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Lab 9: Muscles of Lower Extremity, Abdomen, and Skull

Muscle Origin Insertion Action Synergists Antagonists


Pelvic Region Move femur
Iliopsoas: 1. Transverse Lesser trochanter Flexion at Hip -Adductor longus -Gluteus maximus
Iliacus/psoas major process and bodies of femur -Sartorius -Biceps femoris
-Can be seen on of lumbar -Rectus femoris -Semitendinosus
anterior surface vertebrae (psoas -Semimembranosus
medial to sartorius major) -Adductor magnus
-Iliacus- fan-shaped, 2. Iliac Fossa Torso Flexion
more lateral (iliacus)
-Psoas major- longer,
thicker and more
medial
Gluteal Muscles Common origin on pelvis or sacrum Abduction of Thigh
(posterior hip)
Gluteus maximus 1. Ilium Gluteal tuberosity Extension at Hip -Biceps femoris -Adductor longus
-Largest and most 2. Sacrum of femur -Semitendinosus -Sartorius
superficial of glutes 3. Coccyx - -Rectus femoris
-Meant for powerful Semimembranosu -Iliopsoas
movements s
-Adductor magnus
Lateral rotation at -Sartorius -Gluteus medius
Hip -Gluteus minimus
-Adductor magnus
-Adductor longus
-Gracilis
Abduction at Hip -Gluteus medius -Adductor magnus
-Gluteus minimus -Adductor longus
-Sartorius -Gracilis
Gluteus medius Ilium Greater trochanter Medial Rotation at -Adductor magnus -Sartorius
-Deep to gluteus max. of femur Hip -Adductor longus -Gluteus maximus
Walking” Muscles -Gracilis
Abduction at Hip -Gluteus maximus Adductor magnus
-Sartorius -Adductor longus
-Gracilis
Gluteus minimus Ilium Greater trochanter Medial Rotation at -Adductor magnus -Sartorius
-Smallest and deepest of femur Hip -Adductor longus -Gluteus maximus
of glutes -Gracilis
-Walking” Muscles Abduction at Hip -Gluteus maximus Adductor magnus
-Sartorius -Adductor longus
-Gracilis
Piriformis- landmark Anterolateral Greater trochanter Only need to ID: Follow sciatic nerve up leg, ends in triangular
-Posterior part of hip surface of sacrum of femur shaped muscle, inferior to the gluteus minimus, pyramidal
joint shaped

Muscle Origin Insertion Action Synergists Antagonists


Thigh (Anterior) Tibial tuberosity Extension of knee (
of tibia
Sartorius Anterior superior iliac Medial proximal Flexion of Knee Biceps femoris -Hamstrings
(exception) spine tibia -Semimembranosus -Short head biceps
-Longest muscle, runs -Semitendinosus femoris
obliquely across -Gracilis -Adductor magnus
anterior surface of -Gluteus maximus
thigh Abduction at Hip -Gluteal Muscles -Adductor magnus
-“Indian style” sitting -Adductor longus
-Gracilis
Lateral rotation at -Gluteus Maximus -Adductors
Hip -Gracilis
Flexion at Hip --Adductor longus --Hamstrings
-Rectus femoris -Adductor magnus
-Iliopsoas
Quadriceps Tibial tuberosity Extension of knee - -Biceps femoris
Femoris via patellar -
-Rectus femoris tendon Semimembranosus
-Vastus muscles (3) -Semitendinosus
-Sartorius
-Gracilis
-Gastrocnemius
Rectus Femoris Anterior inferior iliac Tibial tuberosity Extension at Knee Rectus femoris See Quad
-Superficial, runs spine via patellar Vastus medialis Antagonists
straight down anterior tendon Vastus intermedius
surface of thigh Vastus lateralis
Flexion at Hip Semimembranosus -Hamstrings
-Semitendinosus -Adductor magnus
-Sartorius -Gluteus maximus
Vastus lateralis Linea aspera of Tibial tuberosity Extension at Knee Rectus femoris See Quad
-Lateral part of thigh posterior femur via patellar Vastus medialis Antagonists
-Largest head of quads tendon Vastus intermedius
Vastus medialis Linea aspera of Tibial tuberosity Extension at Knee Rectus femoris See Quad
-Inferomedial part of posterior femur via patellar Vastus lateralis Antagonists
thigh tendon Vastus intermedius
Vastus intermedius Anterior Femur Tibial tuberosity Extension at Knee Rectus femoris See Quad
-Deep to rectus femoris via patellar Vastus medialis Antagonists
-Between other vastus tendon Vastus lateralis
muscles
Tensor fasciae latae Anterior Iliac crest and IT band ID ONLY- TFL pulls on IT band, which is a thickened fascia that
ASIS runs down lateral side of thigh. TFL overlies rectus femoris and
Iliotibial (IT) Band Iliac crest Knee vastus lateralis.

