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February 2015






Food & bev reuse treatments
Remote site data transmission
Active mixing solves problems

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Write In 100


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Write In 101

In This Issue
Productivity Perspectives 4
Remote-site data transmission deflects
regulatory runaround 6
Broadband wireless extends municipalitys fiber-ring multimegabit throughput to miles-away treatment sites.

Water-reuse treatment options

in food & beverage 12
Whys and wherefores, from biological and disinfection treatments to membranes and osmosis.

Active mixing solves rural utility

ice-buildup problems 18
Someone once said, Water bodies, like human bodies, require good circulation to function properly.

How is solids-separation controlled in

primary wastewater treatment? 20
Primary clarifiers, air-flotation units and Imhoff settlers are
amongst equipment options.

News in Brief 22
New Product Spotlight 24

Advertiser Index 24
Cover photos/illustrations: RaStudio/iStockphoto, RoboLab/iStockphoto

Group Publisher, Michael C. Christian

Ph: 908-507-5472
Editorial Director, Kevin Parker
Managing Editor, Nick Phillips

General Manager, Barry Lovette
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Chief Revenue Ofcer, Chris Dolan

VP of Finance, Brad Youngblood
VP of B2B Group, Mike Wasson

Art Director, Ryan Carlson


VP of Audience Development, Delicia Poole

Copy Editor, Christy Underwood


Audience Development Analyst, Stacy Barnes

Audience Development Manager, Anna Hicks

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Digital Operations Manager, Mary Beth Romano

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2 February 2015 | Water/Waste Processing |

Editorial and Executive Offices: 200 Croft Street, Ste 1, Birmingham, AL 35242. POSTMASTER:
Send address changes to WATER/WASTE PROCESSING Magazine, PO BOX 2174, Skokie, IL
60076-7874. SUBSCRIPTIONS: Non-qualified domestic subscriptions: one year, $25; two year,
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WASTE PROCESSING Magazine assumes no responsibility for validity of claims in item reports.

Write In 102

Go between the lines to glean

the bottom lines
Did you know that the United States is making considerable
progress in improving water conservation?
By Kevin Parker, Editorial Director
According to a U.S. Geological Survey

spending as much as $8 billion over the

The less fortunate

report from last November, the federal sci-

next five years to meet the acts mandates.

Headed in the opposite direction, ac-

ence agency found that water use dropped

In its present enacted form, only about $2

cording to an article by Jack Rasmus on

to 355 billion gallons a day in 2010. In 2005,

million is needed over the same period.

the website counterpunch, is the EPAs

national water use was 410 billion gallons

The bill will ensure U.S. aid dollars are

funding, which in the bill was reduced

per day. A nation of 309 million in 2010

devoted to international projects that pro-

another $60 million, having already been

used as much water as 205 million people

vide first-time access to safe drinking water.

reduced 21 percent below 2010 levels. He

45 years ago. California reduced its water

Of course, the newspaper account also

also notes the Clean Water Acts regulatory

use 17 percent from 2005 to 2010.

In other news, during December last,

points out, the omnibus spending plan

scope was shrunk to exempt ponds and

passed by Congress and signed into law

irrigation systems, although this may be a

Congress unanimously passed the Water

by President Obama last December in-

perfectly reasonable action.

for the World Act and it was immediately

cludes a $17.5 billion bump for U.S. water

signed by President Obama. In statistics

access and sanitation projects, bringing

plan is legislation to create 15 manufactur-

repeated near ad infinitum by the media, its

the minimum U.S. spending levels for such

ing innovation sites across the U.S. at a

noted that nearly 750 million people around

projects to $382.5 million, though millions

federal government cost of $30 million a

the world dont have access to clean water

more is spent annually.

year for the next 10 years.

and 2.5 billion people dont have access to

a toilet.
The law is said to strengthen and clarify
the 2005 Water for the Poor Act, associated
with the late Senator Paul Simon of Illinois,

Further information on the legislations

Also included in the omnibus spending

Its assumed here that, depending on

details is included in a recent article found

what local regions are awarded the funding,

in the High Plains/Midwest AG Journal, and

the efforts also could be aimed at process

based on staff and wire reports.

industries, especially food & beverage,

In regards to water infrastructure, the web

and not just the manufacture of discrete

who, early recognizing the emergence of

site story says, the bill increases funding

products. The hubs support a network of

water issues on the global stage, released

in several priority areas, including the U.S.

public-private partnerships involving col-

the book Tapped Out in 1998, one year

Army Corps of Engineers construction ac-

leges, universities and goods makers to en-

after his Senate retirement.

count, which was increased by $514 billion

sure the availability of fully trained workers,

above the administrations request, includ-

which is something the editors have been

ing $112 million in additional for the Inland

hearing an awfully lot about lately.

Recognizing insight
In a recent story in The Southern Illinoisan, John Oldfield, chief executive of

Waterway Trust Funds projects.

Overall, says the website story, The Army

WASH Advocates, seemed to put a good

Corps of Engineers fared well, with a $921

face on the bills lack of funding when he

million increase in its Civil Works account

was quoted as noting its hugely bi-partisan

and $47.5 million increase to operations &

support. According to the newspaper


story, previous versions of the bill called for

4 February 2015 | Water/Waste Processing |

Kevin Parker, Editorial Director

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Write In 103

IT-based automation

Remote-site data transmission

deflects regulatory runaround
Broadband wireless extends municipalitys fiber-ring
multi-megabit throughput to miles-away treatment sites
Since 1848, the city of Georgetown
has been found about 30 miles north of

Long, hot summers were an

especial challenge.

