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1965 Br. J. Appl. Phys. 16 1169

(http://iopscience.iop.org/0508-3443/16/8/316)

View the table of contents for this issue, or go to the journal homepage for more

Download details:

IP Address: 132.248.12.54

The article was downloaded on 14/06/2010 at 19:01

1965, VOL. 16

J. C. AMSON

Churchill College, University of Cambridge

MS. received 2nd February 1965, in revised form 31st March 1965

Abstract. A general expression for the Lorentz force in the molten tip of an arc

electrode is derived from the surface integral of Maxwell stress. The Lorentz force

in typical situations is calculated and its variation and eEect during the formation and

detachment of the molten tip are discussed. Values much larger than those customarily

associated with molten tips are seen to appear towards the end of the tip detachment

cycle.

1. Introduction

Consider an electric arc in a gas atmosphere, one of whose electrodes (of either polarity)

is a thin rod o r wire. Heat from the arc process and the flow of current through the wire

can cause the tip of the wire to melt. The molten tip thus formed is often detached as a

droplet from the electrode and transferred through the arc by a combination of electromagnetic, fluid-dynamic, and gravitational forces. If the electrode wire as it melts is

advanced steadily to maintain a quasi-steady system in which the arc length and current

etc. fluctuate only slightly during the cycle of melting and detachment of the electrode tip,

the process of tip detachment can become regular. Such a well regulated system is the

basis, for example, of the automatic consumable-electrode welding process (see Amson

1962 for a short bibliography of the process). (Typical rates of droplet detachment from

the tip of an aluminium wire, & in. diameter, in an argon arc, vary between 1 per second

at 30 A to over 1000 per second at 350 A, the electrode feed speeds being 1 a2 and 14 cm sec-l

respectively.)

Gravity is not always a predominant force in tip detachment, since detachment can take

place coaxially with the electrode wire, regardless of the systems orientation, providing

the current is high enough. Forces other than gravity arise from the interaction of the

electric current and its own magnetic field. The direct electromagnetic forces are the

Lorentz forces within the body of the molten tip prior to detachment; the indirect ones are

those due to the flow of arc plasma and the gas about the tip of the wire, induced by the

Lorentz forces in the conducting arc plasma itself. These flows are often violent, and

plasma velocities of the order of 1 k m sec1 are not unusual, whilst detached droplets with

a mass of about 10 mg, ir, free flight along the arc axis, have often been observed cinematically to receive accelerations of over 100 g from such plasma jet streams (Amson 1962,

Maecker 1955, Wells 1962, Amson and Salter 1963).

In this paper we study the contribution to the forces of tip detachment arising from the

axial component of Lorentz force in the molten tip. For simplicity we only consider a

symmetrical arrangement, i.e. one in which the current, the magnetic field, the droplet at

the tip, and the arc are all disposed symmetrically with respect to the axis of the cylindrical

wire electrode. This restriction also ensures that whatever torques appear within the

molten tip shall have axial symmetry, and hence that the resulting force acting on the

droplet is torque-free. When the system is not symmetric, the combination of thrust and

torque in the detaching tip may well explain the very different motions of droplets observed

in this situation (Needham 1963, British Welding Research Association Report A1/38/63).

Whilst the radial components of Lorentz force produce an increase of pressure throughout

a conductor in general, this contributes nothing to the axial force on the conductor in the

absence of fluid motion in the latter. But when fluid motion is present, and especially for

example in the compound conductor formed by the interior of the molten tip of an arc

1169

1170

J. C. Amson

electrode and the arc plasma about its exterior, the situation can alter radically and ad&.

tional axial forces, the so-called magnetokinetic forces, can appear (Amson and Salter

1963, Serdjuk 1962). Both these two further aspects of Lorentz force in the molten tip

of an arc electrode lie beyond the scope of the present study, and must be reserved for a

later investigation.

2. General theory

We shall use a right-handed coordinate system and the notation shown in figure 1.

'.

\

Melting interface

Molten droplet

41 \

\i?r"%.

