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ChapChap-3

Fire Fighting

Design Recommendations
& Hydraulic Calculation
By Dr. Ali Hammoud
BAU-2005

DEVELOPING A SPRINKLER PLAN FOR APPROVAL


To prepare a sprinkler plan for approval, it is necessary

to:
to:
1. Collect and review data.
2. Trace or scan building outline.
3. Draw necessary building details.
4. Determine branch line logic.
5. Determine system type and configuration.
6. Determine the hazard class of the occupancy.
occupancy.
7. Determine the area protected by each sprinkler.
8. Determine the number of branch lines.
9. Determine the distance between branch lines.
10.Determine
10.Determine the maximum allowable distance between
sprinklers.
RefRef-3

11- Pipe sizing tables.


12- Friction Loss Formula HazenHazen-Williams
Williams
13- Hydraulic Calculation for sprinkler systems
1414-exanple problem

Installation Requirements Based on


NFPA-13
System Protection Area Limitations.
1. Light hazard 52,000 ft2 (4831 m2)
2. Ordinary hazard 52,000 ft2 (4831 m2)
3. Extra hazard Hydraulically calculated
40,000 ft2 (3716 m2)
4. Storage High-piled storage 40,000
ft2 (3716 m2)
RefRef-1

7-Area of Coverage

Determination of the Protection Area of Coverage

1. Along Branch Lines. Is the distance between


sprinklers, defined as S
2. Between Branch Lines. Is the perpendicular distance
to the sprinkler on the adjacent branch line, defined
as L
As = S X L

The maximum allowable protection area of coverage


for a sprinkler (As) shall be in accordance with the
value indicated in each type or style of sprinkler. The
maximum area of coverage of any sprinkler shall not
exceed 400 ft2 (36 m2).
5

L
Area
protected
by one
sprinkler

AS

As = S X L

Area of Coverage (for Light


Hazard)
Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing (Standard Spray
Upright/Standard Spray Pendent) for Light Hazard

Construction type

Max Area Max Spacing


As (m2)
S (m)

Noncombustible

20.9

4.6

Combustible

15.6

4.6

Dr. Ali Hammoud BAUBAU- 2005

Area of Coverage ( for Ordinary Hazard)


Hazard

Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing (Standard Spray


Upright/Standard Spray Pendent) for Ordinary Hazard

Construction type
All

Max Area Max Spacing


S (m)
As (m2)
12.1
4.6

Area of Coverage (for High Hazard)

Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing (Standard Spray


Upright/Standard Spray Pendent) for High Hazard

Construction type
All, >= 0.25

Max Area
As (m2)
9.3

Max Spacing
S (m)
3.7

All, < 0.25

12.1

4.6

Practical Spacing S of up-right


and pendent spray sprinkler
The maximum distance between sprinklers, either on branch
lines or between branch lines, shall be as follows:(as per
NFPANFPA-13.item 44-4) :
Light Hazard
15ft (4.5 m)
Ordinary Hazard
15ft
Extra Hazard
12ft (3.6 m)
High Piled storage 12ft
The distance from sprinklers to wall shall exceed oneone-half of
allowable distance between sprinklers.
10

8- Determine the Number of branch Lines.


The number of branch lines per bay is determined by dividing
the width of the bay, or the distance between column lines in
feet, by the maximum allowable distance between sprinklers,
(Lmax) . If the result is not a whole number, round up to the
nearest whole number.
The formula below can be used for this calculation:

Number of branch lines = (Width of bay)/ (Lmax)


For example, an ordinary hazard system installed in a bay that is
is 35 ''-0" wide would
require three branch lines, since NFPA 13 mandates a maximum of 15 ''-0" between
branch lines:

35' /15
/15 = 2.3 rounded to 3 branch lines

The space between the beams along the column lines in exposed construction is
11
called a bay.