Austin, the Texas state capital.

Yet the towns population has almost
doubled, to 52,000, in the last 12 years.
Workers and dependents from major

For years the utility used the 900 MHz

radio spectrum in monitoring components

Austin employers including the state

in its water, sewage and electrical distri-

government and University of Texas, and

bution systems, i.e., using SCADA data

high-tech companies, including Dell,

communications with speeds of 9600 bits/

Apple and Intel are among those re-

sec. However, Marrow says, the 900 MHz

sponsible for the growth.

radio communications werent always

All these people need water and sewers

and electricity and roads.

reliable given an approximately 300

square-mile coverage area.

Thats where Georgetown Utility Sys-

Hot weather was an especial problem.

tems, a department in the City of George-

The area is known for long, hot summers.

towns municipal government, comes

Average temperatures often top 100 de-

in. The pace of growth makes providing

grees F in July and August. Temperature

services a tall order, says Ron Marrow, a

highs near 90 degrees F are common well

Georgetown transmission and distribution

into October.

Its not enough to just keep up with
the citys growing number of citizens,
The 900 MHz radio spectrum
wasn't always reliable when
it came to use of SCADA for
supervisory control of water
distribution systems.

Fast look back

A seemingly trivial temperature-related

failure can have significant consequences.
Heat-caused atmospheric changes

because that would mean were always

can disrupt radio data transmissions,

behind the curve, he says. We have to

Marrow says. Whenever it got hotter than

stay ahead of the growth and that takes

90 degrees F, for example, communica-

good planning.

tions from a remote wastewater lift station

Marrow and a team of three have

would fail. Wed send a technician to take

charge of communications and con-

data readings every four hours. If there

nectivity across the municipalitys water,

was an overflow, the actual environmental

waste and electrical infrastructure. To their

impact might not be all that big, but the

endeavors, they bring to bear a wealth of

regulatory reporting would be huge, so

experience with the citys infrastructure

wed make sure someone monitored it in

and its environment.


6 February 2015 | Water/Waste Processing |

Write In 104

IT-based automation

'If wed have an overflow, the actual environmental impact might

not be all that big, but the regulatory reporting would be huge.'
to $25,000 per mile. Extending the citys

Marrows Siemens contacts understood

fiber to its wastewater lift stations, up to

what was involved in extending the fiber

seven miles away, wasnt economically fea-

rings broadband throughput to the remote

sible. Instead, broadband wireless would

sites. WiMAX technology also presented

be used to extend the municipalitys fiber

some line-of-sight challenges in connecting

ring multi-megabit throughput out to the

wastewater lift stations typically placed

remote sites.

in low-lying areas amid Georgetowns

Alternative options for doing so included

rolling, tree-covered terrain.

using 1) a commercial cellular network, but

We not only needed help securing our

that came with monthly charges; 2) 802.11

FCC license, we also needed some excel-

WiFi, but that came with limited range; and

lent RF engineering, system design and

3) 802.16e WiMAX, using the 4.9 GHz spec-

integration, Marrow says.

trum that the U.S. Federal Communications

Commission (FCC) allocated to public
safety and municipal uses, and which also
allows for mobile connectivity.
While WiMAX over the 4.9 GHz band
Another issue was the star topology of

delivers the range needed, it requires FCC

the 900 MHz radio network. All the remote

licensing, something which isnt done with-

radios transmitted back to one central ra-

out expert support. This is where Siemens

dio, Marrow says. If that central radio went

reengaged with the municipality.

down, so would all our communications.

Devising devices
Big step taken
Marrow and his team designed, devel-

Deploying the municipalitys fiber ring

included installation of scores of Siemens

oped and deployed a redundant, 1.0 Gbps

RUGGEDCOM RS900G Layer 2 switches,

fiber ring network for the citys SCADA com-

part of Siemens harsh-environment com-

munications. Its multi-megabit bandwidth

munications portfolio. The RS900G is an

eventually would enable broadband com-

environmentally hardened, fully managed

munications that include video surveillance,

Ethernet switch that provides dual-fiber

voice-over-IP and remote, on-demand WiFi

optical Gigabit Ethernet ports with Gigabit

hotspots for municipal field workers.

uplink ports, and 128-bit encryption.

In the aftermath of the project, however,

In all, Georgetown had more than 200 of the

their most immediate concern was cost-ef-

devices deployed in its fiber network, includ-

fectively connecting remote water treatment

ing routers and media converters. It only

stations with the new fiber ring.

made sense to keep all the iMAX components

Installation of in-ground fiber can cost up

in the family, too, Marrow says.

8 February 2015 | Water/Waste Processing |

Integrator introduction
For these services, Marrow contacted
Alpha Omega Wireless, an Austin-based

Previous top: Licensed 4.9 GHz wireless capability augmented

the city's mission-critical broadband network.
Previous bottom:
The challenge was to connect remote water treatment sites with
faster, more reliable data transmission.

form-factor base station, for 4.9 GHz radio

transmissions; the WIN 5249 outdoor subscriber unit, also for the 4.9 GHz spectrum;
and the RP100 single-port 802.3xx Power-over-

systems integrator and Siemens-certified in-

Ethernet (PoE) injector, which powers the other

dustrial wireless solution provider. Marrow met

two devices.

with Joe Wargo, founder and president, and

Kelly Ice, business development manager.
Alpha Omega Wireless compiled require-

The utility-grade gear works in environments

subject to high electromagnetic interference
(EMI), extreme temperatures and environ-

ments to define a point-to-multipoint 4.9 GHz

mental pollutants. Its also been put through

WiMAX solution as well as a comprehensive

accelerated-stress testing, including highly

deployment and commissioning plan. In ad-

accelerated life testing (HALT) and highly ac-

dition, they processed the paperwork needed

celerated stress screen (HASS), both designed

for the citys FCC license to use the 4.9 GHz

to find defects before environmental conditions


do. These tests enable Siemens to provide

The solution includes three components, all

with rugged performance features to withstand
harsh weather conditions: the WIN 7249 small

five-year warranties for the RUGGEDCOM portfolio of network components.