I=0

A Is.0

I

Figure 1. Typical form of a pendent droplet at the molten tip of an arc electrode, showing

notation used in the text. a maximum droplet radius, b wire radius, T stress vector, n normal

vector.

The Lorentz force L on a conductor in a magnetic field can always be represented by

the surace integral of the Maxwell stress tensor 9:

L=

. dS.

The absolute magnitude of the stress tensor Y is & p p o H 2(Abraham and Becker 1944,

Landau and Lifshitz 1960), independent of the stress direction, where p is the relative

permeability of the conductor ( p = 1 in the molten tip since its temperature is then above

the Curie point), p o = 477 x IO-' is the permeability constant, H = I(r)/2nr is the magnitude of our magnetic field strength vector H and I(r) is the total current enclosed by the

circle of radius Y about the z axis. The direction of the stress at the surface of the conductor is such that the magnetic field H there always bisects the angle between the stress T

and the outwards surface normal vector n. It is easy to see that T is always directed inwards and perpendicular to the surfaces of our conductor.

In general the axisymmetric surfaces of a molten tip are described by two pairs of rela) the

tionships, namely Y = r(s), z = z(s) for the outer surface, and r = ?(U), y = y ( ~ for

1171

interfacial surface between the molten tip and the still unmelted wire. The total Lorentz

force in the molten tip is then

L=

SJ

F p

iJ^

. dSp f

FQ

. dSB

(BB)

(AB)

from which we can calculate the magnitude of the axial component in a downwards direction as

The following assertion shows that the non-conducting surfaces do not affect this quantity.

The Lorentz force in an axisymmetric conductor is independent of the suvfaceprojile of any

zone where the surface current density is zero.

For supposej(s) is defined over the interval [0,S ] such thatj(s) = 0 for s1 d s < spand

is arbitrary elsewhere, and sl, se are such that 0 s1 < s2 < S but otherwise arbitrary,

then the contribution to the Lorentz force from the outer surface of the conductor is

<

1 [(

s

- pOr

S?

s,

j ( s ) r(s) ds

s

S

-+

j(s) r(s) ds

] 2 r:)*

--

S?

Here the first and third members of Lo are obviously independent of the profile function

r(s) in the zone [s, s2]. The second member reduces to

SI

where b,, b, are the radii of the points on the surface at sl, sp respectively, and I , is the

current enclosed by the circle of radius b, (or b2 for that matter, since no current emerges

from the zone [s, s,]). Thus the second member is also independent of the profile function

r(s) in Isl, s,] since I,, b,, b2 are each themselves independent of it there. Thus Lo is independent of the shape of the conductor in [s, sz]. Since s1 and s, are arbitrary in [0,S ]

the assertion follows.

The contribution from the non-conducting zone [sl,s2] is the same as if the actual conductors surface was replaced by a coaxial cylinder and an annular disk with radii b, and b2,

since the contribution from the cylinder is zero by symmetry, and from the disk is just

3 p o l l 2 log (b,/b,). Moreover, if b, > b, the contribution hinders detachment of a molten

tip, and if b2 < b, the contribution assists detachment. The contribution is nil when

s1 = 0, whatever s, may be, since

b

lim 112 log 2 = O

s,+o

bl

that is, a non-conducting cap at the apex of a molten tip contributes nothing to the

Lorentz force Lo.

We may assumej(u) = j , constant, in the first member of L above. Further, the interface BB can usually be approximated by a cone, and then this first member reduces to

1172

J . C. Amson

(p,,/l6~) I d 2 (where I d (<I ) is the current actually passing through the molten tip). This

value is independent of the cone angle, as can easily be shown. Accordingly, the contribution Li from the interface BB is the same as if the interface was a flat disk. For the

remainder of this work we shall adopt these assumptions and in particular that the first

member of L is (p0/16r)16. When the current density is uniformly distributed over the

S

= j = I/A = constant,

where A

= 277

Y(S)

ds is the area of

the outer surface. The contribution Lo from the outer surface is then

where

[I

p(s) =

r(s) ds]

[J

Y(S)

dx1-I

and P(S) is a function depending only on the profile of the tip. Thus Lo consists essentially

of the product of the square of the current passing through the tip, and a coefficient whose

value is determined solely by the shape of the molten tip. Similar expressions can readily

be calculated for linear or Gaussian distributions of the current density.

