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Oracle Fusion Middleware

Introduction to Oracle WebLogic Server


11g Release 1 (10.3.6)
E13752-05
September 2011

This document provides an overview of Oracle WebLogic Server features and


describes how you can use them to create enterprise-ready solutions.

1 Introduction to Oracle WebLogic Server


The following sections provide a brief overview of Oracle WebLogic Server features
and describe how you can use them to create enterprise-ready solutions:

Section 1.1, "The WebLogic Server Solution"

Section 1.2, "Programming Models"

Section 1.3, "High Availability"

Section 1.4, "System Administration"

Section 1.5, "Diagnostic Framework"

Section 1.6, "Security"

Section 1.7, "Oracle JRockit JVM"

Section 1.8, "Client Options"

Section 1.9, "Upgrade"

Section 1.10, "Integration with Oracle WebLogic Suite"

Section 1.11, "Integration with Other Systems"

Section 1.12, "Integration with Web Servers"

Section 1.13, "WebLogic Server API Examples and Sample Application"

1.1 The WebLogic Server Solution


Oracle WebLogic Server is a scalable, enterprise-ready Java Platform, Enterprise
Edition (Java EE) application server. The WebLogic Server infrastructure supports the
deployment of many types of distributed applications and is an ideal foundation for
building applications based on Service Oriented Architectures (SOA). SOA is a design
methodology aimed at maximizing the reuse of application services. See
http://www.oracle.com/technology/tech/soa/index.html.
The WebLogic Server complete implementation of the Java EE 5.0 specification
provides a standard set of APIs for creating distributed Java applications that can
access a wide variety of services, such as databases, messaging services, and
connections to external enterprise systems. End-user clients access these applications
using Web browser clients or Java clients. It also supports the Spring Framework, a

programming model for Java applications which provides an alternative to aspects of


the Java EE model. See Section 1.2, "Programming Models."
In addition to the Java EE implementation, WebLogic Server enables enterprises to
deploy mission-critical applications in a robust, secure, highly available, and scalable
environment. These features allow enterprises to configure clusters of WebLogic
Server instances to distribute load, and provide extra capacity in case of hardware or
other failures. New diagnostic tools allow system administrators to monitor and tune
the performance of deployed applications and the WebLogic Server environment itself.
You can also configure WebLogic Server to monitor and tune application throughput
automatically without human intervention. Extensive security features protect access
to services, keep enterprise data secure, and prevent malicious attacks.

1.2 Programming Models


WebLogic Server provides complete support for the Java EE 5.0 specification at
http://java.sun.com/javaee/5/docs/api/. For more information, see the
following WebLogic Server programming guides:

Web Applications provide the basic Java EE mechanism for deployment of


dynamic Web pages based on the Java EE standards of servlets and Java
ServerPages (JSP). Web applications are also used to serve static Web content such
as HTML pages and image files.
Web Services provide a shared set of functions that are available to other systems
on a network and can be used as a component of distributed Web-based
applications.
XML capabilities include data exchange, and a means to store content independent
of its presentation, and more.
Java Messaging Service (JMS) enables applications to communicate with one
another through the exchange of messages. A message is a request, report, and/or
event that contains information needed to coordinate communication between
different applications.
Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) provides pooled access to DBMS resources.
Resource Adapters provide connectivity to legacy and other external enterprise
systems.
Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) provide Java objects to encapsulate data and business
logic.
Remote Method Invocation (RMI) is the Java standard for distributed object
computing, allowing applications to invoke methods on a remote objects locally.
Security APIs allow you to integrate authentication and authorization into your
Java EE applications. You can also use the Security Provider APIs to create your
own custom security providers.
WebLogic Tuxedo Connectivity (WTC) provides interoperability between
WebLogic Server applications and Tuxedo services. WTC allows WebLogic Server
clients to invoke Tuxedo services and Tuxedo clients to invoke EJBs in response to
a service request.
Overview of WebLogic Server Application Development describes developer tools
and best practices for coding WebLogic Server applications.
For additional programming topics, see the Developing Applications on Oracle
WebLogic Server topic page.

In addition, WebLogic Server supports applications developed using the Spring


Framework, an open source application framework for the Java platform. Spring
Support in Oracle WebLogic Server provides an overview of Spring and the WebLogic
Server support for developing and deploying Spring applications. It also gives
examples of how to write Spring applications for WebLogic Server. See also
SpringSource at http://www.springsource.org/.

1.3 High Availability


The following WebLogic Server features and tools support the deployment of
highly-available and scalable applications:

WebLogic Server clusters provide scalability and reliability for your applications
by distributing the work load among multiple instances of WebLogic Server.
Incoming requests can be routed to a WebLogic Server instance in the cluster
based on the volume of work being processed. In case of hardware or other
failures, session state is available to other cluster nodes that can resume the work
of the failed node. In addition, you can implement clusters so that services may be
hosted on a single machine with options to migrate the service to another node in
the event of failure.
In addition to replicating HTTP session state across servers within a cluster,
WebLogic Server can also replicate HTTP session state across multiple clusters,
thereby expanding availability and fault tolerance in multiple geographic regions,
power grids, and Internet service providers.