Today, Georgetown enjoys a reliable, future-

The utility-grade
gear used to enable
the remote reporting
capabilities has been
extensively subjected
to accelerated stress

Write In 105 | Water/Waste Processing | February 2015 9

IT-based automation


ready, high-bandwidth wireless network.

LIME, D.E., P.A.C.,


Its developers claim thousands of dollars

in labor cost-savings along with hundreds
of thousands of dollars in cost-avoidance
for just the first deployment phase, which
took just two days.

Simultaneously meter and

convey dry treatment chemicals
to tanks, pools and processes
from silos, bulk bags, manually
dumped bags or any source

Highly accelerated life testing

(HALT) and highly accelerated stress screen (HASS) are
both designed to find defects
before environmental conditions do.

The base station was installed in one of

the citys outlying, 120-foot water towers. It

Conveys vertically, horizontally

or at any angle; over short or long
distances; over, under or around
Inexpensive to purchase and operate
low maintenance
Available integrated with Flexicon bulk
bag unloaders and bag dump stations

It pales though in comparison to the

delivered a clear line of sight to subscriber

citys avoidance of hundreds of thou-

units installed at four water-treatment sta-

sands of dollars in capital costs, if it had

tions, the farthest more than five miles away.

pushed fiber out to the remote sites.

Siemens and Alpha Omega Wireless

What followed was faster

had the expertise, responsiveness and

Marrow says he was amazed at the dif-

consultative approach right for the proj-

ference in transmission speeds apparent

ect. They worked well together and the

when he used his laptop to log into the

support was good, he says. Through-

4.9 GHz SCADA data stream. It was like

out it all, we felt our backs were covered.

night and day, he says. Before, the data

No matter what issue might arise, we

speeds were so slow. Its like going from

knew both companies would respond

a pipe a quarter-inch wide to one thats

as one.

six-inches wide.
Marrow was pleased with the implementation by Alpha Omega Wireless,

corporation headquartered in Berlin

backed by Siemens service and support.

and Munich. It is the largest engineer-

We test all the radio components as




2 2415 1286
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6778 9225
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ing company in Europe. In addition to its

soon as they arrive to ensure each one

involvement with industrial automation

works to its specification, says Ice. Then

and digitization, the company says it is a

we follow our proprietary project manage-

global powerhouse positioned along the

ment methodology, which we built on the

electrification value chain from power

rigorous standards of the Project Man-

generation, transmission and distribu-

agement Institute.

tion to smart grid applications and the

The city no longer need dispatch a

efficient application of electrical energy.

technician to hand-log data at wastewater

lift stations whenever outdoor temperature


breaks 90 degrees, as it does more than

30 times a year. That saves thousands of

Write In 200

Thats not to mention the technicians
discomfort to be inside an enclosure
2015 Flexicon Corporation. Flexicon Corporation has registrations and
pending applications for the trademark FLEXICON throughout the world.

Siemens AG is a German multi-national

gathering the data, while the suns baking

down on you, Marrow says.

Write In 106

10 February 2015 | Water/Waste Processing |

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Exploring the Impacts of Stormwater

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Write In 107

the World
of Water

Filtration & membranes

Water-reuse treatment options in

food & beverage
Whys and wherefores, from biological and disinfection treatments
to membranes and osmosis
In a food & beverage facility, water is for

for food & beverage processes; and 3)

make-up of cooling towers and boilers,

mitigated business risk through lessened

and for equipment washing and production

dependency on external water sources.

input. Water provision may involve connec-

Water reuse is growing around the world.

tion to a municipal system; extraction from

Read further to understand more about its

the local natural water supply, such as a

deployment, including issues bearing on

ground well; or reclamation from process-

investment decisions.

facility wastewater via reuse treatment,

lowering freshwater requirements.

Reclamation from processfacility wastewater via reuse

treatment lowers freshwater
Public treatment works are sensitive to
industrial discharge due to potential impact

Terms & definitions

on facility operations. Many require corpo-

Wastewater is typically discharged into a

rations to pull permits for discharge and

for decades, but now are seen critical for

collection network, to be treated by publicly

charge significant fees. In addition, fines

companies, communities and govern-

owned treatment works (POTW) or under

and other penalties can be imposed for

ments, as issues of environmental sustain-

the national pollutant discharge elimination

discharge permit violations.

ability, both globally and in local context,

system (NPDES).

Water resources were taken for granted

come to the fore.

The discharge of water into a river, lake,

In the U.S., publicly owned facilities

creek or other body of water falls under the

are the business of local governments or

purview of the national pollutant discharge

is fresh, and much of that is trapped in

municipalities, and treat domestic sewage,

elimination system, a division of the EPA,

glaciers and snowfields. One estimate says

not industrial wastewater. Some industrial

already mentioned. Companies looking to

only about 1 percent of this freshwater is

facilities are permitted to discharge water

discharge wastewater through the national

accessible, i.e., available for everyday

to public treatment works if they follow

discharge system need water more heavily

use. In another estimate, if current trends

pretreatment processes such as for solids

treated than if discharged to public treat-

continue, global freshwater demand will

removal, biochemical oxygen demand

ment works.

exceed supply by a staggering 40 percent

(BOD) reduction and pH adjustment.

