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Original Title: Hydraulic Calculation Chap-3

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- Fire Protection Hydraulic Calculation
- Design of Sprinkler System by Engr. Mariano
- Fire Hydraulic Calculations
- Fully Calculated Method for Fire Sprinkler System
- Basic Training - Session No. 1
- NFPA 15 Hydraulic Calculation
- Description & Design of Sprinkler Systems
- Firefighting Hydraulic Calculation
- Basic Training - Session No. 4
- Basic Training - Session No. 2
- Fire Sprinkler Design
- Copy of sprinkler design course notes
- Fire Water Demand calculations Annexure-1.xls
- Fire Engineering
- Basic Training - Session No. 3
- Sprinkler Calculation
- Sample Hydraulic calculation
- Sprinklers & Fire protection
- Fire Hydraulic Calculation (Process Bldgs)
- Design of Water Based Fire Protection Systems

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Fire Fighting

Design Recommendations

& Hydraulic Calculation

By Dr. Ali Hammoud

BAU-2005

To prepare a sprinkler plan for approval, it is necessary

to:

to:

1. Collect and review data.

2. Trace or scan building outline.

3. Draw necessary building details.

4. Determine branch line logic.

5. Determine system type and configuration.

6. Determine the hazard class of the occupancy.

occupancy.

7. Determine the area protected by each sprinkler.

8. Determine the number of branch lines.

9. Determine the distance between branch lines.

10.Determine

10.Determine the maximum allowable distance between

sprinklers.

RefRef-3

12- Friction Loss Formula HazenHazen-Williams

Williams

13- Hydraulic Calculation for sprinkler systems

1414-exanple problem

NFPA-13

System Protection Area Limitations.

1. Light hazard 52,000 ft2 (4831 m2)

2. Ordinary hazard 52,000 ft2 (4831 m2)

3. Extra hazard Hydraulically calculated

40,000 ft2 (3716 m2)

4. Storage High-piled storage 40,000

ft2 (3716 m2)

RefRef-1

7-Area of Coverage

sprinklers, defined as S

2. Between Branch Lines. Is the perpendicular distance

to the sprinkler on the adjacent branch line, defined

as L

As = S X L

for a sprinkler (As) shall be in accordance with the

value indicated in each type or style of sprinkler. The

maximum area of coverage of any sprinkler shall not

exceed 400 ft2 (36 m2).

5

L

Area

protected

by one

sprinkler

AS

As = S X L

Hazard)

Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing (Standard Spray

Upright/Standard Spray Pendent) for Light Hazard

Construction type

As (m2)

S (m)

Noncombustible

20.9

4.6

Combustible

15.6

4.6

Hazard

Upright/Standard Spray Pendent) for Ordinary Hazard

Construction type

All

S (m)

As (m2)

12.1

4.6

Upright/Standard Spray Pendent) for High Hazard

Construction type

All, >= 0.25

Max Area

As (m2)

9.3

Max Spacing

S (m)

3.7

12.1

4.6

and pendent spray sprinkler

The maximum distance between sprinklers, either on branch

lines or between branch lines, shall be as follows:(as per

NFPANFPA-13.item 44-4) :

Light Hazard

15ft (4.5 m)

Ordinary Hazard

15ft

Extra Hazard

12ft (3.6 m)

High Piled storage 12ft

The distance from sprinklers to wall shall exceed oneone-half of

allowable distance between sprinklers.

10

The number of branch lines per bay is determined by dividing

the width of the bay, or the distance between column lines in

feet, by the maximum allowable distance between sprinklers,

(Lmax) . If the result is not a whole number, round up to the

nearest whole number.

The formula below can be used for this calculation:

For example, an ordinary hazard system installed in a bay that is

is 35 ''-0" wide would

require three branch lines, since NFPA 13 mandates a maximum of 15 ''-0" between

branch lines:

35' /15

/15 = 2.3 rounded to 3 branch lines

The space between the beams along the column lines in exposed construction is

11

called a bay.

35' /15

/15 = 2.3 rounded to 3 branch lines

RefRef-3

12

Lines (L).

The acceptable distance L between the lines in the bay is obtained by

dividing the width of the bay by the number of branch lines

L=

Number of branch lines

For example,

example, continuing with the building in the previous example and calculate

calculate the

distance L:

11-8 .