Number of branch Lines


35' /15
/15 = 2.3 rounded to 3 branch lines

RefRef-3

12

9- Determine the distance between branch


Lines (L).
The acceptable distance L between the lines in the bay is obtained by
dividing the width of the bay by the number of branch lines

L=

Total Width of bay


Number of branch lines

For example,
example, continuing with the building in the previous example and calculate
calculate the
distance L:

L= 35' /3 branches = 11.667 or 11


11-8 .

However the distance from the end lines to the walls is L/2 = 5
5-10
10
13

10- Determine the maximum allowable


distance between sprinklers (S).

NFPA 13 allows Smax to be 15 ft for light hazard and ordinary and 12


ft for extra hazard ,S is also obtained by the same formula ;

S = AS / L
For example, for an ordinary hazard the NFPA 13 would require As =130 ft2 ( 12.1 m2
) per sprinkler . However for the previous example L =11
=11-8 the maximum spacing S ,
becomes:
S= 130 /11
/11-8 = 11.14 ft 11
11 ft.

( 1ft =12
=12)

14

Ordinary hazard spacing


example in one bay of
building .
Refer to drawing and check
to be certain that sprinkler
spacing S is acceptable :
As= Sx L
11
11 x 11
11-8 =128.3 ft2

From NFPANFPA-13

Amax =130 ft2.


Layout is Acceptable
RefRef-3

15

Maximum Distance from Walls


& ceiling
Spacing (Standard Spray Upright/Standard Spray Pendent)

The distance from sprinklers to walls


shall not exceed one-half of the
allowable distance ( L/2).
Sprinklers shall be located a minimum
of 4 in. (102 mm) from a wall.

RefRef-1

16

Deflector Position
Standard Pendent and Upright Spray Sprinklers

Distance Below Ceilings: deflector and the ceiling


shall be a minimum of 1 in. (25.4 mm) and a maximum of
12 in. (305 mm)
Under obstructed construction,
construction the sprinkler
deflector shall be located within the horizontal planes
of 1 in.
in to 6 in.
in (25.4 mm to 152 mm) below the
structural members and a maximum distance of 22 in.
in
(559 mm)
The deflector distance is the dimension from of the ceiling to the
the top of the
sprinkler deflector.
17

11- Pipe sizing tables


Schedule size for light Hazard Occupancies
systems,
Schedule size for Ordinary Hazard
Occupancies systems.
Schedule size for Extra Hazard occupancies

18

Schedule size for light Hazard


Occupancies systems
Light Hazard Pipe Schedules
(as per NFPANFPA-13.table613.table6-5.2.2)
Steel
1 in.
in. 2 sprinklers
1 in.
in. 3 sprinklers
1 in.
in. 5 sprinklers
2 in.
in. 10 sprinklers
2 in.
in. 30 sprinklers
3 in.
in. 60 sprinklers
3 in.
in. 100 sprinklers

Copper
1 in.
in. 2 sprinklers
1
1 in.
in. 3 sprinklers
1
1 in.
in. 5 sprinklers
2 in.
in. 12 sprinklers
2
2 in.
in. 40 sprinklers
3 in.
in. 65 sprinklers
3
3 in.
in. 115 sprinklers

RefRef-1

19

Schedule size for Ordinary Hazard


Occupancies systems
Ordinary Hazard Pipe Schedule
(as per NFPANFPA-13.table613.table6-5.3.2(a))
Steel
Copper
1 in. 2 sprinklers
1 in.
1 in.
1
in. 3 sprinklers
1 in.
1 in.
1
in. 5 sprinklers
1 in.
2 in.
2 in.
in. 10 sprinklers
2 in.
2
in. 20 sprinklers
2 in.
3 in. 40
3 in.
40 sprinklers
3 in. 65
3
65 sprinklers
3 in.
4 in. 100
4 in.
100 sprinklers
5 in. 160
5 in.
160 sprinklers
6 in. 275
6 in.
275 sprinklers

2 sprinklers
3 sprinklers
5 sprinklers
12 sprinklers
25 sprinklers
45 sprinklers
75 sprinklers
115 sprinklers
180 sprinklers
300 sprinklers