Only 2.5 percent of the worlds water

in 2030.
By reducing source-water requirements,

Table 1

any food & beverage company lessens its

environmental impact. Many companies
also realize substantial cost savings from
water-related investments.
Other benefits of water reuse include
1) enhanced sustainability practices; 2)
more appropriate water-quality standards

12 February 2015 | Water/Waste Processing |

As a government-regulated system,

strict permit requirements govern this type


In fact, these standards often are more


microfiltration or ultrafiltration
membranes for solids and bacteria

stringent than those imposed for reuse. Violations of discharge requirements can result

bioreactors for biological nutrient

specific needs, including the following:

solved organics or salts


reverse osmosis for removal of dis-

sequencing-batch or membrane-

oxidation and disinfection to remove

in EPA-issued punitive fines and consent

decrees, which subject plants to routine
inspections to ensure standards compliance. Should mandated provisions not
be followed, a company could also find
itself paying for environmental damage

What makes the SONIC-PRO a Superior Ultrasonic Flowmeter?

Hybrid Operation. Ultrasonic Transducers.



Displays current coniguration settings.

Whether discharging wastewater

Measurement reliability metrics.

Example: 1 = preset coniguration #1

D = doppler mode
0.00 = transducer separation

through POTW or NPDES, a company

should consider its full cost of wastewater


320 x 240 Pixel QVGA
Backlit LCD, UV resistant.

disposal when evaluating treatment and



Assists with installation and

The technology of reuse

Commercial technologies for waste-


water treatment in reuse applications

User selectable doppler or

transit time operating mode.

include 1) conventional treatment to remove solids, and adjust pH and chlorine

Isolated 4-20mA output
0-1000Hz pulse output fully
conigurable, invertible.

levels, or 2) advanced processes that

filter and oxidize water, delivering higher
quality. These methods are more flex-


ible as to the how and where of recycled

AC or DC power input.

water use.

Conventional solid waste removal can

Over 500,000 log events

possible with included 32MB
SD card (lash memory).

include use of screens, dissolved-air

flotation and primary clarifiers, filters,


biological treatment via conventionally-

Three independently
conigurable 10 amp form C,
no/nc relays.

activated sludge, chlorination and pH

adjustment, reducing solids and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD). It pro-


vides minimal disinfection and, for some

Computer connection via

RS-232, RS-485, USB, Ethernet.
Includes user PC Software.

reuse applications, such as turf irrigation,

conventional treatment may be all that is
Advanced technologies can remove
contaminants that conventional treat-


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ments cant and are applied based on

Write In 108 | Water/Waste Processing | February 2015 13

Filtration & membranes

trace contaminants and pathogens

Table 2

adsorption or ozone-enhanced
biological active filtration to remove
dissolved organics and contaminants

These advanced treatments can be

roughly categorized as either "biological" or
Biological treatment further includes two
subcategories: sequencing batch reactor
(SBR) and membrane bioreactor (MBR).

channeled through a reactor that emits

In general, sequence-batching needs less

UV light at low wavelengths to destroy the

capital investment, but a membrane biore-

DNA structures of microorganisms, includ-

actor can cost less to operate.

ing bacteria, viruses, yeasts and molds.

Both combine biological treatment with

Virtually any liquid can be used with this

Table 2 outlines a cost-benefit analysis of

common disinfection technologies.

Membranes & osmosis

In addition to biological and disinfection

membrane filtration to 1) provide a high

technology, so it is often found in beverage-

techniques, other advanced treatments are

quality effluent and 2) meet stringent nutri-

processing plants.

used either separately or in conjunction to

However, UV is sensitive to water clarity.

ent limits for phosphorus and nitrogen.

fulfill wastewater discharge requirements.

Membrane filtration, including microfiltra-

For a more detailed comparison of SBR to

Higher clarity water requires less energy

MBR, refer to Table 1.

to treat, and as a result, pretreatment of

tion and ultrafiltration, is for suspended-sol-

wastewater is common in systems where

ids removal in food & beverage processing.

UV disinfection is used.

The technologies remove some pathogens,

Kinds of disinfection
Disinfection treatment comes in three

Ozone and advanced oxidation process-

types: chlorine, ultraviolet (UV) and ozone.

es (AOP) are powerful oxidation treatment

The most basic is chlorine disinfection.

technologies that generate hydroxyl radi-

Here, water is filtered with hypochlorite

cals, the strongest oxidant used in water

to generate chlorine residual to inactivate

treatment. AOP is an ideal disinfection

pathogens such as bacteria.

approach to treat recalcitrant contaminants

UV technologies are chemical-free

not removed by other technologies. AOP

and need less contact time than chlorine

and ozone technologies are commonly

disinfection. In these systems, water is

coupled with other filtration technologies.

Types of Filtration

14 February 2015 | Water/Waste Processing |

viruses and bacteria. See the table below


for a breakdown of filtration types.

