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UPTEC-ES13023

Examensarbete 30 hp
Juni 2013

Study of auxiliary power systems


for offshore wind turbines
an extended analysis of a diesel gen-set
solution
Joakim Berggren

Abstract
Study of auxiliary power systems for offshore wind
power
Joakim Berggren

Teknisk- naturvetenskaplig fakultet


UTH-enheten
Besksadress:
ngstrmlaboratoriet
Lgerhyddsvgen 1
Hus 4, Plan 0
Postadress:
Box 536
751 21 Uppsala
Telefon:
018 471 30 03
Telefax:
018 471 30 00
Hemsida:
http://www.teknat.uu.se/student

Until today the offshore wind power has grown in a steady pace and many new wind
farms are being constructed around the globe. An important factor that is investigated
today in the industry are the security of power supply to the equipment needed for
controlling the offshore system during emergency situations. When a offshore wind
farm is disconnected from the external grid and an emergency case occur the wind
turbine generators lose their ability to transfer power and they are forced to be taken
out of operation. As there are a number of loads in the wind turbines (navigation
lights, sensor- and communication-apparatus, ventilation- and heating equipment etc.)
they have a load demand which must be supplied in emergency mode. The German
Transmission System operator (TSO) TenneT GmbH has set a requirement that the
wind turbines is to be supplied by an auxiliary power supply (APS) in 12 hours and
therefore there is need for a long-term auxiliary power supply system. This master
thesis was assigned to investigate the most feasible APS-system. From the study of a
number of different APS's one concept was chosen. This was the diesel gen-set
solution placed on an offshore substation at sea. The system was modeled in the
software DIgSILENT PowerFactory where a load flow analysis validated the calculated
data and a study of the impact of transients in the system was performed.

Handledare: Magnus Tarle, Ann Palesj


mnesgranskare: Sandra Eriksson
Examinator: Kjell Pernestl
ISSN: 1650-8300, UPTEC ES13023

J. Berggren

Master thesis, Spring 2013

Acknowledgements
In this master thesis study, several people have been involved and I like to acknowledge
them all here.
A special thanks to my supervisors at ABB, Magnus Tarle and Ann Palesj who steadily
have pushed me forward and help me through the work. With interesting discussions and
with their strong energy they have supported me with all their spirit and commitment.
My evaluator at Uppsala University Sandra Eriksson have helped me with good discussions
as the master thesis work has preceded especially questions regarding generator design issues.
She has helped me to organize the thesis report in a good way.
I want to thank the other co-workers at ABB / Oshore Wind Connections who have
provided me with detailed information and with discussion that have given me many new
experiences and much new knowledge. Especially Thorulf Brattstrm, Mikael Svedung, Jorge
Brischetto, Drasko Skenderija, Steven Coppens, Fernando Sada, Nassim Raoo and Oskar
Bjrkbacka.
Other persons in the ABB concern I'd like to thank are:
Gnter Stark and Stefan Hopp from ABB Germany which has provided me with infor-

mation about diesel gen  set and the dynamical transients present in the oshore wind
farm.

Jan Westerlund at ABB Helsinki with the help of rating the synchronous generator in

the diesel gen  set.

Rudolf Moeckli at ABB Schweiz that have help with information about the control

procedure when starting a diesel gen  set.

Marja-Liisa Marttila and Sakari Laine at ABB Vaasa with the knowledge about shunt

reactors in the oshore wind farm.

Apart from the people at ABB I want to acknowledge the extensive assisting aid and information that Luis Leal from the wind turbine manufacturer REpower has given me. Without
his help with essential information about the Wind turbine equipment this master thesis study
couldn't be completed.
With the help of contacts at dierent diesel gen  set manufacturers a specic diesel gen 
set solution wouldn't have been possible and hereby I'd like to acknowledge this people. They
are Jrg Haabermaas at MTU, Gran sterdahl at Wrtsil, Peter Bojtas at MAN and Karl
Stapelfeldt at the company CATUM.

3(75)

J. Berggren

Master thesis, Spring 2013

Populrvetenskaplig sammanfattning
Fram till idag har havsbaserad vindkraft kat i en jmn takt och mnga nya vindkraftparker byggs eller tas i drift. Skerhetskraven p vindkraftverken kar idag och kraftsystemsoperatrer (TSOs) krver att ndkraft kopplas in till vindkraftverk inom en kort period
(TenneT har ett krav p 12 timmar). Nr ett lngvarigt avbrott (t.ex. kabelbrott) uppstr
kan vindkraftsparker till havs vara utan el/energi i era mnader och om inte vindkraftverk
underhlls (med vrme, ventilation etc.) under denna tid kan de bli skadade. Samtidigt mste
navigationsbelysning vara tillgnglig som en skerhet fr sjfart och ygplan.
Nr en vindkraftpark blir bortkopplad frn det externa ntet vid ett ndfall frlorar vindkraftverken sin frmga att verfra eekt och de tas ur drift. Eftersom det nd nns ett
antal laster i vindkraftverken (lanternor, sensor- och kommunikations- apparater, ventilationsoch vrmeanlggningar) mste de ha ett ndkraftsystem som tillgodoser eektbehovet.
Inom detta examensarbete undersktes frst olika ndkraftssystem p en grundlggande
niv fr att urskilja ett eller era lmpliga system att anvnda som reservkraft. De underskta systemen var dieselgen-set(s) p en havsbaserad plattform eller placerad vid vindkraftverk, gas/dieselgen-set, solceller (ev. kombinerat med batterier), vgkraftverkskoncept och
fullomriktar-vindturbiner i kombination med dieselgen-sets.
Utifrn en grundlggande studie av ndkraftsystemen pvisades ett koncept som ansgs
vara frdelaktigt att genomfra. Detta var ett dieselgen-set system som placerats p en havsbaserad transformatorstation kopplad till vindkraftsparken.
En modell av en vindkraftspark med ca 500 MW nominell eekt installerad i totalt 82 vindkraftverk konstruerades i programvaran DIgSILENT PowerFactory dr en lastdesanalys
validerade berknade data frn Microsoft Oce Excel.
Utifrn lastdesanalyser i en ytterligare DIgSILENT PowerFactory modell ver den studerade vindkraftparken i ndlge (nr vindkraftverken har laster som behver frses med eekt)
kunde olika nominella eekter p era generator typer och p en motor bestmmas. Diesel
motorn krvde ca 4 MW och den lgsta generator storleken var 4.2 MVA med shunt reaktorer
inkopplade p en havsbaserad plattform.
En underskning av transienter som r nrvarande i det svaga kraftsystem (inrusningsstrmmar, spnningsvariationer) som den havsbaserade vindkraftparken utgr nr det r bortkopplat frn det externa ntet genomfrdes. Olika koncept fr att minska pverkan av de transienta eekterna freslogs efter att ha studerat olika tekniker. Tv koncept som diskuteras r
spnningsrampning av vindparksntet utan att ha vindturbinlaster inkopplade och mjukstart
av vindkraftspark i ndlge dr strng efter strng av vindturbiner energiseras tills att alla
laster i vindparken tagits i drift.
Slutsatsen av de olika resultaten detta examensarbete har genererat sammanfogades till
en beskrivning av de mest frdelaktiga dieselgen-set:en (med/utan shunt reaktorer) och en
diskussion angende alternativa framtida ndkrafts-koncept som eventuellt kan vara frdelaktiga presenterades.

4(75)

J. Berggren

Master thesis, Spring 2013

Abbrevations and clarications


A
AC
APS
CS
DC
DFIG
Gen-set
HV
HVDC
MV
O&M
OS
OnS
OS
OWF
OWP
PF
pu
PV
RMS
SG
TC
Trafo
TS
TSO
UPS
V
VA
WECS
WT
WTG
W
WPP
WPF

Ampere
Alternating Current
Auxiliary Power System
Collector System
Direct Current
Doubly Fed Induction Generator
Generator set
High Voltage
High Voltage Direct Current
Medium Voltage
Operation and Maintenance
Oshore Substation
Onshore Substation
Oshore System
Oshore Wind Farm
Oshore Wind Power
Power factor
Per Unit
Photo Voltaic
Root Mean Square
Synchronous Generator
Transmission Cable
Transformer
Transmission System
Transmission System Operator
Uninterrupted Power Supply
Volt
VoltAmpere
Wind Energy Conversion System
Wind Turbine
Wind Turbine Generator
Watt
Wave Power Plant
Wave Power Farm

5(75)

J. Berggren

Master thesis, Spring 2013

Description of parameters
C
cos

E
f

module
tot

I
k
L
m

P
Pf

Q
R

S
|S|

U
V
Z
X
uk

Capacitance
Power Factor denition
Load angle of Generator
Electromagnetic force
Electrical Frequency of grid
PV module Eciency
PV system Eciency
Current
linear constant
Inductance
Mass
Angular frequency
Ohm
Active Power
Packing factor
Numerical operator phi which determines the angle between P & Q
Reactive Power
Resistance
Density
Complex Power
Apparent Power
Voltage
Volume
Impedance
Reactance
Relative voltage drop over transformer (no-load)

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J. Berggren

Master thesis, Spring 2013

Contents
1 Introduction
1.1

Emergency requirements for an oshore wind farm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9
9

2 Purpose and delimitations

10

3 Background

10

3.1
3.2

Oshore system description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10


Load demand in Wind turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

4 Theory of the investigated oshore wind farm system


4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5

Oshore Wind turbines . . . . . . . . . .


4.1.1 Wind turbine generator . . . . . .
4.1.2 UPS-system in wind turbines . . .
Inter array cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wind turbine transformers . . . . . . . . .
Load demand in Wind turbines . . . . . .
Grid stability of electrical oshore systems

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5 Investigated oshore wind farm system

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6 DiGSILENT PowerFactory

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7 Modeling in DiGSILENT PowerFactory

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8 Auxiliary power supply concepts

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7.1
7.2
7.3
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6

Modeling of OWF in Normal operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20


Calculations of load ow in Emergency mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Modeling of OWF in Emergency mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Diesel gen-set(s) used as APS-system . . . . .
8.1.1 Stationary diesel gen-set concepts . . .
8.1.2 Mobile diesel gen-set concept . . . . .
Gas/diesel gen-set(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Photovoltaic's (PV's) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.1 PV's on Platform . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.2 PV's on WT nacelles . . . . . . . . . .
Batteries combined with PV's . . . . . . . . .
Wave Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Full converter wind turbines & diesel gen-set .

9 Summary of APS-system studies


9.1

9.2
9.3

Diesel gen-set . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.1 On oshore substation . . . . .
9.1.2 at WT towers . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.3 Mobile diesel gen-set on marine
Gas/diesel gen-set . . . . . . . . . . .
Photovoltaic's (PV's) . . . . . . . . . .

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Master thesis, Spring 2013

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10.1 Sizing of diesel gen-set without wind turbine UPS-system utilised


10.1.1 Rating of standard generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.2 Rating of special generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2 Sizing of diesel gen-set with wind turbine UPS-system utilised . .
10.2.1 Rating of standard generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.2 Rating of special generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3 Reactive power compensation equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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9.4
9.5
9.6

9.3.1 On OS roof . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


9.3.2 On WT nacelle roof . . . . . . . . . .
Batteries combined with PV's . . . . . . . . .
Full converter wind turbines & diesel gen-set .
Chosen APS-system for further investigation .

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10 Sizing of diesel gen-set: Calculations

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11 Slow start of OWF with diesel gen-set

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12 Transient studies

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13 Diesel gen-set summary

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14 Discussion

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15 Conclusions

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16 Future Work

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12.1 Connection of WT loads in sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49


12.2 Ramping up voltage over diesel gen-set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
12.2.1 Basic voltage ramping study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

A Basic theory of Oshore wind farm systems


A.1 Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2 Generators . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.2.1 Magnetic end core heating
A.3 Transformers . . . . . . . . . . .
A.4 Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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B Transients theory and calculations

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C Control systems of diesel gen-sets

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B.1 Voltage ramping power ow calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74


B.1.1 OWF equivalent data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

8(75)

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Master thesis, Spring 2013

1 Introduction
Today, our society's energy need is mainly supplied by the use of fossil fuels. The age of the
fossil fuels has led the humanity to an advanced development in the technological area and we
have created the modern society. However, as the Stone Age did not end because of the lack
of stone the Age of the fossil fuels will not end because we run out of oil, gas and coal. It will
end sooner. The fact is that the fossil fuels are nite energy resources which eventually will
be consumed. In the striving towards a more sustainable energy system, many countries in
Europe are trying to increase the use of renewable electricity sources in the system. This has
started a large-scaled development in areas like oshore wind power area all over the world,
especially in Europe, North America and China [1].
In the future, the Oshore wind farm industry is expected to grow in a steady pace and the
installed power is expected to increase. For Europe, there are scenarios for the development
both in medium term (2020) and in long term (2030) [2]. In these scenarios the largest nations
that will produced most of the oshore wind farms (OWFs) are UK and Germany, followed by
France, Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark and Sweden. In total the amount of installed power
could grow from present values of approximately 5 GW to 42 GW in 2020 and 126 GW in
2030. However, these numbers should only be treated as indications of the increased installed
power and not as exact values.

Figure 1: The development of the oshore wind farm industry in the future, in a perspective of the
year 2020 and 2030. The increase in OWFs are shown per country in GW [2].

1.1

Emergency requirements for an oshore wind farm

The large-scale development in oshore wind power have led to increased security restrictions
of the components in an oshore wind farm during emergencies. Under these, the park is
cut-o from the external grid (i.e. a cable failure) and no power can be transferred to land
through the export cables.
In order to certicate an OWF, governmental institutions as transmission system operators
(TSOs) require a complete auxiliary power supply, an APS-system that support acting wind
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Master thesis, Spring 2013

turbine loads with power during extreme emergencies where the wind farm is disconnected
from the power grid in up to three months [3].
Due to the fact that the UPS-system consists of limited energy storage capability the WTs
only have a power supply of maximum 12 hours today [4], the need of an APS-system is
required.
As WT manufacturer REpower has raised a question to the ABB division ABB / Power
Systems / Oshore Wind Connections (OWC) regarding the design of an APS-system, supplying the wind turbine loads during emergencies, this study was created with the aim of
pointing out suitable system designs.

2 Purpose and delimitations


This study will produce a technical overview of dierent auxiliary power supply systems
(APS's) that must be constructed when an emergency occur. First, a distinguishing of interesting designs is to be performed in order to nd and clarify which systems that are theoretical
& economical possible to design. The dierent cases examined are listed below in the text:
Diesel Gen-set(s)

 Placed on OS
 Placed at WTs
 Placed on mobile watercraft
Gas/diesel gen-set
Photovoltaic cells combined with batteries
Batteries
Wave power
Full converter WT's & diesel gen-set's

The dierent system concepts are all investigated by the assumption that they all have
the potential to be a future constructed APS-system. The system(s) that could be of special
interest is determined and can be investigated more deeply in coming sections later on. From
the results of this deeper study, conclusions regarding the APS-system concept(s) will be
taken.

