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CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND


Introduction
In this study, the researchers intend to know the status of ordinance no. 2007-017
which is an ordinance regulating the citrus nursery and orchard development

and

management within the Municipality of Kasibu, Nueva Vizcaya. The growing industry of
citrus in the municipality of Kasibu has changed for the past years especially in barangay
Papaya, which is one of the highest and main producers of citrus in the lands of Kasibu
according to Mayor Alberto Bumolo, Jr. There are lots of improvements in terms of
technology and facilities, however, the threat brought by the occurrence of bacteria and
virus diseases wiped out the citrus industry of Kasibu that most likely ruined the hard
labor of the farmers according to the Municipal officials. Moreover, it affected the
consumers due to the bacteria that came from the citrus. The spread of bacteria and
viruses over the lands has caused a huge problem not only on the side of the producers
and consumers but also to the local government. According to the Provincial
Government, it is widely known that Kasibu is the citrus bowl of the province of Nueva
Vizcaya and it is one of the major distributors of citrus, thus, it cant help but to give
immediate solution to this dilemma by establishing an ordinance that will ensure the
health of the public and business of the workers. The government officials established a
task force in the barangays that will assist the local government as it is said in the
ordinance 2007-017. The virus transmission will be more detrimental in the citrus
industry if it were to break down. Hence, the said ordinance is created that seeks to
protect the interest of the workers and most especially the public.

The barangay captains utilize/maximize their powers through the help of the
government. The barangay captains help the government in keeping these ordinances but
as far as today, questions arise regarding whether the people feel their service or the
barangay captains informed the public about the ordinance. The performance of the
officials in the local government is sometimes inadequate or has its flaws when it comes
to their duties due to some factors. According to newly elected Mayor Bumolo, the
publics awareness on this ordinance may not be well known to some issues and because
of this some may still apply their old ways in citrus growing that may cause them to pay
their wrong doings. Some people resist because the ordinance is not carried well by the
local government or the task force are not taking this ordinance seriously. The institutions
involved in this ordinance may not as well perform their duties, which greatly affect the
whole system.
With these common problems, the researchers are intrigued in knowing the status
of this ordinance whether they are carried out well or not. The fund of this ordinance is
one of the great issues as well, most may know that it is direct to the ordinance but little
do they know that it is for personal gain only. The development of this ordinance is a big
deal to the people of Kasibu, obviously, the people within this municipality would like to
know how far the ordinance affected the citrus industry.

Setting of the Study


The study will be conducted in Municipality of Kasibu, Province of Nueva
Vizcaya, particularly in barangay Papaya. There are lots of farms in this barangay,
specifically citrus farms. The place is not well developed in terms of roads, houses, road
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lights etc. but the orchards are well organized and most of the place are covered with
trees and plants. In a dialogue with the city mayor of Kasibu, the researchers have
decided to conduct this study in Papaya as it is one of the highest producers in the area.
The place is perfect to conduct a research especially on the likes of this ordinance, the
population of Kasibu has 31,515 people in 5,200 households, the barangay of Papaya
have 894 people, most of these people are farmers, and it is easy for the researchers to
identify the needs in the research (Local Governance Performance Management System,
2013). With the help of the local people in the barangay, there are vital institutions in this
place that can provide the necessary information and can assist the researchers on their
problems.

Theoretical Framework
This study is based on the framework of Program Evaluation: Implementation
Evaluation, Summative Evaluation and Progress Evaluation. Program evaluation is
a systematic method for collecting, analyzing, and using information to answer questions
about projects, policies and programs, particularly about their effectiveness and
efficiency. In both the public and private sectors, stakeholders will want to know if the
programs they are funding, implementing, voting for, receiving or objecting to are
actually having the intended effect (and to what cost). Evaluation is the systematic
process of delineating, obtaining, reporting, and applying descriptive and judgmental
information about some objects merit, worth, probity [moral correctness], feasibility,
safety, significance, or equity (Stufflebeam & Shinkfield, 2007, p. 698). Progress
Evaluation is an evaluation to assess progress in meeting the goals of the program and

the project. It involves collecting information to learn whether or not the benchmarks of
participant progress were met and to point out unexpected developments. Progress
evaluation collects information to determine what the impact of the activities and
strategies is on participants, curriculum, or institutions at various stages of the
intervention. By measuring progress, program staff can eliminate the risk of waiting until
participants have experienced the entire program to assess likely outcomes. If the data
collected as part of the progress evaluation fail to show expected changes, the
information can be used to fine tune the project. Data collected as part of a progress
evaluation can also contribute to, or form the basis for, a summative evaluation conducted
at some future date (Westat, 2010). Implementation Evaluation assesses whether the
project is being conducted as planned. The underlying principle is that before you can
evaluate the outcomes or impact of a program, one must make sure the program and its
components are really operating and, if they are operating according to the proposed plan
or description (Westat, 2010). Summative Evaluation, sometimes called outcome
evaluation, is conducted for the purpose of documenting the results of a program.
Specific goals of a program are identified and the degree of accomplishment of those
goals is documented. The results of a summative evaluation might point to changes that
should be made in a program in order to improve it in subsequent implementations. The
results of summative evaluations can specify program status and conditions for
accountability purposes. The results can also be used as a need assessment for the
subsequent planning of changes in a program or of the introduction of new programs and
interventions (Westat, 2010). An assessment on the study will create more data that can
contribute in the policy making that is more correct and applicable to the society it will be

serving. Different local government unit can use the program evaluation to aid in
reforming agricultural policies. It is beneficial to evaluate why and how one local
government has had success in agricultural policies as to produce a possible solution for a
failing system. Program evaluation is reflected in this study by the purpose and the
method in which the researchers are using to look at the Kasibu, Nueva Vizcaya
agricultural policy in hope to provide a rational assessment on the Ordinance 2007-017 to
help improve the policy making of the local government.

Research Paradigm
INPUTS

PROCESSES
Nursery operation and
management

Ordinance No. 2007-017


Budget

Support of the citrus


farmers

Orchard development and

management

Dialogue/Interview
with
the citrus farmers in
barangay Papaya

OUTPUTS
Level of implementation
General impact to the
living condition of citrus
farmers in barangay
Papaya
Problems and
recommendations of citrus
farmers in barangay
Papaya

Basically, the Ordinance No. 2007-017 was created by the municipality of Kasibu,
Nueva Vizcaya to solve the harmful spread of viruses and diseases in its citrus industry.
The ordinance is vital in immediately solving the present problem in Kasibus citrus
industry. It laid out the processes needed to solve and prevent the problem to get worse.
The nursery operation and management basically aims to establish a nursery
municipality, composed of personnel that are responsible for controlling the spread of
diseases and viruses among citrus. Also, it is tasked to produce the citrus seedlings which

are distributed to the concerned citrus farmers. Furthermore, it seeks to ensure that the
Municipal Agricultural Office does its functions in terms of updating data on citrus
growers profile and production statistics, inspection and certification of the sale and
transportation of citrus seedlings, establishment of system labeling, immediate
elimination of infected trees and so on. Second, the budget is also a concern in order to
meet the expected outcomes of the ordinance implementation. It enables the local
officials to create programs regarding citrus activities, establish a municipal nursery as
earlier said, produce citrus seedlings needed by the concerned farmers, hire the required
personnel, and facilitation of the registration, inventory, monitoring, and recording of all
nurseries, citrus seedlings, and nursery operations in the municipality. Third, the support
of the citrus farmers is necessary for the evaluation of this research. The project is most
likely to succeed if the concerned farmers comply with the implementation of the
ordinance. These farmers are obliged to cut the trees infected with viruses and diseases.
Otherwise, the local authorities are the ones who will cut it down whenever the farmers
do not comply. In addition, it is best for the farmers to utilize the citrus seedlings
distributed by its local government for the immediate recovery of the citrus industry in
Kasibu. Furthermore, it seeks to promote orchard development in its jurisdiction. The
Citrus Task Force, together with the barangay captains and the Philippine National
Police, is in charge for the strict implementation of the ordinance. After five years since it
was created, the researchers want to know the present status of the ordinance whether the
local government in Kasibu has performed high or low level of implementation. In this
connection, the general impact of the implementation to the life of the concerned people
is also considered in this research. The researchers refer to the citrus farmers in Kasibu.