Work Managers prioritize work based on rules you define and by monitoring
actual run time performance statistics. This information is then used to optimize
the performance of your application. Work Mangers may be applied globally to a
WebLogic Server domain or to a specific application or component.
Overload protection gives WebLogic Server the ability to detect, avoid, and
recover from overload conditions.
Network channels facilitate the effective use of network resources by segregating
network traffic into channels based on the type of traffic.
WebLogic Server persistent store is a built-in, high-performance storage solution
for WebLogic Server subsystems and services that require persistence. For
example, it can store persistent JMS messages or temporarily store messages sent
using the Store-and-Forward feature. The persistent store supports persistence to a
file-based store or to a JDBC-enabled database.
Store-and-forward services enables WebLogic Server to deliver messages reliably
between applications that are distributed across WebLogic Server instances. If the
message destination is not available at the moment the messages are sent, either
because of network problems or system failures, then the messages are saved on a
local server instance, and are forwarded to the remote destination once it becomes
available.
Enterprise-ready deployment tools facilitate deployment and migration of
applications from the development phase to a production environment.
Production redeployment enables enterprises to deploy a new version of their
application without interrupting work in progress on the older version.

1.4 System Administration


System administration of a WebLogic Server environment includes tasks such as
creating WebLogic Server domains; deploying applications; migrating domains from
development environments to production environments; monitoring and configuring
the performance of the WebLogic Server domain; and diagnosing and troubleshooting
problems. WebLogic Server provides many tools for system administrators to help
with these tasks, including a browser-based Administration Console, the WebLogic
Scripting Tool (WLST), a scripting language for automation of WebLogic system
administration tasks based on Jython, SNMP, the Configuration Wizard, and
command-line utilities. See Section 2.1, "Choosing the Appropriate Technology for
Your Administrative Tasks" and Section 2.2, "Summary of System Administration
Tools and APIs."
Because WebLogic Server's management system is based on Java EE and other
standards, it integrates well with tools used to manage other enterprise software and
hardware components. In addition, WebLogic Server implements the Java EE Java
Management Extension (JMX) specification, which allows programmatic access to the
WebLogic Server management system. Using this API you can create your own
administration utilities or automate frequent tasks using Java classes.

1.5 Diagnostic Framework


The WebLogic Diagnostic Framework is a monitoring and diagnostic service that lets
you create, collect, analyze, archive, and access diagnostic data generated by a running
server and its deployed applications. This data provides insight into the run-time
performance of WebLogic Server instances and deployed applications and lets you
isolate and diagnose faults and performance bottlenecks.

1.6 Security
The WebLogic Server security architecture provides a comprehensive, flexible security
infrastructure designed to address the security challenges of making applications
available on the Web. WebLogic security can be used standalone to secure WebLogic
Server applications or as part of an enterprise-wide, security management system that
represents a best-in-breed security management solution. See Overview of the
WebLogic Security Service.

1.7 Oracle JRockit JVM


The Oracle JRockit JVM is a high performance JVM optimized for Intel architectures
and developed to ensure reliability, scalability, manageability, and flexibility for Java
applications. Oracle JRockit JVM optimizes performance of your Java applications on
either the Windows or Linux operating system platforms with either 32-bit or 64-bit
architectures. Oracle JRockit JVM is included with your WebLogic Server installation.
See Oracle JRockit JVM.

1.8 Client Options


In addition to support for browser-based Web application clients, WebLogic Server
also supports a variety of client types for creating rich GUI applications or simple
command-line utilities. These client types include: RMI-IIOP, T3, J2SE clients, Java EE
thin clients, CORBA/IDL clients, and C++ clients that communicate with BEA Tuxedo.
See Programming Stand-alone Clients for Oracle WebLogic Server.

1.9 Upgrade
Tools and documentation are provided to help you migrate applications implemented
on earlier versions of WebLogic Server to the current WebLogic Server environment.
See the Upgrade Guide for Oracle WebLogic Server.

1.10 Integration with Oracle WebLogic Suite


WebLogic Server provides the core application server run time within the integrated
Oracle WebLogic Suite Java infrastructure. WebLogic Suite contains the following
server-side components:

Oracle WebLogic Server

Oracle JRockit

Oracle Coherence

Oracle TopLink

This integrated infrastructure enhances application performance, improves application


availability, and enables predictable and reliable application scalability with high
quality of service. WebLogic Suite includes highly productive development tools based
on Oracle JDeveloper and Oracle Enterprise pack for Eclipse, and fully integrated
management for large-scale administration and operations with Oracle Enterprise
Manager. Taken together, the development, run time and management capabilities of
WebLogic Suite provide the foundation for implementing mission-critical enterprise
applications.