Muscle Origin Insertion Action Synergists Antagonists


Thigh (Medial) Adductors at Hip
Gracilis Inferior ramus of pubis Medial proximal Flexion of Knee -Biceps femoris -Rectus femoris
-Long, thin superficial tibia -Semimembranosus -Vastus lateralis
muscle of medial thigh -Semitendinosus -Vastus medialis
-Sartorius -Vastus
-Gastrocnemius intermedius
Adduction at Hip -Adductor magnus -Gluteal Muscles
-Adductor longus -Sartorius
Adductor longus Pubis Linea aspera of Flexion at hip -Sartorius -Hamstrings
-Most anterior of posterior femur -Rectus femoris -Adductor magnus
adductor muscles, -Iliopsoas -Gluteus maximus
overlies middle aspect Adduction at Hip -Adductor Magnus -Gluteal Muscles
of adductor magnus -Gracilis -Sartorius
Medial Rotation at -Adductor magnus -Gluteus Maximus
Hip -Gracilis -Sartorius
-Gluteus medius
-Gluteus minimus
Adductor magnus 1. Ischial ramus 1. Linea aspera Flexion at Hip (ant) -Sartorius -Hamstrings
-Triangular muscle, 2. Inferior pubic ramus of posterior -Rectus femoris -Adductor magnus
medial to 3. Ischial tuberosity femur -Iliopsoas -Gluteus maximus
Semimembranosus, 2. Medial Adduction at Hip -Adductor longus -Gluteal Muscles
lateral to Gracilis supracondylar (ant) -Gracilis -Sartorius
-Anterior part acts like line of femur Medial Rotation -Adductor longus -Gluteus Maximus
adductor 3. Adductor (ant) -Gracilis -Sartorius
-Posterior part acts like tubercle of femur -Gluteus medius
hamstring -Gluteus minimus
Extension of hip -Hamstrings --Sartorius
(post) -Gluteus maximus -Rectus femoris
-Iliopsoas
-Adductor Longus

Muscle Origin Insertion Action Synergists Antagonists


Thigh (Posterior) Flexion of knee
Hamstrings Ischial tuberosity Extend hip, flex
knee
Biceps Femoris 1. Long head- Ischial 1. Head of fibula Flexion at Knee -Gracilis -Rectus femoris
-Long head is medial to tuberosity 2. Proximal -Semimembranosus -Vastus lateralis
short head 2. Short head- Linea lateral tibia -Semitendinosus -Vastus medialis
-Only long head is aspera of posterior -Sartorius -Vastus
hamstring femur -Gastrocnemius intermedius
-Most lateral of Extension at Hip -Gluteus maximus -Adductor Longus
hamstrings (only long head) -Semitendinosus -Iliopsoas
-Semimembranosus -Sartorius
-Adductor magnus -Rectus Femoris
Semitendinosus Ischial tuberosity Proximal medial Flexion at Knee -Gracilis -Rectus femoris
-Medial to biceps tibia (with -Semimembranosus -Vastus lateralis
femoris Gracilis and -Biceps Femoris -Vastus medialis
Sartorius) -Sartorius -Vastus
-Gastrocnemius intermedius
Extension at Hip -Gluteus maximus -Adductor Longus
-Long head of -Iliopsoas
biceps femoris -Sartorius
-Semimembranosus -Rectus Femoris
-Adductor magnus
Semimembranosus Ischial tuberosity Proximal medial Flexion at Knee -Gracilis -Rectus femoris
-Deep and medial to tibia (not with -Biceps Femoris -Vastus lateralis
Semitendinosus, lateral Gracilis and -Semitendinosus -Vastus medialis
to adductor magnus Sartorius) -Sartorius -Vastus
-Gastrocnemius intermedius
Extension at Hip -Gluteus maximus -Adductor Longus
-Long head of -Iliopsoas
biceps femoris -Sartorius
-Semitendinosus -Rectus Femoris
-Adductor magnus