3 Background
3.1

Oshore system description

In order to understand the headline of this study, the electrical topology of an OWF is explained in this chapter. The design can be classied into a number of dierent categories
with all the necessary infrastructure and components required for the dierent designs. They
are the transmission system (TS), the collector system (CS) and the wind energy conversion
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Master thesis, Spring 2013

Figure 2: Electrical layout of an OWF with two oshore substations (example).

system (WECS) of the OWF [5]. A simple and overseeing picture which shows the overall
electric design of an oshore system is visible in Figure 2.
The Collector System (CS)

 Switchgear in Wind Turbines (WTs)


 Switchgear in Oshore System (OS)
 Submarine inter array cables in OWF connecting the MVAC Oshore Substation
(OS) with the wind turbines

The Transmission System (TS)

 Submarine transmission cables from OS to land


 Transmission lines or underground cables on land to the Onshore Substation (OnS)
The Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS)







Gearboxes
Transformers
Cables in the wind turbines
Electrical converters
Additional power electronics

Main structures and systems in the Wind turbines

 WECS
 Shaft
 Tower
11(75)

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Master thesis, Spring 2013

 Turbine
 Generator
 Foundation to place WT on
Additional equipment in the OS

 Platform Transformer
 Switchgear
Today wind farms are placed long away from shore (> 10 km) and sometimes the need
of both AC and DC OS(s) are needed to minimize the transmission losses to onshore [1].
Due to the technology in HVDC cables the losses are lower relative to HVAC cables and with
increased distance there is more and more economical to use HVDC instead of HVAC [1, 6].
Closest to the OWF, an AC OS is always placed and this is the last link before the OWF. The
study is focused to investigate a APS-system placed on the AC OS or at the wind turbines
in the OWF, see the scope presented in Figure 2. In Figure 3 the geographical layout of a
OWF system is seen.

Figure 3: A schematic picture of an oshore wind farm [7].

3.2

Load demand in Wind turbines

Oshore wind turbines have both constant and alternating loads that always are in need of
power even during emergency situations when the OWF is without a power supply. The total
WT load demand consists of a number of dierent smaller loads [3]:
Heating loads
Ventilation loads
Transformer magnetisation loads1
Navigation-lights
Additional loads for operating the necessary load equipment
1

See Appendix A.3 for information regarding the transformer losses.


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Master thesis, Spring 2013

4 Theory of the investigated oshore wind farm system


In order to nd a suitable APS-system, a basic scenario of an oshore wind farm scenario
consisting of 82 WTs with a rated output of 500 MW was chosen. This is a common size of
a OWF constructed today and is therefore used as a reference design, as this study doesn't
investigate any real OWF structure. The OWF conguration in emergency mode is shown
in Figure 4. To fully understand the system design, the included dierent substructure parts
(TCs, WTs, WT transformers) are described with their specic characteristics in this section.

WT loads
Heating, Ventilation, NavLights,
Transformer magnetisation losses
Offshore substation
HVAC platform

Array with 6 WT loads

To onshore

Array with 6 WT loads

A total of 82 WTs in (82/6) strings


Wind Farm rated output production
of 500 MW

Figure 4: The investigated scenario of a OWF with POW F 500 M W .

4.1

Oshore Wind turbines

There are a number of dierent manufacturers which constructs WTs for OWFs as Siemens,
Vestas, Nordex, REpower etc. In this study, data from the German manufacturer REpower is
used and the basic information of the wind turbine is shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Basic data of REpower 6M WT [8].

Wind turbine data

cos
Rated Complex power S
Rated Active power P

0.925
6.65 MVA
6.15 MW

The inside of the WTs structure is shown in Figure 5 and the following list shows the most
important equipments [9].
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Master thesis, Spring 2013


Figure 5: The REpower 6M WT [9].

DFIG generator
converter
Three winding transformer
UPS-system (Backup-system consisting of lead-acid batteries)
Heating and ventilation equipment for power electronics, gearbox, etc.
Navigation lights for visualising the WT for aircrafts and ships

4.1.1 Wind turbine generator


The DFIG generator is a common wind turbine generator (WTG) type that is used in REpower
6M WTs. It is built up by a variable speed constant-frequency induction generator [10]. The
generator has 0.66 kV as maximal rotor voltage with a stator voltage of 6.6 kV. During
emergencies the circuit breakers from the WT transformer to the excitation of the generator
are open and only the loads are energised from the transformer, see Figure 6.

Figure 6: The DFIG REpower 6M WT when wind turbine is in APS-system mode [4].

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Master thesis, Spring 2013

4.1.2 UPS-system in wind turbines


The WTs in OWFs can sometimes have an existing emergency power supply placed in connection to the WT structure. The manufacturer REpower has in every WT placed a UPS-system
which main component is a leadacid battery with a capacity of supplying the average WT
load demand of 42 kW up to 12 hours [4].
The batteries have specic charge-rates (C-rates) which describes the batteries ability to
be recharged (can also represent discharge) [11]. A high charge-rate means that a battery will
be recharge in a short time and a low charge-rate represent the opposite where the batteries
have a long recharge-time. The C-rate depends on the battery type, i.e. a lead-acid battery
is not able to recharge in a short time and has therefore a low C-rate.
The usage of the existing UPS-system together with a new APS  system could be a useful
combination in order to utilize the available emergency systems in the OWF. In that way, it
could maybe be possible to make a sustainable adaption to a APS-system which is a design
of both old and new equipment in the OWF. The use of the UPS-system in the WTs together
with diesel gen-sets are investigated in Section 10.2.2.

4.2

Inter array cables

The TCs in the OWF are chosen to be typical MV 30 kV AC XLPE three-core cables with
simple reinforcement because of the simplicity of this cable type [12]. They have dierent
current ratings, cable parameters (capacitance C & inductance L) and dierent impedances
(Z0 , Z1 and Z2 ) that depends on seabed conditions and load proles/duty cycles, see Table 2.
Table 2: The dierent MV 30 kV cables used in a OWF [13].

30 kV threecore cables, XLPE 3-conductor cable parameters


Cross-section of conductor
Current rating [A]
Capacitance C [F/km]
Inductance L [mH/km]
Z1 & Z2 [Ohm]
Z0 [Ohm]

4.3

120 mm2

240 mm2

400 mm2

630 mm2

340
0.19
0.42
0.221 + j0.13
0.416 + j0.118

480
0.24
0.38
0.123 + j0.116
0.306 + j0.104

590
0.29
0.35
0.088 + j0.107
0.262 + j0.095

715
0.35
0.32
0.067 + j0.1
0.228 + j0.088

Wind turbine transformers

There are two kinds of transformer types in the OWF, the AC OS transformer and the WT
transformer(s). The OS transformer is a step-up transformer where the voltage is transformed
from 33 kV to 132 kV, 150 kV or 220 kV (MVAC TCs) and is the connection point in the OWF
where transmission cables to land are connected. As an OWF can have a rated output of a
hundreds of MWs the OS transformer can be large in size with > 100 MVA [14] in output.
The WT transformer used in this study is the rated three-winding transformer given by
REpower [15]. The transformer is adapted for the normal mode where the WTGs are producing power to the onshore power grid. Therefore the rating of the transformer S=6.7 MVA
corresponds to the rated power of the WTG, S=6.65 MVA with PF=0.925.
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Master thesis, Spring 2013

Figure 7: The WT transformer in reality [9].


Table 3: The basic data of REpower 6M WTG transformer [15].

Transformer design data

4.4

Rated power S1
Rated power S2
Rated power S3

6.7 MVA
6 MVA
1.1 MVA

Rated voltage U1
Rated voltage U2
Rated voltage U3

33 kV2
6.6 kV3
0.66 kV4

Load demand in Wind turbines

The load demand in a WT is made up by a number of smaller loads that contribute to the total
load demand which are previously described in Section 3.2. They consists mainly of dierent
motors and pumps which supports the heat, ventilation, navigation lights, magnetisation
losses5 etc. in the WTs. The total load demand of a REpower 6M WT is shown in Table 4.
Table 4: The load demand in a REpower 6M WT [3].

Basic WT load data


Average load demand
Peak load demand

42 kW
193 kVA

HV side of trafo
MV side of trafo
4
LV side of trafo
5
See Appendix A.3 for information regarding the transformer losses.
3

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J. Berggren

4.5

Master thesis, Spring 2013

Grid stability of electrical oshore systems

The Oshore wind farm in auxiliary power mode is a very weak grid operating in island mode
where the only generation is the APS-system supply. This impacts the system stability when
the OWF is going into emergency mode and the APS-system is started from a blackout.
The relatively large amount of capacitance in the TCs in the OWF impacts the system

as the capacitance together with the inductance in the cables and in transformers give
rise to resonance and voltage oscillations.

When the wind farm is energised, so called "transformer inrush currents" occurs which

can damage the transformers or other OWF equipment. The currents can be as high as
9 Inom of the WT transformer nominal current [3]. This phenomena is further described
in section 12.

5 Investigated oshore wind farm system


Due to the fact that the strings in OWFs consists of WTs connected in parallel by TCs, the
power ow in the connecting TCs are dierent depending on the position in the string. For
example a cable outermost doesn't have as high current rating Irated as a TC innermost in a
string. Thus the rating of the TCs can be chosen according to the required Irated . Figure 8
shows a string in the studied OWF.
Figure 8: Power ow and length of TCs in a string of the studied OWF.

In each string the power ow in TC nr 1-6 is determined with the help of Equation 1,
Equation 2 and Equation 3. Equation 1 describes the active power ow in a string PstringN ormal ,
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Master thesis, Spring 2013

Equation 2 describes the apparent power in a string SStringN ormal and Equation 3 the reactive
power ow in a string QStringN ormal .

POW FN ormal
nStrings

(1)

PstringN ormal
cos

(2)

q
2
|S|2stringN ormal PString
N ormal

(3)

PstringN ormal =
|S|StringN ormal =
QStringN ormal =

IT CString =

|S|StringN ormal

3ULN

(4)

The currents that ow through the TCs in a string IT CString are calculated from Equation 4.
Table 5: Powers P, Q, |S| and the currents owing in one string IT CString of the selected OWF during
normal operational mode, where WTs produce power to the onshore power system.

From the current ratings of the TCs in a string it's possible to correlate consistent TC
cable dimensions that match the currents in the string, seen in Table 6. The dierent TCs
used in a OWF are compared to the specied cable dimensions described in Section 4.2.
Table 6: The currents owing in a OWF string with corresponding TC ratings.

6 DiGSILENT PowerFactory
The software DIgSILENT PowerFactory is used in power system modelling, analysis and
simulation of electric systems and includes a large variation of functions and applications that
are used to create a model of a power system which can be simulated with respect to load
ow calculations (steady-state), dynamical electromagnetic transients (EMTs), continency
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Master thesis, Spring 2013

analyses, short circuit analyses etc. [16]. The model parameters that are important to know
of in the software are visualized in Table 7.
Table 7: Dierent model parts in the software DiGSILENT PowerFactory [16].

Review of Model parts used in DIgSILENT PowerFactory


PowerFactory picture

Model part

Characteristic values

Busbar

33 kV, 16 kV and 0.66 kV

Node (connection point)



Transmission lines

33 kV, rated currents for dierent


conductor mm2 , Z0 , Z1 and Z2

WT transformer

(3winding), rated power, rated


voltages, Z0 , Z1 and Z2 , vector
group ( YY)

WT transformer

(2windings), rated power, rated


voltages, Z0 , Z1 and Z2

External grid

Reference for the power system


outside of the OWF

WT loads

Average power
42 kW/WT

Circuit breakers



WTG

Rated power, cos

Shunt reactor

Rated power

Diesel genset

Rated Apparent power |S|

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demand

of

J. Berggren

Master thesis, Spring 2013

7 Modeling in DiGSILENT PowerFactory


7.1 Modeling of OWF in Normal operation
A model of a string in the oshore wind farm during normal operation mode was created in
the software DiGSILENT PowerFactory, in order to simulate the "loading" of the TCs for
verication of the oshore wind farm layout. As the strings in the OWF have the same layout
it's possible to only investigate one string. Data was taken from Section 4.1, Section 4.2,
Section 4.3 and Section 5 to implement into the model parameters which consists of:
A central busbar (symbolizing the AC OS)
TCs
WT transformers
WTGs

The model layout in non energised and in energised mode is shown in Figure 9a and Figure 9b.
The loading on the TCs in a string were under 100 % not exceeding the current ratings of
each cable selection, validating the design.

(a) Model of an OWF string in normal operation


(non energised ) [16].

(b) Model of an OWF string in normal operation


(energised ) [16].

Figure 9: The model of an OWF string (non-energised/energised).

20(75)

J. Berggren

7.2

Master thesis, Spring 2013

Calculations of load ow in

Emergency mode

Calculations of the active and reactive power transmitted in the system during emergencies
are performed in the software Microsoft oce Excel.
The active power transmitted in the system answers to the load demand of the WTs during
emergencies, PW T GEmergency stands for 42 kW per WT including with the WT transformer
magnetisation losses, see section 4.4. The copper losses in the transmission cables is neglected
(Pcopper I 2 ) as the the current is very low through a string during emergency operation
compared to normal operation. The total load demand in the WTs is POW FEmergency and the
total load demand answers to POW FEmergency = 42 kW 82W T s = 3.44 M W .
To be able to calculate the reactive power transmitted in the OWF in emergency mode and
compare it with a load ow analysis in DiGSILENT PowerFactory the following assumptions
are used:
The TCs are perfect capacitors (basic assumption as there in reality are both resistive

and inductive parameters present in a TC).

The reactive power demand is mainly coming from the capacitive part of the TC.
The load demand of 193 kVA present in eight seconds is neglected.

The reactive power in the OWF is therefore calculated with the assumption that the
capacitive part of the TCs in the OWF is the part which contributes to the load ow as
XC U 2 with a voltage of 33 kV (see Appendix A.4). QT C produced in the transmission
lines is calculated with Equation 5 and Equation 6.

Z=

U2
|S|

(5)

VA

For a perfect capacitor or inductor there is no net power transfer, thus all the power in
the TCs is reactive, see Equation 6. The results of the calculations is shown in Table 8.

U2
XC

QT C = QCap =

(6)

V ar

Table 8: The reactive power in a string of the OWF (emergency mode).