1.11 Integration with Other Systems


WebLogic Server provides a variety of tools to integrate your applications with
disparate systems. These tools include Web Services, Resource Adapters, the JMS .NET
client, Messaging Bridge, and RMI.

1.12 Integration with Web Servers


Plug-ins are provided with your WebLogic Server installation that allow WebLogic
Server to operate with Web servers from Apache, Microsoft, and Sun Microsystems.
Typically, these Web servers serve static HTML content while requests for dynamic
Web content such as JSPs are directed to the WebLogic Server environment. See Using
Web Server Plug-Ins with WebLogic Server.

1.13 WebLogic Server API Examples and Sample Application


Code examples demonstrating Java EE APIs and other WebLogic Server features are
provided with your WebLogic Server installation. To work with these examples, select
the custom installation option when installing WebLogic Server, and select to install
the Server Examples. To access the code examples, start the WebLogic Server Examples
domain using the WebLogic Examples Server entry in the Windows Start menu, or
launch the startWebLogicEx.cmd or startWebLogicEx.sh script from WL_
HOME/samples/domains/wl_server, where WL_HOME is the directory where you
installed WebLogic Server. As they become available, you can also download
additional examples.

Along with the code examples, two versions of a complete sample application, called
Avitek Medical Records (or MedRec), are installed when you install the examples, as
described above.
The original MedRec (which was included in previous versions of WebLogic Server) is
a WebLogic Server sample application suite that concisely demonstrates all aspects of
the Java EE platform. MedRec is designed as an educational tool for all levels of Java
EE developers. It showcases the use of each Java EE component, and illustrates best
practice design patterns for component interaction and client development. MedRec
also illustrates best practices for developing applications on WebLogic Server.
The Spring version of MedRec, called MedRec-Spring is MedRec recast using the
Spring Framework. If you are developing Spring applications on WebLogic Server, you
should review the MedRec-Spring sample application. In order to illustrate how
Spring can take advantage of the enterprise features of WebLogic Server, MedRec was
rearchitected to replace core Java EE components with their Spring counterparts. The
functionality in the original version of MedRec is reimplemented using Spring in
MedRec-Spring. Refer to the MedRec-Spring sample for details.
To launch MedRec, select Start Medical Records Server from the Windows Start menu
or run startWebLogic.cmd or startWebLogic.sh script from WL_
HOME/samples/domains/medrec, where WL_HOME is the directory where you
installed WebLogic Server.
To launch MedRec-Spring, select Start Medical Records Server (Spring Version) from
the Windows Start menu or run the startWebLogic.cmd or startWebLogic.sh
script from WL_HOME/samples/domains/medrec-spring, where WL_HOME is the
directory where you installed WebLogic Server.

2 Overview of WebLogic Server System Administration


System administration of WebLogic Server includes a wide range of tasks: creating
WebLogic Server domains; deploying applications; migrating domains from
development environments to production environments; monitoring and managing
the performance of the run-time system; and diagnosing and troubleshooting
problems. (A WebLogic Server domain is a collection of WebLogic Server services
designed for a specific purpose. For example, you might create one domain to provide
an employee portal and another domain to provide business services to your
customers.)
Because the WebLogic Server management system is based on Java EE and other
standards, it integrates with systems that are frequently used to manage other
software and hardware components. In addition, WebLogic Server includes several of
its own standards-based, extensible utilities. Alternatively, you can use APIs to create
custom management utilities.
The following sections provide an overview of system administration for the
WebLogic Server component of your development or production environments:

Section 2.1, "Choosing the Appropriate Technology for Your Administrative Tasks"

Section 2.2, "Summary of System Administration Tools and APIs"

For information about installing WebLogic Server, see the Oracle WebLogic Server
Installation Guide.
For information about using Fusion Middleware administration tools, such as the
Oracle Enterprise Manager Fusion Middleware Control, Oracle Fusion Middleware
command-line tools, and the Fusion Middleware Control MBean Browser, see

"Overview of Oracle Fusion Middleware Administration Tools" in Oracle Fusion


Middleware Administrator's Guide.

2.1 Choosing the Appropriate Technology for Your Administrative Tasks


Table 1 describes common system administration tasks and associated technologies.
Table 1

Choosing the Appropriate Management Technology

To do this...

Use this technology...

Create domains

The Configuration Wizard guides you through the process of creating or


extending a domain for your target environment. See Creating
WebLogic Domains Using the Configuration Wizard.
To automate the creation of domains, use the WebLogic Scripting Tool,
which is a command-line scripting interface based on Jython. See
"Creating Domains Using WLST Offline" in Oracle WebLogic Scripting
Tool.
Or create domain configuration XML files that conform to the WebLogic
Server schema. See "Domain Configuration Files" in Understanding
Domain Configuration.