Two factors influence the value of the integrated stress over the outer surface of the tip

more than any others; these are the shape of the surface arid the way in which the current

is distributed over the surface.

The shape of the surface is the result of a number of difTerent forces. The mass of the

tip is influenced by gravity; the atmosphere about the drop is in motion, giving rise to aerodynamic and plasmadynamic forces ; thermal and electromagnetic convection inside the

tip produces additional surface forces. Though the surface energy of the tip reacts against

these many forces. its own nature is modified to an unknown extent by the arc root

mechanisms. (At the anode of our arcs, current densities range between 1 and 60 k A cm-l,

power densities between 6 and 1000 kw cm-I; at a cathode, values up to 100 times larger

than these can occur (Ecker 1961). Again, nearly all these factors depend on the polarity

of the tip, and on which metals, gases, gas pressures, impurity levels and operating modes

are being used in any given situation, Moreover, the magnitude and disposition of the

forces often depend on the shape of the tip itself. Consequently it is very difficult to

determine theoretical tip profiles. The best we can do at present is to observe experimental profiles, to assign approximate formulae to them, and then use these formulae in

our expressions for the Lorentz force.

In a similar way the current density distribution depends on so many arc-physical circumstances, that only the simples: specifications of its distribution function are reasonable.

For the anode of a non-consumable-electrode arc, the current distribution may be either

almost Gaussian or else concentrated in a fairly wide axially central zone at almost uniform

density (Nestor 1962). However, almost nothing is known about the comparable situation

in a consumable-electrode arc because of the practical difficulties that have so far prohibited its investigation. For the cathode, the current is always concentrated at such high

but uncertain densities in the small cathode spot, and nowhere else, that the distribution

may again be represented either as a disk of constant current density or by a Gaussian

function of very tight concentration. The overall shape of the molten cathodic tip is then

often irrelevant to the calculation of Lorentz force. With high melting point, high density

metals of good thermionic emittance, such as tungsten, molybdenum and zirconium, tip

detachment from the cathode often occurs not by whole droplets of roughly the same

diameter as the wire, but as a rapid succession of micro-droplets which first appear as small

protuberances somewhere near the apex of the molten tip (G. R. Salter private communication, Cooksey and Milner 1962). If we regard such protuberances as cathode tips

1173

themselves, then the distribution of current will be with respect to the surface of the protuberance alone and not the whole of the molten tip, and the remarks made about the anode

tips will apply here as well.

We shall take advantage of the many observations, made by high-speed cine photography

during recent years, of the shapes adopted by the molten tips of consumable arc-electrodes

(G. R. Salter private communication, Cooksey and Milner 1962, Needham et al. 1960,

Ishizaki 1963, Greene 1960),and calculate the Lorentz force in tips whose shapes are

simple geometrical approximations to those observed.

1

1

,'Arc mantle

Conduction zone

'

:

E

!

rd<r

___________

-- I

--='

--_______e-

( i i ) a=b

ii) a r b

I

I

( i i i ) 04

Figure 2. Typical approximate droplet shapes in the (i) pre-transition, (ii) transition and (iii)

post-transition modes of droplet detachment from the molten tip of an arc electrode.

Figure 2 illustrates the typical approximations to the tip shapes usually encountered in

the three principal modes of operation in the so-called free flight type of transfer (in which

the arc gap is never short-circuited by the detaching tip of the electrode) when using aluminium, copper, or mild steel electrodes in an argon atmosphere, for example. As is

evident from the survey of metal transfer characteristics by Cooksey and Mi!ner (1962),

these particular forms are notable for their symmetry, regularity, and reproducibility, but

do by no means exhaust the extensive catalogue of forms of transfer recorded to date.

