Suffer
suffered
Explain
explained
Disconnect disconnected

Infinite
Be
Buy
eat
Go
Have
Make
Take

IRREGULAR VERBS
Simple Past
Was were
Bought
Ate
Went
had
Made
Took

PUT IN ORDER TO MAKE SENTENCES
1. about 10 percent /Infertility affected /of couples
__________________________________________________________________
2. were /of male infertility /the most common causes /of sperm /The production and
maturation
__________________________________________________________________
3. sex chromosome/ of sperm / produced very low quantities /Men with an extra X
__________________________________________________________________
4. caused infertility / Obstructions /in many patients/of the genital tract
__________________________________________________________________
5. of infertile men / with hormone therapy /that could be treated /A small percentage/
had a hormonal disorder
________________________________________________________________

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Page33

Write and speak
4 Write down a dialogue using the SIMPLE PAST and the vocabulary from this unit.
Then act it out.

Our links
5 Here you have some link to practice the grammar from this unit.
http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/simplepast.htmlhttp://www.englischhttp://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/simple-past

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UNIT
THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Warm –ups

12

1 Look at the following pictures and answer the following questions
How do they feel?
What are their symptoms?

Reading
2 Read the following and answer the questions

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
The main external structures of the female reproductive system include:
Labia majora: The labia majora enclose and protect the other external
reproductive organs. Literally translated as "large lips," the labia majora are
relatively large and fleshy, and are comparable to the scrotum in males. The labia
majora contain sweat and oil-secreting glands. After puberty, the labia majora are
covered with hair.
Labia minora: Literally translated as "small lips," the labia minora can be very
small or up to 2 inches wide. They lie just inside the labia majora, and surround the
openings to the vagina (the canal that joins the lower part of the uterus to the
outside of the body) and urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the
outside of the body).
Bartholin's glands: These glands are located beside the vaginal opening and
produce a fluid (mucus) secretion.
Clitoris: The two labia minora meet at the clitoris, a small, sensitive protrusion that
is comparable to the penis in males. The clitoris is covered by a fold of skin, called
the prepuce, which is similar to the foreskin at the end of the penis. Like the penis,
the clitoris becomes erected with blood during sexual stimulation
The internal reproductive organs in the female include:
Vagina: The vagina is It is located between the bladder and rectum. It also is
known as the birth canal.

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Uterus (womb): The uterus is a hollow, pear-shaped organ that is the home to a
developing fetus. The uterus is divided into two parts: the cervix, which is the lower
part that opens into the vagina, and the main body of the uterus, called the corpus.
The corpus can easily expand to hold a developing baby. A channel through the
cervix allows sperm to enter and menstrual blood to exit.
Ovaries: The ovaries are small, oval-shaped glands that are located on either side
of the uterus. The ovaries produce eggs and hormones.
Fallopian tubes: These are narrow tubes that are attached to the upper part of the
uterus and serve as tunnels for the ova (egg cells) to travel from the ovaries to the
uterus. Conception, the fertilization of an egg by a sperm, normally occurs in the
fallopian tubes. The fertilized egg then moves to the uterus, where it implants into
the lining of the uterine wall.

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How does the female reproductive system function?
The female reproductive system is designed to carry out several functions. It
produces the female egg cells necessary for reproduction, called the ova or
oocytes. The system is designed to transport the ova to the site of fertilization.
Conception, the fertilization of an egg by a sperm, normally occurs in the fallopian
tubes. The next step for the fertilized egg is to implant into the walls of the uterus,
beginning the initial stages of pregnancy. If fertilization and/or implantation does
not take place, the system is designed to menstruate (the monthly shedding of the
uterine lining). In addition, the female reproductive system produces female sex
hormones that maintain the reproductive cycle.
Check your understanding
1.
How is the labia majora?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
____________________________
2.
Where is located the Bartholin's glands?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
____________________________
3.
How is compared the clitoris?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
____________________________
4.
What specific part the baby develops?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
____________________________

Grammar
3 In this unit you are going to learn about Simple Past. Look at the following chart
and do the following activities
NEGATIVE STATEMENTS
SUBJECT
I
You
We
They
He
She
It
Medical English 1