However the distance from the end lines to the walls is L/2 = 5

5-10

10

13

distance between sprinklers (S).

ft for extra hazard ,S is also obtained by the same formula ;

S = AS / L

For example, for an ordinary hazard the NFPA 13 would require As =130 ft2 ( 12.1 m2

) per sprinkler . However for the previous example L =11

=11-8 the maximum spacing S ,

becomes:

S= 130 /11

/11-8 = 11.14 ft 11

11 ft.

( 1ft =12

=12)

14

example in one bay of

building .

Refer to drawing and check

to be certain that sprinkler

spacing S is acceptable :

As= Sx L

11

11 x 11

11-8 =128.3 ft2

From NFPANFPA-13

Layout is Acceptable

RefRef-3

15

& ceiling

Spacing (Standard Spray Upright/Standard Spray Pendent)

shall not exceed one-half of the

allowable distance ( L/2).

Sprinklers shall be located a minimum

of 4 in. (102 mm) from a wall.

RefRef-1

16

Deflector Position

Standard Pendent and Upright Spray Sprinklers

shall be a minimum of 1 in. (25.4 mm) and a maximum of

12 in. (305 mm)

Under obstructed construction,

construction the sprinkler

deflector shall be located within the horizontal planes

of 1 in.

in to 6 in.

in (25.4 mm to 152 mm) below the

structural members and a maximum distance of 22 in.

in

(559 mm)

The deflector distance is the dimension from of the ceiling to the

the top of the

sprinkler deflector.

17

Schedule size for light Hazard Occupancies

systems,

Schedule size for Ordinary Hazard

Occupancies systems.

Schedule size for Extra Hazard occupancies

18

Occupancies systems

Light Hazard Pipe Schedules

(as per NFPANFPA-13.table613.table6-5.2.2)

Steel

1 in.

in. 2 sprinklers

1 in.

in. 3 sprinklers

1 in.

in. 5 sprinklers

2 in.

in. 10 sprinklers

2 in.

in. 30 sprinklers

3 in.

in. 60 sprinklers

3 in.

in. 100 sprinklers

Copper

1 in.

in. 2 sprinklers

1

1 in.

in. 3 sprinklers

1

1 in.

in. 5 sprinklers

2 in.

in. 12 sprinklers

2

2 in.

in. 40 sprinklers

3 in.

in. 65 sprinklers

3

3 in.

in. 115 sprinklers

RefRef-1

19

Occupancies systems

Ordinary Hazard Pipe Schedule

(as per NFPANFPA-13.table613.table6-5.3.2(a))

Steel

Copper

1 in. 2 sprinklers

1 in.

1 in.

1

in. 3 sprinklers

1 in.

1 in.

1

in. 5 sprinklers

1 in.

2 in.

2 in.

in. 10 sprinklers

2 in.

2

in. 20 sprinklers

2 in.

3 in. 40

3 in.

40 sprinklers

3 in. 65

3

65 sprinklers

3 in.

4 in. 100

4 in.

100 sprinklers

5 in. 160

5 in.

160 sprinklers

6 in. 275

6 in.

275 sprinklers

2 sprinklers

3 sprinklers

5 sprinklers

12 sprinklers

25 sprinklers

45 sprinklers

75 sprinklers

115 sprinklers

180 sprinklers

300 sprinklers

RefRef-1

20

10

occupancies

21

Minimum 11-in. (25.4(25.4-mm) outlets shall be provided

The branch lines and the sprinklers spacing and

distance are now be dimensioned on the

drawing with respect to the bays . Pipe sizing is

than be completed from the pipe Schedule

RefRef-1

22

11

H.WH.W-1

23

Hazen-Williams

24

12

Williams

Pipe friction losses shall be determined on the basis of the HazenHazen-Williams

formula, as follows:

1.85

Pf =

4.52 Q

C 1.85 d 4.87

psi / foot

Where

p = frictional loss factor in psi per foot of pipe

Q = flow in gpm

C = friction loss coefficient for new black steel pipe C=120

d = actual internal diameter of pipe in inches

For SI units, the following equation shall be used:

used:

Pf = 6.05(

Q 1.85

) 10 5

1.85

4.87

C d

Where

pm = frictional resistance in bar per meter of pipe

Qm = flow in L/min

C = friction loss coefficient

dm = actual internal diameter in mm

Bar / m

25

26

13

27

area

The hydraulically most demanding area may be the

geographically most remote area, which is the area whose

linear distance from the sprinkler system riser is the longest

,in feet .

