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Soil degradation monitoring by active and passive

remote-sensing means: examples with two


degradation processes
Naftaly Goldshleger, *Eyal Ben-Dor,* *Ido Livne,* U. Basson***, and
R.Ben-Binyamin*Vladimir Miralis*
*Soil Erosion Research Station
** Tel Aviv University
***Geosense

Background
Soil Degradation is defined as a loss of soil
production by either chemical or physical
processes.
Recent developments in the monitoring of soil
degradation processes (Crust Salinization
Increased Runoff) have used passive remote
sensing and active remote-sensing tools such as
ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and frequency
domain electromagnetic induction (FDEM)

objective
To show how remote sensing (ACTIVE and
PASSIVE ) methods can be used for soil
degradation observation and monitoring.

If available in advance precaution can be


taken

Active remote sensing


methods

Passive and active remote


sensing methods

Passive remote sensing


methods

Passive remote sensing-ASD


Soil Spectroscopy refers to reflected electromagnetic
radiation that interacts with the soil (surface)
matter across the spectral range VIS-NIR-SWIR of the
sun illumination radiation.
Spectral Methods Using ASD Field
spectrometer for soil surface
Each sample is tested by spectral
and chemical measurement, for
comparison.

Active remote sensing -GPR


GPR (Ground Penetration
Radar) Transmits radar pulses
into the ground; and receives
wave signals reflected off of the
interfaces below.
The calibration and spatial
repair of the data, provide a
visual cross section of the
soil layers at different
depths.
Resolution m

Depth m

Frequencies MHz

0.6
0.4

7-15
3-9

100
250

0.3

2-5

500

0.2

1-2

1000

Active remote sensing- FDEM Scanning

FDEM

96Hz - 100 kHz

Conductivity, resistivity,
magnetic susceptibility
and frequency sounding
measurements were
acquired with a GEM-2
FDEM (frequency
domain electromagnetic) instrument at
several effective
frequencies.

Electromagnetic Spectrum
Resolution m

Depth m

Frequencies MHz

0.6
0.4

7-15
3-9

100
250

0.3

2-5

500

0.2

1-2

1000

Examples: two degradation processes


Physical Crust
Salinization

Physical Crust (Structural Crust)


Definition: A thin layer formed on the soil surface
during rainstorm events. The crust is the result of a
physical segregation and rearrangement of soil
particles.
Origin: The outcome of the impact of the raindrops
kinetic energy and the stability of the soil aggregates

1mm

Crust

Sole
Microscopic Cross Section

Problems and Solution


Problems:

Soil Degradation effects : The crust significantly affects many dynamic soil
properties such as : decreasing infiltration rate, surface roughness, soil
water storage and capacity, increasing runoff and soil erosion

Lack of information: As a dynamic property , no information on its spatial


distribution nor magnitude is available prior to the next rain event
Solution:
To use reflectance spectroscopy
Crust
Run off
Erosion

Rain Simulator
A facility to study the soil physical crust

nozzle

soil tray

runoff tube
carousel

infiltration tube

Laboratory Experiment

0 joule

650 joule

Loess Soil

1842 joule

The crust was created by rain fall simulator


Using various energy value

Spectral Results

1.7m

2.2 m

Spectral Index
Reflectance at 1.7m vs. Infiltration Rate

AISA Airborne Image Spectrometer

182Spectral Bands 423-2400nm (FWHM 6.21-6.84nm)


Altitude of 3000m, Pixel size 2m

Crust

Braking Crust

crusted
Non crusted

20 m

Soil Infiltration and Erosion : Physical Crust

Ben-Dor et al., 2004

C
D
Vegetation
high

low

B
A

Conclusion for the Physical Crust


For the crust analysis, passive methods - mainly soil reflectance - can
be used as tools to monitor, assess and map the soil-crusting
phenomenon and related properties (runoff, infiltration, etc.)
More specific conclusions are published in the following papers

Goldshlager N. Ben-Dor E, Y. Benyamini, M. Agassi and D. Blumberg 2002, Spectral properties and
hydraulic conductance of crusts formed by raindrop impact. International Journal of Remote Sensing
19:3909-3920

Ben-Dor E. Goldahlager N, Benyamini M. and D.G. Blumberg 2003 The Spectral Reflectance
properties of Soils structural crust in the SWIR spectral region (1.2-2.5 m), Soil Science Society of
American Journal 67:289-299

Ben-Dor E. , N. Goldshalager, O. Braun , B. Kindel , A.F.H.Goetz , D. Bonfil , M. Agassi, N. Margalit , Y.