This research aims to know the general impact of the ordinance to them in terms of the
level of awareness and financial aspect through an interview. During the course of
implementation, it is interesting to know if they are aware of the said ordinance because it
directly affects their living condition. They are able to know the problem in detail, the
resources that the local government can provide and the penalties imposed from its
provisions. Also, the researchers want to know the problems that the citrus farmers want
their locality to address. Lastly, recommendations from the citrus farmers regarding citrus
programs are vital for the development of the local government of Kasibu.

Statement of the Problem


This study primarily aims to evaluate the role of local government units in the
enhancement of the living conditions of the beneficiaries of the Citrus Industry in Kasibu,
Nueva Vizcaya.
Specifically, it aims to answer the following questions:
1. What is the status of the implementation of the Citrus Nursery and Orchard
Development and Management Project in the Municipality of Kasibu, Nueva
Vizcaya as to:
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.

The Nursery Operation and Management;


The Orchard Development and Management;
The functions of Citrus Task Force; and
The imposition of prohibition and penalties upon the violators of

the provisions in this ordinance


2. What is the impact of the Citrus Nursery and Orchard Development and
Management Project to the living conditions of the beneficiaries?

3. Is there a significant relationship between the implementation of the Citrus


Nursery and Orchard Development and Management Project and the living
condition of the citrus farmers of Barangay Papaya?
4. What are the problems encountered by the beneficiaries in the implementation of
the Citrus Nursery and Orchard Development and Management Project?
5. What are the recommendations of the people to further improve the Citrus
Nursery and Orchard Development and Management Project?

Hypothesis
This study hypothesized that there is no significant relationship between the
implementation of the Citrus Nursery and Orchard Development and Management
Project and the living condition of the citrus farmers of Barangay Papaya.

Significance of the Study


This section will provide brief description on the various significances of the
study given the three categories Political, Economical and Academics.
To students - This study serves the students as their reference or guide in creating their
thesis which concerns about a similar topic. It will also help students to fully understand
the relevance of creating ordinances which are beneficial to the municipality.
The municipality of Kasibu, Nueva Vizcaya - The municipality will benefit from this
study because of the fact that this study will help the readers to be aware of the policies of
the municipality which will be able to help the municipality to be fully recognized in the
programs that they are implementing.

To aspiring researchers - This study will be able to help the future researchers who want
to focus on policy implementation on a certain place and to those researchers who are
interested in citrus development.
Citrus producers - This study will benefit the citrus producers for they will become
aware of the policies that the local government is doing to save their farms.
Consumers - The study is beneficial for them because they will be able to know whether
or not the qualities of the products have been the same as before or not, thus, improving
the consciousness of the consumers about the product.
Local legislators - This study will help them on how to create ordinances which will be
beneficial to the people and will also show them how their ordinances are totally
implemented.
General populace This study will show the general populace on how the local
government of the municipality of Kasibu, Nueva Viczaya is taking care of the citrus
industry because it is one of their sources on income. It will also help the general
populace on how the local government functions in terms of giving services.
Readers - They would be able to know the functions and duties of the local government
units in the Philippines. Moreover, they would be conscious of the policy implementation
status in the municipality of Kasibu, Nueva Vizcaya.

Scope and Delimitation


The scope of this research are the farmers who cultivated a citrus farm and are
asked some questions by the

researchers, that are of great use regarding the


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implementation of the ordinance number 2007-017. This research is limited to 50 citrus


farmers in the selected barangay. The living condition of the citrus farmers is limited to
their production and income.
It includes Barangay Papaya of the Municipality of Kasibu, Nueva Viczaya. The
time allocated for the research is school year June 2013 to March 2014.
Definition of Terms
1. Barangay is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines and is the
native Filipino term for a village, district or ward.
2. Beneficiaries the persons that utilize the project outputs.
3. Citrus is a common term and genus of flowering plants in the rue family, the
best-known examples are the oranges, lemons, grapefruit and limes.
4. Enhancement the act of raising the value or the standard of a certain thing or
condition.
5. Evaluation a systematic determination of a subject's merit, worth and
significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards. It can assist an
organization, program, project or any other intervention or initiative to assess any
aim, realizable concept/proposal, or any alternative, to help in decision-making.
6. Huanglongbing disease is a devastating disease caused by bacterium,
libeobacterasiaticum characterized by sectoral yellowing and off season flowering
and transmitted by the insect vector Diaphorina Citri.
7. Impact the direct effect of one thing on another.
8. Implementation is the realization of an application, or execution of a plan,
idea, model, design, specification, standard, algorithm, or policy.
9. Income is the consumption and savings opportunity gained by an entity within a
specified timeframe, which is generally expressed in monetary terms.
10. Living condition the production and income of the citrus farmers.
11. Municipality is usually an urban administrative division having corporate status
and usually powers of self-government or jurisdiction.
12. Ordinance a statute or regulation especially one enacted by a city government.

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13. Production - is a process of combining various material inputs and immaterial


inputs in order to make something for consumption. It is the act of
creating output, a good or service which has value and contributes to the utility of
individuals.
14. Program evaluation is a systematic method for collecting, analyzing, and using
information to answer questions about projects, policies and programs particularly
about their effectiveness and efficiency.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDY
This chapter presents the review of readings and the summary of related studies
conducted by both foreign and local researchers which the researcher considered relevant
to the study.
Local Studies and Literature
According to Gatlabayan et al. (2009), the implementation of ordinance no. 812001, which regulates the sales and distribution of rugby and other harmful volatile
substances to children in barangay Dela Paz in Antipolo, was found to be effective. The
researchers found out that the ordinance was carried out properly and was perceived by
the respondents that somewhat minimizes the crimes related to the usage of substance.
Also, it concluded that the awareness of the selected residents in the said barangay was

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very evident. They have knowledge of the said ordinance even some of them were not
aware of the exact number of the provision.
The study is relevant because we share the same theoretical framework, which is
program evaluation. It aims to know the level of implementation of a certain policy in
local governments, particularly the barangay. Our study seeks to evaluate the level of
implementation of ordinance no. 2007-017, which was created in order to prevent further
spread of virus and diseases in citrus, thus, enabling the municipality of Kasibu towards
citrus management and orchard development. Our study likewise partly wants to know
the level of awareness of selected respondents, specifically the farmers.
Based on a study by Adriano et al. (2004), the implementation of different
development plan for the programs and projects of the rural barangays in Rodriguez,
Rizal and urban barangays in Masambong, Quezon City were the means for the
development councils to serve their constituents properly. It was said that the
development plan was carried out often as to planning, implementation, and evaluation of
the various barangay programs and projects. They concluded that all the development
councils in their study satisfactorily implemented the development plans for the benefit of
their constituents.
It is significant to our study for the reason that the ordinance 2007-017 organized
a multi-sectoral task force which has the authority to ensure the recovery of the citrus
industry of Kasibu from the spread of virus and diseases. Some of these are the Citrus
Task Force, Municipal Nursery, Municipal Agricultural Office, and the captains in every
barangay. The performance of the personnel in these groups is essential in saving the
citrus industry of Kasibu. Also, the level of implementation they had shown will reflect
the current status of the project concerning citrus management and orchard development.

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Lastly, the implementation of the said ordinance obviously has impacts in the lives of the
municipalitys constituents, particularly the citrus farmers.
Daza et al. (2009) stated in their study that the perception of the respondents on
the delivery of selected services of the municipality of Lumban, Laguna in terms of
health and sanitation programs was satisfactory. Meaning to say, the services on health
and sanitation program were being provided effectively by the municipality. In addition,
it concluded that the respondents perceived the implementation of livelihood programs of
the municipality as satisfactory. It implied an initiative of the local government to provide
its people jobs, particularly embroidery business. Also, the study proved the peace and
order program satisfactory. Thus, the researchers had found out that the municipality of
Lumba satisfactorily delivered the basic services to its people in the perception of the
members of the sectoral organization.
The study contributes to our study in such a way that the municipality of Kasibu
provided the control measures in the spread of virus and diseases in citrus and it is up to
the local officials to deliver the services to the concerned people, who are basically the
citrus farmers. In this sense, our study needs to know the perception of the citrus farmers
in the implementation of ordinance no. 2007-017. Such perception can be reflected on the
impacts of the ordinance to the different aspects of their lives. In this way, the basis for
the level of implementation of the said ordinance can be strengthened through dialogues
with the citrus farmers aside from the perception of the local officials.
According to Punzalan et al. (2004), the implementation of the city ordinance no.
8046 or Curfew on minors was considered helpful to reduce juvenile delinquency in a
barangay in Sampaloc, Manila. The study concluded that it has a positive outcome by
which the residents in the subject barangay agreed that the implementation of the
ordinance helps to attain peace and order especially to the reduction of juvenile
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delinquency. Moreover, it arrived at a conclusion that it helps in monitoring the activities