Sometimes , the hydraulically most demanding area is not the

most remote area. However When in doubt , calculate it

out which means that if you are unsure which is the

hydraulically most demanding area , perform calculations for

other potential hydraulically most demanding areas until all

uncertainty is removed.

RefRef-3

28

14

The procedure consists of the following steps:

1. Selecting occupancy,

2. Selecting a hydraulic density,

3. Determining the length of the hydraulically most

demanding area,

4. Determining the number of sprinklers flowing along the

length of the design area,

5. Determining the configuration of sprinklers in the

hydraulically most demanding area,

6. Determining the minimum flow at the hydraulically most

demanding sprinkler,

7. Determining the minimum pressure at the hydraulically

most demanding sprinkler,

8. Determining friction loss in each pipe segment.

29

1- Selection of occupancy ( refer to Chp.1)

The correct selection of the occupancy

classification of a building or a portion of a

building is the foundation for meaningful and

reliable hydraulic calculations.

Careful selection of the occupancy is the

most critical decision that a fire protection

systems designer makes during the hydraulic

calculation process.

A list of occupancies are summarized below;

30

15

2- Selecting a Hydraulic density

The area density curves shown in the accompanied figure 1 may be used as

the basis for your calculation in selecting the density.

These curves are a function of a design density and the total design area

of sprinkler operation. The design density is the quantity of water per

square foot of remote area that has been found by experience to be

effective in controlling a fire of given occupancy.

occupancy. The design area (A ) is

an area whose size is related to the occupancy, where in all sprinklers

sprinklers in

the area is expected to actuate at the same time.

time.

RefRef-3

31

Area-Density Method

The area under which the

maximum number of sprinklers

shall operate among one riser

grid, is selected from the

area-density curve

Example: From the extra

hazard occupancy group 1

(curve 4) we choose the point

having the maximum density

and the lower protected area

that is: (A

A = 2500ft,

0.3gpm/ft)

Fig. 1

32

16

If the areas of sprinkler operation is less

than 1500 ft2 (139 m2) for light and ordinary

hazard occupancies, the density for 1500 ft2

(139 m2) shall be selected that is =0.1 and

0.15 respectively.

However for extra hazard occupancies if the

calculated areas of sprinkler operation is less

than 2500 ft2 (232 m2), the density for 2500

ft2 (232 m2) shall be used.

RefRef-1

33

Area-Density Method

The area under which the

maximum number of

sprinklers shall operate

among one riser grid, is

selected from the areadensity curve

Example for ordinary hazard

group 1 (curve 2) we choose

the point having the maximum

density and the lower

protected area (1500ft,

0.15gpm/ft)

Fig. 1

34

17

1

3

5

4

RefRef-1

35

NFPA 13 provides a formula with which the hydraulically most

demanding area is sized:

The minimum length of the rectangle is 1.2 times the square root of the

design area (A

(A):

Lmin = 1.2

area/density curves in Figure 1. Determine the minimum length of the

design area. L shown in Figure 2.

This L =46.5 ft

ft length is a minimum, because the length of the design

area must be increased so that the edge of the design falls at the point

between two sprinklers. We will make this adjustment in the next step.

36

18

Figure 2.

Lmin = 1.2

A

RefRef-3

37

4- Number of sprinklers flowing along the length

of the design area of the Design Area

The number of sprinkler flowing along the length of the design area

area is

determined by dividing Lmin by the spacing between sprinklers ( S).

Ns =

Lmin

S

For example ; From previous we get Lmin= 46.5 ft and it is known from NFPANFPA- 13

the sprinkler spacing for ExtraExtra- hazard group I , S= 12

12. Therefore:

Ns =

46 .5 feet

= 3.88 that is 4 sp.

12 feet / sprinkler

The actual length of the design area Lact, is determined by multiplying the

actual number of sprinklers , Ns , by the spacing between sprinklers ( S).