RefRef-1

20

10

Schedule size for Extra Hazard


occupancies

21

Remark Sprinklers outlet


Minimum 11-in. (25.4(25.4-mm) outlets shall be provided
The branch lines and the sprinklers spacing and
distance are now be dimensioned on the
drawing with respect to the bays . Pipe sizing is
than be completed from the pipe Schedule

RefRef-1

22

11

H.WH.W-1

23

12-Friction Loss Formula


Hazen-Williams

24

12

Friction Loss Formula HazenHazen-Williams


Williams
Pipe friction losses shall be determined on the basis of the HazenHazen-Williams
formula, as follows:
1.85

Pf =

4.52 Q
C 1.85 d 4.87

psi / foot

Where
p = frictional loss factor in psi per foot of pipe
Q = flow in gpm
C = friction loss coefficient for new black steel pipe C=120
d = actual internal diameter of pipe in inches
For SI units, the following equation shall be used:
used:

Pf = 6.05(

Q 1.85
) 10 5
1.85
4.87
C d

Where
pm = frictional resistance in bar per meter of pipe
Qm = flow in L/min
C = friction loss coefficient
dm = actual internal diameter in mm

Bar / m

25

26

13

Actual internal diameter

27

N.B. Choosing the Hydraulically most demanding


area
The hydraulically most demanding area may be the
geographically most remote area, which is the area whose
linear distance from the sprinkler system riser is the longest
,in feet .
Sometimes , the hydraulically most demanding area is not the
most remote area. However When in doubt , calculate it
out which means that if you are unsure which is the
hydraulically most demanding area , perform calculations for
other potential hydraulically most demanding areas until all
uncertainty is removed.

RefRef-3

28

14

13-Hydraulic -Calculation Procedures


The procedure consists of the following steps:
1. Selecting occupancy,
2. Selecting a hydraulic density,
3. Determining the length of the hydraulically most
demanding area,
4. Determining the number of sprinklers flowing along the
length of the design area,
5. Determining the configuration of sprinklers in the
hydraulically most demanding area,
6. Determining the minimum flow at the hydraulically most
demanding sprinkler,
7. Determining the minimum pressure at the hydraulically
most demanding sprinkler,
8. Determining friction loss in each pipe segment.
29

Hydraulic calculations cont


1- Selection of occupancy ( refer to Chp.1)
The correct selection of the occupancy
classification of a building or a portion of a
building is the foundation for meaningful and
reliable hydraulic calculations.
Careful selection of the occupancy is the
most critical decision that a fire protection
systems designer makes during the hydraulic
calculation process.
A list of occupancies are summarized below;
30

15

Hydraulic calculations cont


2- Selecting a Hydraulic density
The area density curves shown in the accompanied figure 1 may be used as
the basis for your calculation in selecting the density.
These curves are a function of a design density and the total design area
of sprinkler operation. The design density is the quantity of water per
square foot of remote area that has been found by experience to be
effective in controlling a fire of given occupancy.
occupancy. The design area (A ) is
an area whose size is related to the occupancy, where in all sprinklers
sprinklers in
the area is expected to actuate at the same time.
time.

RefRef-3

31

Area-Density Method
The area under which the
maximum number of sprinklers
shall operate among one riser
grid, is selected from the
area-density curve
Example: From the extra
hazard occupancy group 1
(curve 4) we choose the point
having the maximum density
and the lower protected area
that is: (A
A = 2500ft,
0.3gpm/ft)
Fig. 1

32

16

Area/density curves. Remarks


If the areas of sprinkler operation is less
than 1500 ft2 (139 m2) for light and ordinary
hazard occupancies, the density for 1500 ft2
(139 m2) shall be selected that is =0.1 and
0.15 respectively.
However for extra hazard occupancies if the
calculated areas of sprinkler operation is less
than 2500 ft2 (232 m2), the density for 2500
ft2 (232 m2) shall be used.
RefRef-1

33

Area-Density Method
The area under which the
maximum number of
sprinklers shall operate
among one riser grid, is
selected from the areadensity curve
Example for ordinary hazard
group 1 (curve 2) we choose
the point having the maximum
density and the lower
protected area (1500ft,
0.15gpm/ft)
Fig. 1