of the youths at nighttime. Lastly, the ordinance helps in reducing cases of untoward
involvement of the youths.
The study is essential to our study because an ordinance was created by the local
government in order to reduce something unwanted by the people. In our case, the
ordinance no. 2007-017 was made to be able to contain the spread of virus and diseases
on citrus in Kasibu. Our study aims to determine whether or not it achieved its target goal
through the performance of the local officials in fulfilling their duties and responsibilities
as provided by the said ordinance. Furthermore, our study seeks to know the impacts of
the ordinance implementation to the citrus farmers, either in a positive or a negative way.
The study made by Lorenzo et al. (2007) concluded that the implementation of
city ordinance no. 59 s.1993 as amended by city ordinance no. 87 s. 2004 has been
effective in creating accessible and available sidewalks, which reduced the problems
concerning unwanted accidents. Moreover, it stated that the implementation reduced
disorder and crime along sidewalks, pollution, and diseases.
It has significance to our study because again, the enactment of an ordinance
paved the way for the local government of Poblacion, Marikina City to put a stop to
problems resulting from the sidewalks. In relevance, the ordinance no. 200-017 is
conceived as the solution to prevent the virus and diseases from further spreading and
affecting the citrus industry of Kasibu. It is expected to provide positive outcomes
towards the citrus industry wherein the local officials would be able to properly discharge
their functions and duties and achieved the target goal of the said ordinance which is the
recovery of the citrus industry and better citrus management and orchard development.
Foreign Studies and Literature

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Browning (2012) presented the current status of Huanglongbing in Florida citrus.


He stated that there are signs of progress in many areas. Some positive signs are coming
from success in new plantings, particularly from trials where high densities of trees are
combined with more intensive irrigation/fertilization management. This is combined with
incremental gains in managing Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) on new plantings, as well as
continued benefit from growers participating in Citrus Health Management Areas. Recent
reports at grower meetings and published stories in various outlets point to progress in
managing the disease in a variety of ways, using a variety of approaches. In addition, he
mentioned that vital to understanding management of HLB are the combined efforts of
researchers and growers to collect observations and data from field trials. Ultimately, all
tools for managing citrus in the presence of HLB must be field-tested, and we are
learning in the most important laboratory the grove.
It is related to our study in the sense that one of our goals is to provide a status
report of the overall implementation of ordinance no. 2007-017. The researchers have to
tell all the things that are currently happening in the said project as of 2013. It includes
the compliance of the officials with the provisions of the ordinance such as the
establishment of a municipal nursery, annual appropriations, imposition of penalties, and
the likes. The researchers aim to declare level of implementation of the local government
of Kasibu as satisfactory or not in containing the spread of virus and diseases that
infected the citrus trees through various methods or approaches.
Campo-Flores (2013) said in her article that the Wheeler familys citrus groves
have been affected by a ravaging incurable disease called citrus greening, also known as
Huanglongbing or HLB. Also, it included that a tree infected with the disease can take
three to five years to manifest symptoms, which enables greening to spread rampantly

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before it is discovered. It is now present in all 32 counties in Florida that produce citrus.
As a result, it would carry serious implications for Florida's $9 billion citrus industry,
which supplies about 90% of the orange juice consumed in the U.S., according to Florida
Citrus Mutual. Consumers could also face higher prices at the supermarket. Lastly, he
revealed that greening had cost Florida's economy $3.6 billion in lost revenues and 6,600
jobs as a result of lower orange-juice production. The researchers target the psyllids that
carry the disease through chemical spraying and by unleashing predators that feed on
them, such as a parasitic wasp from Asia. They are also attempting to breed psyllids less
capable of transmitting the bacteria. Scientists are trying to devise antibiotics to battle the
infection.
In relation to our study, citrus greening or Huanglongbing is found to be the same
disease which spread over the citrus trees in Kasibu. Hence, it became the main reason
for the local government to formulate ordinance no. 2007-017 because it can greatly wipe
out the citrus industry. Moreover, it adds credibility to our study since the spread of virus
and diseases over citrus trees has occurred in other parts of the world. It provides vital
information with regard to our study such as the process of virus or disease spreading, its
great impact to the economy of the concerned local government unit, and the means for
preventing HLBs continuous transmission.
According to Brezosky (2013), the wasp called Tamarixia radiatia from Asia can
be the Texas citrus industrys best weapon against the Asian citrus psyllid, a jumping lice
that can infect trees with a devastating disease known as citrus greening or
Huanglongbing. In her article, it is narrated that the adult female lays an egg beneath the
psyllid, which hatches into a larva that literally sucks the life out of the psyllid from
beneath. The larva eventually takes residence, continuing to grow inside the lifeless husk

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before reaching adulthood and chewing its way out. Its goal is to create a biological
barrier that can prevent the spread of the said disease.
It is crucial to the course of our study because other affected local governments
have discovered and adopted an unusual method in trying to control the citrus psyllid to
infect citrus trees and destroy the citrus industry. Our study shares similar problem,
however, the use of wasps as a way to prevent the spread of HLB is not provided by the
ordinance in our research. Lest the methods of local government of Kasibu are not
sufficient to eradicate the spread of Huanglongbing among its citrus trees, the
employment of wasps can be applied by the local officials.
Based on an article by Dey and Suryawanshi (2013), citrus greening disease is an
important disease of citrus which greatly affects the production of the fruits in several
parts of India. Characteristic symptoms include yellowing of leaf veins and adjacent
tissues, followed by premature defoliation, dieback of twigs, decay of feeder rootlets and
lateral roots. Infected fruits are small, lopsided with bitter taste. Such fruits may fall
prematurely; while those that remain on the tree do not color properly, remaining green
on the shaded side. He noted that farmer should routinely scout citrus for signs of
greening so that infected trees can be removed. Scouting should be done at least four
times a year, or more in areas known to have infected trees. October through March is the
best time for scouting, but symptoms can be present at other times of the year. For
effective management, remove infected trees because it is the only way to ensure that
they wont remain a source of infection for other trees. Pruning symptomatic limbs is
often ineffective since other parts of the tree may be infected, but do not show symptoms.
Before removing, the tree should be sprayed with a foliar insecticide to kill any psyllids
in order to keep them from moving on once the tree is removed.

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The article provides the researchers a better understanding of the citrus greening
or Huanglongbing, which caused the local government of Kasibu to enact an ordinance to
stop its transmission. Basically, it clarifies the symptoms of the said disease among trees
and its fruits. Moreover, it gives several measures in assuring that the citrus trees would
not get infected such as the frequency of scouting and the utilization of spraying
materials. The ordinance being studied did not discuss the Huanglongbing disease in
detail. Nonetheless, the article has provided it. A better comprehension of the said disease
is vital because it is the main reason why the study was conducted. The level of
implementation of the ordinance and its impact to the citrus farmers are assessed mainly
because of the existence of such disease. People should be supplied with this kind of
information for prevention purposes. Interestingly, the ordinance made by the local
government of Kasibu has provided the same control measure for the recovery of its
citrus industry which is the immediate cutting of infected trees.
Browning (2013) provided an update as regards the projects focusing on citrus
tree response to Huanglongbing. Firstly, there is the detection of HLB-infected trees. He
said that it is an important feature of monitoring and responding to HLB infection. This is
currently being accomplished primarily through DNA testing of suspect trees showing
early symptoms. Secondly, he emphasized the epidemiology of HLB. Projects are
evaluating spatial and temporal incidence of HLB across Florida, determining factors
most important in infection increase and disease movement. An additional element is
determining the extent to which seeds from infected citrus trees foster HLB transmission.
Thirdly, group of projects focuses on plant defense and how applied methods can affect
the ability of citrus trees to withstand symptom development. Projects are evaluating
innate responses in the plant to Liberibacter infection and the physiology of disease
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symptom development. Lastly, cultural practices and their role in disease management
are looked. This includes nutrition and flush management through pruning and plant
growth regulators.
The magazine article is significant to our study for the reason that the projects
mentioned by Mr. Browning are likewise provided by the provisions in ordinance no.
2007-017 in order to prevent citrus trees from being infected by HLB. This implies that
the means adopted by the local government of Kasibu are tested by other affected groups
in the world. The said ordinance stipulated that the Municipal Agricultural Office should
determine the infected trees, issue notices to concerned citrus farmers, and cut the
infected trees. Moreover, it calls for control measures towards HLB transmission among
citrus trees. The local government should be responsible for the distribution, registration,
inventory, monitoring, and recording of all nurseries, citrus seedlings, and nursery
operations in the municipality.
Survey of Living Conditions in the Arctic. (n.d.) offered a measurement to
understand the living conditions in the Arctic. Most participants in questionnaire
development were experts in either local knowledge or one of eight social science
disciplines. This diversity in expertise helped ensure that relevant dimensions of living
conditions were included and that measures were appropriate to the context of living
conditions in the Arctic. In addition, it mentioned that governments have had a huge
presence in the Arctic. They have enacted and implemented policies intended to improve
housing, health, education, employment, local uses of resources, and to protect wildlife
resources and the environment. Native organizations are increasingly assuming the role
of outside government in developing and implementing policy.