Cable number

[F/km]

[F]

QT C [MVAr]

1
2
3
4
5
6

0.35
0.29
0.24

0.19

0.875
0.203
0.168

0.133

QString
QT ot

-0.299
-0.069
-0.057

-0.046

-0.575
-7.86

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J. Berggren

7.3

Master thesis, Spring 2013

Modeling of OWF in

Emergency mode

The design of a model for the oshore wind farm during emergencies is constructed in DiGSILENT PowerFactory to analyse the load ow in the system during the special operational
mode. The simulated load ow is needed to be found in order to investigate any APS-system
concepts further.
The model is presented in Figure 10 consisting of a central busbar with connected strings.
In each string the specic layout determined in Section 7.1 is used and a more detailed layout
of strings nr 1-3 in the OWF is seen in Figure 11a. Figure 11b show a detailed layout of a
part of string 1-3 in the OWF.

Figure 10: The model of the OWF in emergency mode [16].

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Master thesis, Spring 2013

(a) A part of the model layout of


the OWF during an emergency
situation [16].

(b) More detailed view of the system design. A part of


string 1 is visualised [16].

Figure 11: Detailed layout of the OWF in emergency mode.

A load ow analysis was simulated by the help of a Newton-Raphson iteration [16] in order
to nd the power ow in the system. From the results of the load ow analysis, the values of
active power P and reactive power Q in the OWF in emergency operation mode are presented
in Figure 12.
Figure 12: Load ow in OWF during emergencies from the PowerFactory model.

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Master thesis, Spring 2013

The reactive power in the PowerFactory model is diering 0.235 MVAr or 3 % from
the calculated values, (see Table 9). This might be an eect of some inductive reactive power
reduction from TCs and a voltage level which isn't exactly 1.0 pu. The results, however
validates the reactive load ow in the OWF during emergencies in a good way.
Table 9: Load ow analysis in PowerFactory model and calculations.

Load ow comparison of OWF in (emergency mode)


Scenario

P [MW]

Q [MVAr]

DiGSILENT PowerFactory
Calculations

3.44
3.44

-8.09
-7.86

8 Auxiliary power supply concepts


In this section the possible APS-systems that theoretically can be of interest as an emergency
power supply is discussed and reviewed. This include a fundamental technical evaluation in
order to synthesise the most interesting concepts that will be studied deeper later on in the
report.

8.1

Diesel gen-set(s) used as APS-system

A diesel gen-set is visualised in Figure 13 and consists of an engine, generator and a control
system with including an Auto Voltage Regulator (AVR).

Figure 13: A diesel gen-set consisting of a engine, synchronous generator and necessary control equipment as the governor of the engine and the AVR of the generator [17].

It is a common APS-system that is used as a backup in emergency cases. There are several
possible diesel-gen-set conguration that are investigated, they are:
Diesel gen-set on Oshore substation
Diesel gen-set on WTs
Diesel gen-set on mobile vessel

These concepts uses dierent congurations which alter the rating of the equipment, depending
on which conguration that is studied. The following section describe the concepts in detail.
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Master thesis, Spring 2013

8.1.1 Stationary diesel gen-set concepts


Basic descriptions are introduced in this section and the most important advantages and
disadvantages of the system designs are pointed out. There are two possible solutions for
placing a stationary diesel gen-set in the OWF, the diesel gen-set is either placed on the
oshore substation or at the bottom of the WT tower in at every turbine. The system designs
are showed in Figure 14.

(a) Diesel gen-set placed on oshore substation (Ma) [7].

nipulated picture

(b) Diesel gen-set placed at bottom of all WT towers


in the OWF (Manipulated picture ) [7].

Figure 14: THe stationary diesel gen-set concepts in the OWF.

The dierence between the two stationary diesel gen-set concepts are:
A diesel gen-set placed on a OS require reactive power compensation or a special

designed generator which can operate under-excited and consume reactive power from
the MV 33 kV TCs in the OWF.

No magnetisation losses in the WT transformer with diesel gen-sets placed at WT towers,

due to the fact that the gen-set is directly connected via a 660 V busbar to the WT
loads.

Limited place at the bottom of the WT tower to place a diesel gen-set. The area also

require placing of a fuel tank which additonally reduces the available space.

Simple design of diesel gen-set at WTs as they are small in size, standard equipment

used in many applications today.

The total power demand in the studied OWF during to be supplied of the dierent diesel
gen-set concepts are shown in Table 10.
Table 10: Power demand: Stationary diesel gen-set concepts used on AC OS or placed at WT towers.

Power demand: Stationary diesel gen-set concepts

Diesel gen-set scenario

P [MW]

Q [MVAr]

|S| [MVA]

Placed on AC OS
Placed at every WT tower

3.44
0.042

-8.09
06

9
0.05

Peaks of 193 kVA present in 8 seconds interval which demands an overrating of the power supply.
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Master thesis, Spring 2013

8.1.2 Mobile diesel gen-set concept


A mobile diesel gen-set consists of a standby marine vessel which in emergencies travels out
to the OWF. The system design is similar to the stationary concept of having a diesel gen-set
placed on a OS or at the WT towers, the only dierence is that the diesel gen-set are placed
in the OWF when an emergency has happened. A stationary concept have the diesel gen-set
placed at the OWF at all time. The procedure to do this are explained below [4, 18]:
1. The marine vessel travels to the OS when an large emergency occur.
2. When the marine vessel has reach the OWF it places a diesel gen-set on the OS or at
the WT towers.
3. The loads in the WTs are supplied, either from the diesel gen-set on the OS or at the
WT towers.
To fulll the TSO TenneT criteria and supply the WT loads in twelve hours, there are an
uncertainty whether the marine vessel will have time to place diesel gen-set(s) at the OWF
when an emergency occur. The vessel availability, diesel gen-set availability, travel time etc.
impacts the time. In that case its possible that an additional short-term power supply are
needed to stationary be placed at a OWF, to handle the WT load demand until the mobile
vessel has installed the long-term diesel gen-set(s).
The required diesel gen-set ratings of this APS-system are the same as for the stationary
diesel gen-set concepts, see Table 10 in Section 8.1.1.

8.2

Gas/diesel gen-set(s)

A similar concept to the diesel gen-set placed on the AC OS is the usage of an gas/diesel genset with a piston engine. It works in the same way as the diesel gen-set (see Section 8.1.1), but
can also run on gas and not only diesel. The advantage is that there could be less vibrations
and less pollution of the environment [19]. The exhaust gases have reduced concentrations of
nitrogen-oxides (NOx) and sulfur-oxides gases. A major disadvantage is that an additional
fuel tank for gas is required in addition to the diesel tank.
The load ow is the same as in the diesel gen-set placed on the AC OS with the generator/reactive power compensation equipment handling the active and reactive power ow.

8.3

Photovoltaic's (PV's)

A sustainable energy resource that possibly could be used as a APS-system would be to utilize
the energy from the sun by using PV's. The solar cells produces electric energy for free and
support the WT loads with power. PV eciency depends on the PV module eciency, module ,
the packing factor of the modules (the fraction of absorber plate area covered by the solar
cells) Pf and on the eciency of the converter system (power conditioner) that deliver a good
voltage quality to load equipment pc . The resulting eciency of a PV module tot is found
from the relationship between these factors and is shown in Equation 7 [20, 21].

tot = module pc Pf
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Master thesis, Spring 2013

From [20] a specic site consisting of 329 m2 had a total tot = 8 % which are used as a
reference for a low total eciency of the the PV system in this study. To examine the power
production, a study of the power production in W/m2 with dierent tot and weather conditions (sunny, partly cloudy and cloudy conditions) were examined. For simplifying reasons,
the PV's are placed on a at area pointing directly vertical to the sky. Then the need of taking
care of the tilt angle and the compass directions relative to the sun that otherwise will aect
the power production were omited. The results of the examination are shown in Table 11.
Table 11: Power production in W/m2 of a PV [20, 22].

Power production in W/m2 of a PV with respect to tot


Weather condition

Sunny

Partly cloudy

Cloudy

tot = 8 %
tot = 11 %
tot = 13 %

80 W/m2
111 W/m2
133 W/m2

40 W/m2
56 W/m2
67 W/m2

8 W/m2
11 W/m2
13 W/m2

8.3.1 PV's on Platform


The possibility to utilize some of the area on a OS roof to place PV's is investigated.

Figure 15: PVs placed on the OS roof. The dimensions of the roof is assumed to be 40 m in length
and 20 m in width. The total area AreaOf f S = 800 m2 (Manipulated picture ) [7].

There is assumed that half of a typical AC OS roof area is available for installing PV's
AreaOf f S = 400 m2 , shown in Figure 15. Equipment like the Helipad, diesel gen-set, crane,
fuel tanks, etc. require place and therefore much of the total roof area can't be utilized.
The total power produced from the PVs placed on the OS is determined by Equation 8
and the results are shown in Table 12 and Figure 16.

PP VOf f S = PP V AOf f S

(8)

From the results it's visible that the PV's are not producing enough of power for supplying
the WT load demand with only a small portion of the load demand supported. In addition
the PV's won't produce any power at night-time which must come from another power source.
This can for example be the (UPS)-system in the WTs which is assumed to have an energy
supply for the WT loads in 12 hours.
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Master thesis, Spring 2013

Table 12: The total power POW FAP S with dierent tot of the PVs placed on OS with half of platform

covered with PVs.

Power production of PV's


tot

Sunny

Partly cloudy

Cloudy

8%
11 %
13 %

32 kW
44 kW
53 kW

16 kW
22 kW
27 kW

3 kW
4 kW
5 kW

Figure 16: The power production from PVs versus the WTG load demand in the OWF.

8.3.2 PV's on WT nacelles


This scenario is similar to the previous section with PVs on the OS, but here the roof of the
WT nacelles is utilized for power production by PV's. The PVs have been assumed to occupy
the roof of the WT nacelle with a width of 6 m and a length of 15 m. The total area of the
roof of one WT nacelle is AW Tnacelle = 90 m2 [23]. The total area of all WT nacelles in the
OWF that consists of 82 WTs is AP VW T s = 90 m2 82 W T s = 7380 m2 .
Similar to the previous Section 8.3.1, the total power produced by the PV's PP VW T s is
related to the total eciency of the PV system tot and the total area available for installing
PVs, see Equation 9, the total power production is shown in Table 13 and Figure 17.

PP VW T s = PP V AW Tnacelle nW T s

(9)

The power production of PV's placed on WT nacelles consists of a larger total area relative
to placing the PV's on the OS (7380 m2 400 m2 ). This increases the maximum power
production from 53 kW to 492 kW, please see Figur 16 and Figure 17. The results shows
that the power demand from the WTs isn't supported by only using PVs placed at the WT
nacelles.

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Master thesis, Spring 2013

Table 13: The total power PP VW T Gs with dierent tot of the PVs placed on the WT nacelles.

Power production of PV's


tot

Sunny

Partly cloudy

Cloudy

8%
11 %
13 %

590 kW
820 kW
984 kW

295 kW
410 kW
492 kW

59 kW
82 kW
98 kW

Figure 17: The power production from PVs on WT nacelles versus the WT load demand in the OWF.
The load demand is lowered as the magnetisation losses in the WT transformers are avoided by the
concept design.

8.4

Batteries combined with PV's

Another APS-system can be to use batteries in combination with PVs placed on the OS or
at the WTs, then the WT loads might be supplied with enough power. The reference battery
used in the study are assumed to be Lead  Acid batteries which are used in the DolWin1
OS project for supporting the internal load demand of the substation [24].
A battery is built up by a number of cells that each have their own characteristics and
they are combined one battery. Such batteries have the following characteristics, shown in
Table 14 [24].
The power required to be handled by the batteries are calculated with Equation 10 and
the total required power are shown in Table 15.

Ptot = PW T s PP V

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Master thesis, Spring 2013


Table 14: Characteristics of OS battery for auxiliary power supply needs [24].

(a) Cell characteristics

(b) Battery characteristics

Battery cell

Battery

Height
Length
Width
Area
Volume

0.824 m
0.225 m
0.580 m
0.130 m2
0.108 m3

Cell voltage
Battery voltage
Number of cells
Area of battery
Volume of battery

2.00 V
110 V
53 cells
6.917 m2
5.700 m3

where Ptot is the resulting required power supply from the PV/battery system, PW T s is the
load demand of the WTGs and PP V is the produced power by the PVs.
Table 15: Maximal Power demand with minimal PV production (tot = 8%, Cloudy)

Battery power requirement


Concept

Ptot [kW]

Placed in OS
Placed in WT nacelles

3441
2237

The batteries must both support the WT loads on the day when the PVs lack the ability
to produced enough power and recharge the UPS-system with batteries placed in the WT that
is supplying the OWF during night-time. The total energy demand of one day with batteries
is calculated with Equation 11.

WDemandOW F = WBatteryDAY + WBatteryN IGHT = Ptot tday + PW T s tnight

(11)

The length of the day is changing on yearly basis depending on the geographical location
where the site is placed the total energy demand will dier. A OWF placed in the North Sea
will set the energy requirement by batteries from the darkest time of the year, the winter,
with the assumption that tday = 4 hours and tnight = 20 hours.
The energy demand in [Ah] required for the batteries of one day of supply is calculated
with Equation 12 and presented in Table 16.

WBattery =

WDemandOW F
UBusbar

(12)

where WBattery is the required battery capacity in [Ah] and UBusbar is the voltage on the
busbar the batteries are connected to.
It is clear that there are no possibility to use Lead-Acid batteries as a APS-system together
with PV's as the energy storage capability of the batteries are far to low. By using other
battery types that are more eective and can contain more energy than Lead  Acid the
scenario may change, see Table 17.
30(75)

J. Berggren

Master thesis, Spring 2013

Table 16: Required capacity in [kWh], [kAh] and numbers of batteries needed to fulll the required
energy demand for the specied APS-system with PV's and batteries on OS or at WT nacelles.

Concept

[kWh]

[kAh]

Batteries [Nr]

Volume [m3 ]

Weight [ton]

Placed in OS
Placed in WT nacelles

82644
54868

751
499

216
144

1231
821

48
32

Table 17: Dierent battery types (lead  acid, NiCd, NiMH and Liion) characteristics. The voltage
/ cell, the specic energy content and required maintenance can be viewed [11].

Battery characteristics
Parameters
Cell voltage [V]
Specic energy [Wh/kg]
Maintenance requirement

8.5

LeadAcid

NiCd

NiMH

Liion

2
30  50
3  6 months

1.2
48  80
30  60 days

1.2
60  120
60  90 days

3.2  3.6
90  190
N/A

Wave Power

There is a possibility to use a wave power farm as a APS-system and therefore it is examined
here in a technical review of a point absorber wave power pland (WPP) concept created by
the Swedish manufacturer Seabased with roots from research at the University of Uppsala [25].
The power of the ocean waves is seem in Equation 13 [26, 27] and the potential of wave power
in the world are pointed out in Figure 18.

Pwave = 0.5Hs2 Tp

(13)

where Pwave is the power in the wave, Hs is the signicant wave height and Tp is the period
time of the wave.

Figure 18: The annual mean direction of the waves are shown with () and the area where wave
power plant can be placed are visualized by the thick lines around the continents [28].