Migrate domains
from development
environments to
production
environments

Domain Template Builder's pack command archives a snapshot of a


domain into a JAR file. The unpack command expands the archive and
creates the necessary start scripts and certain security and configuration
files. See Creating Templates and Domains Using the Pack and Unpack
Commands.

Track changes in a
domain's
configuration

In environments that you allow configuration changes to active


domains, WebLogic Server automatically maintains a versioned archive
of configuration files. See "Configuration File Archiving" in
Understanding Domain Configuration for Oracle WebLogic Server.
To receive real-time notifications that a domain's configuration has been
modified, enable the configuration auditing feature. See "Configuring
the WebLogic Auditing Provider" in Securing Oracle WebLogic Server.
For tightly controlled production environments, configure the run-time
domain to be read-only (see "Restricting Configuration Changes" in
Understanding Domain Configuration for Oracle WebLogic Server). You can
change the read-only setting if you need to roll in changes that have
been tested and approved in a staging environment, or you can modify
and test your staging environment, and then use a Web server to
re-route requests from your production environment to the staging
environment.

Configure
connections to Web
servers

Web server plug-ins. See "Understanding Using Web Server Plug-Ins


With WebLogic Server" in Using Web Server Plug-Ins with Oracle WebLogic
Server.

Configure
connections to
databases or other
systems

Within individual applications, you can define your own data sources or
database connections using JDBC, or connect to external systems using
resource adapters. When you deploy such an application, WebLogic
Server creates the data sources and connections for you. See:

"Configuring WebLogic JDBC Resources" in Configuring and


Managing JDBC for Oracle WebLogic Server
"Understanding Resource Adapters" in Programming Resource
Adapters for Oracle WebLogic Server

If you have not defined your own data sources or connections within an
application, you can use the Administration Console or the WebLogic
Scripting Tool to create the resources. See Oracle WebLogic Server
Administration Console Help or "Using the WebLogic Scripting Tool" in
Oracle WebLogic Scripting Tool.

Table 1 (Cont.) Choosing the Appropriate Management Technology


To do this...

Use this technology...

Manage the server


life cycle

The Node Manager is a utility for remote control of Administration


Servers and Managed Servers. It runs separately from WebLogic Server
and lets you start up and shut down Administration Servers and
Managed Servers. While use of Node Manager is optional, it provides
additional life cycle benefits if your WebLogic Server environment hosts
applications with high availability requirements. See Using Node
Manager to Control Servers in the Node Manager Administrator's Guide
for Oracle WebLogic Server.
To start Administration Servers or Managed Servers without using
Node Manager, use the WebLogic Scripting Tool or scripts that
WebLogic Server installs. See "Starting and Stopping Servers" in
Managing Server Startup and Shutdown for Oracle WebLogic Server.

Modify or add
services to an active
domain

The WebLogic Server Administration Console provides a graphical user


interface for modifying or adding services to an active domain. See
Administration Console Help.
If you prefer a command-line interface, use the WebLogic Scripting Tool
in interactive mode. See "Using the WebLogic Scripting Tool" in Oracle
WebLogic Scripting Tool.

Monitor application
server services and
resources

Monitor the performance of services such as the EJB container, servlet


container, and JDBC data sources from the WebLogic Server
Administration Console.
Configure watch rules and notifications in the WebLogic Diagnostics
Framework to automatically notify administrators of monitoring data
events or integrate automated systems through JMX or JMS. See
"Configuring Watches and Notifications" in Configuring and Using the
Diagnostics Framework for Oracle WebLogic Server.
If you use SNMP in your operations center, you can enable WebLogic
Server to send SNMP notifications for run-time events that you define.
See SNMP Management Guide for Oracle WebLogic Server.

Deploy applications

The WebLogic Server Administration Console provides a series of


Web-based deployment assistants that guide you through the
deployment process. See Administration Console Help.
To automate the deployment of applications, use the WebLogic Scripting
Tool. See "Deployment Commands" in WebLogic Scripting Tool Command
Reference. You can also use the deployment API to write Java programs
that deploy applications. See Programming Deployment for Oracle
WebLogic Server.
For information about additional deployment utilities and APIs, see
"Deployment Tools" in Deploying Applications to Oracle WebLogic Server.

Modify applications
in an active domain

To modify the configuration of a deployed application, use a text editor


or IDE to modify the deployment descriptor. Then either redeploy the
application or use the deployment API to upload the modified
deployment descriptor and cause the application container to re-read
the deployment descriptor.
See Deploying Applications to Oracle WebLogic Server.

Table 1 (Cont.) Choosing the Appropriate Management Technology


To do this...

Use this technology...