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In relation to our study, the said organizations project is very essential in the
sense that it provided the categories needed in order to measure the living conditions of
the people. Experts are the ones who defined and decided the categories regarding living
conditions. With this, it can be considered as reliable and credible. Moreover, it was said
in their analysis that government plays a vital role in influencing the living conditions of
their people. Interestingly, this is what our study wants to focus. The municipality of
Kasibu created Ordinance No. 2007-017 to prevent the massive spread of virus and
diseases on its citrus trees and likewise attempt to save its citrus industry. Basically, the
citrus farmers are the beneficiaries of this ordinance. So, the researchers aim to know if
the local government has done its part in helping the citrus farmers recover and enhance
their living conditions throughout its policy implementation.
According to Masood et al. (2012), low productivity causes negative impression
on the economic condition of farmers which will further result to a great disturbance in
the living standard of a large number of people. Furthermore, they claimed that
agricultural productivity and lifestyles of farmers are interrelated with each other.
Meaning to say, they are directly proportional to each other because low agricultural
productivity also cause low income level that will make ones life (farmer) more difficult
in coping up with todays inflation. Also, they said that if the agricultural sector is not
contributing in a fruitful way then it will make the personal life of farmer inefficient.
This study is relevant to our research because it provides a solid support to our
claim that the two main indicators to a citrus farmers living condition are their income
and production. The researchers decided to consider these two as the determinants of
their life other than other things like house, equipments, childrens education, food and

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health. Thus, the research aims to find out whether the citrus industry program of the
municipality of Kasibu was able to enhance the living condition of the citrus farmers as
reflected through their citrus production and income.
CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Methodology is a scientific and systematic way of finding solution to a
problem. In this chapter, the researchers aim to present the research approach and to
provide the research design of the study.

Research Approach
The study uses a triangulation approach. According to De Vos, Strydom, Fouche
and Delport (2002, p. 365), the concept of triangulation is sometimes used to designate a
conscious combination of qualitative and quantitative methodology. Denzin and Lincoln
(1994) asserted that qualitative research emphasizes the process of discovering how the
social meaning is constructed and stresses the relationship between the investigator and
the topic studied. Conversely, quantitative research is based on the measurement and the
analysis of causal relationships between variables. The qualitative aspect of this study is
that the socio-economic impact of the implementation of the ordinance to the life of the
people will be known. On the other hand, the quantitative aspect is the percentage of the
performance of the local government whether it resulted to low or high level of
implementation.
Research Design

21

This study follows a descriptive survey method of research. Descriptive research


is concerned with fact finding and interpretation of the current implementation status of
the Ordinance No. 2007-017. The present aim of this study is to assess the
implementation of the Citrus Nursery and Orchard Development and Management
Project in Kasibu, Nueva Vizcaya particularly in the selected barangay: Papaya. On the
other hand, narrative inquiry is a means by which we systematically gather, analyze, and
represent peoples stories as told by them, which challenges traditional and modernist
views of truth, reality, knowledge and personhood. The narrative knowledge created and
constructed through stories of lived experiences, and the meanings created are vital in this
study. Stories can be viewed as a window onto a knowable reality and analyze using
concepts derived from theory (Bruner, 1986).
The said ordinance states that the Municipality of Kasibu would formulate,
promulgate, implement, and enforce disease control measures to save its citrus industry
from the occurrence and spread of bacteria and virus diseases on citrus. The sample
survey technique was utilized in this study to gather and collect relatively limited data
from a relatively large number of populations of the desired respondents.
Respondents
The participants of this research work are the beneficiaries of Ordinance No.
2007-017 of the Municipality of Kasibu, Nueva Vizcaya. Specifically, this study covered
Barangay Papaya, which consists of 894 people.
The respondents in this study are the citrus farmers of the selected barangay.
Specifically, the study gathered 50 citrus farmers as respondents.

22

The researchers employed the purposive sampling in this research. In this case,
the researchers exercise considerable discretion over what observations to study, because
the goal is typically to study a diverse and usually limited number of observations rather
than to analyze a sample representative of a larger target population (Johnson &
Reynolds, 2005, p. 253). The main goal of purposive sampling is to focus on particular
characteristics of a population that are of interest, which will best enable you to answer
your

research

questions

(http://dissertation.laerd.com/purposive-sampling.php).

In

particular, a type of purposive sampling, which is the homogenous sampling, is used in


this research. Homogeneous sampling is a purposive sampling technique that aims to
achieve a homogeneous sample; that is, a sample whose units (e.g., people, cases, etc.)
share the same (or very similar) characteristics or traits (e.g., a group of people that are
similar

in

terms

of

age,

gender,

background,

occupation,

etc.)

(http://dissertation.laerd.com/purposive-sampling.php).
Research Instrument
Research instrument refers to the tools or devices employed by the researchers in
order to gather information and answer the problems posed in this research. The tools are
carefully designed to properly get the desired information from the subjects and
documents. Basically, the main instrument used in data gathering was a questionnaire.
Specifically, a checklist questionnaire will be used. The questionnaire provided for the
farmers was divided into two parts. The first one was concerned with the implementation
of Ordinance No. 2007-017 while the other part was focused with the impact of the living
condition of the people in barangay Papaya since the ordinance got implemented. The
first part was composed of four (4) categories: Nursery and Operation Management,

23

Orchard Development and Management, Composition and Functions of the Citrus Task
Force and Imposition of Prohibition and Penalties. All categories were based on the
provisions in Ordinance No. 2007-017. It has 28 main questions and 4 sub questions. On
the other hand, the second part was composed of seven (7) categories: income,
production, housing, education, equipments, food and health. It has 15 questions. The
purpose of this survey questionnaire is to know whether City Ordinance No. 2007-017,
otherwise known as Citrus Nursery and Orchard Development and Management Project
has significance in the recovery status of the citrus industry in Kasibu, Nueva Vizcaya
and the life of the concerned citrus farmers. It is called checklist because it provides a list
of items with corresponding space for the checkmark or answer of the respondents.
Moreover, the researchers will conduct a personal interview in this research. This type of
data collection method needs direct interaction with the respondents. This interaction
involves presentation of oral- verbal stimuli and response in terms of oral/verbal
communications(http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/2026/16/16_chapter
%203.pdf). The concerned citrus farmers will be interviewed to be able to know the
socio-economic impact of the project to them, their current problems and
recommendations to the program of their local government.
Validation of the Instrument
Validity in questionnaire studies is the extent to which the questions provide a true
measure of what they are designed to measure. The researcher needs to consider that the
questions are clear and likely to produce accurate information, and that the full scope of
the area that he or she intends to measure is covered by researchers tool
(http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/2026/16/16_chapter%203.pdf).

24

The

questions formulated in this study were consulted and evaluated by our Research
Methods (POLS21) professor, our thesis adviser and a statistician. Furthermore, the
questions were accepted, rejected, or revised according to the criteria set by them.

Data Gathering Procedure


In the conduct of this study, the researchers firstly got a copy of the City
Ordinance No. 2007-017 or the Citrus Nursery and Orchard Development and
Management Project, which was a certified copy with the signatures of the municipal
councilors, the liga president, SKM Federation President, the Vice Mayor, and the
Secretary to the Sanggunian, with the approval of the City Mayor. Moreover, the
researchers made use of books, previous related researches, and the internet concerning
the gathering of data needed in the study. The researchers asked for the permission of the
barangay chairman and some councilors of Papaya in the distribution of questionnaire
forms and conduction of personal interviews with the concerned citrus farmers. The
researchers took almost six (6) hours to get to the municipality of Kasibu and almost two
(2) hours to barangay Papaya. Moreover, while travelling, the researchers took pictures of
the farms and trees particularly citrus trees in the said municipality. On the first day of
data gathering, the researchers only had surveyed and interviewed one citrus farmer.
Luckily, he knows how to speak Tagalog so the researchers didnt have to explain the
questions one by one to him. After he finished answering the questionnaire, the
researchers then had a dialogue with him about his problems and recommendations
regarding

their

local

government

program

25

on

citrus.