31(75)

J. Berggren

Master thesis, Spring 2013

The concept is seen in Figure 19 and includes a buoy connected by a rope to a linear
generator placed at the bottom of the sea. When the buoy moves up and down the translator
connected to the rope that binds the buoy together with the generator are moving. The end
stop consists of springs that are attached to the translator. The springs store energy during
half a wave cycle and simultaneously act as a restoring force in the wave troughs [25]. The
movement of the translator inside the stator give rise to a generation of electricity and a
power output from the WPP. The company is today constructing units with nominal power
of 10-50 kW [29] which are designed to handle depths ranging from 20-100 m [26].

(a) A sketch of the point


concept Seabased [30].

absorber

WPP

(b) [A schematic picture of a wave power farm (WPF) where


the generator structure are visible standing on the seabed, the
TCs that transfer the power to an central hub/converter station and the wires with connected buoys at the surface of the
sea [31].

Figure 19: The Seabased concept with substructure.

The wave climate outside of the Danish coast in the North Sea, were OWFs often are
constructed is presented in (kW/m) of signicant wave height Hs in Table 18 [27, 32]. The
wave climate at the Swedish west coast is also included in order to understand the potential
for dierent locations.
Table 18: Average wave climate at the Baltic and Nordic Sea in kW/m with respect to the signicant
wave height [27, 32].

Location

Wave climate [kW/m]

North Sea
Skagerrak
Kattegatt

9.8
5.2
2.4

Apart from the wave climate the utility factor of the WPPs is an important economic
factor to take account for. Dierent utility factors will aect the amount of WPPs needed
for supporting the WT loads. Therefore the calculations in this report has taken this into
consideration and the results are seen in Table 19 with initial data is taken from [27].
A large amount of WPPs of approximately 300-800 WPPs are needed to handle the WT
loads. This is a large quantity that require an extensive installation and maintenance proce32(75)

J. Berggren

Master thesis, Spring 2013

WPP rated power [kW]

10

20

30

40

50

Utility factor [%]

0.44

0.32

0.25

0.2

0.18

(a) Power rating of WPP with corresponding utility factors.

WPP rated power [kW]

10

20

30

40

50

Required number of WPPs

783

539

460

431

383

(b) Number of WPPs required for WT load demand.


Table 19: Wave power calculations.

dure. In addition, the technology is not commercial yet and will therefore not be sutible as
an APS-system today for the studied OWF. There is a possibility that this may change in the
future as larger WPPs is created which can utilize the power in the waves more ecient.

8.6

Full converter wind turbines & diesel gen-set

A future APS-concept that may be of interest could be to utilize the wind turbines in the
OWF by restart some of the wind turbines in the OWF with a few small diesel gen-sets placed
at a handful number of WTs [33]. These diesel gen-sets energise the WTGs (full converter
wind turbines) after a grid blackout if needed and in that way restart the WTs to normal
operation mode where they are producing power from the wind.
The full converter WT is probably a suitable type to use in this application as it can
control the voltage at the stator and by the converter control, the frequency on the stator.
Thereby, the speed of the rotor can be used in a wide area so that the wind turbine always
rotates with optimal speed in order to produce the highest possible power [34]. The converter
closest to the grid can fast change the active/reactive power transferred from the WT to
the system which can contribute to maintaining stability. When an emergency occur and a
system fault is present the WT have inertial energy preserved from normal operation which
may help restarting the system in emergency mode (diesel gen-set's available with extra power
if needed) when its operating as an APS-system [35]. Figure 20 show a schematic picture of
a full converter WT.
Figure 20: A full converter wind turbine [34].

This APS-system concept is nevertheless without implications and problems and is not
33(75)

J. Berggren

Master thesis, Spring 2013

investigated today. The power and frequency stability of the system is to be carefully considered because of the weak grid, issues with black start, fault management etc. needs to be
solved. The concept is further discussed in Section 14.

9 Summary of APS-system studies


The number of APS-system supplies that have been studied earlier in the text are summarized
here in order to focus the remaining part of the study to the most feasible concept(s). A
summary of each APS-concept studied is described in the list that follows. The Diesel genset(s), Gas gen-set(s), Photo voltaic's (PV's), Batteries combined with PV's and nally full
converter WT's & diesel gen-set's is reviewed.

9.1

Diesel gen-set

The dierent concepts of placing diesel gen-set(s) on oshore substation, at WT towers and
mobile diesel gen-set on marine vessel are summarised here with the dierent advantages and
disadvantages.

9.1.1 On oshore substation


The diesel gen-set solution placed on the OS includes a possible concept with a motor rated
approximately 3.5 MW and a generator that can handle the active and reactive load ow in
the system during emergencies.
Stationary solution which are able to be placed on the OS roof.
Reactive power production in the system must be handled by either generator or reactive

power compensation equipment.

Limited fuel capabilities.


O & M in continuous intervals as the gen-set under long-term standstill needs to be

maintained.

9.1.2 at WT towers
The diesel gen-set solution that is placed at WT towers have the required rating of approximately 50 kW and supports the WT load demand. There is no reactive power present as the
diesel gen-set is directly connected via a 660 V busbar to the WT loads.
Stationary solution which are placed at every WT.
No reactive power in the system (no TCs).
No magnetisation losses in WT transformers as the power supply is directly connected

via a busbar and with circuit breakers to the WT loads. The magnetisation losses in
the WT transformer are 14 kW which in this case have lowered the total load demand
to 28 kW.

34(75)

J. Berggren

Master thesis, Spring 2013

The limitation of available space reduces the possibility to use the concept as a APS-

system, however, the exact available space is set by the WT manufacturer. By [4] this
concept is used today for 5-10 kW loads in times when the erection of the WTs are
taking place.

9.1.3 Mobile diesel gen-set on marine vessel


The diesel gen-set solution placed on a mobile vessel that travels out to the oshore wind
farm in case of an emergency could be benecial if a standby crew with a vessel for example
is stationed near the oshore wind farm today. The concept however has some other aspects
which are important to mention.
The fuel tank may be of great size depending on the available space on the marine vessel
Not the same limitations in diesel mobile diesel gen-set as a large piece can be placed on

the marine vessel. Then the reactive power in the TCs is less of an issue for the system
design.

An mobile diesel gen-set on a marine vessel could be advantageous when the reactive

power is compensated by the gen-set instead of shunt reactors as no space on platform


and less maintenance is required.

The solutions feasibility additionally depends on the distance from shore the wind farm

is placed.

9.2

Gas/diesel gen-set

gas/diesel gen-set placed on a AC OS as a APS-system has almost the same conguration
as a diesel gen-set alone, see Section 9.1.3. The gas gen-set major disadvantage compared
to a diesel gen-set is related to the gas fuel. A gas/diesel gen-set require an gas fuel tank in
addition to the existing diesel tank(s) and this demand valuable space on the OS [19]. There
are also some logistical problems when handling gas which are not fully developed for oshore
substations today.
A gas engine is more ecient and produces less vibrations than a diesel engine.
Lower emissions of nitrogen-oxides (NOx) and sulfur-oxides from gas have an positive

environmental impact.

A gas turbine can be used instead of a gas engine. The turbine will have a quicker

starting sequence and a reliable operation but with the disadvantage of lower eciency
(this is however not investigated in this study).

A gas gen-set needs additional equipment compared to a diesel gen-set as extra gas tanks

in addition to diesel tanks and more regulation equipment.

The storage of the explosive gas are today not fully developed and therefore have some

logistical diculties [19].

The economy of a gas/diesel gen-set may be dierent compared to a diesel gen-set

as additional fuel capabilities and logistical cost of handling gas has to be taken into
consideration.
35(75)

J. Berggren

9.3

Master thesis, Spring 2013

Photovoltaic's (PV's)

From the basic feasibility study the use of PV's on part of a AC OS roof or placed on WT
nacelle roof aren't enough to support the WT loads during emergencies. The oscillations in
power productions due to weather conditions and dierent ecencies tot of the PV systems
will make it an unreliable power supply, it is therefore not recommended that a PV system is
used stand-alone as a APS-system.

9.3.1 On OS roof


The PV's placed on half of the studied AC OS isn't producing by far enough power and is
only powering approximately one WT with its loads in cloudy weather and minimal tot .
Not enough power production when PV's are placed on OS (32-53 kW to the load

demand of 3444 kW).

Reactive power compensation equipment is needed to handle the capacitance in TCs.


No power supply during night-time when navigation lights are essential for the security

of the OWF.

9.3.2 On WT nacelle roof


A larger total area compared to the available AC OS area increases the power production
relative to the other PV concept. This, however isn't enough for supplying all WT loads.
Not enough power production when PV's are placed on OS (295-492 kW comparedto

the load demand of 2296 kW).

No need of reactive power compensation equipment as the PVs fed the WT loads directly

with power via the 660 V (or similar voltage level) busbar.

No power supply during night-time when navigation lights are essential for the security

of the OWF.

9.4

Batteries combined with PV's

The concept of placing batteries in combination with PV's on the AC OS showed to be
impossible with the use of Lead-Acid batteries. The requirement of 216 batteries with a total
volume and weight of approximately 1230 m3 respectively 48 ton are nether possible nor
advantageous. The case when batteries were placed in WT nacelles was a better solution with
less requirements of 144 batteries,a volume of 821 m2 and a weight of 32 ton. This is still not
a realistic scenario to investigate as the WT nacelles would require 2 batteries/WT which
not is likely to t in the nacelle or at the WT tower structure. The use of more advanced
and suitable batteries may reduce the total numbers of batteries needed, but will not enable
batteries used with PV's as APS-system.
To low energy storage capability in batteries.
Not technical possible to create on AC OS as the batteries are not tted to the limited

AC OS area, the total weight is very high and the system is ineective.
36(75)

J. Berggren

Master thesis, Spring 2013

In cases when the load demand is very small (a couple of kWs) the system may be

theoretical possible, however the need of reactive power compensation equipment will
be present as well as the need of recharging the batteries after 24 hours when they
are discharged.

9.5

Full converter wind turbines & diesel gen-set

The concept isn't investigated any deeper in this work and its therefore hard to draw any
conclusions. The system is not operated today and needs research before it can be commented.
The concept is still discussed in Section 14 but any deeper investigations are leaved to others
to perform.

9.6

Chosen APS-system for further investigation

To simplify the review of the dierent APS-system concepts, a short summary of each concept
is seen in Table 20 where the most feasible concept was selected with respect to the technical
possibility of constructing the APS-system together with the weighted feasibility (expected
economical costs of installation and operation, O & M requirements, logistical aspects, etc.).
Table 20: An overview of the investigated APSsystems that have been studied. They are all ranked
in order to visualise the most feasible concept.

Summary of APS  systems


Concept

Technical possible

Feasible

Rating7

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No

Yes8
Yes9
Yes10
Yes11
No
No
No
No
No

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Stationary diesel gen-set on OS


Stationary diesel gen-sets at WT towers
Stationary gas/diesel gen-set on OS
Mobile diesel gen-set on marine vessel
Wave power farm
PVs combined with batteries
PVs on WT nacelles
PVs on OS
Batteries

This showed to be the diesel gen-set placed on the OS when all the aspects were evaluated,
however the result of the ranking depends on the actual site where the OWF is placed. The
summary should therefore be treated as a guideline. A deeper analyse of the the diesel gen-set
placed on the OS concept is followed in coming sections.
7

Weighted feasibility (expected economical costs & technical functionality.


Reliable energy source, relatively ecient, manageable construction, limited space requirement etc.
9
Requirement of a low WT load demand to be feasible ( 5-10 kW) [4].
10
Logistical problems with fuel and reduced platform area (gas tank + diesel tank) [19].
11
Can be feasible, needs deeper review of economical costs.
8

37(75)

J. Berggren

Master thesis, Spring 2013

10 Sizing of diesel gen-set: Calculations


The diesel gen-set sizing procedure is described here and the validated power ow calculated
in Section 7.2 is used as a reference to nd the right dimensions and rating of a diesel gen-set
placed on an OS. The size of the Diesel gen-set system depends on both steady-state load
demand and transient eects studied later on in Section 12 [36].
Steady state requirements when energising the OWF in APS-system mode.
Steady state requirements when the APS-system is in operation in the OWF.
Transients (voltage drops/peaks, frequency oscillations) when energising the OWF in

APS-system mode.

Transients as (inrush currents) in equipment when switching in WT transformers after

the OWF is energised and in APS-system mode.

10.1

Sizing of diesel gen-set

without wind turbine UPS-system utilised

The diesel gen - set placed on the AC OS needs to handle the power ow transferred through
the system which are: P = 3.44 MW and Q = -8.09 MVAr, see Section 7.2. The sign before the
powers refer to the WT loads which require active power (+), and TCs that produce reactive
power Q (-). The calculated apparent power |S| is shown to be the 8.80 MVA.
The diesel gen-set rating must answer to the apparent power demand, however this require
a special diesel gen-set solution with the ability to work well in under-excited mode (see
Appendix A.2.1). The generator is producing active power P and consuming reactive power
Q with respect to the power ow.

10.1.1 Rating of standard generator


Standard diesel gen-sets are not created to work in this area as most power systems require
a production of reactive power, but as the emergency layout of the OWF symbolises a "weak
grid" with reactive power production in TCs and no major reactive power consumption, the
generator instead needs to produce active power and consume reactive power. To handle the
reactive power, the standard diesel gen-set needs to be overrated. Manufacturers visualises
the generators ability to work in under/over-excited mode by capability curves.
The synchronous generators have a magnetic end core heating limit that for standard diesel
gen-sets are a limit of the possibility to operate under-excited, see Appendix A.2.1 for more
information regarding the issue.
By creating a linear function that starts in the origin (y = kx + m = kx (m = 0)) that
takes the ratio between the reactive and apparent power (Q/S) into account, a crossing point
where the linear function intersects with a capability curve stability limit is found. This is
the point where the magnetic end core heating limit is intersecting the linear function in a
capability curve. This point will be the optimal limit of active vs. reactive power in p.u that
the generator must handle. The reactive power will at this point be compensated and the
38(75)

J. Berggren

Master thesis, Spring 2013

Figure 21: A capability curve of a synchronous generator with a rated power of 2.2 MVA considered to
be representable for larger generator's by Leroy-Somer [37]. Operation inside the area of the capability
curve is required to avoid damages. Note that the red and blue lines in the diagram is specied by the
manufacturer.
Figure 22: The determination of a linear function.

generator will produce enough amount of active power that is required. Figure 22 shows the
procedure to nd the linear function.
Two dierent capability curves are used (ABB 17.9 MVA and Leroy-Somer 2.2 MVA)
where the adapted linear functions are shown in Figure 23.
The rating of the diesel gen-set supporting the OWF can now be calculated with Equation 14 and Equation 15.