Monitor activity
within applications

Determine which data points you want to monitor and then instrument
one or more beans to expose this data through JMX. See Developing
Manageable Applications With JMX for Oracle WebLogic Server.
Alternatively, use the WebLogic Server Diagnostics Service to insert
instrumentation code into a running application and monitor its
methods or monitor transactions that involve the application. Use this
technology to discover the cause of problems that cannot otherwise be
discovered by scanning the available monitoring metrics. If you
determine that the problem is within your application, you can prevent
the problem from recurring by using JMX to expose attributes that
indicate the application's health state is degrading. See Configuring and
Using the Diagnostics Framework for Oracle WebLogic Server.

Optimize the
performance of your
application and
maintain service
level agreements.

Configure and
secure
administration
communications

Work Managers configure how your application prioritizes the


execution of its work. Based on rules you define and by monitoring
actual run-time performance, WebLogic Server can optimize the
performance of your application and maintain service level agreements.
See "Using Work Managers to Optimize Scheduled Work" in Configuring
Server Environments for Oracle WebLogic Server.
You can separate administration traffic from application traffic in your
domain by enabling the administration port. In production
environments, separating the two forms of traffic ensures that critical
administration operations (starting and stopping servers, changing a
server's configuration, and deploying applications) do not compete with
high-volume application traffic on the same network connection.
The administration port only accepts communications that use SSL, and
therefore secures your administrative requests. See "Administration Port
and Administrative Channel" in Configuring Server Environments for
Oracle WebLogic Server.

Configure logging
and view log files

Many WebLogic Server operations generate logs of their activity. Each


server has its own log as well as a standard HTTP access log. These log
files can be configured and used in a variety of ways to monitor the
health and activity of your servers and applications.
By default, WebLogic Server uses the standard JDK logging APIs to
filter and write the messages to log files. See "Understanding WebLogic
Logging Services" in Configuring Log Files and Filtering Log Messages for
Oracle WebLogic Server.
Alternatively, you can configure WebLogic Server to use the Jakarta
Project Log4j APIs to distribute log messages. See Log4j and the
Commons Logging API in Configuring Log Files and Filtering Log
Messages.

2.2 Summary of System Administration Tools and APIs


WebLogic Server includes several of its own standards-based, extensible utilities that
you can use to create, manage, and monitor domains, or you can use WebLogic
Server's management APIs to create custom management utilities.
Table 2 describes the utilities that are included with WebLogic Server.

Table 2

Management Utilities

Utility

Description

Administration
Console

The Administration Console is a Web application hosted by the


Administration Server. Use it to manage and monitor an active domain.
The management capabilities include:

Configuring active domains

Stopping and starting servers

Monitoring server health and performance

Monitoring application performance

Viewing server logs

Through the Administration Console, system administrators can easily


perform all WebLogic Server management tasks without having to learn
the JMX API or the underlying management architecture. The
Administration Server persists changes to attributes in the config.xml
file for the domain you are managing.
See:

WebLogic Scripting
Tool

Section 3.2, "Starting the Administration Console"


Administration Console Online Help (The online help is also
available from the Administration Console by clicking on the Help
link located in the tool bar at the top of the Console.)

The WebLogic Scripting Tool (WLST) is a command-line scripting


interface that you use to manage and monitor active or inactive
WebLogic Server domains. The WLST scripting environment is based
on the Java scripting interpreter Jython. In addition to WebLogic
scripting functions, you can use common features of interpreted
languages, including local variables, conditional variables, and flow
control statements. You can extend the WebLogic scripting language by
following the Jython language syntax. See http://www.jython.org.
See Oracle WebLogic Scripting Tool.

Configuration
Wizard

The Configuration Wizard creates the appropriate directory structure


for a WebLogic Server domain, a config.xml file, and scripts you can
use to start the servers in your domain. The wizard uses templates to
create domains, and you can customize these templates to duplicate
your own domains.
You can also use the Configuration Wizard to add or remove services
from an existing, inactive domain.
You can run the Configuration Wizard through a graphical user
interface (GUI) or in a text-based command-line environment. This
command-line environment is called console modedo not confuse this
mode with the Administration Console. You can also create user-defined
domain configuration templates for use by the Configuration Wizard.
See Creating Domains Using the Configuration Wizard.

10

Table 2 (Cont.) Management Utilities


Utility

Description

Configuration
Template Builder

The Configuration Template Builder provides the capability to easily


create your own domain templates, to enable, for example, the
definition and propagation of a standard domain across a development
project, or to enable the distribution of a domain along with an
application that has been developed to run on that domain. The
templates you create with the Configuration Template Builder are used
as input to the Configuration Wizard as the basis for creating a domain
that is customized for your target environment. See Creating Domain
Templates Using the Domain Template Builder.

Apache Ant tasks

You can use two Ant tasks provided with WebLogic Server to help you
perform common configuration tasks in a development environment.
Ant is a Java-based build tool similar to Make. The configuration tasks
let you start and stop WebLogic Server instances as well as create and
configure WebLogic Server domains. When combined with other
WebLogic Ant tasks, you can create powerful build scripts for
demonstrating or testing your application with custom domains.
See "Using Ant Tasks to Configure a WebLogic Server Domain" in
Developing Applications for Oracle WebLogic Server.