These

problems

and

recommendations were written at the back of the accomplished questionnaire. However,


on the second day of data gathering, the researchers completed the target number of
respondents because of intentionally waiting for the citrus farmers to finish the Sunday
mass in their place. Although the researchers had ease in looking for citrus farmers, there
was some difficulty in gathering information from the citrus farmer because most of them
refused to read the questions and answer it on their own. Thus, the researchers decided to
read and explain all questions to them in order to gain information for the study. The
researchers were the ones who checked the answers of the citrus farmers and also the
ones who wrote the problems raised and recommendations of the citrus farmers. The
researchers took pictures and videos of the data gathering procedure. The estimated time
of data gathering for every citrus farmer was ten (10) minutes. Thereafter, the researchers
went to barangay Malabing to look for Malabing Valley Citrus Processing Center and
Malabing Valley Training Center. These are managed by non-governmental organizations
(NGOs) namely Malabing Literacy Credit Organization (MALCO) and Malabing Valley
Multi-purpose Cooperative. These are the organizations that the citrus farmers said are
helpful regarding citrus matters in their locality. Likewise, the researchers took pictures
of the said centers in barangay Malabing. The researchers then went back home to
organize the gathered data.

Statistical Treatment
The researchers use nominal scale level of measurement for gathering data on the
implementation of Ordinance No. 2007-017. It is used when the researchers want to
distinguish one object from another for identification purposes (Acelajado, Blay &

26

Belecina, 1999). Nominal data use numbers for the purpose of naming observations or
classifying them into various mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive categories
(Barata, Ymas, Baui & Hernandez, 2006). Moreover, a four-point scale is used for the
given questionnaire to the citrus farmers regarding the policy implementation of
Ordinance

No.

2007-017.

It

could

be

evaluated

through

the

following:

MatindingPagsang-ayon, Sumasang-ayon, Hindi sumasang-ayon, and Matinding Hindi


Pagsang-ayon. Its level of implementation is measured through likert scale wherein:
1.00-1.75, 1.76-2.50, 2.51-3.25 and 3.26-4.00 means very low, low, high, and very high
level respectively. Other quality scales are also applied in the same evaluation sheet
concerning the socio-economic impact of the ordinance to the citrus farmers.
The measures of central tendency are employed in this research work. It is a
numerical descriptive measure which indicates or locates the center of a distribution or
data set (Acelajado, Blay & Belecina, 1999). In order to interpret the data, one of the
three measures of central tendency is used: mean. Mean is the sum of the values of a
variable divided by the number of values. This was employed to determine the level of
implementation of Ordinance no. 2007-017 by counting the checkmarks.
The researchers will determine the living conditions of the citrus farmers in
barangay Papaya through the percentage system. This part of the research indicates the
percentage of the farmers whose income, production, and the likes got enhanced, worsen
and just remained. Ultimately, the researchers employed Chi-square test for
independence, which is usually used to indicate the probability that a relationship
observed among data drawn from a sample would also be observed among the target
population (Johnson & Reynolds, 2005, p. 362). It is likewise a measure used with cross

27

tabulation to determine if a relationship is statistically significant (Johnson & Reynolds,


2005, p. 400). It is used in order to check if there is a relation between the
implementation of Ordinance no. 2007-017 and the living condition of the citrus farmers
in barangay Papaya, Kasibu, Nueva Vizcaya.
Ultimately, all the data gathered in this study were computed with the use of
SPSS. The researchers used a 0.05 level of significance.

28

CHAPTER IV
PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
This chapter presents the analysis and interpretation of data gathered in response
to the statement of the problem.
Problem No. 1: What is the overall status of the implementation of the Citrus
Nursery and Orchard Development and Management Project in the Municipality of
Kasibu, Nueva Vizcaya?
Table 1
Overall Implementation of the Citrus Nursery and Orchard Development and
Management (Ordinance no. 2007-017)
Vital Parts of the ordinance
Mean
Verbal
Interpretation
1. Nursery operation and management
1.97
Low
implementatio
n
2. Orchard development and
2.31
Low
management
implementatio
n
3. Composition and functions of the
1.88
Low
citrus task force
implementatio
n
4. Imposition of prohibition and
2.11
Low
penalties
implementatio
n
5. Overall implementation
2.06
Low
implementatio
n

29

The table shows the overall level of implementation of Ordinance no. 2007-017 in
barangay Papaya, Kasibu, Nueva Vizcaya. Basically, the four vital parts of the ordinance:
(1) Nursery operation and management; (2) Orchard development and management; (3)
Composition and functions of the citrus task force; and (4) Imposition of prohibition and
penalties share the same level of implementation which is low. With these, the overall
level of implementation is LOW with a mean of 2.06.
This indicates that the performance of the local government in Kasibu regarding
the measures and regulations to prevent the spread and introduction of diseases on citrus
was not effective enough to solve its problems on the citrus industry. Its role in helping
the citrus farmers through the implementation of Ordinance no. 2007-017 is not evident.
Firstly, the low implementation indicates a problem with regard to the timely
establishment of a municipal nursery, distribution and price of citrus seedlings,
conduction of citrus programs, cutting of trees and proper labeling of citrus plants and
trees. This problem can be attributed to the poor support from the local government. The
citrus farmers emphasized that they do not receive sufficient help from the municipal
nursery wherein only non-government organizations like what they call coop or the
Malabing Cooperative Citrus Foundation Nursery provide them assistance regarding their
citrus problems. They rarely see citrus programs implemented by their local government
unit. Instead, the so-called coop is the one that provides them such. Moreover, they said
that they are the ones who buy their own citrus seedlings even it cost them a lot. They
likewise cut the infected citrus trees by themselves.
Secondly, it needs to put more effort in informing its citrus farmers about the
diseases and viruses among citrus trees. Moreover, it rarely helps and gives notice to

30

citrus farmers regarding the cutting of infected trees. With this, they just immediately cut
or burn the infected parts of their citrus trees without waiting for government action.
Lastly, the local government did not provide the needed insecticide to citrus farmers in
order to prevent the transmission of the diseases and viruses among citrus trees. The
citrus farmers are the ones who buy their own insecticides with the hope that it would
immediately prevent the transmission of diseases and viruses among citrus trees.
Thirdly, the Citrus Task Force has not done its functions properly. They do not
perform indexing on the infected citrus trees of the farmers. Also, the respondents have
not seen enough programs and activities regarding citrus from the different agencies of
the Citrus Task Force. The citrus farmers have not considered the members of the Citrus
Task Force to be well-trained concerning the needs of the citrus industry.
Lastly, the low implementation results to problems regarding the inspection and
release of enough supporting documents on the citrus seedlings coming from other
places, cutting of infected trees, imposition of fines and cancellation of certificates. In the
case of the citrus seedlings, it was said that the citrus farmers are the ones who buy their
citrus seedlings, thus, there is no chance for the local government to provide supporting
documents to it. Furthermore, the citrus farmers said that almost nobody is penalized
during the course of the implementation of the ordinance. Some of them avoid penalties
as much as possible since it will only lessen their income which is supposed to be allotted
for their family needs.
2. What is the impact of the Citrus Nursery and Orchard Development and
Management Project to the living conditions of the beneficiaries?