QRated = QSystem = 8.09 M V Ar


SRated =

QRated
Q/S

39(75)

(14)
(15)

J. Berggren

Master thesis, Spring 2013

(a) The capability curve of an ABB synchronous generator where the linear function
is intersecting the stability limit of the capability curve [38]. From the intersection point,
P/S=0.18 pu and Q/S=-0.42 pu.

(b) The capability curve of an Leroy-Somer


synchronous generator where the linear function is intersecting the stability limit of the
capability curve [37]. P/S=0.19 pu Q/S =
0.43 pu at the intersection.

Figure 23: The determination of generator ratings by the help of capability curves.

Sizing of generator
Part

PRated

QRated

|S|Rated (Leroy-Somer)

|S|Rated (ABB)

Wind farm

3.44 MW

-8.09 MVAr

19.26 MVA

18.81 MVA

Table 21: The sizing of a diesel gen-set on a OS with a standard generator (overrated).

Figure 24: The sizing of a diesel gen-set on a OS with a standard synchronous generator that needs
to be overrated to handle the reactive power demand.

40(75)

J. Berggren

Master thesis, Spring 2013

10.1.2 Rating of special generator


If a special designed gen-set is used the rating of the gen-set supplying the whole OWF can
be downsized. The gen-set is constructed to work in under-excited mode and the system isn't
needed to be overrated [39]. The system design have been validated by ABB - Helsinki and is
shown in Table 22.
Table 22: Special generator : Diesel gen-set rating without overrating.

Active Power P

Reactive Power Q

Apparent Power |S|

3.44 MW

- 8.09 MVAr

8.8 MVA

Figure 25: The special diesel gen-set capability curve which shows the generators ability to operate
under-excited. You can see the slightly coloured area where the generator can operate [39].

The magnetic end core heating eects are not an issue here, the limit is outside the capability curve in Figure 25 and will not limit the the generator operation. This is an eect
of increased air-gap between stator and rotor (25 mm-35 mm) [39]. It usually decreases the
magnetic ux in the stator (and reduce eciency), however in this case the magnetisation
instead is coming from the stator side of the generator. It should be clear that the generator
can't consume the required Q=-8.09 MVAr if P=3.44 MW isn't produced.
41(75)

J. Berggren

10.2

Master thesis, Spring 2013

Sizing of diesel gen-set

with wind turbine UPS-system utilised

The REpower 6M WTs have (UPS)-systems consists of batteries with an energy storage of
12 horus, see Section 4.1.2. These systems can possibly be utilized together with the diesel genset(s) placed on the AC OS to limit the operational time, decrease the size of the generator
and possibly reduced fuel use, as the gen-set is less frequently in operation. By altering some
of the WT loads to be supplied from diesel gen-set or batteries it could be possible to use
special sequential power production schemes,see Figure 26.

(a) Diesel gen set sizing: 1/2 OWF in sequence

(b) Diesel gen set sizing: 1/3 OWF in sequence

(c) Diesel gen set sizing: 1/4 OWF in sequence

(d) Diesel gen set sizing: 1/5 OWF in sequence

Figure 26: Diesel gen  set loading scheme of energising the studied OWF in sequence.

The calculation of the active power rating for the corresponding diesel gen-set sizes for all
scenarios are done from Equation 16, Equation 17, Equation 18 and Equation 19.

WLoad.GenSet = PW T.load (nW T s Seq) tSequence

(16)

Where WLoad.GenSet is the energy needed for the gen-set, PW T.load is the WT load demand,
nW T s is the number of WTs, Seq is the sequence scenario used (i.e. 1/2) and tSequence is
the operational time for the gen-set when it is in sequence until the batteries are recharge
(recharge time depend on which sequence that is used).

WSupply.U P Sbattery = PW T.load (nW T s Seq) tDischarge


42(75)

(17)

J. Berggren

Master thesis, Spring 2013

WSupply.U P Sbattery is the energy stored in the batteries in WTG UPS  system and tDischarge
is the discharge time for batteries. See Equation 16 for the other parameters.
Wtot = WLoad.GenSet + WSupply.U P Sbattery

(18)

where Wtot is the total energy needed for the diesel gen  set to supply.

PGenset =

Wtot
tCharge

(19)

where PGenset is the active power required rating of the diesel gen-set and tCharge is the time
for all UPS batteries in the OWF to be recharged.
Figure 27 shows the active power required to be handled by the generator in sequential
operation schemes. The results showed that the sizing in all case have a total active power
demand of P=3.44 MW and is not depending on the sequential operation (symbolised by the Crate of batteries (Section 4.1.2)).The dierent C-rates depending on the Sequence operational
procedure demands dierent recharge times of the batteries, see Table 23.

Figure 27: Sequential operation of diesel gen-set vs. required C-rate of batteries.

The reactive power demand is reduced depending on the sequence used when energising
the WT loads. The smaller sequence, the lower the reactive power demand, fewer TCs in the
OWF simply doesn't have to be operation at the same time. The disadvantage is that the
UPS normally doesn't operate in on/o mode. The deep discharge of the batteries may reduce
the total number of operating cycles and the lifespan of the batteries are shorten.
The best concept is the sequence where 1/2 of the OWF supported by WT UPS-system
batteries and 1/2 OWF on diesel gen-set savings on the fuel is done, the reactive power in
the system is reduced from -8.09 MVAr -4.045 MVAr and the C-rate of the batteries aren't
aected. In that way the batteries will be recharge on 12 hours.
43(75)

J. Berggren

Master thesis, Spring 2013


Table 23: Diesel gen-set size with UPS-system batteries utilized in the OWF.

10.2.1 Rating of standard generator


The rating of the generator calculated by data from Table 23, with the same overrating
generator procedure used as in Section 10.1.2, calculated from the two dierent capability
curves, are given in Figure 28.

Figure 28: Standard generator size with UPS-system batteries utilized in the OWF.

Apparent power |S|


Sequence
Whole wind farm
1/2 wind farm
1/3 wind farm
1/4 wind farm
1/5 wind farm

ABB [MVA]

Leroy-Somer [MVA]

Average size [MVA]

19.27
11.56
8.70
7.49
6.47

18.82
9.63
6.58
5.06
4.15

19.04
10.60
7.64
6.28
5.31

Table 24: Standard generator sizing: UPS-system batteries in combination with diesel gen-set.

44(75)

J. Berggren

Master thesis, Spring 2013

10.2.2 Rating of special generator


The ratings of the generator depending on the sequence loading scheme is calculated by using
data from Table 23. No overrating is required as the special generator [40] works well in
under-excited generator mode, shown in Figure 29.

Figure 29: Special generator sizing.

Apparent power |S|


Sequence
Whole wind farm
1/2 wind farm
1/3 wind farm
1/4 wind farm
1/5 wind farm

Size [MVA]

[MVA]

8.79
5.31
4.37
3.99
3.80

8.8
5.3
4.4
4.0
3.8

Table 25: Special generator sizing: UPS-system batteries in combination with diesel gen-set.

The rating of the generator is down-scaled with a smaller part of the OWF in sequential
loading. This is the eect from the less reactive power in the system (i.e. it is assumed that
a sequence loading of (1/2 wind farm) is operated with (1/2 of the TCs in the wind farm).

10.3

Reactive power compensation equipment

To decrease the reactive power ow produced by the TCs, a reactive power compensation unit
in form of shunt reactors can be used. A shunt reactor is a piece of equipment that basically

45(75)

J. Berggren

Master thesis, Spring 2013

is an inductor that can consume reactive power built up by HV TCs [41]. The shunt reactor
sizing is adapted so that the generator doesn't need to be overrated.
A shunt reactor can be rated dierently depending on which standard generator rating
that is used. To optimise the shunt reactor size vs. the standard generator size, dierent
generator rating and corresponding shunt reactor sizing are investigated. From a capability
curve by the manufacturer Leroy-Somer 2.2 MVA [37] shown in Figure 30. It is visible in
the gure that the maximum capability for the generator to work under-excited is relatively
constant (Q/S) = const. Therefore Qmax 0.40 Sgenerator . The shunt reactor sizing then
only depends on the overrating of the generator.

Figure 30: Dierent generator ratings in under-excited mode (consuming Q), depending on chosen
(P/S) in pu from the Leroy-Somer capability curve and Qmax /Sgenerator = 0.40. The curve is used
as a reference for other diesel gen-set standard generators [37].

The ratings of the generator is determined by Equation 20, Equation 21 and the shunt
reactor by Equation 22. In Table 26, the generator and shunt reactor size is shown.

|S|Generator =

Pgenerator
Pgenerator
Pgenerator
=
=
PF
cos
P/S

where

QGenerator =

(20)

PGenerator = 3.44 M W

Qmax
SGenerator = 0.40SGenerator
Smax

QShuntreactor = |QOS | |QGenerator |


where

QOS = 8.09 M V Ar

46(75)

(21)
(22)

J. Berggren

Master thesis, Spring 2013

Table 26: Generator & shunt reactor rating with respect to dierent (P/S)'s in pu.

(P/S) pu.

0.9

0.6

0.3

SGenerator
QGenerator

3.8 MVA
1.5 MVAr

5.7 MVA
2.3 MVAr

11.5 MVA
4.6 MVAr

QShuntreactor

6.6 MVAr

5.8 MVAr

3.5 MVAr

Table 27: Overrated (10 %) generator and corresponding shunt reactor with respect to dierent (P/S)'s.

(P/S) pu.

0.9

0.6

0.3

SGenerator
QGenerator

4.2 MVA
1.7 MVAr

6.3 MVA
2.5 MVAr

12.6 MVA
5.0 MVAr

QShuntreactor

6.4 MVAr

5.6 MVAr

3.0 MVAr

To handle the peak demand of 193 kVA of WT loads that occur during 8 seconds interval
the generator rating is a bit overrated (10 %) which also would decrease the required shunt
reactor rating, see Table 27.
The results show that with a Qmax = 0.4 SGenerator the shunt reactor size only depends
on the generator rating. A higher ratio in this study is P/S=0.9 that will overrate the generator
but in return the shunt reactor size is minimised and vice versa. Depending on the user
requirements either system could be benecial, the question is whether the user want to
reduce shunt reactor size or generator size. it's suitable to have multiple shunt reactors with a
total reactive power which answers to the dierent generator ratings or a tap-changing shunt
reactor that can vary its reactive power consumption as all TCs and WT loads may not be
energised instantaneously [41].

11 Slow start of OWF with diesel gen-set


The starting scheme of an APS-system with a diesel gen-set where the WT loads are energised
in sequence is described in this section [40, 42, 43, 44]. The concept is explained and an
overview of the system can be seen in Figure 31.
1. The engine rst power up and increase its torque on the shaft that combines the diesel
engine with the generator.
2. As the rotational speed of the shaft is increased, the torque produced by the engine
increases the generator rotor speed.
3. There will be a point where the rotor windings in the generator can be excited. An Auto
Voltage Regulator (AVR)12 is enabled at this point (control equipment) and a magnetic
ux is generated and transferred through the air-gap.
12

See Appendix C for more information about diesel gen-set control system

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4. The rotating magnetic ux in the stator (rotor is moving) give rise to a voltage which
increases as the excitation of the rotor windings is increased. When the voltage has
reached Unom the generator circuit breaker is closed.
5. Each string13 of WTs in the system checks the auxiliary power themselves to connect to
the power supply with delay times between each new string that is energised until the
whole OWF is in operation.
(a) Part of the loads (WT transformers, TCs, WT loads are connected in sequence
when the diesel engine is in cold mode.
(b) The residual loads in the system are connected and energised when the diesel engine
is heated up and operates at full eciency in warm mode. When the diesel engine
is at full capacity all remaining loads in the OS are energised.

Srated = 1 pu

Srated = 1.1 pu
Diesel engine mode: Warm

Diesel engine mode: Cold

Generator breaker are


closed now: Switchgear ON

Srated = 0.6 pu
Urated = 100 %, fel = 50 Hz
Generator synchronised to the grid

U
Voltage
over
Generator

The rotor
windings are
excited
(80 90 % of
rated speed of
diesel engine)

Base load of diesel gen set


system: Switchgear, Breakers,
Control equipment etc.

Continency
mode

Whole OWF energised

Energising of OWF loads:


OffS Transformer for diesel gen-set
Transmission cables in OWF
Wind turbine transformers
Wind turbine loads

hour 1 hour

5 - 10 seconds
fel

Frequency oscillations fel and dynamical transient control when


OWF loads are energised

Figure 31: Sequential starting procedure for WTs in OWF [18, 42, 43, 44, 40, 45].

12 Transient studies
There are dierent transients that occur in the OWF when it is in APS-system mode and in
island operation. The stability of the power system is aected by these transients when the
APS-system is energised and the need of studying these issues are required.
Voltage transients as a result of the diesel control system together with wind farm

resonances.

13

By [18] it's possible to energise string by string of WT loads in the OWF.


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Inrush currents in WT transformers and other equipment when they are energised from

system blackouts. This is the case when the APS-system of the OWF are starting up.

The voltage transients in the system occur due to the harmonic content in the circuit of
the OS and is a result of a MV circuit consisting primarily of the 33 kV TCs in the OWF that
builds up capacitance. The capacitance can create resonance loops in the MV circuit which
are transferred to the LV circuit and the generator may be forced out of synchronisation [36].
Inrush currents in transformers and in other equipment is a well known problem in power
systems and specially when a weak grid is started up and energised. This is the case with the
APS - system energising the OWF. Therefore the phenomena is important factor that has to
be considered when designing a APS-system. The transient phenomena is not modelled and
validated in this study but previous work regarding the topic have been done [36, 46, 47]. In
[46] it was shown that the worst inrush current occurred when the last WT transformer the
farthest away from the OS was energised. The inrush current is causing the following eects
on the OWF when energising in APS-system mode:
High currents (9 Inom of REpower 6M WT transformers can occur) [4] that can damage

the transformers.

The diesel gen-set may trip because of the fact that the currents aren't linear with

respect to time and contains many harmonics which creates oscillating torques for the
diesel gen-set to handle [36]. The generator therefore might fall out of synchronisation
when the dynamical transients rise as protection devices disconnect the equipment. As
a results the APS-system breaks down.

Sympathetical inrush currents which occur when transformers are connected in parallel

amplies the problem [48]. An OWF is a good example where transformers are connected
in parallel.

Concepts to decrease impact of transients:

1. The energising sequence of the system can be done without having the WT transformers connected to the rest of the oshore system. The WTs are not energised
in the beginning when the system is started up as the circuit breakers to the WTs
transformers are open. When the system is in operation, the WT transformers can
be taken into operation in sequence where a part of a string a string or only one
WT transformer is energised at a time [43]. To connect the WT transformer there
is a couple of ways to do this accordingly to reduce inrush currents.
2. By slowly increase the voltage over the diesel gen-set having all the WT transformers connected but not the WT loads the dynamical transients might be avoided.
Not until the whole OS including with (Diesel gen-set, TCs, control equipment,
WT transformers etc) are connected the circuit breakers are closed and WT loads
connected.

