List 1 1

The currently inexplicable Enthalpy entropy
correlation (EEC) phenomenon which shows up in
chemistry biology, physics, geology and cosmology
is now suggested to arise from Space-Time-Resonance
(a hitherto neglected requirement of the general vacuum spacetime relativity of nanometer broad average sized range spaces).

The EEC phenomenon (cf. e.g. Lui & Guo ref. 1), a possible
manifestation of the Le Chatelier principle, the basis of
which only became apparent following the development of
Fluctuation Theorem concepts, creates stochastic
outcomes of chemical reactions (e.g. seen as random
ligand exchanges and randomization of structural breakup
and reformation (ref. 2)), is the basis of the Hammett and
Taft empirical linear free energy relationships (LFERs) (cf.
Leffler ref. 1) as well as the Meyer Neldel Rule in
semiconductor physics (Liu & Guo ref. 1 and ref. 3) but
perhaps the most commonly reported type of EEC is
revealed by a comparison of sets of chemical reaction rate
constants (the Arrhenius rate constants
kr = Ae-Ea/RT (eqn. 1) for thermally induced chemical
reactions (refs. 1)) which counter-intuitively, more often
than not are found to obey a common inter-relationship 
=logA/ Ea (eqn. 2, cf. Leffler ref. 1) ) { logA
(eqn. 2a)}.
Under EEC-compliant situations the enthalpic (Ea) and
entropic A terms in eqn. 1 become phenomenologically
linked by some unknown mechanism; (i.e. they are not
independent variables as is required by classical
thermodynamics). This linkage allows a single EEC effect
to influence the detailed outcomes of different classical
rate-determining chemical reaction mechanisms. An
example of this effect is seen with the thermal
dehydrochlorination of all substances having a common
structural feature, (the presence of H-C-C-Cl bonds) which
loose HCl upon heating by a single EEC-compliant process.
Here a single EEC (eqn. 2) applies to a surprisingly wide
range of different reaction conditions e.g. where the
dehydrochlorination occurs in the gas phase by an initial
rate determining homogeneous scission, or in the gas
phase heterogeneously with the involvement of free
radical chain reactions, or with the presence of absence of


active catalytic surfaces or in the liquid phase under
pressure in sealed tube conditions, or indeed under any
reaction set up whatsoever. All different starting
chlorinated C>2 organic substances treated under any
conditions where HCl is evolved, all submit to a common
thermal electronic rearrangement control process which
leads to the loss of HCl and the formation of a C=C bond
to be influenced by a common compensation control
mechanism which requires that the enthalpic and entropic
variation terms in the transition states of these
rearrangements obey a single EEC correlation: eqn. 2 (a)
(cf. Figs 1 and 2). Furthermore following an in-depth
review of the chemical kinetic database it seemed to be
possible that the same unknown over-riding and counterintuitive mechanism could also apply to all thermal
reaction processes throughout chemistry and that most or
all of the kinetic database can be arranged into sets of
EEC-compliant rate constants, which can be further
normalized to form a single equation (eqn. 2a) which
applies to any process for which the Arrhenius equation
can be applied. What creates the EEC effect is evidently
related to what establishes the stability of all chemical
molecules and their component chemical bonds, which is
likely to be related to how the electronic energy levels of
atoms and molecules are stabilized. This may e.g. involve
the zero-point vacuum energy (ref. 4). The idea (ref. 1 Liu
& Guo’s final statement) that a sub-type of EEC might
arise from a general resonance between the reacting
molecules and their environments is now extended to
suggest that a resonance effect is induced by general
relativity requirements of the inter-subatomic spaces in
atoms and molecules so that the frequency space time
resonance determines the rate of decay of the transition
state complex. This creates the EEC effect. The enthalpic
term is space fluctuation and the entropic term is time
fluctuation and the compensation is simply the
connectivity of general relativity of space and time.
The existence of EEC in chemistry while widespread, has
to a major extent been hidden in the experimental detail
and not fully discussed in print form except in rare review
articles (cf. ref. 1 key articles) (which are easily found not
to be comprehensive) which have however revealed both