Lact = Ns S = 4 12 ' = 48 ft

38

19

4- Configuration of sprinklers in the design Area

Once we have determined the actual length of the design area [most

remote area] , we must determine its width. As follows:

W =

A

Lact

1500 ft 2

A

W =

=

= 31.25 ft

Lact

48 ft

From Fig 3 the area A = 48' x 30' = 1440 square feet, containing 12 sprinklers.

This falls slightly short of the required 1.500 square foot design area. Since each

sprinkler covers a 12' x 10' area or 120 square feet we know that adding one

sprinkler to 1440 sq ft results in an area of 1 440 sq ft plus 120 sq ft, or 1560 sq

ft. which meets the desired minimum criteria. The question is where is this

39

thirteenth sprinkler added? This fina1 sprinkler is always added closest to the

crossmain to assure the hydraulically most demanding area.

Area of operation =1500 Sq. Ft , Density = 0.15 gpm per sq. foot

Lmin= 46.5 feet , Ns = 4 sprinklers along the length of the design area

Lact = 48 feet , W= 31.25 feet , Width covered by 3 branch lines is 30

48 x 30 = 1440 sq.ft. [ 12 sprinklers]

14440 sq.ft is less 1500 sq.ft. must add one more sprinkler [13]

Fig.3

40

20

line is determine as follows:

Where the design is based on area/density method, the

design area shall be a rectangular area having a

dimension parallel to the branch lines at least 1.2

times the square root of the area of sprinkler

operation (A) used, which shall permit the inclusion of

sprinklers on both sides of the cross main.

Number of Sprinklers on one branch line

1.2 A

S

Where

S = Spacing between sprinklers (ft)

N=

Light Hazard

Ordinary Hazard

Extra Hazard

High Piled storage

15ft (4.5 m)

15ft

12ft (3.6 m)

12ft

41

sprinklers operating at the same time & the

number of sprinklers in each branches

RefRef-1

42

21

5- Minimum flow at the hydraulically most Demanding

sprinkler ( one sprinkler )

The minimum required flow at the hydraulically most demanding sprinkler

sprinkler is

obtained by multiplying the design density by the area covered by

by one

sprinkler .

Q = d ( As )

Q = d ( As ) = 0.15 gpm / sq. ft 120 sq. ft .

= 18 gpm

This is the minimum required flow at the hydraulically most demanding

demanding

sprinkler. For ordinary Hazard group I As

As is taken as 130 ft2.

43

Hydraulic calculations

most demanding sprinkler

Q=K P

The flow at a sprinkler (Q) is equal to the sprinkler discharge coefficient

(K) times the square root of the pressure (P). K is commonly referred to as

the K-factor ( coefficient of discharge) . Each sprinkler that is tested and

listed for use on a sprinkler system has a unique KK-factor,

factor or orifice

coefficient, that is calculated for that sprinkler. Sprinklers having

nominal orifices of 1/2" generally have K-factors ranging from 5.3 to 5.8.

44

22

Units

Q=K P

Where Q= flow rate in L/min

K= K factor

P= pressure in Bar

45

K

Percent of Nominal l in.

Discharge

Thread

Type

Nominal Orifice

Size

Marked On

Frame

1.3-1.5

25

in. NPT

Yes

1.8-2.0

33.3

in. NPT

Yes

9.5

2.6-2.9

50

in. NPT

Yes

7/16

11.0

4.0-4.4

75

in. NPT

Yes

5.3-5.8

100

in. NPT

NO

140

in. NPT

or

NO

200

in. NPT

or

Yes

in. NPT

Yes

in NPT

Yes

Nominal

Orifice

Size

(in)

(mm)

6.4

5/16

8.0

3/8

K

Factor1

12.7

17/32

13.5

5/8

15.9

7.4-8.2

11.0-11.5

19.0

13.5-14.5

K= 5.6

250

46

23

HazenHazen-Williams formula is one of the most popular friction loss

formula, recognized by NFPA 13 and considered as a standard

formula for the calculation of the pressure drop.

sprinkler. Discharge at each sprinkler shall be based on the

calculated pressure at that sprinkler.