34

17

Example of hydraulically most demanding area


1

3
5

4
RefRef-1

35

Hydraulic calculations Cont

3- Determining the Length of the Design Area


NFPA 13 provides a formula with which the hydraulically most
demanding area is sized:
The minimum length of the rectangle is 1.2 times the square root of the
design area (A
(A):

Lmin = 1.2

A = 1.2 1500 = 46.5 ft

A designer has selected a design area of 1.500 feet2 from the


area/density curves in Figure 1. Determine the minimum length of the
design area. L shown in Figure 2.
This L =46.5 ft
ft length is a minimum, because the length of the design
area must be increased so that the edge of the design falls at the point
between two sprinklers. We will make this adjustment in the next step.
36

18

Figure 2.

Lmin = 1.2

A
RefRef-3

37

Hydraulic calculations Cont


4- Number of sprinklers flowing along the length
of the design area of the Design Area

The number of sprinkler flowing along the length of the design area
area is
determined by dividing Lmin by the spacing between sprinklers ( S).

Ns =

Lmin
S

For example ; From previous we get Lmin= 46.5 ft and it is known from NFPANFPA- 13
the sprinkler spacing for ExtraExtra- hazard group I , S= 12
12. Therefore:

Ns =

46 .5 feet
= 3.88 that is 4 sp.
12 feet / sprinkler

The actual length of the design area Lact, is determined by multiplying the
actual number of sprinklers , Ns , by the spacing between sprinklers ( S).

Lact = Ns S = 4 12 ' = 48 ft

38

19

Hydraulic calculations Cont


4- Configuration of sprinklers in the design Area
Once we have determined the actual length of the design area [most
remote area] , we must determine its width. As follows:

W =

A
Lact

1500 ft 2
A
W =
=
= 31.25 ft
Lact
48 ft
From Fig 3 the area A = 48' x 30' = 1440 square feet, containing 12 sprinklers.
This falls slightly short of the required 1.500 square foot design area. Since each
sprinkler covers a 12' x 10' area or 120 square feet we know that adding one
sprinkler to 1440 sq ft results in an area of 1 440 sq ft plus 120 sq ft, or 1560 sq
ft. which meets the desired minimum criteria. The question is where is this
39
thirteenth sprinkler added? This fina1 sprinkler is always added closest to the
crossmain to assure the hydraulically most demanding area.

Given : A wet pipe sprinkler system , Occupancy ordinary hazard group I


Area of operation =1500 Sq. Ft , Density = 0.15 gpm per sq. foot
Lmin= 46.5 feet , Ns = 4 sprinklers along the length of the design area
Lact = 48 feet , W= 31.25 feet , Width covered by 3 branch lines is 30
48 x 30 = 1440 sq.ft. [ 12 sprinklers]
14440 sq.ft is less 1500 sq.ft. must add one more sprinkler [13]

Fig.3

closest to the crossmain

40

20

In short ,the Number of sprinklers in each branch


line is determine as follows:
Where the design is based on area/density method, the
design area shall be a rectangular area having a
dimension parallel to the branch lines at least 1.2
times the square root of the area of sprinkler
operation (A) used, which shall permit the inclusion of
sprinklers on both sides of the cross main.
Number of Sprinklers on one branch line
1.2 A
S
Where
S = Spacing between sprinklers (ft)
N=

Light Hazard
Ordinary Hazard
Extra Hazard
High Piled storage

15ft (4.5 m)
15ft
12ft (3.6 m)
12ft

A = Remonte area from Area Density curve (ft 2 )

41

Example of estimating the total number of


sprinklers operating at the same time & the
number of sprinklers in each branches

RefRef-1
42

21

Hydraulic calculations Cont


5- Minimum flow at the hydraulically most Demanding
sprinkler ( one sprinkler )
The minimum required flow at the hydraulically most demanding sprinkler
sprinkler is
obtained by multiplying the design density by the area covered by
by one
sprinkler .