Multiple treatment options are available for specific needs a variety of

conventional and advanced treatment
processes can be configured for any
facility and tailored to be fit-for-purpose
depending on the application.
Choose equipment that results in
long-term benefits A plants total
water and wastewater costs are significant and will continue to rise. Employing the correct reuse technologies can
result in both hard and soft savings for
your organization, including reduction in supply risk and environmental
Collect the necessary information
to start the process Now that youve
decided to start reusing water, the first
step is to define some objectives. Consider both financial and environmental

Connect with




Visit these sites for the latest process industry news, expert blogs and
state-of-the-art products from leading-edge companies worldwide.

Write In 116

Filtration & membranes

Possible Treatment

Reuse treatments found in the food & beverage industry may be biological, as with use of a
batch reactor or bioreactor, or may involve disinfection, using chlorine, UV or ozone based

In reverse osmosis, salts and many dissolved organics are

With increasing droughts and

well as EPA and other relevant

reuse must be front and center

regulatory bodies. Standards put

for food & beverage plants bent

in place by these organizations to

on sustainability and a secure

regulate wastewater quality vary,

water supply. It speaks also to a

but apply in some form to all

greater focus on social respon-

plants, regardless of size. For ex-

sibility and water stewardship. In

ample, in 2012, the EPA released

part, due to public indices such

a document outlining state and

as the Dow Jones Sustainability

federal water reuse guidelines for

Index, companies are investing

all industries, including food and

more heavily in sustainability

beverage processing.

removed through a Reverse osmosis is used for highest-quality

than ever before and are better

reuse water, such as high-pressure boiler feedwater or for low

managing their water use.

salt and contaminant levels. Reverse osmosis is expensive and

must comply with the FDA, as

water-related anomalies, water

Xylem, Inc.

Another driver of water reuse

generates a concentrate brine wastestream that must be man-

is health and safety mandates.

aged via proper disposal.

Food & beverage operations
Write In 201

Treating water is only the first step to ensuring wastewater is

recycled and reused efficiently and effectively within a plant. It is
important for organizations to also consider the transportation
and storage costs of water reuse.

Pumps and pressures

Treatment and pumping systems are primary energy consumers within a water or wastewater loop. Sizing a system
appropriately and selecting equipment to meet requirements is
critical to life-cycle energy savings.
Pumps both transport and boost pressure in a system.
Water is moved from one spot to another for treatment, storage
purposes or use. Pressure boosting is needed for treatments,
including reverse osmosis, where water moves through a
membrane at specific pressures. Many reuse applications, such
as irrigation and equipment washing, also require pressureboosting.
Pumps and piping impact considerably the energy consumed over a systems lifecycle. Pumps should be selected
to operate at their best efficiency point (BEP) and plumbing
engineered to minimize friction loss. Xylem estimates that a water reuse system with improperly sized piping and pumps can
increase energy consumption by 200 to 300 percent.

Write In 109

16 February 2015 | Water/Waste Processing |





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Write In 111

Mixing & blending

Active mixing solves rural utility

ice-buildup problems
Someone once said, Water bodies, like human bodies,
require good circulation to function properly.
It seemed like every year after its potable

a GridBee GS-12 mixer from Dickinson,

storage tank was constructed way back in

North Dakota-based Medora Corp. for its

1972, the town of Lyons, Michigan, faced

potable water tank. Craft reports that from

icing problems, town officials admit.

that point on, ice buildup in the tank was

With a population of nearly 800 men,

a thing of the past, and furthermore, do-

women and children, rural Lyons, found

ing year-round active mixing significantly

near the center of the state, today over-

improved chlorine residuals.

comes winter ice cake problems without

lifting or lowering its tank-water levels,

Stratification is forestalled
because inflow water circulates
through the entire tank, moving
what's at the bottom to the top.

ensuring residents have full-strength water

pressure and fire-protection flow.
Ice-cake problems start with the fact that
leaving water quiescent in potable waterstorage tanks can lead to thermal strati-

Passive mixing so 'old school'

fication, biofilms, excessive disinfection

Most potable water storage tanks were

byproducts and disinfectant residual loss.

Winter-ice formation in distribution-system
reservoirs also is challenging for water utili-

In Lyons, the 100,000-gallon capacity tower was "too small to

lower the level much during the winter" and risk compromising
fire-flow capacity. As a result, ice cake became the reality.

specified before circulation and mixing

water-quality benefits were fully appreciated. Tanks were specified with excess stor-

ties in colder climates.

age or structural damage. Interaction of

age capacity for fire protection, adequate

forestalled because inflow water circulates

ice chunks with inflows and outflows may

water pressure and in anticipation of future

throughout the entire tank, as water is

further damage tanks.

growth. Daily usage was relatively small in

With active mixing, stratification is

pulled in the tank bottom, where the dens-

According to Susan Craft, a department

relation to this excess capacity, again limit-

est layers are, and transported directly to

of public works superintendent, at one

ing the benefits of passive mixing. Another

the top of the tank.

point ice damage took out the cathodic

limitation of passive mixing is that tanks

protection of Lyons tank. During the course

have single-pipe influent-effluent designs,

of renovating that single pedestal tank,

with the ingress-egress point typically

Craft consulted with Dixon Engineering of

located at the tank base.