Table 2
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Responses of the
31

Respondents on the Production


Frequency

Percent

Nadagdagan

11.8

Bumaba

33

64.7

Walang nagbago

12

23.5

Total

51

100

The table shows the frequency and percentage distribution of the citrus farmers
production. Most of them got their citrus production lessened which includes 33 of them
(64.7%). Nothing has changed with their citrus production according to 12 of them
(23.5%). However, only 6 citrus farmers (11.8%) said that they managed to increase their
income. This means that the local government has to put more efforts in helping citrus
farmers on their production.
This indicates that the spread of diseases among citrus seriously affects the
production of the farmers in barangay Papaya. Whenever a citrus tree gets infected, the
farmers have to cut the infected part or worse its entirety. Thus, an infected tree means a
delay in production because it still has to recover from the disease or to plant new citrus
seedlings. The farmers have to wait for several months before it could sell its products to
the local buyers. Moreover, the lack of support from the government to help them prevent
the spread of diseases makes it worse because the citrus farmers said that they could not
handle such things by themselves. Since they cannot improve their productivity, their
income decreases and cannot eventually buy insecticides and seedlings which are
essential to a sustainable citrus production. With these, they tend to decrease their citrus
production and shift to more profitable farm crops such as coffee beans, rice and banana.
32

Table 3
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Responses of the
Respondents on the Income
Frequency

Percent

Nadagdagan

13.7

Bumaba

33

64.7

Walang nagbago

11

21.6

Total

51

100

The table shows the frequency distribution and percentage of the citrus farmers
income. 33 respondents (64.7 %) said that their income decreased during the course of
the program implementation. The income of 11 respondents (21.6%) was maintained and
only 7 of them (13.7%) got their income raised. This implies that the transmission of the
viruses and diseases greatly caused the decrease of most of the citrus farmers income
despite the citrus program of the local government.
Most of the citrus farmers income decreased due to the continuous spread of
diseases and viruses among their citrus trees. They are the ones who provide their citrus
seedlings and insecticides, which their local government should provide. Thereby, it
greatly affected their income and had a difficulty to earn it back. Whenever they can no
longer avail those things, their citrus trees will eventually be infected and reduced which
endanger the income that they are supposed to get. In addition, the sloppy road used for
the transportation of their citrus products decreases their income. It reaches other places
with a low quality, thereby devaluing their products. In connection, the citrus buyers in

33

other places would tend to find for other citrus producers who can provide good quality
citrus. Thus, their income coming from citrus would be reduced.
In general, the impact of the Citrus Nursery and Orchard Development Project
(Ordinance no. 2007-017) was bad. The citrus production and income of most of the
citrus farmers in barangay Papaya decreased during the implementation of the said
project. The citrus farmers found it hard to recover from the spread of diseases among
citrus even with the introduction of the passed ordinance. It was not effective in helping
get rid of the diseases and bring back the usual condition of Kasibus citrus industry.
Farmers could no longer produce citrus as much as they want since it continuously gets
infected. Thus, the living condition of the citrus farmers was not enhanced since their
production and income lessened.
In line with this, most of the farmers house was not repaired with 60.8%.
Moreover, 58.8% of them said they reduced their childrens allowance on school.
Furthermore, most aspects in their lives did not change: house ownership (76.5%), house
structure (52.9%), source of electricity and water (62.7%), childrens school quality
(51%), children sent to school (45.1%), high school graduate children (78.4%), children
who stopped schooling (54.9%), quantity of modern house equipments (51%), daily food
intake (64.7%), quality of food purchased (45.1%) and regular check-ups (41.2%).
3. Is there a significant relationship between the implementation of the Citrus
Nursery and Orchard Development and Management Project and the living
condition of the citrus farmers of Barangay Papaya?
Table 4
Relationship between the level of implementation & production
Chi-square

Level of significance

P-value

Interpretation

3.934

0.05

0.047

Significant

34

The table shows the relationship between the overall level of implementation of
Ordinance no. 2007-017 and the citrus farmers production in barangay Papaya. The chisquare value is 3.934 and the computed p-value is 0.047. Since the p-value is lower than
the level of significance (0.05), then the null hypothesis is rejected. This means, there is
a significant relationship between the level of implementation of Ordinance no. 2007-017
and the production of the citrus farmers in the selected barangay. This implies that the
implementation of ordinance no. 2007-017 does not help improve the production of citrus
in the area.
In the open-ended part of the instrument, respondents revealed that the citrus
program had no effect on their citrus production because of the poor implementation of
the ordinance. With this, the local government, through the implementation of Ordinance
no. 2007-017 did not help improve the production and consequently, the living condition
of the beneficiaries of the program.
Table 5
Relationship between the level of implementation &income
Chi-square

Level of significance

P-value

Interpretation

6.046

0.05

0.014

Significant

The table shows the relationship between the overall level of implementation of
Ordinance no. 2007-017 and the citrus farmers income in barangay Papaya. The chisquare value is 6.046 and the computed p-value is 0.014. Since the p-value is higher than
the level of significance (0.05), then the null hypothesis rejected. This means, there is a
significant relationship between the level of implementation of Ordinance no. 2007-017

35

and the income of the citrus farmers in the selected barangay. The poor implementation,
instead of helping improve the income of the farmers, hampers the increase of the
income. Farmers who expect, depend and wait for the promises of the local government
through the implementation of Ordinance No. 2007-017 got frustrated. This is the reason
why many of the farmers would engage in other livelihood activities and recommended
to the LGUs to develop new livelihood programs aside from citrus industry. These
recommendations of the beneficiaries are reflections of their frustration to the poor
implementation of the Ordinance because it did not help improved their income and
consequently, their living conditions.
Problem No. 4: What are the problems encountered by the beneficiaries in the
implementation of the Citrus Nursery and Orchard Development and Management
Project?
Based on the qualitative responses of the respondents, the biggest problem they
encountered remains to be the diseases of the citrus caused by virus and bacteria. The
insecticides needed by the citrus farmers to control insect vectors and transmission of
diseases were not affordable for the most of them. As their citrus trees get infected one
after another, their income and productions were greatly affected. With this, they had a
difficulty buying insecticides regularly for their infected citrus trees, sometimes they have
to travel from other barangays or municipality to find a cheaper price. Most of them even
stopped buying their own insecticides due to the lack of sources of money. Due to lack of
money, they cannot stop on cutting down the infected ones that greatly affected their
farms. These qualitative responses conform to the results of the quantitative evaluation of
the implementation of the Citrus Nursery and Orchard Development and Management
Project.
36

Another problem encountered by the respondents is the poor farm to market road
of the industry. According to them, this problem contributed to the decline of the citrus
industry of the local government unit. Due to the poor roads of the barangays in Kasibu
particularly barangay Papaya, it causes delay in terms of transporting and it also has great
effect in the quality of the product of their citrus products. Other effects of the
unconstructed road is that sometimes there is an unexpected bad weather that affects the
citrus external quality and also, with a bumpy road there is a possibility that the citrus
might be squeezed and damage on the process, with it the farmers cannot sell the fruits or
the price may be decreased. Thus, the income of the citrus farmers also get delayed which
makes their lives bad. Moreover, with the said delay, other local government units tend to
find other citrus producers that can provide it on time and of better quality.
The citrus growers also complained the lack of support of the government to the
farmers. Respondents primarily complain the lack of seedlings, insecticides and fertilizers
which the local government is supposed to provide. Also, the farmers are expecting that
the government will have a program that will give the farmers a chance to raise their
farms in hopes that the citrus industry will be revived. Since the citrus farmers find it
hard to recover their citrus production because of the spread of virus and diseases, it
should be considered that they will also have difficulty in buying these things. The
farmers are expecting a promise that the government will give but even today the promise
is still not being fulfilled, although there are some who receive help but its still not
enough in the needs of the farmers. Thus, their local government needs to provide even a
small amount of money that can help them to start over in acquiring the needed things for
citrus recovery. Furthermore, seminars conducted by the local government are vital in

37

helping the citrus farmers solve their problems with regard to their citrus trees and
productions. Lastly, support in the form of checking the conditions of their citrus trees is
very helpful in the recuperation of their citrus industry.

Problem No. 5: What are the recommendations of the people to further improve the
Citrus Nursery and Orchard Development and Management Project?
Primarily, the respondents recommended a strong support from the local
government unit for the improvement of the citrus industry in Barangay Papaya, Kasibu,
Nueva Vizcaya.
Specifically, the farmers requested support from the local government in terms of
the following:
1. seedlings, fertilizer and insecticide that could stop the diseases;
2. Improvement of the farm to market road for the speedy delivery of
products; and
3. Alternative source of income like fishing, piggery, gardening or planting
banana, rice or coffee.
It must be observed that the recommendations of the respondents jived with the
problems they identified. The recommendations manifested the lack of support from the
local government unit in terms of providing seedlings, fertilizer and insecticide. It also
showed the difficulty of transporting citrus products to the market as they complained the
road.
Their recommendation to look for alternative sources of income manifested the
discontents of the beneficiaries to the citrus industry. This means, the citrus industry as
their primary source of income is not enough to support their needs.