SNMP Agents

WebLogic Server includes the ability to communicate with


enterprise-wide management systems using Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP). WebLogic Server SNMP agents let you
integrate management of WebLogic Servers into an SNMP-compliant
management system that gives you a single view of the various
software and hardware resources of a complex, distributed system.
See SNMP Management Guide for Oracle WebLogic Server.

Table 3 describes APIs that you can use to create your own management utilities.

11

Table 3

Management APIs

API

Description

JMX

Java Management Extensions (JMX) is the Java EE solution for


monitoring and managing resources on a network. Like SNMP and
other management standards, JMX is a public specification and many
vendors of commonly used monitoring products support it.
The Administration Console, WebLogic Scripting Tool, and other
WebLogic Server utilities use the JMX APIs.
See Developing Custom Management Utilities With JMX for Oracle WebLogic
Server.

Java EE
Management API

The Java EE Management APIs (JSR-77) enable a software developer to


create a single Java program that can discover and browse resources,
such as JDBC connection pools and deployed applications, on any Java
EE Web application server. The APIs are part of the Java EE
Management Specification, which requires all Java EE Web application
servers to describe their resources in a standard data model.
See Monitoring and Managing With the Java EE Management APIs for Oracle
WebLogic Server.

Deployment API

The WebLogic Server deployment API implements and extends the


JSR-88 deployment specification. All WebLogic Server deployment
tools, such as the Administration Console and wldeploy Ant task, use
the deployment API to configure, deploy, and redeploy applications in a
domain. You can use the deployment API to build your own WebLogic
Server deployment tools, or to integrate WebLogic Server configuration
and deployment operations with an existing JSR-88-compliant tool.
See Programming Deployment for Oracle WebLogic Server.

WebLogic
Diagnostic Service
APIs

The WebLogic Diagnostic Service includes a set of standardized APIs


that enable dynamic access and control of diagnostic data, as well as
improved monitoring that provides visibility into the server. The
interfaces are standardized to facilitate future enhancement and
integration of third-party tools, while maintaining the integrity of the
server code base. The service is well suited to the server and the server's
stack product components and targets operations and administrative
staff as primary users.
See Configuring and Using the Diagnostics Framework for Oracle WebLogic
Server.

Logging APIs

By default, WebLogic Server uses the standard JDK logging APIs to


filter and write the messages to log files. See Understanding WebLogic
Logging Services in Configuring Log Files and Filtering Log Messages for
Oracle WebLogic Server.
Alternatively, you can configure WebLogic Server to use the Jakarta
Project Log4j APIs to distribute log messages. For more information, see
Log4j and the Commons Logging API in Configuring Log Files and
Filtering Log Messages for Oracle WebLogic Server.

3 Overview of the Administration Console


For detailed information on using the Administration Console, see the Administration
Console Online Help, or click Help from any Administration Console page.
The following sections provide an overview of the Administration Console:

Section 3.1, "About the Administration Console"

Section 3.2, "Starting the Administration Console"

Section 3.3, "Elements of the Administration Console"

12

Section 3.4, "Using the Change Center"

3.1 About the Administration Console


The Administration Console is a Web browser-based, graphical user interface that you
use to manage a WebLogic Server domain. A WebLogic Server domain is a logically
related group of WebLogic Server resources that you manage as a unit. A domain
includes one or more WebLogic Servers and may also include WebLogic Server
clusters. Clusters are groups of WebLogic Servers instances that work together to
provide scalability and high-availability for applications. You deploy and manage
your applications as part of a domain.
One instance of WebLogic Server in each domain is configured as an Administration
Server. The Administration Server provides a central point for managing a WebLogic
Server domain. All other WebLogic Server instances in a domain are called Managed
Servers. In a domain with only a single WebLogic Server instance, that server
functions both as Administration Server and Managed Server. The Administration
Server hosts the Administration Console, which is a Web application accessible from
any supported Web browser with network access to the Administration Server.
Managed Servers host applications.
Use the Administration Console to:

Configure, start, and stop WebLogic Server instances

Configure WebLogic Server clusters

Configure WebLogic Server services, such as database connectivity (JDBC) and


messaging (JMS)

Configure security parameters, including managing users, groups, and roles

Configure and deploy your applications

Monitor server and application performance

View server and domain log files

View application deployment descriptors

Edit selected run-time application deployment descriptor elements

3.1.1 Administration Console Online Help


The Administration Console includes a complete help system. It has two parts:

How do I...?, which documents procedures for tasks you can perform through
using the Console.
Administration Console Reference, which provides reference information for each
page in the Console, including descriptions of the attributes you can set using the
Console.

You can access the Administration Console online help either through the Console
itself, or online at http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/E15523_
01/apirefs.1111/e13952/core/index.html.