2)- Pipe friction loss shall be calculated in accordance with

the HazenHazen-Williams formula.

4.52 Q1.85

Pf = 1.85

C d 4.87

47

14-Example Problem

The next figure present a plan of wet pipe system layout

Assuming the following data:

Density,

Density,0.15 gpm/ft2 calculated over the most remote 1500

sq.ft.

sq.ft. In this example take [As= 120 ft2],S=12 ft & L= 10ft

and the total number of Sp. is 13 sprinklers in most remote

area.

1. The minimum flow at the most remote sprinkler =18

=18 gpm

2. The minimum required pressure at the most remote

sprinkler=10.33 Psi.

Psi.

Size the piping system & determine the pump duty.

Knowing that , the branch lines are schedule 40 black steel.

(C=120 ) Crossmain lines are schedule 10 black steel.

48

24

49

RefRef-3.

50

25

Solution in steps

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

Most remote area

Area of coverage and sprinklers spacing

Expected total number of sprinklers per floor

Pipe sizing

Determination of the most remote area

Number of sprinklers in the most remote area

Number of sprinklers along one branch

Flowrate of the most remote sprinkler

Residual pressure of the most remote sprinkler

Total effective length between two adjacent sprinklers

Friction loss formula

Calculating pump total pressure

Calculating pump total flowrate

51

needed

Based on NFPA 1313-4-2.1

sprinkler riser is sufficient

52

26

Area-Density Method

Ad is the

most

remote area

and is equal

to 1500 ft2

for ordinary

Hazard 1

53

Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing (Standard

Spray Upright/Standard Spray Pendent) for

Ordinary Hazard. NFPANFPA-13 4.4.1.1

Protection

area (As)

Construction System ft2

m2

type

type

All

All

130 12.1

Maximum

spacing

(s)

ft m

15

4.6

54

27

floor

follows :

Number of sprinklers =Total area of the car parking / As

Area of the car parking 13200 ft2 ( 110 ft x 120 ft)

,divided by the sprinkler coverage area As =120 ft2 we get

110 sprinklers.

55

Pipe sizing

1 in. 2 sprinklers

1 in.

in. 3 sprinklers

1 in.

in. 5 sprinklers

2 in.

10 sprinklers

in.10

2 in.

in. 20 sprinklers

56

28

sprinkler

q = density As

(gpm)

(gpm

q

p=

k

(psi)

57

two adjacent sprinklers

T = L+F

L= Pipe length

F= Equivalent pipe length

58

29

Pipe friction losses shall be determined on the basis

of the HazenHazen-Williams formula, as follows:

P = 4.52

Q1.85

C 1.85 d 4.87

Where,

p = frictional resistance in psi per foot of pipe

Q = flow in gpm

C = friction loss coefficient black steel C=120

d = actual internal diameter of pipe in inches

59

T = L+F

= 12 + 0 = 12

=TP

Where,

Pf =friction loss in psi between two adjacent

sprinklers

60

30

PT = Pf + PT previous + Pe

Where,

PT = total pressure in psi

Pe = elevation pressure in psi

61

The flow

of both

sprinklers

q = K PT

62

31

12+6 =18

Remember !

1st Branch

4 Sprinklers flow

q= 79.56 gpm

Whereas 4 x 18

gpm =72 gpm

63

18 gpm

19.08 gpm

37.08 gpm

20.16 gpm

57.24 gpm

22.32 gpm

79.56 gpm

79.56 gpm

Flow distribution

in Branch 1

64

32

Pressure drop due to elevation 1.5

Pe= Z x 0.433 Psi/ft

=1.5 x0.433 =0.65 Psi

AT

BB

AB

65

Pressure drop due to elevation 1.5

Pe= Z x 0.433 Psi/ft

=1.5 x0.433 = 0.65 Psi

Pressure drop due to [ 2 Tee ] = 10 ft

Friction loss Psi/100 ft from Hazen William equation with Q= 79.56 gpm &

D=2 we get Pf=0.064 Psi.

The total equivalent length T = (1.5 +10) = 11.5 ft

The pressure drop Pf= 11.5x 0.064= 0.74 ft

The total pressure drop Pt = 21.35+ 0.65+ 0.74 =22.74 ft.