Binayminy and A. Karnieli 2004 Monitoring of Infiltration Rate in Semiarid Soils using Airborne
Hyperspectral Technology International Journal of Remote Sensing 25:1-18

Goldshlager N, Ben-Dor E., Chudnovsky A., and M. Agassi 2009 Soil reflectance as a generic tool for
assessing infiltration rate induced by structural crust for heterogeneous soils. European Journal of
Soil Science (in press)

Soil salinity
This phenomenon is related to a high water table and low water quality

Soil degradation by salinity: Decreases soil productivity, low water infiltration to


the soil profile, runoff and high soil erosion rate, infertility.
Lack of Information: As a dynamic property no information on its spatial
distribution nor magnitude is available . If such information were available in
advance, precautions could be taken.
Solution: To use active and passive remote sensing means (HSR, GPR, FDEM)
Estimates extent of salt affected areas are in general close to one billion hectares
which represents about 7 percent of the earth's continent extent (Ghassemi et al,
1995)

The Working Scheme


Test
Sampling Points

Soil Spectral measurement in the field : 0cm, 30cm, 60cm

Soil measurement (EC) in the Laboratory

Comparison of our spectrum data to the laboratory


spectrum data for Gypsum

Important
absorption in
relation to air-bone
sensor

1550nm
1480nm

Absorption

1750nm
2200nm

1450nm

1950nm
Halite
Spectrum

Surface Gypsum Correlated with 60 cm depth EC

60 cm depth EC (ds/m)

90
y = 0.3568x - 1.98
R2 = 0.9566

80
70
60
50
40

Ec

30
20
10
0
0

50

100

150

Surface CaSO4 (m eq/l)

A model between Spectral and Lab information:


-

200

250

Spectral changes along the scanning line In


Genigar field
Genigar field
15
m 15

Shift
Sampling point

FDEM

The use of an air-photo from 1962, and of GPR, for


characterization of the buried layer.

Eastern scan
line
content

Lateral changes in the soil


layer, point to the
existence of a buried layer .

ASD based Model for AISA spectral configuration (Test


Results)
Predicted and measured Electrical conductivity (test
samples)
60

R = 0.9012
50

Measured EC

RPD=2.54
40
30
20
10
0
0

10

20

30

40

Predicted EC

the

Wavelength (nm)
b0
540.74
1503.06
1989.99
2036.36
2175.48
2187.08
2221.86

Factor (for continuum removed spectrum)


634.109192
166.6197357
-918.8959961
-1519.586548
2564.280273
-919.4611206
-951.8460693
874.7788696

50

60

A comparison between measured EC results and predicted EC results


from the AISA-ES image.

ds/m

The results indicate that chemical methods which are correlated with remote sensing
methods give a correct picture of soil salinity.
A spectroscopy based EC prediction model can be built using relatively low spectral
resolution and excluding water vapor absorption bands.

A model of this kind can be applied to air-borne hyperspectral imagery in order to


map soil salinity in a fast, accurate and cost effective way.
FDEM data will be added to the model in the future and will contribute to increase its
accuracy.

Uzbekistan

Syr-Darya Salinity Map (UN)

Non-saline
Slightly saline
Moderately
Severely
saline
saline

Percentage of area affected by


salinity (by severity levels)

11

Conclusion for the Soil Salinity


1. Spectroscopy is a sensitive field method that can
be used to locate saline-affected areas.
It can be clearly seen (Uzbekistan results) that
the soil salinity property can be effectively
predicted from the reflectance information
across specific wavelengths (1750nm, 1940nm,
and 1980nm).
2. Using soil surface information, Halite and Gypsum
correlations can help in the assessment of salinity,
to a depth of 60 cm
3. All domainsfield, airborne and space-borne
are feasible for this application.

4. The GPR system can be used to map the


subsurface regional structure, and to point
out anomalies which could indicate saline
problems.
5. The FDEM results were dove-tailed with the
multi- sensor approach, for precise detection
and a geo-referenced database of soil salinity
changes, enables mapping and prediction of
the salinization process.
6. Comparing the airborne and satellite
images with field-collected spectral data by
using hyper- spectral imagery can
indicate the severity of soil salinity.
7. Novel method: mm wave instrument, and

Novel method

a
Handle bar
Fiber optic

Handle bar
Stabilizer bar

Lamp holder
(1.2 cm f)

Halogen Lamp

Fiber Holder
(0.8cm f )

ASD

Mirror at 45 angle

Catherization: optic fibrous


-Dor et al., 2008).

Spectra & Video

Measurement setup

Millimetre-wave backscattering

General Conclusions
The two soil degradation factors can potentially be
monitored by passive and active remote sensing.

The main advantages of the passive spectral remote-sensing


method are its availability and ability to cover large areas; on
the other hand, it only senses the soil surface.
For salinity, an electromagnetically based approach (an active
remote-sensing technique) could provide additional information
on the salinization process. In the case of soil salinization,
monitoring the underground layers is crucial, and the active
remote-sensing methods (e.g., GPR and FDEM) and mm
waves in the future can be used for this purpose but are limited
by the size of the area covered.

Thank You
Naftalig@moag.gov.il