AUXILIARY

did not /
didn´t

VERB
analyze
remove
catch
drink
have
have
have

COMPLEMENT
a microbe
a tumor
a cold
a cough syrup
genital herpes
chlamydia
syphilis
Page37

INTERROGATIVE STATEMENTS
AUXILIARY
Did

Did

I
you
we
they
he
she
it
AUXILIARY

“WH”
QUESTION
WORDS
How often did

When
Why

SUBJECT

did
did

VERB

COMPLEMENT

QUESTION
MARK
?

analyze
the results
cure
the patient
have
a stiff neck
have
a sunburn
have
genital herpes
?
have
chlamydia
have
syphilis
SUBJECT
VERB
COMPLEMENT QUESTION
MARK
I
you
we
they
he
she
it

analyze
cure
have
have
have
have
have

the results
the patient
a stiff neck
a sunburn
genital herpes
chlamydia
syphilis

?

?

I COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING TEXT WITH THE WORDS IN THE BOX
Labia minora – mons pubis – fallopian tubes – labia majora – uterus – Ovaries - vagina - clitoris

1.- The female gonads or sex glands are the _______________________
2.- ___________________ is referred to as the outer or large lips.
3.-____________________ is a triangular fatty tissue that covers the pubic bone
4.-.- _______________________ Are the site of fertilization by the male sperm
5.- The powerful muscles of the ________________ expand to accommodate a
growing fetus
6.- ______________________ is known as the birth canal.
7.-______________________ becomes erected with blood during sexual
stimulation
8.-_____________________ is more sensitive to touch than the labia majora.

Write and speak

4

Write down a dialogue using the SIMPLE PAST and the vocabulary from this unit.
Then act it out.

Medical English 1

Page38

Our links
5 Here you have some link to practice the grammar from this unit.
http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/simplepast.htmlhttp://www.englischhttp://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/simple-past

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LIST OF VERBS
Los verbos regulares forman el Simple Past y el Past Participle agregando -ed al infinitivo. Los
verbos irregulares no siguen esta regla y deben de ser aprendidos de memoria, estos se
encuentran marcados con (i).
Infinitive

Simple Past

Past Participle

Spanish

add

added

added

agregar

answer

answered

answered

responder

apologise

apologised

apologised

disculparse

arrest

arrested

arrested

arrestar

arrive

arrived

arrived

llegar

ask

asked

asked

preguntar

attack

attacked

attacked

atacar

be (i)

was / were

been

ser

become (i)

became

become

convertirse

begin (i)

began

begun

comenzar

believe

believed

believed

creer

boil

boiled

boiled

hervir

book

booked

booked

reservar

borrow

borrowed

borrowed

tomar prestado

break (i)

broke

broken

romper

bring (i)

brought

brought

traer

build (i)

built

built

construir

buy (i)

bought

bought

comprar

catch (i)

caught

caught

atrapar

carry

carried

carried

llevar

change

changed

changed

cambiar

chop

chopped

chopped

picar

clean

cleaned

cleaned

limpiar

climb

climbed

climbed

escalar

collect

collected

collected

colleccionar

come (i)

came

come

venir

compose

composed

composed

componer

cook

cooked

cooked

cocinar

copy

copied

copied

copiar

cut (i)

cut

cut

cortar

dance

danced

danced

bailar

describe

described

described

describir

destroy

destroyed

destroyed

destruir

die

died

died

morir

discover

discovered

discovered

descubrir

discuss

discussed

discussed

discutir

do (i)

did

done

hacer

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Page40

draw (i)

drew

drawn

dibujar

dream (i)

dreamt/dreamed

dreamt/dreamed

soñar

drink (i)

drank

drunk

beber

drive (i)

drove

driven

conducir

dye

dyed

dyed

teñir

eat (i)

ate

eaten

comer

enjoy

enjoyed

enjoyed

disfrutar

explode

exploded

exploded

explotar

extinguish

extinguished

extinguished

extinguirse

fall (i)

fell

fallen

caer

feed (i)

fed

fed

alimentar

feel (i)

felt

felt

sentir

fight (i)