66

33

=10 x 0.007 = 0.07 where D= 3 ,

q=79.56 gpm and ,L= 10 ft

installed at nod BB having K= 16.68.This K represents the

total flow of sprinklers 5 thru 8 @ node BB with an orifice

capable of discharging the total flow for 4 sprinklers at

nodes 5 thru 8.

Q=K xP

K= 79.56/22.74 =16.68

67

For Pt = 22.81 Psi & K= 16.68 the flow in branch BB-C

q= 79.99 gpm

79.66

68gpm

34

To adjust the pressure for the pressure differential between

the demand of sprinkler 13 at DB and sprinklers 1-12 at DB we

use the balancing equation.

QAdjusted = Qlow

P

high

P

low

=18

23.05

11.37

= 25.62 gpm

It is important to note that at node 13 ,we use the same minimum flow that we

calculated for the most remote sprinkler (1 ) i.e 18 gpm as low flow for sprinkler 13.

69

70

35

main pipes

264.3 gpm

25 gpm

239.3 gpm

80.08 gpm

159.22 gpm

79.66 gpm

79.56 gpm

71

Node DB

Pressure drop From D-E

L=5+10+10+10+10+10=55

ft.

F= 15 ft one Tee 3

Leffective =70 ft

Pressure drop =

70x 0.062 ft=

=4.32 ft.

72

36

90 Elbow =10 ft

L=58-6. F=10 [4 Elbow ],Leffective =68.5 ft

Pressure drop = 68.5x 0.018 = 1.32 ft.

Total Pressure is the summation of all Pt = 37.94 ft

73

74

37

Add 100 gpm for light hazard occupancies

250 gpm for ordinary hazard occupancies

500 gpm for extra hazard occupancies

75

76

38

77

(shall be used with a HazenHazen-Williams C factor of 120 only)

78

39

Example problem II

79

sprinklers to be calculated

80

40

Car parking

9

4

81

1

2

3

4

7

9

4 DN

6

L=70 ft

82

41

83

84

42

85

86

43

Obstruction

Sprinklers Location

C e ilin g

O bstruction

W all

A f

O p e n

w o o d

[D

w e b s te e l o r

tru s s

8 ]+ B

A f 3C or 3D

Ventilation ducts

87

under peak; branch lines run up the slope.

88

44

89

Drainage

All sprinkler pipe and fittings shall be so

installed that the system can be drained

Riser or Main Size

1. Up to 2 in.

2. 2/21in., 3 in., 31/2 in.

3. 4in. and larger

Size

3/4 in.

1 in.

2 in.

90

45

pipe system

91

Ferrous Piping (Welded and Seamless)

Specification for Black and Hot-Dipped ZincCoated (Galvanized) Welded and Seamless Steel

Pipe for Fire Protection Use ASTM A 795

Specification for Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe

ANSI/ASTM A 53

Copper Tube (Drawn, Seamless)

Specification for Seamless Copper Tube ASTM B

75

Specification for Seamless Copper Water Tube

ASTM B 88

92

46

Underground Pipe

Piping shall be listed for fire protection service and comply

with the AWWA standards

Cement Mortar Lining for Ductile Iron Pipe and Fittings for

Water

Polyethylene Encasement for Ductile Iron Pipe Systems

Ductile Iron and Gray Iron Fittings, 3-in. Through 48-in.,

for Water and Other Liquids

Rubber-Gasket Joints for Ductile Iron Pressure Pipe and

Fittings

Flanged Ductile Iron Pipe with Ductile Iron or Gray Iron

Threaded Flanges

Ductile Iron Pipe, Centrifugally Cast for Water

Steel Water Pipe 6 in. and Larger

Coal-Tar Protective Coatings and Linings for Steel Water

Pipelines Enamel and Tape Hot Applied

Cement-Mortar Protective Lining and Coating for Steel

Water Pipe 4 in. and Larger Shop Applied

93

Field Welding of Steel Water Pipe

94

47

References

1. NFPA-2004

2. F.Fall Building services & equipment

Vol 1-2-3

3. R. gagnon Fire protection systems.

4. The Design Project & AutoCAD drawing

by Upland engineering Dr. Hammoud

5. Photos From Webs.

95

48

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