12.1

Connection of WT loads in sequence

The diesel gen-set soft starting procedure are performed, see Section 11 and the WT loads are
energised with a sequence operational control discussed here.
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A time interval large enough to avoid large inrush currents: tunit . By using timers for

example with a specied time interval which controls the circuit breakers of the WT
transformers the dynamical transients could be limited. When a circuit breaker of a
WT transformer is closed the next WT transformer that follows in sequence have a
timer set to start. In the studied OWF the total amount of timers needed are 82 if every
WT transformer are to be energised in sequence.

By measuring the frequency oscillations in the oshore system foscillate when it's ener-

gised (inrush currents present) together with the excitation time of the oshore system
texcitation the circuit breakers of the WT transformers can be controlled. When the frequency deviation is below a certain level in the system where stability is reached the
next unit in sequence can be connected.

The control equipment sends a binary signal to the WTs and tell the system when it's

time to be energised, then the next WTs have the same scenario until the whole wind
farm is energised.

Power and frequency control by the AVR in the system design in order to keep them in

the specied limits.

12.2

Ramping up voltage over diesel gen-set

To control the energising of the OWF, the use a special voltage ramping sequence can possibly
be performed. In the text that follows and in Figure 32 the basics of the concept are presented.
Figure 32: The voltage ramping sequence scheme in the OWF when the OS rst is energised and then
the breakers connecting WT loads are closed.

Motor start The speed of the motor reach rated rpm and the diesel engine are powered

up to rated power at t < 0 s.

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All breakers to the whole oshore system consisting of diesel gen-set, platform trans-

formers, array cables to WTs, array cables between WTs, WT transformers are switched
in the system when t=0 s.

The voltage at t=0 s is U=0 V.


the voltage is increased in a time period that satisfy the criterions with minimized

dynamical transients present.

When nominal voltage has reach Unom and the system is energised the system is ready

to connect the WT loads to the rest of the system.

The breaker is closed and the WTs loads in the OWF are energised.

The manufacturer REpower has set a requirement on (< 2 s) ramping scheme of the
WT loads when the breaker is closed. A longer ramping (> 2 s) require that new control
equipment (voltage supervision of circuit breaker, protection systems for the equipment to
withstand maximized inrush currents and new feeder equipment to motor components) [49].
A numerous of dierent diesel gen-set manufacturers and contacts were asked wether this is
performable, with the result that it probably not can be done today. The generator reaction
time is to long (the eld current in the rotor windings set the limit). A ramping with 10 s
could be managed over the WT loads [42].

12.2.1 Basic voltage ramping study


A basic study of a equivalent APS-system model design with a diesel gen-set is conducted.
The diesel gen-set is in sequence operation when half of the OWF is supporting the WT loads
in 12 hours and the UPS-system batteries in another 12 hours. The characteristics of the
system are seen in Figure 33 and listed in Appendix B.1.1.
Figure 33: The equivalent circuit with half of the OWF energised.

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The equivalent circuit includes one AC OS transformer, one string with the total length
of all strings in the OWF design and one WT transformer with the rated power output of all
WT transformers in the OWF all together.
Two arbitrarily long ramping scenarios were used: tRamp = 15 min and tRamp = 30 min.
For both these scenarios, (POW F and QOW F ) owing in the system during voltage ramping
are calculated (see Appendix B.1.1) and the results was presented to dierent diesel gen-set
manufacturers for further investigation whether the concept of reducing dynamical transients
are executable. Table 28 and Figure 34 shows the power ow in the systems.

Table 28: The power ow in the oshore system when a voltage ramping of an OWF equivalent is
performed.
Figure 34: The power ow in the oshore system with the voltage ramping scenario of tRamp = 15 min.

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By all the dierent manufacturers, no manufacturer opposed the concept but as no real
project with this concept is tested (that I know of), it's dicult to say wether a voltage ramping
scenario are possible to perform. There are a number of dierent aspects and challenges that
needs to be resolved rst before a real system can be constructed. They are listed here:
Special designed gen - set eld current limitations when the voltage is low = high

current Insulation and heat damage must be prevented.

The system is simplied, a real OWF consists of multiple strings and WT transformers

which will create cluster issues. As the cable length (the TCs capacitance = reactive
power will be dependent on the length of the line, and the type of line (area of conductor,
capacitance, resistance, inductance) this will also aect the power ow in the system
which not has been studied in this text.

In a real system there are possibilities to change a number of variables in the system

for the voltage ramping: The transformers (variable tap changer transformer non
variable transformer), WT load interaction14 , transformer saturation15 etc.

The loads in the WTs have to be examined deeper. They can be divided into impedance

loads, voltage loads etc. that have specic requirements. The voltage independent loads
may experience problems when the voltage ramping sequence is performed.

14
15

The loads operate dierently (constant power loads, constant voltage loads, etc.)
Hysteresis losses

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13 Diesel gen-set summary


A Diesel gen-set specication includes information about the minimum technical requirements
for the system design of the Diesel gen-set. In the specication the size and descriptions of the
engine and the generator is presented in order to optimize the system design. As this study
has focused on making a feasibility study with technical content the specication is limited to
the basic information of the engine and generator. The ratings of the engine and the dierent
generator sizes are previously described in Section 10.1.2 and Section 10.2.2 and Section 10.3.
The results are shown in Table 29.
Table 29: The specication of dierent diesel gen-set congurations.

Specication
Number

Component

P [MW]

Q [MVAr]

S [MVA]

Design

UPS-system utilized


1
2
3
4

Engine
Generator
Generator
Generator
Generator

3.44
3.44
3.44
3.44
3.44


-8.09
-4.045
-8.09
-4.045


8.8
5.3
19.26
11.56


Special
Special
Standard
Standard


No16
Yes17
No
Yes

5
6
7

Generator
Generator
Generator

3.44
3.44
3.44

1.718
2.519
5.020

4.2
6.3
12.6

Standard
Standard
Standard

Yes
Yes
Yes

All ratings are up-scaled approximately 10 % to handle the small "peaks" of 193 kVA in
WT loads that may occur [4], see Table 30 and Table 31 for more details.
Table 30: Generator sizings with an 10 % increase rated output.

Generator ratings (10 % increased)


Number

Component

S [MVA]

Design

UPS-system utilized

1
2
3
4

Generator
Generator
Generator
Generator

9.7
5.8
21.2
12.7

Special
Special
Standard
Standard

No
Yes
No
Yes

5
6
7

Generator
Generator
Generator

4.2
6.3
12.6

Standard
Standard
Standard

No
No
No

16

No use of the (UPS)-system batteries in the WTs


batteries in the WTs with 1/2 wind farm in sequence, C-rate corresponding to 12 hours recharge time.
18
Shunt reactors are used, P/S=0.9
19
Shunt reactors are used, P/S=0.6
20
Shunt reactors are used, P/S=0.3
17

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Table 31: Engine sizing with an 10 % increase rated output.

Engine rating
Component

P () [MW]

Engine

3.8

The specication shows that there are a number of dierent concepts that are possible to
design with the lowest generator rating of 4.2 MVA21 . This however require reactive power
compensation unit(s) with a capability to consume 6.4 MVAr22 .
When no reactive power compensation equipment is used, the lowest rating of the generator
is found to be 5.8 MVA23 , although a special generator is required which could be more dicult
(expensive) to design. The engine is sized at 3.8 MW.

14 Discussion
A number of dierent aspects regarding the work in the APS-system study are presented here.
It includes information about the dierent APS-concepts with a deeper discussion of the diesel
gen-set sizing.
Aspects regarding the standard diesel gen-set:

1. The diesel gen-set ratings proposed to be used in this study are related to the
specic design of the studied OWF consisting of 82 WTs, a dierent layout would
have an impact on the ratings and the requirements could be dierent.
2. Shunt reactor(s) in combination with a diesel gen-set could be preferable to consume
a part of the reactive power in the system, with the advantage that the generator
rating can be down-scaled.
3. From the assumptions taken in this study, the diesel gen-set is the most preferable
solution to be used today. It could possibly be of interest to install a gas/diesel
gen-set instead and utilize gas as fuel with increased reliability.
4. Fuel tank size is an important factor to be investigated (need to refuel gen-sets at
some time). The limited space of placing tanks will have an impact on the available
fuel reserves.
5. O&M is required in a specied time intervals, this includes at least monthly inspections [33].
6. In the master thesis work the assumption that one diesel gen-set is placed on the
OS is undertaken. This however may not be the optimal conguration, as multiple
diesel gen-set with the same total rating could be used. Then the redundancy of the
APS-system would be increased (larger number of diesel gen-sets, less probability
that all will fail at the same time).
21

see nr 5 in Table 30.


See Table 27
23
see nr 2 in Table 30.
22

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Aspects regarding the special diesel gen-set

1. The special designed generator will require a design that today is not yet developed. To accurately get a diesel gen-set layout, diesel gen-set manufacturers must
investigate the issue further.
2. The special designed generator is rated to precisely handle the active and reactive
power requirements in the oshore wind farm (at max P when Q is compensated
in OWF). In reality the rating of the generator should be overrated at least 10 %
to handle the "peaks" in 193 kVA of WT load demand.
Aspects regarding the oshore power system in emergency mode:

1. A lower voltage level in the system could possibly decrease the generator ratings as
the reactive power in the TCs U 2 . This however will require extensive additional
control equipment and additional switch gear that are costly [43].
2. Resonance frequency in the electrical system is not investigated. This may have
impact on the diesel gen-set design and may be investigated in future studies.
Future APS-concepts:

1. A gas turbine instead of a gas/diesel engine will have impact on the APS-system
operation. The start-up sequence would be shorter, but the logistical problems
when handling gas needs to be under control to produce a sustainable concept.
2. In the future, OWFs are possibly interconnected with each other or an power systems and not only connected to land. The need of a APS-system is probably no
longer required as emergency power can be transferred from multiple sources if
one transmission link is damaged and taken out of operation. The power supply
redundancy is high and the system will operate with a greater stability than before.
Full converter WTs & diesel gen-set:

1. With the help of an park controller, it might be possible to control the system
[43]. This is a regulation system that can analyse the OWFs consumption and
production of power and from this the diesel gen-sets can act in order to maintain
a stable network.
2. The WTs in a OWF can possibly be constructed so that they are working autonomous and rapidly react on power ow changes in the network. In cases when
the wind farm is going back into normal operational mode from auxiliary power
mode this is automatically controlled by this function.
3. The turbocharger which boost the diesel engine with extra air needs time before it
can deliver the required amount of air. Therefore when the APS-system is energised
there could be voltage dierences present which makes the system unstable until
the diesel gen-set are warmed up [44].
Reducing the load demand (heating) in the WTs:

1. The high load demand of 42 kW in REpower (28 kW without WT transformer


magnetisation losses) contains a larg part which is heat demand inside WTs. An
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optimisation of the environment inside the WT's may reduce the heating demand.
The structure could be divided into dierent sections with the aim of minimisation
of the load demand.
2. Another concept could be to simply placing gas holders inside the WTs to produce
heating mainly where it is most required required. The heating demand may not
be the same anywhere in the WT structure.
Transients in the system while energising:

1. The proposed concepts of slow staring the system and ramping of the voltage over
the system without WT loads connected require more modeling and simulation work.
Questions like how the transformer energising is aected of voltage ramping, how
the control of the voltage ramping specically should be performed and whether it
will require additional protection devices are raised.
Voltage ramping of system:

1. Voltage ramping of < 2 seconds of WT loads when the OWF is energised and the
breakers connecting the loads are closed is probably not possible to perform. The
fast ramping would create frequency oscillations and the voltage of the system could
be destabilized. The generator needs time to react on the increased load demand
(normally takes 5-10 seconds) because of the limitations in the derivative of eld
I
current (in the rotor windings of the generator) vs. time, tf .
UPS-system in WTs:

1. Battery use is not validated by UPS manufacturer. By REpower an operation of 12


hours discharge / 12 hours recharge could have an impact on the battery lifetime
and reduce the number of cycles a battery can be operational.
Model development:

1. The model is simplied and doesn't investigate the system thoroughly. Short-circuit
simulations are not investigated, no real transients study is performed etc.

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15 Conclusions
From a number of dierent APS-system studies the diesel gen-set solution placed on the OS
in the OWF was pointed out as the optimal solution in the scope of the study. The rating of
the gen-set was specied with respect to dierent possible system congurations, with reactive
power compensation equipment, a special designed generator and a standard generator. The
results showed that the minimal diesel gen - set rating was S=4.2 MVA with reactive power
compensation in form of shunt reactor(s) with a total capacity to consume approximately
6.4 MVAr.
The minimum rating of a special designed gen-set which can work well in under-excited
mode, was found when UPS-system batteries in WTs in combination with diesel gen-set were
used. Half of the WT loads in the wind farm is loaded by batteries in 12 hours and the
other half is loaded by diesel gen-set(s). The constructed generator rating would then be
S=5.8 MVA.
If a standard diesel gen-set with a generator that is not especially constructed for operation
in under-excited mode are used, an overrating of the generator is required. When the UPSsystem batteries are in use in combination with diesel gen-set, the rating would be S=9.7 MVA.
Concepts to decrease the transients that aects the OWF system when it's energised can
possibly be designed. The voltage ramping concept is especially interesting as it may minimise
the inrush current transients and largely eects the system design. The design of such a
concept is briey described and an equivalent circuit of the studied OWF were examined
with the result of approximately 500 kW (466 kW) and 4.4 MVAr (4.37 MVAr) in the system
with no WT loads energised (no-load losses). The results were sent to dierent diesel gen-set
manufacturers where no manufacturer pointed out that this concept couldn't be accomplished.
Although, no manufacturer has deeply studied the concept before.
Otherwise, the slow starting sequence of an OWF are pointed out as an advantageous
system design to decrease transients, with the downside that there will take longer time to
energise the OWF and the WT loads.