the generality of the EEC phenomenon but also the
complete lack of clarity in any attempted explanation. A
reasonable hypothesis which seems to emerge from
attempts to conduct a comprehensive literature survey of
EEC is that any process which obeys the Arrhenius
equation must also potentially be subject to the EEC
control mechanism and furthermore although different
mathematical forms of the EEC effect have been
suggested, it is apparent that the same process may
underpin all of the types of EEC which have been reported,
namely a process which obeys eqn. 2a. This
circumstance, if true, means that the current ideas
underpinning classical thermodynamics are incorrect. Also
thermal energy has been incorrectly understood.
The existence of a widely occurring process may give rise to the generally- hithertoinexplicable EEC effect (which is also widely applicable) seems to indicate that
some previously unsuspected property of space and time must be considered to be
involved in the creation of the EEC phenomenon.
It is now suggested that EEC arises because the vacuum space interacts more
strongly that was hitherto thought possible with convention particulate matter
subatomic particulates (e.g. the electrons which form chemical bonds).
The production of extra-thermodynamic entropy in the vacuum is now suggested to promote EEC-like
phenomena analogously to how such an effect can arise in any solvent (which like liquid water) which can
be subject to an extra-thermodynamic space compartmentalization (cf. Liu & Guo ref. 1)
(and cf. Ref. 5 a and b, del Giudice et al. 2010 Water 2 566-86). This compartmentalization sets up regions
of space with different time flow characteristics so that the time meter which the molecule experiences is
different from that which the experimenter is using (the conventional one-direction time of classical
thermodynamics). But how to express this? The simplest idea is to use two directional time e.g. time both
positive and negative in relative proportions defined according to the simplest Fluctuation Theorem. A
better idea may be to use time in a complex number form.
All of these non-conventional time meters are equivalent to the concept of time quantization. The general
relativity principle requires each of these to be correlated to an equivalent space quantization.
The details of this needs a separate treatise however.
The following hypothesis of how the EEC effect arises is now suggested:

The coupling of heat and entropy changes arising from space fluctuation is of
relevance to a fuller understanding of the relative stability of chemical molecules.
Such fluctuation is also indicated to be the ultimate origin of EEC via how a
complex time fluctuation of the vacuum space between the subatomic particles in
chemical molecules determines the observed rate of transition state complex decay.
Let the energy of fluctuation be Ef = hω and the entropy of fluctuation ∑S f = ∂/
∂ [n (ln + / -  be (the sum of such entropy in the number (n) of space compartments/unit volume)
where  is an EEC-compliant time meter (e.g. a direct time reversal with  + and  - as in this expression or an
equivalent imaginary time fluctuation time meter).

Since the frequency of fluctuation creates both the energy and entropy effects
which can be considered separate space and time fluctuation processes;
but general relativity connects space and time; this creates the apparent nonthermodynamic link-up of supposedly independent enthalpic and entropic terms
which appears as the EEC phenomenon.

This counter-thermodynamic EEC effect is allowed because of the
universal resonance between molecules and their environments which can
control the rate of the formation and decay of the rate determining transition state
complexes which show EEC compliance which has the form  S* =   Ea for any
EEC compliant set of Arrhenius rate expressions of the form kr =Ae-Ea/RT
(where the symbols are as usually defined).

The vacuum is therefore suggested to be an
essential part of the mechanism by which heat
energy enables chemical change.
The existence of EEC per se means that the
traditional idea that the generation of heat arises
independently from the kinetic energy from the
motion of particles must be incorrect.
The inertia of the movement of these particles is
often considered to be a vacuum energy creation so
that what is essentially the extension of this idea to
the above idea of heat is a mutually supportive
That the vacuum energy or an equivalent process confers chemical reactivity by facilitating heat
energy transfer so as to create a single EEC effect may also be deduced more simply by a
consideration of how it can be simply be shown that the traditionally model of kinetic energy of heat
cannot account for the EEC compliant Arrhenius process, cf.:
if, under the proposed putative EEC-controlled reaction induced process conditions, the Arrhenius rate expression becomes in its
most general form (the normalized simplified SEEC equation, is.
EaSEEC (2a)
then, if a conventionally conceived particle movement process had been responsible for the heat (thermal) energy required for
the molecular bond activation energy (Et) in the set of Arrhenius equation kr= Ae-Ea/RT
where the normalized SEEC relationship also holds,
if the following relationship
kBT (4)
also holds
(where Et is the kinetic heat energy and kB is the Boltzman constant)
N.b., A (and logA) are ‘by definition’ required by the Arrhenius rate process to be independent of T, it becomes obvious that
where SEEC conditions hold, that
equation (2) cannot also hold,

which means that EaSEEC cannot, as previously believed, arise from an activation process using energy
derived from a conventional kinetic energy transfer process, i.e. from the ‘real’ particle kinetic energy
system. The very general nature of the SEEC phenomenon per se requires that we consider an
additional source of SEEC activation energy. Such a source is the virtual kinetic energy processes
involving the type of supposed ‘virtual’ particles or vortices which are thought to define the energy
system of the vacuum.