Muscle Origin Insertion Action Synergists Antagonists


Leg (Posterior
Comp.)
Gastrocnemius 1. Medial condyle of Calcaneal Flexion of Knee -Gracilis Triceps Brachii
-Part of triceps surae, femur tuberosity via -Semimembranosus
on posterior calf 2. Lateral condyle of calcaneal tendon -Semitendinosus
-Superficial muscle femur -Sartorius
-2 heads (lateral and -Biceps femoris
medial) Plantar Flexion at -Tibialis posterior Tibialis anterior
-Forms proximal curve Ankle -Soleus
of calf -Fibularis
Soleus 1. Superior tibia Calcaneal Plantar Flexion at -Tibialis posterior - Tibialis anterior
-Part of triceps surae, 2. Fibula tuberosity via Ankle -Gastrocnemius
flat / broad 3. Interosseous calcaneal tendon -Fibularis
-Deep to membrane
Gastrocnemius on
posterior surface
Tibialis posterior To locate: originates on superior tibia and Plantar Flexion at -Soleus -Tibialis anterior
-Thick, flat muscles fibula and interosseous membrane, inserts Ankle -Gastrocnemius
deep to soleus into tarsals and metatarsals -Fibularis
-Crossed over by flexor -tendon is directly posterior to tibia, crosses Inversion at Ankle -Tibialis anterior --Fibularis
digitorum longus on under flexor digitorum longus
distal end
-Placed lateral to flexor
digitorum longus

Flexor Digitorum Only Need to ID: long narrow, runs medial to Tibialis posterior and partially overlies it, originates on posterior
Longus tibia, inserts into phalanges
Leg (Anterior
Comp.)
Tibialis Anterior To locate: originates on lateral condyle, Dorsiflexion at -Extensor digitorum -Gastrocnemius
-Superficial muscles of interosseous membrane and inserts into Ankle longus -Soleus
anterior leg inferior surface of medial cuneiform and 1st -Tibialis posterior
-Laterally parallels metacarpal -Fibularis
anterior tibia -Tendon anterior to tibia Inversion at Ankle -Tibialis Posterior -Fibularis

Extensor Digitorum Only Need to ID: anterolateral surface of leg, lateral to Tibialis anterior, inserts on phalanges of digits 2-5,
Longus
Leg (Lateral
Comp.)
Fibularis (longus and To locate: longus originates on head and Plantar Flexion at -Tibialis posterior -Tibialis anterior
brevis) upper portion of lateral side of fibula, same Ankle -Gastrocnemius
-Longus: superficial, insertion as Tibialis anterior-first metatarsal -Soleus
overlies fibula and medial cuneiform Eversion at Ankle -Tibialis anterior
-Brevis is deep to Brevis originates on distal fibula shaft and -Tibialis posterior
longus, smaller and inserts on proximal end of fifth metatarsal
wider

Muscle Origin Insertion Action Synergist Antagonists


Muscles of Elevate mandible
Mastication
Temporalis- fan Temporal fossa (lateral Coronoid process Elevation of Masseter Digastric
shaped muscles that cranium) of mandible Mandible Pterygoids
covers temple of skull
Masseter Zygomatic arch (bone 1. Angle of Elevation of Temporalis Digastric
-Covers lateral aspect + process of temporal mandible Mandible Pterygoids
of mandibular ramus bone) 2. Ramus of Lateral Motion of Pterygoids
mandible mandible
Pterygoids Lateral sphenoid Medial ramus of Elevation of Masseter, Digastric
mandible Mandible Temporalis
Lateral Motion of Masseter
Mandible

Muscles of Abdominal Wall Direction of Fibers Action Location

External oblique Superolaterally to Flex trunk, Most superficial of lateral abs


inferomedially Rotation of trunk
Lateral flexion of trunk
Internal Oblique Inferolaterally to Flex trunk Deep to internal oblique
superomedially Rotation of trunk
Lateral flexion of trunk
Transversus Abdominis Horizontal Compress viscera Deepest of lateral muscles

Rectus Abdominis (6 pack) Vertical Flexion of trunk Medial muscle group,


aponeuroses of lateral
muscles surround, separated
by 3 tendinous intersections
horizontally
Linea alba ID only: tendinous raphe that runs vertically to separate left from right rectus abdominis