fought

fought

pelear

find (i)

found

found

encontrar

fly (i)

flew

flown

volar

forget (i)

forgot

forgotten

olvidar

freeze (i)

froze

frozen

congelar

fry

fried

fried

freír

give (i)

gave

given

dar

go (i)

went

gone

ir

grow (i)

grew

grown

crecer

happen

happened

happened

suceder

hate

hated

hated

odiar

have (i)

had

had

tener

hear (i)

heard

heard

oír

help

helped

helped

ayudar

hire

hired

hired

alquilar

hope

hoped

hoped

esperar

hunt

hunted

hunted

cazar

hurt (i)

hurt

hurt

herir, doler

imagine

imagined

imagined

imaginar

invent

invented

invented

inventar

invite

invited

invited

invitar

jump

jumped

jumped

saltar

keep (i)

kept

kept

guardar

kill

killed

killed

matar

know (i)

knew

known

saber

leave(i)

left

left

dejar

lend (i)

lent

lent

prestar

lie (i)

lay

lain

yacer

lie

lied

lied

mentir

Medical English 1

Page41

lift

lifted

lifted

levantar

like

liked

liked

gustar

listen

listened

listened

escuchar

live

lived

lived

vivir

look

looked

looked

mirar

lose (i)

lost

lost

perder

love

loved

loved

amar

make (i)

made

made

hacer

meet (i)

met

met

conocer, encontrar

miss

missed

missed

perder, extrañar

offer

offered

offered

ofrecer

open

opened

opened

abrir

pack

packed

packed

empacar

pass

passed

passed

pasar, aprobar

pay (i)

paid

paid

pagar

peel

peeled

peeled

pelar

phone

phoned

phoned

llamar por teléfono

plan

planned

planned

planificar

play

played

played

jugar

pour

poured

poured

verter

prefer

preferred

preferred

preferir

prepare

prepared

prepared

preparar

push

pushed

pushed

empujar

put (i)

put

put

poner

rain

rained

rained

llover

read (i)

read

read

leer

reduce

reduced

reduced

reducir

remember

remembered

remembered

recordar

rent

rented

rented

alquilar

rescue

rescued

rescued

rescatar

return

returned

returned

volver, devolver

ring (i)

rang

rung

llamar por teléfono

run (i)

ran

run

correr

save

saved

saved

ahorrar

say (i)

said

said

decir

search

searched

searched

buscar

send (i)

sent

sent

enviar

scream

screamed

screamed

gritar

see (i)

saw

seen

ver

sell (i)

sold

sold

vender

shine (i)

shone

shone

brillar

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shoot (i)

shot

shot

disparar

shut (i)

shut

shut

cerrar

sing (i)

sang

sung

cantar

sit (i)

sat

sat

sentarse

skate

skated

skated

patinar

ski

skied

skied

esquiar

sleep (i)

slept

slept

dormir

smell

smelled

smelled

oler

snore

snored

snored

roncar

speak (i)

spoke

spoken

hablar

spend (i)

spent

spent

gastar

start

started

started

comenzar

stay

stayed

stayed

quedarse

steal (i)

stole

stolen

robar

stop

stopped

stopped

detener

study

studied

studied

estudiar

survive

survived

survived

sobrevivir

swim (i)

swam

swum

nadar

take (i)

took

taken

tomar

talk

talked

talked

hablar

teach (i)

taught

taught

enseñar

tell (i)

told

told

decir

thank

thanked

thanked

agradecer

think (i)

thought

thought

pensar

throw (i)

threw

thrown

lanzar

touch

touched

touched

tocar

try

tried

tried

intentar

use

used

used

usar

understand (i)

understood

understood

entender

visit

visited

visited

visitar

wait

waited

waited

esperar

walk

walked

walked

caminar

want

wanted

wanted

querer

warn

warned

warned

advertir

wash

washed

washed

lavar

watch

watched

watched

mirar

wear (i)

wore

worn

llevar puesto

win (i)

won

won

ganar

work

worked

worked

trabajar

write (i)

wrote

written

escribir

Source: http://www.saberingles.com.ar/lists/verbs2.html

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