The existence of EEC in sets of reaction which occur in the gas phase can per se
also be used to suggest that the vacuum energy system must be involved in the
regulation of the reaction rates in such reactions. A further aspect of such rate
constants is that the values of log A in the Arrhenius equation can be some six or more
orders of magnitude greater than is rationally possible by the traditional theories of
chemical reaction. Only by involving vacuum space can such large values of log A be
easily explained.

FIG.1 (vide infra) shows a 60 data set of kr=Ae-Ea/RT where again the logA (x) and
Ea (y) values seem to be related directly viz. logA
Ea ; the trend-line again
goes through the 0,0 origin with the standard least squares fit scatter factor R2 of
This dataset contained 45 data points from 1968 plus 14 additional dehydrochlorination data points reported by
Zho & Bozzelli in 2002;
(the 1968 set had been retrieved by data mining from the abstracted peer-reviewed dehydrochlorination reaction Arrhenius rate
equation literature database in an industrial lab. in the context of using a computer modelling system of gas phase reactions
which required that all reported such rate constants be assembled. The listed data unexpectedly showed up correlations between
the numbers in the lists of rate factors. This indicted that the current theories of space time must be incorrect. However the
current theories well so well entrenched that other than private discussion of the aforementioned possibility seemed not to be
easily achievable.
The R2 scatter between the pre-1968 and post 2000 data point is similar. This indicates that the putative underlying vacuum
energy driving force is similar between these data sets.

FIG. 1

Plot of log10 A vs. Ea for dehydrochlorination reactions
from an original 1968 set (from Chem. Abs.) plus 14 additional rate
data for C2 dehydrochlorinations reported by Zho & Bozzelli in
2001, plus 0,0 as a data point.
It was found that the old and new data plotted together produced a similar R2
deviation from the trend-line as did the old data plotted separately.

Other EEC sets similar to FIG. 1 (but with only a few data points were reported
Leffler ref.1a, cf. also vide infra).

Ea log A

FIG. 2
FIG. 2 shows data from dehydrochlorination rate constants determined during experiments
specifically carried out to model polyvinylchloride decomposition (reported by Z Mayer in
“Thermal Decomposition of Poly(vinyl Chloride) and of Its Low-Molecular-Weight Model
Compounds” 1974 Marcel Dekker, p. 282 et seq.

The top curve in FIG. 2 is for gas phase dehydrochlorinations.
The bottom cure for liquid plus gas phase dehyhdrochlorinations.
The columns at the left hand side of FIG 2 show the numbers plotted.

FIG. 3
117 dehydrochlorination rate constant which includes data (from A Maccoll et al. loc.
cit.) which had been used to argue against the existence of EEC per se.

(1) Key EEC-related refs are:
Lui and Q.-X. Guo Chem Rev 2001 101 673-695,
J.E. Leffler J Org Chem 1955 20 1202-1231
D Chodera and DL Mobley Annu Rev Biophys 2013 42 121-41
had been by
FH Constable Proc Roy Soc London 1925 108A 355-375, cf. ref. 1 in Liu & Guo
(2001) loc. cit.

The first report of EEC

Cf. also the early report of EEC by DHR Barton AJ Head and RJ Williams J Chem. Soc 1951 20392046
EEC effects were also reported but not discussed by
Z Mayer “Thermal Decomposition of Polyvinyl Chloride) and of Its Low Molecular –Weight
Model Compounds”
Marcel Dekker Int. 1974 p. 282-9
L Zhu JW Bozzelli Chem Phys Lett 2002 366 445-52
Other papers relating to dehydrochlorination reaction kinetics given to me in 1968 by an ICI colleague (PJ Thomas) who had
been a co-worker of A Maccoll at U. Col. London, included info rel. to DHR Barton and coworkers cf. DA Blackadder and
Cyril Hinshelwood J Chem Soc 1958 2728 (“General discussion of energy-entropy relations”
who had thought that the existence within a compensated set of rate constants of very high (‘irrational’) values of log A might
be explained by an ‘exotic’ process in which a combinations of distant bond vibration energies could somehow be channelled
into a specific reacting chemical bond was suggested by (but this apparently was considered later not to be a credible