Q = d ( As )
Q = d ( As ) = 0.15 gpm / sq. ft 120 sq. ft .
= 18 gpm
This is the minimum required flow at the hydraulically most demanding
demanding
sprinkler. For ordinary Hazard group I As
As is taken as 130 ft2.
43

Hydraulic calculations

6- Determining the minimum pressure at the hydraulically


most demanding sprinkler

The flow at a sprinkler head is determined by the formula:

Q=K P
The flow at a sprinkler (Q) is equal to the sprinkler discharge coefficient
(K) times the square root of the pressure (P). K is commonly referred to as
the K-factor ( coefficient of discharge) . Each sprinkler that is tested and
listed for use on a sprinkler system has a unique KK-factor,
factor or orifice
coefficient, that is calculated for that sprinkler. Sprinklers having
nominal orifices of 1/2" generally have K-factors ranging from 5.3 to 5.8.

44

22

Flow Characteristic & Water spreading S.I


Units

Q=K P
Where Q= flow rate in L/min
K= K factor
P= pressure in Bar
45

Sprinkler Discharge Characteristics


K
Percent of Nominal l in.
Discharge

Thread
Type

Nominal Orifice
Size
Marked On
Frame

1.3-1.5

25

in. NPT

Yes

1.8-2.0

33.3

in. NPT

Yes

9.5

2.6-2.9

50

in. NPT

Yes

7/16

11.0

4.0-4.4

75

in. NPT

Yes

5.3-5.8

100

in. NPT

NO

140

in. NPT
or

NO

200

in. NPT
or

Yes

in. NPT

Yes

in NPT

Yes

Nominal
Orifice
Size
(in)

(mm)

6.4

5/16

8.0

3/8

K
Factor1

12.7

17/32

13.5

5/8

15.9

7.4-8.2

11.0-11.5

19.0

13.5-14.5

K= 5.6

250

46

23

7- Friction Loss Formula Hazen-Williams formula


HazenHazen-Williams formula is one of the most popular friction loss
formula, recognized by NFPA 13 and considered as a standard
formula for the calculation of the pressure drop.

1)- Calculations shall begin at the hydraulically most remote


sprinkler. Discharge at each sprinkler shall be based on the
calculated pressure at that sprinkler.
2)- Pipe friction loss shall be calculated in accordance with
the HazenHazen-Williams formula.

4.52 Q1.85
Pf = 1.85
C d 4.87

47

14-Example Problem
The next figure present a plan of wet pipe system layout
Assuming the following data:
Density,
Density,0.15 gpm/ft2 calculated over the most remote 1500
sq.ft.
sq.ft. In this example take [As= 120 ft2],S=12 ft & L= 10ft
and the total number of Sp. is 13 sprinklers in most remote
area.
1. The minimum flow at the most remote sprinkler =18
=18 gpm
2. The minimum required pressure at the most remote
sprinkler=10.33 Psi.
Psi.
Size the piping system & determine the pump duty.
Knowing that , the branch lines are schedule 40 black steel.
(C=120 ) Crossmain lines are schedule 10 black steel.
48

24

49

Sectional view of the building

RefRef-3.
50

25

Solution in steps
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Number of sprinklers riser needed


Most remote area
Area of coverage and sprinklers spacing
Expected total number of sprinklers per floor
Pipe sizing
Determination of the most remote area
Number of sprinklers in the most remote area
Number of sprinklers along one branch
Flowrate of the most remote sprinkler
Residual pressure of the most remote sprinkler
Total effective length between two adjacent sprinklers
Friction loss formula
Calculating pump total pressure
Calculating pump total flowrate
51

Number of sprinklers riser


needed
Based on NFPA 1313-4-2.1

Since the parking area is less than 4831m2, one


sprinkler riser is sufficient
52

26

Area-Density Method

Ad is the
most
remote area
and is equal
to 1500 ft2
for ordinary
Hazard 1
53

Area of Coverage/sprinkler spacing


Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing (Standard
Spray Upright/Standard Spray Pendent) for
Ordinary Hazard. NFPANFPA-13 4.4.1.1
Protection
area (As)
Construction System ft2
m2
type
type
All
All
130 12.1

Maximum
spacing
(s)
ft m
15

4.6

54

27

4. Expected total number of sprinklers per


floor

The expected number of sprinklers is determined as


follows :
Number of sprinklers =Total area of the car parking / As
Area of the car parking 13200 ft2 ( 110 ft x 120 ft)
,divided by the sprinkler coverage area As =120 ft2 we get
110 sprinklers.