Common enough situation

Thick ice layers often form on storage
tanks surfaces during prolonged subfreez-

Lake Odessa, Michigan on whether a more

ing weather. Steel tank seams can expand

definitive solution might be available.

during ice formation, causing water leak-

The outcome was that today Lyons has

18 February 2015 | Water/Waste Processing |

Insufficient mixing allows water to thermally stratify within a tank. During freezing
weather, temperatures in the lower portion

of the water column are warmest. Groundwater, typically sourced

According to Craft, I was able

Medora Corp., Dickinson,

at about 11 degrees C, as influent water, is the primary source of

to keep the tank full during the

North Dakota, whose brands

heat. When influent volumes are low, influent water temperature

winter with no icing problems.

include GridBee and Solar-

declines quickly to 3-5 degrees C. The most recently introduced

And chlorine residual levels are

Bee, provides mixing, THM

water stays in the lower portion of the water column because

more consistent. I was having

removal and disinfectant boosting

water density is greatest at about 4 degrees C. Water tempera-

differing chlorine residuals before

solutions to solve difficult prob-

tures in the tank decline with increasing elevation until ice forms

I started mixing, but now its

lems in potable water treatment

wall-to-wall on the surface. Subsurface ice continues to form,

been evened out in the system.

and storage. GridBee GS-12

often reaching thicknesses of one to two feet.

One sample I pull from a dead-

mixers are certified to ANSI/NSF

end has maintained a real even

Standard 61, including low-lead


certification, by NSF, UL, CSA or

In Lyons, the tanks 100,000-gallon capacity further limited

passive mixing. Our tower was too small to lower the level
much during the winter, says Craft, and because we use the

Keeping these chlorine residu-

other qualifying agency. For more

height of the water for pressure, we need to keep it as full as

al levels consistent requires less

possible. Plus, lowering water levels compromises fire-flow

treatment, which reduces costs.

capacity. As a result, ice cake became the reality.

And improving water quality is,

Medora Corp.

of course, the ultimate goal for

Lyons and its residents.

Write In 202

Overcoming horizontal layers

information, call 866-437-8076.

Active mixing is based on the simple fact that water in potable

water-storage tanks naturally forms thin horizontal layers. The
heaviest or densest layer is at the bottom, and each layer above
it is progressively lighter.
An active mixer moves inflow water throughout the entire
water body.


The Gridbee GS-12 sets on the tank floor and pulls water

Tertiary water treatment Post-clarier water polishing

Pre-treatment for RO membranes

in at a point from one to two inches off the tank floor. In other
words, it pulls in water from the very bottom of the tank, where
the densest layers are, and transports it to the top of the tank.
Soon, temperatures are nearly identical throughout the tank and
ice cannot form.
Craft says Lyons uses the mixer year-around to combat problems from water stratification. Pulling water right off the tank floor
ensures the most efficient mixing of important boundary layers
without disturbing the sediment providing uniform distribution of disinfectant and uniform water age, as well as preventing


Submicron ltration efficiency

High ltration rate: up to 20 gpm/ft2
High ow: up to 1,000 gpm per stackable vessel
Reduced footprint: up to 85% space savings
Proven design and reliability over 2,500 installations worldwide

Use of an active
mixer ensures
uniform water
temperatures within
the tank.

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Follow us:
Write In 112 | Water/Waste Processing | February 2015 19

Wastewater Dan

How is solids-separation controlled

in primary wastewater treatment?
Primary clarifiers, air-flotation units and Imhoff settlers
are amongst equipment options
By Daniel Theobald
Solids including those suspended,
settle-able or floatable are non-liquid or

or receiving waters.
Many factors influence the settling char-

Air flotation units

The objective of flotation thickening

fluid substances separated from clarified

acteristics of a given clarifier. Most common

is to separate solids from the liquid

wastewater in primary treatment.

include: temperature variation, short circuits,

phase by matching air bubbles to

detention time, weir-overflow rate, surface-

particles of suspended solids. Four

particles that remain so in water, as a col-

loading rate and solids loading. Three of

general methods of flotation are com-

loid, or due to the motion of the water.

these factors are discussed below.

mon, as follows:

Suspended solids are those small, solid

Settle-able solids are particles that will

1. Temperature: In general, as water

1. Dispersed air flotation where

settle within a reasonable length of time

temperature increases, the settling rate of

bubbles are generated by mixers or

assuming little movement. The weight by

particles increases; as temperature decreas-

diffused aerators.

volume of settle-able solids is greater than

es, so does the settling rate.

Floatable solids do so because their
weight by volume is less than that of water.
Primary wastewater treatments that

2. Short circuits: As wastewater enters the

settling tank, it should be evenly dispersed
through the entire cross-section of the tank.

2. Biological flotation where gases

formed by biological activity are used
to float solids.
3. Dissolved air, vacuum flotation

It should flow at the same velocity in all

where water is aerated at atmo-

remove these solids in process containers

areas toward the discharge end. If veloc-

spheric pressure and released under a

include primary clarifiers, air-flotation units

ity is greater in some sections than others,


and cone-shape Imhoff settlers. While effec-

short-circuiting may occur.

tive solids separation supersedes control

Short-circuiting also may be caused by

4. Dissolved air, pressure flotation

where air is put into solution under

of pH and flow or other factors, generic

turbulence or density-layer stratification

pressure and released at atmospheric

controls for each process container are

following from temperature or salinity varia-


described in the following.

tion. Temperature layers can cause shortcircuiting.

Primary clarifiers
The primary clarifiers most important

3. Detention time: Wastewater should

The performance of dissolved airflotation units depends on; type of

sludge, age of the feed sludge, solids

remain in the clarifier long enough to allow

and hydraulic loadings, air-to-solids

function is removing as much settle-able

sufficient solid-particle settling time. If the

(A/S) ratio, recycle rate, and sludge-

and suspended material as possible. Unless

tank is too small for the flow quantity and

blanker depth.

removed, organic settle-able solids can

the particle settling rate, too many particles

cause a high demand for oxygen (BOD) in

will be carried out with the effluent of the

subsequent biological treatment in the plant


20 February 2015 | Water/Waste Processing |

Operational guidelines are affected

by dissolved air flotation unit sizes.