Cf. also M Ullah et al. Appl Phys Lett 2010 96 213303 and D Grant scribd 2012 A Hypothesis 1a37
Examples of other reports of EEC
H. Campbell and D.D. Eley Trans Faraday Soc 1940 36 854-856.
I.M. Barclay and JAV Butler ibid., 1938 34 1445-54.
[the Barclay-Butler effect (a sub-set of the EEC effect) provides a probe for the structure of liquid water in mixtures
cf. AR Henn and W Kauzman Biophys Chem. 2003 100 (103) 205-220],
J.K. Middleton et al. J Virol 2002 76 1051-1061,
O.K. Vorov et al. Biophys J 2009 97 (11) 3000-3009
[Thermal deactivation of Reoviral infective subparticles is mediated by the denaturation
of a viral surface protein {n.b. reoviruses are nonenveloped viruses}]
Several papers report compensation during food processing e.g.
C.I. Beristain et al. J Food Engineering 1996 30 405-415
[Water vapour adsorption on food]
P.C. Moyanici et al ibid., 2004
and, for hydrogen adsorption on zeolites etc. (cf. web)
Cf., for the related electronic physics
EEC effect (the Meyer Neldel Rule) see, e.g.

R. Widenhorn et al. (ref. 3)

EEC in Geology
Cf. A Yelon et al. Rep Prog Phys 2006 69 1145; cf. ref (4)

EEC in Cosmology
The enthalpy-entropy compensation effect may contribute to cosmic scale correlations (where log entropy is
plotted vs. log mass) cf. Menas Kafatros e-book web “Problem of Observation and Cosmology and the Big Bang” .

(2) Stochastic Structural Reorganization
Although the following papers use classical thermodynamics to attempt to describe
the above phenonomena it is now indicated that the EEC related iso-kinetic process is
a more likely cause but rather than a single iso-kinetic temperature it seems that
natural systems do not exhibit temperature uniformity under the conditions where
stochastic rearrangements arise. This means that stochastic process are observed over
a wide range of measured temperatures above a critical value.
For experimentally observed structural reorganization throughout chemistry see the
papers published J.R. Van Wazer et al. in e.g. J. Amer Chem Soc during the
nineteen sixties and earlier, cf. also e.g. American Scientist 1962 50 450
NE Aubrey and JR Van Wazer J Amer Chem Soc 1964 86 20 and D Grant J Apply
Chem Biotechnol 1974 24 49-58; cf. D. Grant 2010 web Scribd ‘The Obesity Epidemic’.
[cf. Cf. J R Van Wazer & D Grant ‘Exchange of parts between molecules at equilibrium. V. Alkyl-terminated chain polysulfides and poly-selenides’ J Amer. Chem. Soc 86 3012-3017
and also e.g. D Grant (1967) ‘Redistribution reactions in polymeric alkyl silicates’ J Inorganic Nuclear Chem. 1967 29 69-81
and ‘ The rearrangement polymerization of phosphorous acid with acetic anhydride’ Eur Polymer J (1979) 15 1161-1165.
cf. also refs cited in D Grant J Polymer Sci. Polymer Letters Edition 1978 13 1-9.
Cf. also the unusually behaviour of liquid water structure e.g. as indicated by Wiggins or Pollack phenomena.
This may be related to infrared spectroscopic overtone effects cf. D. Grant WF Long FB Williamson (1991) ‘Heparinpolypeptide interaction’ Biochemistry J. 277 569-571; (cf. ‘Near and fundamental region IR spectroscopy of heparin-metal
cation complexes suggests involvement of water molecules in the complexion’ NIR News 1991 9-13; cf. also 15-18, 19-21 and
22-24); cf. also D Grant WF Long FB Williamson (1988) ‘Polystyrene surfaces may require structured water for effective cell
adhesion’ Biochemical Soc Trans 16 1029-30.
How liquid water might be a stochastic EEC –effect determined substance class which generates detailed substructure
fluctuations which have a biological significance is discussed in greater detail in

D Grant 2012 web Scribd 96573303 ‘A Hypothesis1a37’ (the first half of this document
presents a preliminary general discussion of the general-throughout-science EEC effect).

