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An Introduction to Operating Systems

CEIT313 Use of Operating Systems

Operating System Theory
Week 01

 An operating system (OS) is a set of basic
programming instructions to computer hardware,
forming a layer of programming code on which most
other functions of the computer are built.
 The kernel is the programming code that is the core
of the operating system.
 Computer hardware consists of physical devices such
as the central processing unit (CPU), circuit boards,
monitör, keyboard, and disk drives.

Computer Education & Instructional Technology
CEIT313 Use of Operating Systms

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An Introduction to Operating Systems

An Introduction to Operating Systems

 There are basically two types of operating
systems:

 Traditional server – often used by small or
medium businesses
 Rack-mounted server – CPU boxes
mounted in racks that can hold multiple
servers
 Blade servers – looks like a card that fits
into a blade enclosure

 Desktop operating system – installed on a
personal computer (PC) type of computers
 Server operating system – installed on a
more powerful computers.

Computer Education & Instructional Technology
CEIT313 Use of Operating Systms

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19" Rack

Computer Education & Instructional Technology
CEIT313 Use of Operating Systms

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An Introduction to Operating Systems
 A basic task of an OS is to take care of input/output (I/O)
functions, which let other programs communicate with
the computer hardware
 Some examples of I/O tasks:



Blade Server



Computer Education & Instructional Technology
CEIT313 Use of Operating Systms

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Handle input from the keyboard, mouse, and other input devices
Handle output to the monitor and printer
Handle remote communications using a modem
Manage network communications, such as for a local network and the
Internet
Control input/output for devices such as network interface card
Control information storage and retrieval using various types of disk
Enable multimedia use for voice and video composition or
reproduction, such as recording video from a camera or playing music

Computer Education & Instructional Technology
CEIT313 Use of Operating Systms

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and scheduling programs that handle I/O activities. flash drives.Understanding How Operating Systems Work An Introduction to Operating Systems  Elements that enable an operating system to work with a computer include:      General tasks for all operating systems Computer Education & Instructional Technology CEIT313 Use of Operating Systms Slide 7 of 37 The kernel Resource managers Device drivers Application software BIOS Computer Education & Instructional Technology CEIT313 Use of Operating Systms Slide 8 of 37 The Kernel Resource Managers  The kernel consists of the essential program code of the operating system  Jobs performed by the kernel can include:  Help ensure memory is used properly and there are no memory conflicts  Manages how programs access the processing capabilities of the CPU  Managing interactions with the CPU  Starting. including device and networking activities  Handling basic computer security  Managing use of the computer’s memory (RAM)  Managing priority levels assigned to programs and computer processes Computer Education & Instructional Technology CEIT313 Use of Operating Systms Slide 9 of 37 Device Drivers and the Operating System  Example: if there is one CPU and ten programs that want to access the CPU. and other removable media  Digital cameras and video hardware     Computer Education & Instructional Technology CEIT313 Use of Operating Systms Slide 11 of 37 Device drivers interface the operating system  with various hardware devices Computer Education & Instructional Technology CEIT313 Use of Operating Systms Slide 12 of 37 2 . managing. the OS will give each program a time slice on the CPU Computer Education & Instructional Technology CEIT313 Use of Operating Systms Slide 10 of 37 Device Drivers and the Operating System  A device driver translates the information necessary for the operating system to communicate with specific hardware  Examples of hardware that might require a device driver: Fixed internal hard disk drives Mouse and trackball devices Printers and scanners Tape drives.

spreadsheet. database. and the computer Computer Education & Instructional Technology CEIT313 Use of Operating Systms Application programs communicate with  hardware through the OS Slide 13 of 37 Computer Education & Instructional Technology CEIT313 Use of Operating Systms Slide 14 of 37 The Role of the BIOS The Role of the BIOS  BIOS – basic input/output system  A low-level program code that:  NVRAM chip used to store the BIOS is called a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) memory chip  When a PC is turned on:  Initiates and enables communications with hardware devices  Performs tests at startup called power-on self test (POST)  Conducts basic hardware and software communications inside the computer  Starts a full-fledged operating system that interfaces with the user  Every PC has a BIOS. and a computer game  An operating system manages the communication among the applications. the user. which is stored in a nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM)  NVRAM is a memory chip that does not lose its contents when the computer is turned off Computer Education & Instructional Technology CEIT313 Use of Operating Systms Slide 15 of 37  The machine wakes up via the CMOS chip and runs a startup program inside the BIOS  This program initializes the screen and keyboard. initializes the hard disk and other drives  Loads the main operating system Computer Education & Instructional Technology CEIT313 Use of Operating Systms Slide 16 of 37 Understanding How Operating Systems Work The Role of the BIOS General operating  system design Sample BIOS setup screen Computer Education & Instructional Technology CEIT313 Use of Operating Systms Slide 17 of 37 Computer Education & Instructional Technology CEIT313 Use of Operating Systms Slide 18 of 37 3 . tests hardware.The Role of the Application Software The Role of the Application Software  Any program a user might choose to run on a computer  Examples: word processor.