55

Pipe sizing
1 in. 2 sprinklers
1 in.
in. 3 sprinklers
1 in.
in. 5 sprinklers
2 in.
10 sprinklers
in.10
2 in.
in. 20 sprinklers

56

28

Determining the flowrate of the most remote


sprinkler

q = density As

(gpm)
(gpm

Step 5- Determining the residual pressure of the

most remote sprinkler

q
p=
k

(psi)

57

Determining the total effective length between


two adjacent sprinklers

T = L+F

T =total effective length


L= Pipe length
F= Equivalent pipe length

58

29

Friction Loss Formula


Pipe friction losses shall be determined on the basis
of the HazenHazen-Williams formula, as follows:

P = 4.52

Q1.85
C 1.85 d 4.87

Where,
p = frictional resistance in psi per foot of pipe
Q = flow in gpm
C = friction loss coefficient black steel C=120
d = actual internal diameter of pipe in inches

Dr. Ali Hammoud

59

T = L+F
= 12 + 0 = 12

=TP

Where,
Pf =friction loss in psi between two adjacent
sprinklers

60

30

Calculate Total pressure drop PT

PT = Pf + PT previous + Pe
Where,
PT = total pressure in psi
Pe = elevation pressure in psi

61

Calculate flow q of the second sprinkler 2


The flow
of both
sprinklers

q = K PT

62

31

12+6 =18

Remember !
1st Branch

4 Sprinklers flow
q= 79.56 gpm
Whereas 4 x 18
gpm =72 gpm

63

18 gpm
19.08 gpm
37.08 gpm
20.16 gpm
57.24 gpm
22.32 gpm
79.56 gpm
79.56 gpm

Flow distribution
in Branch 1

64

32

At = Top of riser nipple & AB = Bottom of riser nipple


Pressure drop due to elevation 1.5
Pe= Z x 0.433 Psi/ft
=1.5 x0.433 =0.65 Psi
AT

F = Pressure drop due Tee = 10 ft

BB

AB

65

At = Top of riser nipple & AB = Bottom of riser nipple


Pressure drop due to elevation 1.5
Pe= Z x 0.433 Psi/ft
=1.5 x0.433 = 0.65 Psi
Pressure drop due to [ 2 Tee ] = 10 ft
Friction loss Psi/100 ft from Hazen William equation with Q= 79.56 gpm &
D=2 we get Pf=0.064 Psi.
The total equivalent length T = (1.5 +10) = 11.5 ft
The pressure drop Pf= 11.5x 0.064= 0.74 ft
The total pressure drop Pt = 21.35+ 0.65+ 0.74 =22.74 ft.

66

33

AB = Bottom of riser nipple

Pressure drop in line A-B


=10 x 0.007 = 0.07 where D= 3 ,
q=79.56 gpm and ,L= 10 ft

Branch Line K calculation: Imagine a huge sprinkler


installed at nod BB having K= 16.68.This K represents the
total flow of sprinklers 5 thru 8 @ node BB with an orifice
capable of discharging the total flow for 4 sprinklers at
nodes 5 thru 8.

Q=K xP
K= 79.56/22.74 =16.68

67

BB = Bottom of riser nipple & CB


For Pt = 22.81 Psi & K= 16.68 the flow in branch BB-C
q= 79.99 gpm

79.66
68gpm

34

Sprinkler 13 flow rate Node DB


To adjust the pressure for the pressure differential between
the demand of sprinkler 13 at DB and sprinklers 1-12 at DB we
use the balancing equation.