The Fluctuation Theorem (cf. ref. 5) and the various EEC phenomena which shows up in various forms throughout chemistry,
biology, physics, (and possibly also in geology and cosmology, cf. ref. 1) apparently arise because of a deeper requirement for a
stochastic deterministic balance. This means a consideration of the association between EEC, Fluctuation Theorem determined
stochastic behaviour in chemistry can offer insight into the general-throughout-science stochastic deterministic balance law. This
especially concerns a new formulation of time along the lines suggested by the Fluctuation Theorem which gave critical insight
into the scope of the second law of thermodynamics, and more generally allows a major reappraisal of the status of determinism
in nature.
Examples where the second law is replaced by the Fluctuation Theorem (i.e. where stochastic rather the deterministic functions
are required to be used for internal energy) are found e.g. in fluid mechanics (cf. ref. 5b) where the spontaneous increase in
entropy required by the second law is replaced by a significant amount of decrease in entropy are found in Couette flow where he
second law violation can occur for several seconds (not therefore as sometimes stated Fluctuation Theorem reverse entropy
does not only arise for very short periods of time). This applies to cholesteric liquids (cf. AR Henn W Kauzman ‘New
considerations of the Barclay-Butler rule and the behaviour of water dissolved in organic solvents Biophys. Chem. 2003 10
205-220 (n.b. the Barclay-Butler rule is a sub-class of EEC).
Similarly the formation of micelles is a Fluctuation Theorem related process as is the formation of vortices which jump about
(fluctuate) in fluids (e.g. in industrial mixers).
The perturbation of an underlying linear dependence of entropy and enthalpy change can also be used systematically to probe the
structure of aqueous solutions containing water and in Brownian motion a similar process seems to cause the observe
Fluctuation-Theorem-determined motion of a bead towed through water (see ref. 5).
It also seems likely that the R Feynman ‘anything goes as regards the electron in time and space’ is an example of the dominance
of stochastic behaviour of the makeup of the quantum vacuum and idea which can be extended to suggest that all chemical and
physical interactions. However a complex rather than a real number time process may apply to the gives rise to the
EEC effect producing Fluctuation (with a probability which depends exponentially on entropy x time).

(3) R Widenhorn et al. J Appl Phys 2001 89 8179 reported a compensation
curve with >222,000 individual data (pixel) points from a charge coupled device chip
dark current, which seems to be an analogous effect to noise in electronic circuits (RTS noise) which obey the
Arrhenius equation (perhaps including the compensation effect but as yet there is an insufficient number of data
points in a study reported by J Pavelka et al. Radioeng 2011 20 (1) {ref. 4-1}.
[A Yelon et al. 2006 Rep Prog Phys 69 1145]
(Multi-excitation entropy MEE: its role in thermodynamics and kinetics)
This is a review of The Compensation Law the Isokinetic Law and the Meyer–Neldel Rule (MNR)
[Examples (are given by Yelon et al.) from chemistry, condensed matter physics , biology and geology]
When a fluctuation involving a large number of excitations occurs e.g. when a large activation energy is overcome there must be
a large entropy associated with this fluctuation.
There is a tendency to neglect entropy (difficult to determine) in modelling kinetic processes
The idea of a total entropy of which the MEE is a part is introduced as is the correlation between the two empirical parameters
encountered in MEE.
Cf. NF Uvarov et al. J Solid State Chem 1986 62(10 1-10
(The compensation law for conductivity of ionic crystals)
A linear dependence of the form log A = 21Ea +5.3 is observed.
The conductivity pre-factor A is specified as a function of the conductivity activation energy Ea for a large series of alkali halide
type crystals and of super-ionic conductors (SIC). A linear dependence of the form logA =2.1 Ea + 5.3 is observed for classic
ionic conduction with values of Ea>0.9eV as well as for SIC with Ea >0.4eV
Such behaviour , the EEC effect also known as the compensation law (CL) cannot be understood within the framework of the
conventional assumption of temperature-dependent Ea values.
It applies to defect formation and effect migration.
Linert W and Kudryavtsev Coord Chem Rev 1999 190-102 405-45)
(Iso-kinetic and iso-equilibrium relationships in spin-crossover systems)
Reviewed the theory of the iso-kinetic relationship [IKR] (or the compensation effect) and its connection to the generalized linear
free energy relationships and its application to systems exhibiting spin-crossover both in the solid and solution states was
Fig 1 in this paper showed a schematic van’t Hoff plot. Arrhenius plots (ln k vs. 1/T) correspond to negative H#
Fig 2 s in this r ef. howed how a ‘genuine’ IKR can be detected. This needs a common point of intersection of the Arrhenius plots