Performance can be optimized by con-

try experience operating many variants of

Known in the industry as Wastewater

trolling the air-to-solids ratio, recycle rate

Dan, Daniel L. Theobald, proprietor of

wastewater treatment processing units and

and blanket thickness as variables. These

Environmental Services, is a professional

is eager to share with others his knowledge

control variables are affected by solids and

wastewater and safety consultant/trainer. He

about water conservation. (www.Conserve-

hydraulic loading rates. Controls should

has more than 24 years of hands-on indus-

prevent solids or hydraulic loading from

becoming excessive.
Performance is optimized by conditions
such as those described in the following.
Air-to-solids ratio: An optimum ratio
should be established and maintained.
It is affected by the quantity of air introduced and dissolved into the recycle or
waste-stream, which is in turn critical to
flotation thickener operation. Enough air
has to be added and dissolved to float



the sludge solids. The most effective way

to do this is introducing air into a pressurized retention tank along with the waste-

Rotary Lobe Pumps & Macerating Technology

with MIP = Maintenance in Place

stream to be thickened, or along with a

portion of the thickener effluent stream.


Air also can be dissolved in primary or

Access the wet end quickly

and easily

secondary effluent.
Recycle rate and sludge blanket: Both
the rate of effluent recycle and the thickness of the sludge blanket are operational controls available to optimize DAF

Minimize Life-Cycle Cost

Reduce Downtime
No removal of pipe or drive
systems necessary

Note on Imhoff tanks

Imhoff tanks are rarely constructed today. Your plant may incorporate an Imhoff
tank only if it came online many years
ago, perhaps in the 1980s. Cone-shape
Imhoff settler tanks are unique because
the Imhoff tank combines sedimentation and sludge digestion in the same
process unit.
If you have specific solids separation or
other wastewater queries, please submit a
question by visiting www.ProcessingMag-

Classic Pump

Select Pump

Protect Pump




To learn more, contact, visit or call 612.435.7300
Write In 113 | Water/Waste Processing | February 2015 21

News in brief
Experts call for review of US
drinking water standards
The U.S. EPA should review its standards
on secondary drinking water contaminants,
according to a paper published in the
American Chemical Society journal Environmental Science and Technology.
Authors Andrea Dietrich, professor of civil
and environmental engineering at Virginia
Tech, and Gary A. Burlingame, director
of the Philadelphia Water Department's
Bureau of Laboratory Services, said that
a variety of factors could change consumer perceptions of drinking water quality,
including California's drought conditions,
the increase in hydraulic fracturing and
the country's aging infrastructure of rusty,
degrading pipes.
Dietrich and Burlingame argued that
these and other developments mean that
a critical review and rethink is needed concerning the EPA's secondary standards in
order to maintain consumers' confidence in
tap water as well as in its sensory quality.
These "secondary maximum contaminant
levels" cover substances including aluminum, chloride, copper, fluoride, foaming
agents, iron, manganese, silver, sulfate,
total dissolved solids and zinc, as well as
the water's color, odor, pH and corrosivity.
Research by Dietrich and Burlingame
suggests that the current standards for
chloride, copper, iron and manganese
are too high to minimize sensory effects.
Furthermore, they said, the standards
for corrosivity and foaming agents "may
be outdated" and the standard for odor
"requires rethinking as the test does not
correlate with consumer complaints."
Episodes that negatively impact consumer confidence and perception of tap water
still occur and may increase, yet secondary maximum contaminant levels are not
monitored or enforced nationally. As a

result, there is no systematic collection and

interpretation of consumer feedback.
"Research is necessary to develop standardized procedures for the collection of
consumer feedback on aesthetic, cosmetic
and technical concerns at individual community water systems and centralized in
a national database," Dietrich and Burlingame said.
Adherence to the EPA's secondary
standards can help maintain production
of palatable water along with consumers'
confidence in their water providers, the
researchers concluded.

Arkansas city agrees to cut

sewage discharges
The city of Fort Smith, Arkansas, has
agreed to upgrade its sewer collection and
treatment system to reduce discharges of
raw sewage into local waterways, the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Under a consent decree with the EPA
and the U.S. Department of Justice, Fort
Smith will spend $255 million, plus the cost
of routine operation and maintenance, to
improve its sewer system. This comes after
more than 2,000 discharges of untreated
sewage from its municipal sewage system
over the past 10 years, resulting in more
than 119 million gallons of raw sewage
flowing into local waterways, including the
Arkansas River.
The city will carry out a full assessment
of its sewer system to identify defects and
places where stormwater may be entering
the system. It will also repair all sewer pipe
segments and manholes that are likely
to fail within the next 10 years, develop
projects to improve the performance of
sewers and implement a program to clean
the system of debris such as grease and
tree roots. And a water-monitoring program
will be implemented to establish whether

22 February 2015 | Water/Waste Processing |

human waste is entering and being discharged from the city's stormwater system.
Fort Smith will also pay a $300,000 civil
penalty and will spend $400,000 on a program to help low-income areas of the city
repair and replace privately-owned portions
of the sewer network.
According to the EPA, this settlement
agreement will substantially reduce the
number of sewage discharges and improve
water quality. It will cut discharges of 3,492
pounds of total suspended solids, 3,343
pounds of biological oxygen demand, 543
pounds of nitrogen and 78 pounds of phosphorus from the Fort Smith sewage system
each year.
High levels of these pollutants can
reduce oxygen levels in water bodies,
threatening the health of aquatic plants and
animals, for example by causing excessive
algae growth.