38

CHAPTER 5
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter is the presentation of the summary of findings, conclusions and
recommendations of the study.
Summary of Findings
After the interpretation and analysis of data regarding the level of implementation
of Ordinance no. 2007-017 and its impact to the living condition of the beneficiaries in
barangay Papaya the following findings were drawn:
1. What is the status of the implementation of the Citrus Nursery and Orchard
Development and Management Project in the Municipality of Kasibu, Nueva
Vizcaya?
The overall implementation of the ordinance as shown in the gathered data
is low, because it does not improve the living condition of the citrus farmers in the
Municipality of Kasibu Nueva Vizcaya.

39

2. What is the impact of the Citrus Nursery and Orchard Development and
Management Project to the living conditions of the beneficiaries?
The weak role of the local government unit in the enhancement of the
living conditions of the beneficiaries through Ordinance No. 2007-017 is shown
by the fact that the impact of the citrus nursery and orchard management project
to the living conditions of the beneficiaries is negative. The gathered data showed
that the living condition of the beneficiaries did not improve despite the existence
of the ordinance that is supposed to enhance their living conditions. Results of the
study imply that the local government was not effective in terms implementing
Ordinance No. 2007-017.
3. Is there a significant relationship between the implementation of the Citrus
Nursery and Orchard Development and Management Project and the living
condition of the citrus farmers of Barangay Papaya?
There is a significant relationship between the implementation of the citrus
nursery and orchard development and management project and the living
condition of the beneficiaries of barangay Papaya. However, results of the study
showed that the implementation of the ordinance did not contribute to the
enhancement of the living conditions of the citrus farmers particularly in their
production and income. Significant relationship is explained by the fact that when
there is a low level implementation of the ordinance it will reflect to the economic
production and income of the beneficiaries because the ordinance was created to
improve the economic production of beneficiaries. With this, when the
implementation of the ordinance is low then it is also tantamount to low
production and income.

40

4. What are the problems encountered by the beneficiaries in the


implementation of the Citrus Nursery and Orchard Development and
Management Project?
Based on their qualitative responses, the respondents complained the poor
implementation of the program hence, the following problems arose: (1) unabated
diseases of the citrus caused by virus and bacteria, (2) the poor farm to market
road of the industry; and (3) lack of support of the government to the farmers.
5. What are the recommendations of the people to further improve the Citrus
Nursery and Orchard Development and Management Project?
Primarily, the respondents recommended a strong support from the local
government unit for the improvement of the citrus industry in Barangay Papaya,
Kasibu, Nueva Vizcaya.
Specifically, the farmers requested support from the local government in
terms of (1) seedlings, fertilizer and insecticide that could stop the diseases; (2)
improvement of the farm - to market road for the speedy delivery of products;
and (3) alternative source of income like fishing, piggery, gardening or planting
banana, rice or coffee.

Conclusions
Based on the given findings the following conclusions were drawn:
The status of the implementation of Citrus Nursery and Orchard Development
Project (Ordinance no. 2007-017) is low, meaning, the local government of Kasibu
poorly implemented the provisions of the ordinance.

41

The implementation of the Citrus Industry Program has negative impact on the
living condition of the people in barangay Papaya. In this sense, the local government
unit is not contributing in the enhancement of the living condition of the people through
the citrus industry because of the poor implementation of the program.
Consistent with the findings that Ordinance no. 2007-017 does not have any
impact on the living conditions of the beneficiaries, the latter complained the poor
implementation of the program, the lack of support of the government as evidenced by
the poor farm-to-market roads and in general, the poor implementation of the program, as
evidenced by the unabated diseases of the citrus tree.
Consistent with the problems that the beneficiaries had encountered and the
empirical findings of the poor implementation of the program, the citrus farmers
primarily requested the support of the local government units to strengthen its role in the
implementation of the citrus industry program.
Specifically, the farmers requested supports from the local government in terms of
(1) seedlings, fertilizer and insecticide that could stop the diseases; (2) improvement of
the farm - to market road for the speedy delivery of products; and (3) alternative source
of income like fishing, piggery, gardening or planting banana, rice or coffee.

Recommendations
In the light of the given findings and conclusions, the following recommendations
are offered:
The LGU could help improve the living conditions of the beneficiaries through
this program by taking into consideration the problems identified and the

42

recommendations of the beneficiaries themselves through this research. It must (the


LGU) support the beneficiaries by providing seedlings, fertilizer and insecticide that
could stop the diseases as provided by the Ordinance no. 2007-017.
The request of the beneficiaries to look for alternative sources of income like
fishing, piggery, gardening or planting banana, rice or coffee must also be taken into
consideration. The Local Government Unit through its local legislative body can develop
a new program for this purpose.
Kasibu is the citrus bowl of the Province of Nueva Vizcaya. If the local
government unit wants to preserve this status, then, it needs to pay attention to the
strengthening of the implementation of the program. It may allot a portion of its 20%
Development Fund for the construction of farm-to-market roads. The local chief
executive may task the Agriculture Office of the Municipality to execute its fundamental
function of conducting a research and develop some strategies for the effective
implementation of the program. In this way, the local government unit is also
strengthening its role in improving the living conditions of the beneficiaries of the
program.

43

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implementation of the amended city ordinance no. 87 s. 2004 from city ordinance
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on the implementation of curfew on minors (city ordinance no. 8046) in the
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Arlington, Texas: National Science Foundation.

48

APPENDIX A
Kami po ay mga estudyanteng mananaliksik ng Far Eastern University. Nais po
naming gumawa ng isang pag-aaral ukol sa programa ng inyong local na pamahalaan
(Ordinance No. 2007-017). Anumang impormasyon na aming makukuha ay mananatiling
pribado sa pagitan ninyo at ng mga mananaliksik. Kung mayroon kayong mga
katanungan at suhestiyon, maaari ninyo lapitan ang mga mananaliksik. Maraming
salamat po.
Edad:
Kasarian:
Taon na nagsimula sa trabaho:
IMPLEMENTASYON NG ORDINANSA NO. 2007-017
4
3

Matinding Pagsang-ayon
Sumasang-ayon

2 Hindi Sumasang-ayon
1 Matinding Hindi Pagsang-ayon

1.1 NURSERY OPERATION AND MANAGEMENT


4
1. Napapanahon ang pagkakaroon ng municipal
nursery nang matamaan ng mikrobiyo at sakit ang
mga puno ng sitrus.
2. Mayroong mga programa ang inyong lokal na
pamahalaan ukol sa sitrus.
49

3. Sapat ang mga punla na nanggagaling sa inyong


lokal na pamahalaan.
4. Naipapamahagi ang mga punla nang nasa oras.
5. Abot-kaya ang mga punla.
6. Ang mga punla galing sa inyong lokal na
pamahalaan ay may magandang kalidad.
7. Ang inyong lokal na pamahalaan ay palaging
inaalam ang kondisyon ng inyong mga puno ng sitrus.
8. Ang inyong lokal na pamahalaan ay laging inaalam
ang inyong produksyon ng sitrus.
9. Ipinagbibigay-alam ng inyong lokal na pamahalaan
ang pagputol sa inyong mga puno ng sitrus na
naapektuhan ng mikrobiyo at sakit.
10. Mahigpit na ipinapatupad ang apat na araw na
palugit sa pagputol ng naapektuhang puno matapos
paalalahanan ng inyong lokal na pamahalaan.
11. Kaagad na pinuputol ng Citrus Task Force o ng
Municipal Agricultural Office ang mga naapektuhang
puno matapos ang apat na araw na palugit.
12. Binibigyan kayo ng dagdag na supling na pananim
sa tuwing hindi matagumpay ang pagtatanim ng
halaman.
Ang mga scion ay may wastong lebelat pakete.
13. Itinatapon kaagad ng inyong lokal na pamahalaan
ang mga punla na hindi maaaring gamitin.
Ipinagbibigay-alam sa inyo ang pagtatapon ng
mga punla bago ito itapon.
14. Ang lahat ng mga halaman o puno ay may mga
wastong lebel.