(4) For discussion of Statistical Electrodynamics (SED)
See TH Boyer Phys Rev D 1975 11 790 ibid. 1984 29 1096; HE Putoff ibid. (1987) 35 3266,
ibid. 39 2337; Cole internet. Cf. also AD Sakhaov DAN SSR 1968 DP Dulk Class Quantum
Grav 1995)12 2499.
Cf. e.g. Quantum vacuum energy extraction based on stochastic electrodynamics (SED) theory cf. U.S. Pat.
7379286B2; cf., M Ibison and B Haish Phys Rev A (1996) 54 (4) 2732 (Quantum and classical statistics of the
electromagnetic zero point field).

The present paper indicates that EEC may be a SED-related phenomenon.

Cf. also ref. 5a.

(5) Cf. G.M. Wang et al. Phys Rev Let 2002 89 05061
This paper produced experimental evidence of Fluctuation Theorem entropic variation in liquid water and
offered the first experimental proof of a reversal of second law entropy generation for less than one micro sized
particles suspended in water over two seconds time.

(5a) Cf. The recent illustration of how Fluctuation Theorem related stochastic effects determine fluid
mechanics and related processes is set out in the paper by M Ostofa-Staraewski entitled ‘Second law
violations, continuum mechanics and permeability’ Continuum Mech. Thermodynamics DOI
10.1007/s00161-015-0451-4. (Here it is shown that entropy can be considered to be a ‘submartingal’).
The spacetime fluctuation process must also therefore apply to all chemical molecular time variations and hence the EEC effect
and how time fluctuation is related to this by a relativistic fluctuation of space-time resonance can be suggested to arise by the
frequency of this resonance being the principal driver of the rate of chemical reactions.
Fluctuation can alternatively be predicted to arise from vacuum fluctuations according to traduitionaly quantum mechanical
theory; cf.

(5b) E del-Giudice et al. Phys Rev Lett 1988 61 1085989.

describes theoretical calculations using QED theory which seem to indicate that molecular complexity information might be
exported from the vacuum into liquid water.
Cf. also Water 2010 2 566-586.
The reality of the existence of the (potentially complex structured) electromagnetic quantum vacuum is also demonstrated by the
Casimir effect, the Lamb shift, spontaneous emission, van der Walls bonds and the Ahranov Bohm effect.
The Casimir cavity effect in water capillaries may enable the formation of water superstructure (perhaps mimic that of the
vacuum subspace e.g. having a grain structure of sizes around 1nm) and be the energy source of the Pollack water layers at
sulphonated surfaces and also of the Wiggins high and low density forms of water (information about these concepts are avail. by
using them as web search terms).

(5c) cf. also PMID 20640822

which describes a ghost nucleic acid information transfer phenomenon which
possibly arises from a vacuum energy/structure –related mechanism of micro space-time fluctuation resonance.

[Cf. P. Ball July 2013 Edition of Chem. World (Royal Society of Chemistry, London) alluded to the
del Giudice hypothesis of water superstructure generation via a quantized vacuum field effect in the
context of how ghost DNA homeopathy might arise].

(5d) JA Macken in a treatise entitled ‘The Universe is only Spacetime’ (web) takes forward previous
ideas about why the energy of the vacuum could be the driver of all observed phenomena. Macken
especially succeeds in explaining why the totality of this energy (which eludes observation by
cosmological methods) dominates the quantum mechanical interpretations of the universe which now
includes gravitational waves afforded by Planck scale spacetime vacuum energy vortices (‘rotars’).
The fundamental particles and forces of physics arise out of a single-vacuum field system. This
hypothesis does not discuss the Fluctuation Theorem and its associated EEC phenomenon which
disallows the deterministic view of the universe replacing it with a stochastic universe (which rqruies
the occurrence of a dramatic reversal of time in parts of space) and therefore Macken does require to
consider the evdidence the reversal of time is a valid concept; he instead restricts his discussion to rate
of relativistic time diminution (i.e. a small scale process, i.e. time reversal occurs but only slightly) for
space restriction as required by general and special relativity.