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16 Future Work
The study of a possible APS-system concepts are aected by the load demand of the WTs
studied in this master thesis study. With a lower WT load demand the conclusions of this
report need to be revalued and another APS-system could be more advantageous than the
proposed.
The specic design of the APS-system are not studied in this report and is left for further
investigations as the aim of this master thesis study was to perform a study of many dierent
concepts with a immerse study in the most advantage APS-system design. The details of the
diesel gen-set operational guideline are left to be investigated.
The dynamical transients in the OWF at APS-system mode need to be investigated further
in order to nd an optimal system design which minimize the transients. The voltage ramping
scenario needs to be conrmed and the idea of the concept established with the diesel gen-set
manufacturers. Then the system design can be conrmed or rejected.
The energy storage in the batteries and the ability to fast recharge/discharge need to be
thoroughly examined. The on and o switching of the batteries may have an impact on the
lifetime of the components, dierent battery types, energy storage, maintenance requirements,
etc.
The dierent loads in WTs have to be examined further. Questions like how they are
operated and whether they are constant power loads, constant voltage loads, impedance loads
etc. will have an impact on the operational requirements for the used APS-system. In overall,
specic details of the system design must be investigated before any specied concept can be
created in the future.
A concept to reduce the capacitive reactive power in the TCs could be to utilise the Line
Side Converter (LSC) in the DFIG REpower 6M WT to consume reactive power. The LSC
inductance may be utilised to consume reactive power even at PW T 0 M W when the WT
is in emergency mode, and the OWF is isolated from land with no power transmission to
land [50]. According to [23] a 2 MW rated DFIG WT is able to produce QL 5 % of PLSC
independent of the wind speed. This would answer to 0.1 MW/WT and for the studied OWF
used in this study the total of 82 WTs would consume 8.2 MVAr. This is the whole oshore
wind farm's reactive power ow (note there there is a dierent rating of 2 MW/WT compare
to 6 MW/WT in my OWF).
If this concept is possible to use it would signicantly reduce the diesel gen-set's sizing as
reactive power would be consumed in the LSC's and the large reactive power build-up from
the TCs is compensated without shunt reactors and/or diesel gen-set's. A small internal load
demand for the LSC's (cooling of power electronics) are present and must be supplied by the
APS-system but the overall rating of the APS-system may be down-scaled and cheaper to
produce. It is not certain that this idea is viable, but a future analysis may be benecial to
perfor to validate/reject the idea. The concept was not studied in this study, due to limited
info from manufacturers.

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List of Tables
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Basic data of REpower 6M WT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


30 kV cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REpower 6M WTG Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REpower 6M WTG Load demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Powers in one string of the selected OWF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Currents in a string of selected OWF system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary of model parts in PowerFactory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The reactive power in a string of the OWF (emergency mode). . . . . . . . . . .
Load ow analysis of PowerFactory model and calculations . . . . . . . . . . .
Power demand: Stationary diesel gen-set concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power production in W/m2 of PVs with given eciencies . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total active power production of PVs placed on oshore substation roof . . . .
Total active power production of PVs placed on WT nacelles . . . . . . . . . .
Oshore substation battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(a) OS battery cell characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(b) OS battery characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power need: Batteries and PV's combined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Needed capacity for batteries combined with PV's . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Characteristics of dierent battery types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wave climate at the Baltic and Nordic Sea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wave power calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(a) Wave power concept investigation: Seabased in the North Sea . . . . . . .
(b) Wave power concept investigation: Seabased in the North Sea . . . . . . .
Summary of APSconcepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The sizing of a diesel gen-set on a OS with a standard generator (overrated). .
Special generator : Diesel gen-set rating without overrating. . . . . . . . . . . .
Sequential operation of Diesel gen-set:Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standard generator sizing: UPS-system batteries in combination with diesel
gen-set. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special generator sizing: UPS-system batteries in combination with diesel gen-set.
Generator & shunt reactor rating with respect to dierent (P/S)'s in pu. . . . .
Overrated (10 %) generator and corresponding shunt reactor with respect to
dierent (P/S)'s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power ow for voltage ramping scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The specication of dierent diesel gen-set congurations. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Generator sizings with an 10 % increase rated output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine sizing with an 10 % increase rated output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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List of Figures
1
2
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4

Future oshore Wind Power development . . . . . .


The electric system layout of a OWF . . . . . . . . .
Drawing of an OWF with it's dierent substructures
Electric layout of selected OWF . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Master thesis, Spring 2013

REpower 6M WT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DFIG WTG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Real picture of REpower 6M WT Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power ow in TCs in a string . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The model of an OWF string (non-energised/energised). . . . . . . . . . . .
(a) Model of an OWF string . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(b) Model of an OWF string . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The model of the OWF in emergency mode [16]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detailed layout of the OWF in emergency mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(a) Model part of OWF: Emergency1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(b) Model part of OWF: Emergency2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Load ow in OWF during emergencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diesel gen-set schematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
THe stationary diesel gen-set concepts in the OWF. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(a) Diesel gen-set container placed on oshore substation . . . . . . . . .
(b) Diesel gen-set containers placed at WT towers . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Basic layout of PVs placed on oshore substation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power production vs WTG load demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power production vs WT load demand with WT nacelles . . . . . . . . . . .
Wavepower potential on earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Seabased concept with substructure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(a) Seabased WPP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(b) A schematic picture of a wave power farm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A full converter wind turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leroy-Somer capability curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determine diesel size: Linear function adaption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The determination of generator ratings by the help of capability curves. . .
(a) Diesel gen-set sizing: ABB capability curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(b) Diesel gen-set sizing: Leroy-Somer capability curve . . . . . . . . . . .
Standard generator sizing with overrating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special gen-set capability curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diesel gen  set loading scheme of energising the studied OWF in sequence.
(a) Diesel gen set sizing: 1/2 OWF in sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(b) Diesel gen set sizing: 1/3 OWF in sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(c) Diesel gen set sizing: 1/4 OWF in sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(d) Diesel gen set sizing: 1/5 OWF in sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sequential operation of Diesel gen-set vs. required C-rate . . . . . . . . . .
Diesel gen-set size with UPS-system batteries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diesel gen-set size with UPS-system batteries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dierent generator ratings depending on (P/S) in pu of the generator . . .
Sequential starting procedure for WTs in OWF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Voltage ramping sequence scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The equivalent circuit with half of the OWF energised. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power ow for voltage ramping scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Generator motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(a) Salient pole generator (0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(b) Salient pole generator (90) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Equivalent circuit of synchronous generator . . . . . .


Phasor diagram of generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quadrant diagram of generator modes and load modes
Electrical equivalent diagram of a transformer . . . . .
Pi  link of a transmission cable . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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References
[1] Cigr The Council on Large Electric Systems. High Voltage AC Substation. Technical
report.
[2] OshoreWind conference 2011. Oshore Electricity Grid Infrastructure in Europe. Technical report, oct. 2011.
[3] REpower. Wind turbine REpower 6m-General requirements for an oshore emergency
power supply. Technical Report V-6.1-GP.EL.03-A-A(EN).
[4] REpower. Private communication with Luis Leal, 03 2013. REpwoer.
[5] A. Madariaga et al. Current facts about oshore wind farms. Renewable and Sustainable
Energy Reviews, 16:3105  3116, 2012.
[6] Marques.M et al. Connection of oshore wind parks: HVAC and HVDC-LCC links with
STATCOM. pages 16. Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation (EPQU), oct. 2011.
[7] ABB AB. Abb goes oshore-products and solutions for oshore wind energy. Technical
Report OWC-0001 en Rev.0, ABB, 722 12 Vsters, 2011.
[8] REpower Systems SE. 6m - The further development of the succesful oshore turbine
repower 5m. Technical report.
[9] REpower Systems 2012. The Next Step: The REpower 6m Oshore Wind Power Plant.
2012.
[10] Andreas Peterson. Analysis, Modeling and Control of Doubly-Fed Induction Generators
for Wind Turbines. Technical report no. 464l, Chalmers University of Technology, 2003.
Department of Electric Power Engineering.
[11] Isidor Buchmann. Comparison table of secondary batteries. Website.
[12] Bo Martinsson. 30 kV 3-ledarkabel med enkel armering. Document, 2013.
[13] ABB AB-High voltage cables. XLPE Submarine Cable Systems, attachment to XLPE
land cable systems  user's guide. Document 2010-04, 2GM 5007 -sub GB rev5, ABB, 04
2010.
[14] James H.Harlow. Electric Power Transformer Engineering. SI Edition. CRC Press, Taylor
& Francis Group, second edition, 2007.
[15] REpower Systems. Repower 6.XM-Transformator ESBDatenblatt. Technical report.
[16] DIgSILENT GmbH. Digsilent powerfactory. Available as .pdf: PowerFactory Flyer.pdf.
[17] Basem Idlbi. Dynamic simulation of a pv-diesel-battery hybrid plant for o grid electricity
supply. Master's thesis, Cairo University, mars 2012.
[18] ABB. Private communication with Jorge Brichetto. Technical report, 2013. ABB-Oshore
wind connections.

63(75)

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Master thesis, Spring 2013

[19] ABB. Private communication with Mikael Svedung, 03 2013.


[20] M.A Habib, S.A.M Said, M.A El-Hadidy, and I Al-Zaharna. Optimization procedure of
a hybrid photovoltaic wind energy system. Energy, 24(11):919  929, 1999.
[21] R. Daghigh, M. H. Ruslan, A. Zaharim, and K. Sopian. Eect of packing factor on the
performance of pv/t water heater. In Proceedings of the 6th IASME/WSEAS international conference on Energy & environment, EE'11, pages 304309. World Scientic and
Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS), 2011.
[22] The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institut. Solstrlning. Technical report.
[23] ABB. Private communication with Steven Coppens, 2013. ABB - Oshore Wind Connections.
[24] GNB Industrial Power. Industrial Batteries / Network Power, Classic OCSM. Technical
Report NXSA7TEPDF01011.
[25] Antonio F. de O. falcao. Wave energy utilization: A review of the technologies. Renewable
and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(3):899  918, 2010.
[26] M. et al. Leijon. Catch the wave to electricity. Power and Energy Magazine, IEEE,
7:5054, 2009.
[27] Urban Henfridsson et al. Wave energy potential in the baltic sea and the danish part of
the north sea, with reections on the skagerrak. Renewable Energy, 32:20692084, 2007.
[28] Kester Gunn and Clym Stock-Williams. Quantifying the global wave power resource.
Renewable Energy, 44:296  304, 2012.
[29] Seabased AB (publ). Market potential. The point absorber wave energy converter technology from Seabased.
[30] Seabased AB (publ). Technical solution - Wave energy converter. The point absorber
wave energy converter technology from Seabased.
[31] Seabased AB (publ). Vgkraftspark, 2013-03-16. The wave power farm technology from
Seabased.
[32] Rafael Waters, Jens Engstrom, Jan Isberg, and Mats Leijon. Wave climate o the swedish
west coast. Renewable Energy, 34:1600  1606, 2009.
[33] ABB. Private communication with Cathy Chen, 02 2013.
[34] Petter Glantz. Dynamisk modellering av vindkraft. Master's thesis, Uppsala Universitet,
Sweden, 2013.
[35] Math Bollen Yongtao Yang. Power quality and reliability in distribution networks with
increased levels of distributed generation. Technical report.
[36] ABB AG Service Power Technologies. Oshore wind farm nordsee 1 - pre-engineering
studies, base design. Technical Report Report rev. 00, feb 2012. For internal use inside
ABB.
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Master thesis, Spring 2013

[37] Leroy-Somer. Partner lsa 52.2 xl80 4p 50 hz 6600v. Technical specication, Leroy-Somer,
2011.
[38] ABB Vsters Motors and Generators. Example of capability curve. Technical report,
apr. 2013. For internal use inside ABB.
[39] ABB Oy Motors and Generators. Technical specication - wind park generator. Technical
Report 2013JW101, apr. 2013. For internal use inside ABB.
[40] ABB. Private communication with Jan Westerlund, 03 2013.
[41] ABB Oy Transformers. Special transformers, reactor products. Available as .pdf: Reactor
products.pdf.
[42] ABB. Private communication with Rudolf Moeckli, 03 2013.
[43] ABB. Private communication with Thorulf Brattstrom, 2013. ABB-Oshore Wind Connections.
[44] Ship Power Technology Wrtsil. Wrtsil Engines  Wrtsil 32 product guide. Technical Document for diesel engine Wrtsil 32 Product Guide W32 - 4/2012, 2012.
[45] CATUM. Private communication with Karl Stapelfeldt.
[46] I. et al Arana. Energization of wind turbine transformers with an auxiliary generator in a
large oshore wind farm during islanded operation. Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions
on, 26:2792 2800, oct. 2011.
[47] ABB AG-Service Power Technologies. Analysis of inrush transients during emergency
diesel power supply. Technical Report 1 KGC 034 134, aug 2011. For internal use inside
ABB:.
[48] H. Bronzeado and R. Yacamini. Phenomenon of sympathetic interaction between transformers caused by inrush transients. Science, Measurement and Technology, IEE Proceedings, 142:323 329, juil 1995.
[49] REpower Systems AG. Ersatzstromversorgung WEA REpower 6m. Technical report.
[50] I. Erlich, M. Wilch, and C. Feltes. Reactive power generation by dg based wind farms
with ac grid connection. In Power Electronics and Applications, 2007 European Conference on, pages 110, 2007.
[51] D.F. Warne. Newnes Electrical Power Engineer's Handbook. Elsevier, second edition,
Dec 2007.
[52] Eriksson S. Direct Driven Generators for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines. digital comprehensive summaries of uppsala dissertations from the faculty of science and technology.
(ISBN-13: 978-91-554-7264-1), 2008.
[53] Hiziro
glu Hseyin R Guru, Bhag S. Electric Machinery and Transformers.
[54] Johanna Lundqvist Jonathan Sorby. Magnetic end eects in standard rotating generators.
Technical report.
65(75)

J. Berggren

Master thesis, Spring 2013

[55] Pieter Schavemaker and Lou van der Sluis. Electrical Power System Essentials. Number
ISBN: 978-0470-51027-8(H/B). Wiley, 2008.
[56] Thomas J.Overbye J. Duncan Glover, Mulukutla S. Sarma. Power system analysis and
design. SI Edition. Global Engineering: Christopher M. Shortt, fth edition, 2012.
[57] Anton Dahlgren Michael Lindgren, David Sderberg. Design av elsystem fr havsbaserade
vindkraftparker. Technical Report 08:14, february 2008.
[58] ABB Switzerland Ltd. Abb goes oshore-products and solutions for oshore wind energy.
Technical Report 3BHS353843 E01 Rev. A, Static Excitation Systems, Voltage Regulators
and Synchronizing Equipment.

66(75)

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Master thesis, Spring 2013

A Basic theory of Oshore wind farm systems


A.1

Fundamentals

The basic electrical knowledge of an electric grid is described in this section that is needed for
a good understanding of the subject investigation presented in this master thesis study.
The relationship between the voltage and current is made up by Ohms law, shown in
Equation 23

U = |Z| I =

p
R2 + X 2 I

(23)

where Z is the impedance, R the resistance, X the reactance and I is the average current.
The linetoline voltage are denoted with a subscript LL and the linetoneutral voltage
are denoted with the subscript LN in the following equations. The relationship between the
linetoline voltage and the lineto neutral voltage are given in Equation 24 below.

|ULL | =

(24)

3|ULN |

The average active power P in a singlephase system are described in Equation 25.

|ULL |I| cos

W
(25)
3
where |ULN | is the RMS value of the linetoneutral voltage, |ULL | is the linetoline voltage,
|I| is the average current and cos is the power factor.
The average threephase active power P equals three times the singlephase active power,
shown in Equation 26:

(26)
P3ph = 3|ULN ||I| cos = 3|ULL |I| cos W
P1ph = |ULN ||I| cos =

The reactive power Q of a singlephase system is given in Equation 27.