3.1.2 Console Errors


Messages (including information, warning, and error messages) can be generated and
logged in the course of using the Administration Console. You can view WebLogic
Server logs from the Diagnostics > Log Files page of the Console.

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3.2 Starting the Administration Console


This section contains instructions for starting the Administration Console.
To use the Administration Console, use one of the supported Web browsers for your
environment. See "Browser Support for the WebLogic Server Console" under Client
Certification in the System Requirements and Supported Platforms for Oracle
WebLogic Server at
http://www.oracle.com/technology/software/products/ias/files/ora
cle%20fusion%20middleware%2011gR1%20(11.1.1.x)%20certification%2
0matrix.xls#Client_Certification. If your Web browser is not on this list of
supported browsers, you may experience functional or formatting problems when
using the Administration Console.
To start the Administration Console:
1.

Start an Administration Server.

2.

Open one of the supported Web browsers to the following URL:


http://hostname:port/console

where hostname is the DNS name or IP address of the Administration Server and
port is the listen port on which the Administration Server is listening for requests
(port 7001 by default). If you have configured a domain-wide administration port,
use that port number. If you configured the Administration Server to use Secure
Socket Layer (SSL) you must add s after http as follows:
https://hostname:port/console

Note:

3.

A domain-wide administration port always uses SSL.

When the login page appears, enter the user name and the password you used to
start the Administration Server (you may have specified this user name and
password during the installation process) or enter a user name that belongs to one
of the following security groups: Administrators, Operators, Deployers, or
Monitors. These groups provide various levels of access to system administration
functions in the Administration Console.
Using the security system, you can add or delete users to one of these groups to
provide controlled access to the Console.
If you have your browser configured to send HTTP requests to
a proxy server, then you may need to configure your browser to not
send Administration Server HTTP requests to the proxy. If the
Administration Server is on the same machine as the browser, then
ensure that requests sent to localhost or 127.0.0.1 are not sent to the
proxy.

Note:

3.2.1 Enabling the Administration Console


By default, the Administration Console is enabled. If you disable it, you can re-enable
it using the WebLogic Scripting Tool (WLST). Start the Administration Server, then
invoke WLST and use the following commands:

14

Example 1 Using WLST to Re-enable the Console


connect("username","password")
edit()
startEdit()
cmo.setConsoleEnabled(true)
save()
activate()
The following attribute(s) have been changed on MBeans which require server
re-start.
MBean Changed : com.bea:Name=mydomain,Type=Domain Attributes changed :
ConsoleEnabled
Activation completed
disconnect()
exit()

For information about using WLST, see Oracle WebLogic Scripting Tool.

3.3 Elements of the Administration Console


The Administration Console user interface includes the following panels.

3.3.1 Change Center


This is the starting point for using the Administration Console to make changes in
WebLogic Server. See Section 3.4, "Using the Change Center."
Figure 1 Change Center

3.3.2 Domain Structure


This panel contains a tree structure you can use to navigate to pages in the
Administration Console. Select any of the nodes in the Domain Structure tree to view
that page. Click a + (plus) icon in the Domain Structure to expand a node and a (minus) icon to collapse the node.

15

Figure 2 Domain Structure

3.3.3 How do I...


This panel includes links to online help tasks that are relevant to the current Console
page.
Figure 3 How do I...

3.3.4 Tool Bar


The tool bar at the top of the Console includes the following elements:
Tool Bar Element

Description

Welcome message

Indicates user name with which you have logged into the Console.

Connected to:

The IP address and port you used to connect to the Console.

Home

A link to the top page of the Console.

Log Out

Click to log out of the Console.

Preferences

A link to a page where you can change some Console behavior.

Record

Starts recording your configuration actions as a series of WebLogic


Scripting Tool (WLST) commands. Writes the commands to a separate
file that you can replay in WLST.
See "Record WLST Scripts" in Oracle WebLogic Server Administration
Console Help.

Help

A link to the Administration Console Online Help.

Search

A text field in which you can enter a string to find any WebLogic Server
Configuration MBeans that contain the string you specified in their
name.

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Figure 4 Tool Bar

3.3.5 Breadcrumb Navigation


A series of links that show the path you have taken through the Administration
Console's pages. You can click on any of the links to return to a previously-visited
page.
Figure 5 Breadcrumb Navigation

3.3.6 System Status


The System Status panel reports on the number of information, error, and warning
messages that have been logged. You can view these messages in the server log files,
which you can access from the Administration Console at Diagnostics > Log Files.
Figure 6 System Status

3.4 Using the Change Center


The starting point for using the Administration Console to make changes in your
WebLogic Server domain is the Change Center. The Change Center provides a way to
lock a domain configuration so you can make changes to the configuration while
preventing other accounts from making changes during your edit session. See
Section 3.4.3, "How Change Management Works."
The domain configuration locking feature is always enabled in production domains. It
can be enabled or disabled in development domains. It is disabled by default when
you create a new development domain. See "Enable and disable the domain
configuration lock" in Oracle WebLogic Server Administration Console Help.
To change a production domain's configuration, you must:
1.