IChemE calls for action to cut

water usage in food production
More needs to be done to reduce the
amount of water used in food production,
according to the Institution of Chemical
Engineers (IChemE).
The organization estimates that around
90 percent of all freshwater is currently
used by agriculture (70 percent) and industry (20 percent), leaving just 10 percent for
domestic use.
With the global population continuing to
rise and more people moving to a Westernstyle diet, increases in food production will
be required to feed the population and that
increased production will need larger water
"Estimates suggest that we will need to
produce 60 percent more food by 2050.
Agriculture will need around 19 percent
more water to produce that extra food,"
commented Andy Furlong, IChemE director
of policy.

"It is clear that current production methods are unsustainable and there are
genuine risks of food shortages, rising food
prices, droughts and social unrest for future
generations unless we make more efficient
use of water," he added.
By 2050 around two-thirds of the
world's population will be living in "water
scarce" areas, compared to just seven
percent at present.
IChemE is calling for a global target
to cut the amount of water used in food
production worldwide by 20 percent.

Shutdown strategy saves

treatment plant time, money
Engineers in the United Kingdom have
devised a way to shut down an entire
sewage treatment works without using
storm facilities.
Engineering and construction group
Costain said that a team working at
Severn Trent Water's Stratford Milcote
facility developed and trialed the strategy
while installing a new inlet works with
associated screens and handling at the
sewage treatment plant.
Tom Grainger-White, senior site agent
for Costain, explained: "Traditionally when
a treatment works is shut down, foul
water is transferred to tankers and then
transported to other sites. By compiling information such as how wastewater
flowed between the 15 pump stations
that fed the site, and carrying out tests to
check those interactions, we were able to
turn off individual stations.
"This allowed us to increase the time
we could turn off the main treatment
works, and so no tankers were required."
When a faulty valve was discovered at
the water utility's Paddock Lane pump
station, the strategy proved its worth.
Grainger-White said: "Paddock Lane
is a very large pumping station; it's in a

residential area and is almost impossible to

tanker from. But the three trials we carried
out at the Stratford Milcote scheme were
enough to convince everyone that STW
could perform shutdowns further up the
network and so safely replace the valve."

Using information from the shutdown

trials at Milcote, the team was able to safely
replace the faulty valve the next day. Severn
Trent Water estimated that the work cost
around 35,000 ($55,000) less than if overpumping had been required.

Compact, cost effective,

and multi-functional
GEM P600 multi-port valve blocks offer
superior solutions for liquid media

Tested and certiied

Integrates various functions in a single block: iltering,
pressure sensoring, temperature measurement
Fewer ittings, welds and cemented joints mean increased
plant reliability
Compact, space-saving designs
Perfect for Chemical, Environmental, Water Treatment, and
Power Generation industries
3800 Camp Creek Parkway Building 2600 Suite 120
Atlanta, GA 30331 Tel: 678-553-3400 Fax: 678-553-3459
Write In 110
PROC201402_GEMU_islandWW.indd 1

11:20:37 AM | Water/Waste Processing | February

New Product Spotlight

Chemical Metering Pumps
Watson-Marlow Pumps Group's
new Qdos 60 chemical metering
pumps expand the Qdos range to
incorporate flow rates from 0.001 to
15 GPH at 100psi and is designed
to reduce chemical metering costs
compared to conventional solenoid
or stepper-driven diaphragm metering pumps. The Qdos 60 is especially suited to chemical metering
applications found in larger water treatment plants where flow
demand is greater than that provided by the existing Qdos 30
model and is ideal for disinfection, pH adjustment and flocculation of drinking water, wastewater and industrial process water.
ReNu pumphead technology provides a single, safely contained component for rapid maintenance without the need for
tools. Simple drop-in installation eliminates the need for ancillary
equipment; and the pumps highly accurate, linear and repeatable metering cut the cost of chemical wastage.

Level Transmitter for

Measuring Coolant
Aplus Finetek Sensor, Inc.'s
newest EG series level transmitter,
the EG31, is designed to precisely measure coolant level in an
evaporator within an industrial air
or water cooled chiller. Accurate
reservoir level control is important
for precise control of refrigerant
flow through the expansion valve.
The Aplus Finetek EG31 also includes a customized installation
mechanism that allows the level transmitter to be installed or
removed without taking the system out of service. The EG31 level
transmitter is currently used by a global leader in the manufacture of large scale industrial chillers.

Aplus Finetek Sensor, Inc.
Write In 204

Watson-Marlow Pumps Group
Write In 203

Advertiser Index
American Water Works Association (AWWA) ...............................11

Infilco Degremont .............................................. Inside Back Cover

Aplus Finetek Sensor, Inc. ..............................................................15

Kaeser Compressors ........................................................................1

Baldor Electric Company..................................................................5

Myron L ............................................................................ Back Cover

Blue-White Industries......................................................................13

Process / Flow Network ..................................................................17

Boerger ............................................................................................21

Rosedale Products .......................................................................... 7

Dwyer Instruments ...............................................Inside Front Cover

Rotork ................................................................................................3

Flexicon Corp. .................................................................................10

Sonitec-Vortisand ............................................................................19

GEM ...............................................................................................23

Watson-Marlow Pumps Group .........................................................9

24 February 2015 | Water/Waste Processing |

Write In 114

Write In 115