Q = |ULN ||I| sin =

|ULL |I| sin

V ar

(27)

where |ULN | is the RMS value of the linetoneutral voltage |ULL | is the linetoline voltage,
|I| is the average current and is the angle between the active power P and the reactive
power Q.
The reactive power Q of a threephase system equals three times the singlephase active
power, given in Equation 28

Q = 3|ULN ||I| sin = 3|ULL |I| sin V ar


(28)
The complex power for a single S is given by the formula in Equation 29.

S = U I = P Q

(29)

VA

The apparent power |S| is given in Equation 30.

|S| = |ULN ||I| =


|S| = 3|ULN ||I| =

p
P 2 + Q2

3|ULN |I|

67(75)

VA

(30)

VA

(31)

J. Berggren

A.2

Master thesis, Spring 2013

Generators

The basic generator theory are described in this section with a focus on the synchronous
machine as it is used in this master thesis study. First the basics of magnetic elds and
electromagnetism is explained in order to give an understanding of the generator theory. A
generator is based on the fact of the laws of electromagnetism together with the rules for
magnetic circuits [51].
When a current ows through a conductor, a magnetic eld is created that rotates clockwise
to the motion of the current. This magnetic eld will introduce a magnetomotive force (mmf )
given from Ampere's law, see Equation 32.

Hl = N I = Fm

(32)

where Fm is the mmf, H is the magnetic eld strengh, l the distance around the lines of
the magnetic eld, N number of turns in a coil and I is the current carried in each turn in a
coil [51].
This magnetic force will aect other conductors if ferromagnetic materials is present, i.e.
iron. Therefore the magnetic eld will produce a magnetic ux density B that depends on
the permeability by surrounding materials of the conductor, see Equation 33.

B = H = 0 r H

(33)

where 0 is the permeability of free space, r is the relative permeability in a ferromagnetic


material, B is the magnetic ux density and H the magnetic eld strength.
The magnetic ux corresponds to B and is given in Equation 34

= BA

(34)

Where A is the cross-section area and B the magnetic ux density.


By the previous displayed facts of magnetic circuits and by electromagnetism law's, the
fundamental generator theory can be explained. From Faraday's law of induction it can be
seen that a electromagnetic force (emf) is induced when a conductor is subjected for a varying
magnetic eld [52, 51]. The law is written in Equation 35.

(35)
t
Where Ei are the induced voltage (emf ) which is a function of the number of turns for a coil
N and the time-derivative of the magnetic ux /t.
Ei = N

This law is realised in a synchronous generator when the rotor windings are excited with
a eld current If that give rise to a magnetic ux from the rotor poles to the stator armature.
When the rotor of the generator is rotating, the magnetic eld rotates and the magnetic ux
density B at the stator coil changes with it. As a result of the change in magnetic ux in the
stator coils a voltage (emf = Ei ) are induced in the coils at the stator teeth. The operational
procedure are shown in Figure 35a and Figure 35b [51].
The synchronous machine used as a generator operate at synchronous speed which is
when the speed of the rotor is equal to the rotational speed of the the magnetic eld [53] and
operate as described in Figure 35a and Figure 35b. The characteristics operation procedures
68(75)

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Master thesis, Spring 2013

(a) Salient pole generator (0) [51]

(b) Salient pole generator (90) [51]

Figure 35: Generator motion

in a synchronous generator can be explained by the formula shown in Equation 36 where the
internal resistance of the generator Ri is neglected.

Figure 36: The equivalent circuit of a synchronous generator with the resistance of the stator winding
neglected.

= jXd I + U
Ei = jLI + U

(36)

where denotes phasors, Ei is the machines internal emf (the induced voltage in the stator
is the system
windings), I is the stator current, Xd is the machines internal reactance and U
voltage.
In complex form with the complex Equation 36 becomes the following equation [52].

Ei (cos + jsin) = U + (jXd )I(cos sin)

(37)

where the power factor angle is which is the phase angle between the current I and the
voltage Us . The angle is dierent depending if the current leads or lags the voltage which is
a factor of the type of load the generator are exposed of. If the generator are connected to
a purely resistive load the angle is zero. The load angle is the angle between noload and
load voltage of the generator. The angle is a result of the loading of the generator where the
magnetic ux in the rotor is tilted compared to the magnetic ux in the stator. In Figure 37
you can see a phasor diagram of an overexcited generator which is consuming reactive power
Q.
69(75)

J. Berggren

Master thesis, Spring 2013

Figure 37: A phasor diagram of a synchronous generator that is operating in over-exited mode with a
lagging current. The generator is Producing active and reactive power to the grid.

By controlling the excitation current in the rotor windings in the generator, the machine
can work in either under-excited or over-excited mode. In under-excited mode the generator
produce reactive power to the external grid (Q > 0) and in over-excited mode a generator
consume reactive power (Q < 0). In this way, a generator can control the power ow in a
electrical system and keep the stability of the grid. In Figure 38 this is further described.

Generator
side

The signs of the powers P and Q are referering to the generator


side (see it from a generator perspective)

-Q

Load side
Capacitance

Underexcited generator
E cos () < U
(The generator produces P and consumes Q)

Generator
inductive

Load
capacitive

+P

Resistance

Capacitive load
(Produces reactive power Q)

-P

Controlled by the
excitation current in
the rotor

Generator
capacitive

Overexcited generator
E cos () > U
(The generator Produces P and Q)

Load
inductive

Inductance

Inductive load
(Consumes reactive power Q)
Resistance

+Q
Figure 38: Under-excited mode (P > 0, Q < 0) where the generator works as a inductor (I leads U)
and over-excited mode (P > 0, Q > 0) where the generator works as an capacitor (I lags U).

70(75)

J. Berggren

Master thesis, Spring 2013

A.2.1 Magnetic end core heating limit


The heating of the end core is created by the magnetic ux distribution above the stator
core (mainly in the radial direction of the stator) that give rise to eddy currents in the stator
[54]. In under-excited mode the generator receives power from the stator side and additional
heating created by eddy currents limits the operation scheme.

A.3

Transformers

The no-load losses and the loading losses in a transformer are shown here. The no-load losses
is the magnetisation (iron) losses which occurs in the iron / steel core. They occur when a
excitation current (approximately 0.5 % of the load current) ows through the primary winding
results in a small voltage drop across the resistance of the winding and a small inductive drop
in the inductance of the winding. This is represented by R0 and the XM , see Figure 39. The
voltage drop will introduce a impedance on the primary winding of transformer which is shown
as R1 och X1 in Figure 39.

Figure 39: A schematic gure of a transformer, with all it's electrical properties both on the primary
(sending ...S ) and secondary (receiving ...R ) side of the transformer.

The no-load losses exist whenever a transformer is energised and primarily depends on
the voltage U and the frequency f. Therefore, when the transformer has reach its normal
operational mode the no-load losses are approximately constant and will not further increase
with an increased loading current. The load losses however, is increased when the transformer
have been energised and a load current ows through the transformer windings. In short the
load losses are given from the formula P = I 2 R in the transformer windings - R1 and R2
shown in Figure 39) and consist of the following parts:
Eddy currents losses caused by the leakage eld of the transformer
Stray losses due to the eect of a leakage magnetic eld inside the internal metallic

structures of the transformer.

Auxiliary losses are the power required for cooling the transformer (usually not included

in the "losses")

71(75)

J. Berggren

A.4

Master thesis, Spring 2013

Cables

The properties of a TC are explained in the following text [55].


For a MV AC cable design (< 60 kV) threecore cables are manufactured and used.
The cables used in this study are of "Hchstdter" type where all three single conductors

in the design have their own sheath (i.e. the cable works as there are three single-core
cables).

The isolation material that has been used in the TCs that are present in this master

thesis study are the plastic material XLPE (crosslinked polyethylene) as plastic is a
solid insulator.

In detail a TC design have a number of dierent parameters to spoke of. The value of the
parameters dene the cable types and are essential for the understanding of how a TC is
functioning. The series inductance L, the shunt capacitance C and the series resistance R [56].
Here follows a list of equations that describes the parameters.

Rac =

Ploss
|I|2

(38)

where the Rac are the eective resistance, Ploss is the a conductors real power loss, and I is
the RMS conductor current.
The series resistance contributes to the ohmic losses in a TC and can be described by
Equation 39.

Ploss = |I|2 Rac =

U2
Rac

(39)

The three phase ohmic losses in a TC are three times as big as the power loss for one
conductor, see Equation 40.

P3P h = 3 Ploss = 3 (|I|2 R)

(40)

The series impedance Z which includes both the series resistance R and the reactance
XL give rise to a voltage drop (series) along a TC. The series impedance for a three-phase
three-core conductor cable are described in Equation 41 [55].

U
= R + jX
(41)
I
where Z is the impedance, R the resistance and X the reactance that can consist of both a
j
1
inductive XL = jL and capacitive part XC = jC
= C
[55].
Z=

The inductive part of a TC will consume power, however the inductive part of the reactance
is small compered to the capacitive part XC that increase the power in the TC. Therefore the
inductive part XL can be neglected, QXL 0 V ar
The reactive power QT C produced in the transmission lines are then produced by the
capacitance (simplication) and is shown in Equation 42.
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J. Berggren

Master thesis, Spring 2013

QT C = QCap =

U2
XC

V ar

(42)

The complex power S and the apparent power |S| of a TC can be dened by Equation 29
and Equation 30 and is presented below:

ST C = P3P h + jQT C
|ST C | =

q
2
2
P3P
h + QT C

(43)
(44)

In this master thesis study, a PI-model of the TC system are used, the characteristics of
this model are described in order to highlight the properties of the model [57].
Used for stationary simulations and calculations that has low frequency oscillations.
Representative when short cables and transmission lines are used in simulations.
A PI-model is simple to use. The cable parameters as capacitance C, inductance L and

the resistance R are implemented from the technical specication of a cable design. In
order to calculate the current and voltage along a transmission line a number of PI-links
can be modeled together.

Figure 40: A PIlink that describes a TC, the inductance L are neglected due to the fact that the
capacitive part is much greater.

B Transients theory and calculations


The theory behinds the inrush current phenomena are explained and A transformer core
usually consists of iron, a material that can transfer magnetic ux . When a voltage is
applied to the primary side of an unloaded transformer, a current will ow through the primary
winding of the transformer. This will induce a magnetic ux through the core material and
cause magnetization of the transformer. The current is called magnetization current Im . In
situations when a transformer is taken out of service or in any way is disconnected from the
electricity grid the magnetization current is zero (Im = 0) and no current is running through
the windings. However some magnetic ux in the iron core is still present, a residual ux can
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J. Berggren

Master thesis, Spring 2013

therefore be observed. This is called the remanent ux r . When a disconnected transformer
is reconnected to the electricity grid at an instant such that the system voltage initiates a
ux mag in the transformer core that ows in the same direction as the remanent ux the
total ow will be tot = r + mag . Due to the fact that the core only can handle a certain
amount of ux it will go into saturation and draw a large current from the grid that supplies
the transformer [55]. This will result in inrush currents in the transformer.

B.1

Voltage ramping power ow calculations

The power ow when the system was energised can be characterised into a few dierent sources.
The main active power ow comes from the resistive losses in TCs and in transformers (P =
3I 2 R) together with the magnetisation losses (iron losses) in the OS- and WT- transformer.
Equation 45, Equation 46, Equation 47, Equation 48, Equation 49 where used to determine
the resistive losses.

|S|
QT C
IOS =

3U
3U

(45)

POf f ST raf o = 3 IOS 2 ROf f ST raf o

(46)

PW TT raf o = 3 IOS 2 RW TT raf o

(47)

PT C = 3 IOS 2 RT C

(48)

PResitivelosses = POf f ST raf o + PW TT raf o + PT C

(49)

|S|baseW T traf o
PmagW T traf o
|S|baseOf f Straf o

(50)

PmagOf f Straf o =

The total active power in the system POS where determined by Equation 51.

POS = PResitivelosses + PmagW T traf o + PmagOf f Straf o

(51)

The reactive power QOS in the system consists of the inductive reactive power in the OS
transformer (QXL and the reactive capacitive power in the TCs QXC . The inductive reactive
power in the WT transformer is neglected as the impedance of the WT transformer is low
compared to the OS transformer).The TC mainly consists of capacitive reactive power and
the inductive part is neglected as its is I 2 and the current when ramping the system is low.
The impedance base of the OS transformer and the WT transformer are calculated from
Equation 52.

ZbaseOf f Straf o =

Ubase 2
|S|baseOf f Straf o

XbaseOf f Straf o = ukOf f Straf o ZbaseOf f Straf o


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(52)
(53)

J. Berggren

Master thesis, Spring 2013

The inductive reactive power from the OS transformer is seen in Equation 55.

QXL = 3XbaseOf f Straf o I 2

(54)

The capacitive reactive power in the TC are seen in Equation 56

QXC = U 2 C

(55)

The total reactive power in the system are given by Equation 56

QOS = QXC QXL

(56)

B.1.1 OWF equivalent data


Most advantageous diesel gen - set system design: Half OWF energised by diesel gen-

set/UPS - system batteries in WTs. P = 3.44 MW and Q = -8.09 MVAr/2 = -4.045


MVAr, |S| = 5.3 MVA, Unom = 16 kV

OS transformer rating in proportion to diesel gen - set rating SOf ftraf o = 5.3 MVA
TC proportional to (41/6) in OWF, total length of string lstring = 2.5 + (0.7 5)=6 km.

Total length of TC 6 (41/6)) = 41 km

TC of 33 kV 630 mm2 copper MVAC type: Rcable = 0.067 Ohm/km 41 km = 2.747

Ohm

TC 33 kV 630 mm2 copper MVAC type: Ccable = 0.35 F/km 41 km = 14.35 F


The WT transformer equivalent which represent half of the OWFs WT transformers

have the rating of S = (41/6) 6 6.7 M V A = 275 M V A

C Control systems of diesel gen-sets


A diesel gen-set is not only consisting of an engine and a generator, it also includes a control
system consisting of regulators as the auto-voltage-regulator (AVR), eld current regulator
(FCR), power factor regulator (PF), Reactive power regulator etc. and limiters that keep the
synchronous generator in a safe and stable operation area [58].
The AVR is an essential part of the control system in a diesel gen-set as it protects the
generator and regulates the voltage (reactive power regulation) [17, 43].
For controlling the grid frequency (active power regualation), the speed governor of the
rotor in the generator is controlled by the diesel engine governor that increases/decreases the
produced torque on the shaft when the load demand is changed. Thereby the frequency is
stabilised kept at its rated number [17].

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