QAdjusted = Qlow

P
high
P
low

=18

23.05
11.37

= 25.62 gpm

It is important to note that at node 13 ,we use the same minimum flow that we
calculated for the most remote sprinkler (1 ) i.e 18 gpm as low flow for sprinkler 13.
69

Dr. Ali Hammoud

70

35

Flow distribution in the


main pipes
264.3 gpm

25 gpm

239.3 gpm

80.08 gpm
159.22 gpm

79.66 gpm
79.56 gpm

71

Node DB
Pressure drop From D-E
L=5+10+10+10+10+10=55
ft.
F= 15 ft one Tee 3
Leffective =70 ft
Pressure drop =
70x 0.062 ft=
=4.32 ft.

72

36

Sectional view of the building

90 Elbow =10 ft

Pressure drop From E-F


L=58-6. F=10 [4 Elbow ],Leffective =68.5 ft
Pressure drop = 68.5x 0.018 = 1.32 ft.
Total Pressure is the summation of all Pt = 37.94 ft
73

74

37

Fire Hose streams:


Add 100 gpm for light hazard occupancies
250 gpm for ordinary hazard occupancies
500 gpm for extra hazard occupancies
75

76

38

77

Equivalent Pipe Lengths of Valves and Fittings


(shall be used with a HazenHazen-Williams C factor of 120 only)

Dr. Ali Hammoud BAUBAU- 2005

78

39

Example problem II

79

Example of determining the number of


sprinklers to be calculated

80

40

Example from the NFPA 13

Car parking

9
4

81

1
2
3
4

7
9

4 DN

6
L=70 ft

82

41

83

Hydraulic calculation example

84

42

85

Obstructions to sprinkler discharge pattern development

86

43

Obstruction
Sprinklers Location
C e ilin g
O bstruction

W all

A f

O p e n
w o o d

[D

w e b s te e l o r
tru s s

8 ]+ B

A f 3C or 3D
Ventilation ducts

87

Sprinklers under pitched roofs with sprinkler directly


under peak; branch lines run up the slope.

88

44

Sprinklers at pitched roofs; branch lines run up the slope

89

Drainage
All sprinkler pipe and fittings shall be so
installed that the system can be drained
Riser or Main Size
1. Up to 2 in.
2. 2/21in., 3 in., 31/2 in.
3. 4in. and larger

Size
3/4 in.
1 in.
2 in.

90

45

System test connection on wet


pipe system

91

Aboveground Pipe and Tube


Ferrous Piping (Welded and Seamless)
Specification for Black and Hot-Dipped ZincCoated (Galvanized) Welded and Seamless Steel
Pipe for Fire Protection Use ASTM A 795
Specification for Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe
ANSI/ASTM A 53
Copper Tube (Drawn, Seamless)
Specification for Seamless Copper Tube ASTM B
75
Specification for Seamless Copper Water Tube
ASTM B 88
92

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Underground Pipe
Piping shall be listed for fire protection service and comply
with the AWWA standards
Cement Mortar Lining for Ductile Iron Pipe and Fittings for
Water
Polyethylene Encasement for Ductile Iron Pipe Systems
Ductile Iron and Gray Iron Fittings, 3-in. Through 48-in.,
for Water and Other Liquids
Rubber-Gasket Joints for Ductile Iron Pressure Pipe and
Fittings
Flanged Ductile Iron Pipe with Ductile Iron or Gray Iron
Threaded Flanges
Ductile Iron Pipe, Centrifugally Cast for Water
Steel Water Pipe 6 in. and Larger
Coal-Tar Protective Coatings and Linings for Steel Water
Pipelines Enamel and Tape Hot Applied
Cement-Mortar Protective Lining and Coating for Steel
Water Pipe 4 in. and Larger Shop Applied
93
Field Welding of Steel Water Pipe

94

47

References
1. NFPA-2004
2. F.Fall Building services & equipment
Vol 1-2-3
3. R. gagnon Fire protection systems.
4. The Design Project & AutoCAD drawing
by Upland engineering Dr. Hammoud
5. Photos From Webs.
95

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