Locate the Change Center in the upper left of the Administration Console screen.

2.

Click the Lock & Edit button to lock the configuration edit hierarchy for the
domain.

3.

Make the changes you desire on the relevant page of the Console. Click Save on
each page where you make a change.

17

4.

When you have finished making all the desired changes, click Activate Changes in
the Change Center.

As you make configuration changes using the Administration Console, you click Save
(or in some cases Finish) on the appropriate pages. This does not cause the changes to
take effect immediately. The changes take effect when you click Activate Changes in
the Change Center. At that point, the configuration changes are distributed to each of
the servers in the domain. If the changes are acceptable to each of the servers, then
they take effect. If any server cannot accept a change, then all of the changes are rolled
back from all of the servers in the domain. The changes are left in a pending state; you
can then either edit the pending changes to resolve the problem or revert the pending
changes.

3.4.1 Undoing Changes


You can revert any pending (saved, but not yet activated) changes by clicking Undo
All Changes in the Change Center. You can revert any individual change by going to
the appropriate page in the Administration Console and restoring the attribute to its
previous value.

3.4.2 Releasing the Configuration Lock


You release the configuration lock as follows:

Before you make changes, click Release Configuration in the Change Center to
release the lock explicitly.
After you save changes, click Activate Changes or Undo All Changes in the
Change Center to release the lock implicitly.

Stopping the Administration Server does not release the configuration lock. When the
Administration Server starts again, the configuration lock is in the same state it was in
when the Administration Server was shut down, and any pending changes are
preserved.

3.4.3 How Change Management Works


To provide a secure, predictable means for distributing configuration changes in a
domain, WebLogic Server imposes a change management process that loosely
resembles a database transaction. The configuration of a domain is represented on the
file system by a set of XML configuration files, centralized in the config.xml file,
and at run time by a hierarchy of Configuration MBeans. When you edit the domain
configuration, you edit a separate hierarchy of Configuration MBeans that resides on
the Administration Server. To start the edit process, you obtain a lock on the edit
hierarchy to prevent other people from making changes. When you finish making
changes, you save the changes to the edit hierarchy. The changes do not take effect,
however, until you activate them, distributing them to all server instances in the
domain. When you activate changes, each server determines whether it can accept the
change. If all servers are able to accept the change, they update their working
configuration hierarchy and the change is completed.
For more information about change management, see "Managing Configuration
Changes" in Understanding Domain Configuration for Oracle WebLogic Server.

3.4.4 Dynamic and Non-Dynamic Changes


Some changes you make in the Administration Console take place immediately when
you activate them. Other changes require you to restart the server or module affected

18

by the change. These latter changes are called non-dynamic changes. Non-dynamic
changes are indicated in the Administration Console with this warning icon:

Changes to dynamic configuration attributes become available once they are activated,
without restarting the affected server or system restart. These changes are made
available to the server and run-time hierarchies once they are activated. Changes to
non-dynamic configuration attributes require that the affected servers or system
resources be restarted before they become effective.
If a change is made to a non-dynamic configuration setting, no changes to dynamic
configuration settings will take effect until after restart. This is to assure that a batch of
updates having a combination of dynamic and non-dynamic attribute edits will not be
partially activated.
Note that WebLogic Server's change management process applies to changes in
domain and server configuration data, not to security or application data.

3.4.5 Viewing Changes


You can view any changes that you have saved, but not yet activated, by clicking the
View Changes and Restarts link in the Change Center. The View Changes and Restarts
link presents two tabs, Change List and Restart Checklist:

The Change List page presents all changes that have been saved, but not yet
activated.
The Restart Checklist lists all servers for which non-dynamic changes have been
activated, but which require restarts before the changes become effective.

3.4.6 Deploying Multiple Applications


When you use the Administration Console to deploy multiple applications, upon
installing the applications, they are listed in the Console's Deployments page in the
"distribute Initializing" state. After activating changes, they are listed in the "Prepared"
state. To deploy the applications, select the application names on the Deployments
page and click Start.

4 Conventions
The following text conventions are used in this document:
Convention

Meaning

boldface

Boldface type indicates graphical user interface elements associated


with an action, or terms defined in text or the glossary.

italic

Italic type indicates book titles, emphasis, or placeholder variables for


which you supply particular values.

monospace

Monospace type indicates commands within a paragraph, URLs, code


in examples, text that appears on the screen, or text that you enter.

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5 Documentation Accessibility
For information about Oracle's commitment to accessibility, visit the Oracle
Accessibility Program website at
http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=docacc.
Access to Oracle Support
Oracle customers have access to electronic support through My Oracle Support. For
information, visit
http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=info or visit
http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=trs if you are
hearing impaired.

Introduction to Oracle WebLogic Server, 11g Release 1 (10.3.6)


E13752-05
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