1.2 ORCHARD DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT


4
1. Nagbibigay ang inyong mga lokal na opisyal ng
sapat na impormasyon ukol sa Huanglongbing and
Citrus Tristeta virus.
2. Ipinagbibigay-alam ng inyong lokal na pamahalaan
na dapat putulin o sunugin lamang ang anumang puno
ng sitrus na may sintomas ng Huanglongbing at
Tristeza virus.
50

3. Kayo ay tinutulungan ng inyong lokal na


pamahalaan upang malaman kung kailan dapat putulin
ang isang parte o ang kabuuan ng inyong
naapektuhang puno ng sitrus.
4. Ang inyong lokal na pamahalaan ay nagpapamahagi
ng mga insecticide para sa inyong mga naapektuhang
puno.
Maganda ang kalidad ng insecticide na
ginagamit.
1.3 COMPOSITION AND FUNCTIONS OF THE CITRUS TASK FORCE
4

1. Sila ay nag-iindex sa tuwing ang inyong mga puno


o halaman ay may mga sintomas ng pagkakaroon ng
mikrobiyo at sakit.
2. Mayroong mga programa at aktibidad na
isinasagawa ang ibat-ibang ahensya ng Citrus Task
Force.
3. Sila ay nagsasagawa ng sapat at wastong
pagsasanay ukol sa pangangailangan ng inyong
industriya ng sitrus.
1.4 IMPOSITION OF PROHIBITION AND PENALTIES
4
1. Laging mayroong mga karampatang dokumento ang
inyong lokal na pamahalaan sa mga bagong darating
na punla ng sitrus galing sa ibang lugar.
Na-iisyu ang mga dokumento kaagad.
2. Sinisiyasat ng lokal na pamahalaan ang mga
pumapasok na punla ng sitrus.
3. Agarang tinatanggal ang mga bahagi ng sitrus na
naapektuhan ng Huanglongbing at Tristeza virus.
4. Pinapatay ang kabuuan ng puno ng sitrus na may
Huanglongbing at Tristeza virus.
5. Nasusunod ang pagpataw ng P2, 500. 00 na multa
sa sino man lumabag sa mga batas ukol sa sitrus.
6. Nakakansela ang sertipiko na magpaandar ng
nursery ng sino man lumabag sa mga batas ukol sa
sitrus.
51

7. Sumusunod ang mga benepisaryo sa mga patakaran


upang maiwasan ang mga kaparusahan.

PAG-ANGAT NG ANTAS NG PAMUMUHAY


Lagyan ng tsek () ang kondisyon ng inyong pamilya kaugnay sa nagging
pagpapatupad ng programang Citrus Nursery and Orchard Development ng inyong local
na pamahalaan. Pumili lamang ng isa sa bawat numero.
1. Living Condition
1.1 PRODUKSYON
___ Nadagdagan

___ Bumaba

___ Walang nagbago

1.2 KITA KADA BUWAN


___ Nadagdagan

___ Bumaba

2. Survey of the Living Condition


2.1 BAHAY
1. ___ Napaayos
52

___ Walang nagbago

___ Walang nagbago


2. ___ Dating pagmamay-ari pero ngayon ay umuupa na lamang
___ Dating pagmamay-ari pero ngayon ay nakikitira na lamang
___ Dating umuupa pero ngayon ay naging pagmamay-ari na
___ Dating umuupa pero ngayon ay nakikitira na lamang
___ Dating nakikitira pero ngayon ay pagmamay-ari na
___ Dating nakikitira pero ngayon ay umuupa na
___ Walang nagbago
3. ___Tumibay ang struktura ng bahay
___ Humina ang struktura ng bahay
___ Walang nagbago
4. ___ Gumanda ang pinagmumulan ng tubig at kuryente
___ Sumama ang pinagmumulan ng tubig at kuryente
___ Walang nagbago

2.2 EDUKASYON
1. ___ Naipasok ang anak sa mas magandang paaralan
___ Naipasok ang anak sa di kagandahang paaralan
___ Walang nagbago
2. ___ Tumaas ang baon ng anak
___ Bumaba ang baon ng anak
___ Walang nagbago
3. ___ Nadagdagan ang anak na nakapag-aral
___ Nabawasan ang anak na nakapag-aral
___ Walang nagbago
4. ___ Nadagdagan ng anak na nakapagtapos sa pag-aaral
___ Walang nagbago
5. ___ Nadagdagan ang anak na tumigil sa pag-aaral
___ Nabawasan ang anak na tumigil sa pag-aaral
___ Walang nagbago
2.3 KAGAMITAN
1. ___ Dumami ang de-kuryente at modernong kagamitan
___ Kumonti ang de-kuryente at modernong kagamitan
___ Walang nagbago
53

2.4 PAGKAIN
1. ___ Dumalas ang kain sa bawat araw
___ Dumalang ang kain sa bawat araw
___ Walang nagbago
2. ___ Dumalas ang pagbili ng murang pagkain
___ Dumalang ang pagbili ng murang pagkain
___ Walang nagbago
2.5 KALUSUGAN
1. ___ Napadalas ang pagpapatingin ng kalusugan sa klinika o ospital
___ Dumalang ang pagpapatingin ng kalusugansa klinika o ospital
___ Walang nagbago
APPENDIX B
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Responses of the
Respondents on the Nursery Operation and Management
Level of
implementation
Very low
Low
High
Very high
Total

Frequency
23
14
12
2
51

Percent
45.1
27.5
23.5
3.9
100.0

Mean = 1.97 (Low implementation)


Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Responses of the
Respondents on the Orchard Development and Management
Level of
implementatio
n

Frequency

Percent

Very low

15.7

54

Low

26

51

High

12

23.5

Very high

9.8

Total

51

100

Mean = 2.31 (Low implementation)


Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Responses of the
Respondents on the Composition and Functions of the Citrus Task Force
Level of
implementatio
n

Frequency

Percent

Very low

30

58.8

Low

11.8

High

13.7

Very high

15.7

Mean = 1.88 (Low implementation)


Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Responses of the
Respondents on the Imposition of Prohibition and Penalties
Level of
implementation

Frequency

Percent

Very low

13

25.5

Low

24

47.1

High

12

23.5

Very high

3.9

Total

51

100

55

Mean = 2.11 (Low implementation)


Overall Mean of the Implementation of Ordinance no. 2007-017
Level of
Implementation

Frequency

Percent

Very low

23

45.1

Low

13

25.5

High

13

25.5

Very high

3.9

Total

51

100

Mean = 2.06 (Low implementation)


Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Responses of the
Respondents on the Kalagayan ng bahay
Frequency

Percent

Napaayos

20

39.22

Walang nagbago

31

60.8

Total

51

100

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Responses of the


Respondents on the Pagmamay-ari ng tirahan

Pagmamay-ari
Umuupa

Frequency

Percent

7.8

Pagmamay-ari
56

Nakikitira

Umuupa
Pagmamay-ari

5.9

Umuupa
Nakikitira

0.0

Nakikitira
Pagmamay-ari

3.9

Nakikitira
Umuupa

3.9

Walang
nagbago

39

76.5

Total

51

100

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Responses of the


Respondents on the Struktura ng bahay
Frequency

Percent

Tumibay

17

33.3

Humina

13.7

Walang nagbago

27

52.9

Total

51

100

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Responses of the


Respondents on the Tubig at kuryente
Frequency

Percent

Gumanda

10

19.6

Sumama

17.6

57

Walang nagbago

32

62.7

Total

51

100

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Responses of the


Respondents on the Uri ng paaralan ng anak
Frequency

Percent

Mas maganda

16

31.4

Di kagandahan

17.6

Walang nagbago

26

51

Total

51

100

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Responses of the


Respondents on the Baon ng anak
Frequency

Percent

Tumaas

10

19.6

Bumaba

30

58.8

Walang nabago

11

21.6

Total

51

100

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Responses of the


Respondents on the Anak na nakapag-aral
Frequency

Percent

Nadagdagan

10

19.6

Nabawasan

18

35.3

Walang nagbago

23

45.1

Total

51

100

58

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Responses of the


Respondents on the Anak na nakapag tapos sa pag-aaral

Frequency

Percent

Nadagdagan

15.7

Walang nagbago

43

84.3

51

100

Total

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Responses of the


Respondents on the Anak na tumigil sa pag-aaral
Frequency

Percent

Nadagdagan

14

27.5

Nabawasan

17.6

Walang nagbago
Total

28
51

54.9
100

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Responses of the


Respondents on the De-kuryente at modernong kagamitan
Frequency

Percent

Dumami

13

25.5

Kumonti

12

23.5

Walang nagbago

26

51

Total

51

100

59

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Responses of the


Respondents on the Kain sa bawat araw
Frequency

Percent

Dumalas
Dumalang

9
9

17.6
17.6

Walang nagbago

33

64.7

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Responses of the


Respondents on the Pagbili ng murang pagkain
Frequency

Percent

Dumalas

15.7

Dumalang

20

39.2

Walang nagbago

23

45.1

Total

51

100

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Responses of the


Respondents on the Pagpapatingin ng kalusugan sa klinika o ospital
Frequency

Percent

Napadalas

20

39.2

Dumalang

10

19.6

Walang nagbago

21

41.2

Total

51

100

60