Case (i): n > b

Here we readily calculate that

"1

a sin

+ log ___

b

- pLonal

0

[f

+ d+.

Assuming that j(+) is uniform, and hence related to j ( r ) (already assumed uniform in $2)

bv

I

(1 - cos @)j(+)= nb2

we can complete the integration above and, after simplifying the result, obtain

J. C. Amson

1174

1

2

2

P =--og-l a sin CD - -1 b

4 1 - cos CD + (1 - cos C D ) Z log 1 -k cos @ '

This value for L was calculated by Greene (1960) using a more direct method only applicable

with ease when bothj(q5) andj(r) are constants.

The shape coefficient P can be conveniently written as the sum of two independent

functions, P = P(a) P(CD), where

a 1

P(a) = log - - b 4

P(@) = log sin Q, -

1

,

2

1 - cos @ (1 - cos CD)2 log 1

+ cos @

where P(a) depends only on the ratio between the maximum tip radius a and the wire

radius b, and P ( 0 ) depends only on the extent CD to which the conduction zone covers the

droplet surface (see figure 3). Whilst P(a) is a simple increasing function of its argument,

-0.5-

(0)=

l o g '6- I 4' 0 2 6

'

P(Q,) reveals the way in which the tip profile intervenes in the Lorentz force values: the

latter grow rapidly from negative to positive as the conduction zone spreads out over the

tip's lower surface, and then begin to shrink again as the conduction zone spreads even

further up the tip on to the diminishing area of the tip's shoulders.

Case (ii): a = b

This is a special case of case (i), where @ = $T, fixed, and a = b. When, as above,

j(+) andj(r) are constants and related, then their relation depends on the height c of the

cylindrical collar CB' :

I _ _1- ~

j(q5) = __

27b2 1 cia'

In this case

where

P(c) = -

I*.o PP(c)

4a

(i

- log

4)(1 f

f2)-'

1175

Figure 4. Variation of the Lorentz force coefficient P(c) with the relative droplet length c/a.

This is a further specialization, insofar as the current I d actually passing through the

molten tip proper is now only part of the total current I. Here L = (p&) Id2P(C), the

coefficient P(c) being the same as in case (ii).

It is useful, as shown by Amson and Salter (1963), to combine the separate equations

in the three cases above into the single equation

To do this we make two assumptions, both of which appear plausible in the light of

observation, but difficult to test directly. First, when a > b, the area A of the conduction

zone on the tip's outer surface remains constant and equal to A" (the area it has when

a = b); second, when a S b, then I d = C I and c is a function solely of alb. Then

cos@ = 1 -

A*

__

27i-a'

and we can substitute for cos 0 in the coefficient P(aj (case (i)) thus converting it into

P{O(a/b)},a function not of @ but of aib. Also, for fixed c, the coefficient c2P(c)(case (iii))

is a function of a/b. Thus for fixed c, we have

P(4

P{@(a/b)}

(a > b)

4=

a'P(c)

(a d b)

q being a function solely of aib as required. This form of the function is shown in figure 5 ,

using the specific values c = +a and a = (a/b)?.

alb

Figure 5. Variation of the Lorentz force coefficient q with the relative size of the droplet a/b.

1176

J. C. Amson

The two assumptions behind q are in fact assumptions about the relationships be:ween

the current I, current density j , and tip size a. For if current I passes through just the

entire surface A* of the tip whose radius is a = b (case (ii))at a densityj* = I*/A*, then

since I < I when a > b, but A = A* by assumption, we have

which does not appear to contradict the experimental evidence. Similarly, since I

when a < b, and A = (a/b)2A X (by geometrical similarity), so

> I*

and

>j * whenever a(b/a)* 2 1, for example when a = ( ~ / bas) ~above, or when in

general a = a2/bb, with bib, 2 1 (where bo is the critical electrode radius as defined by

Amson (1962)). Here again j ( u < b ) >j * appears to be supported experimentally. Thus we

see that our two assumptions imply the wider assumption that current density and total

current are related, in that low or high values of each occur together.

We now study the changes that take place in the korentz force during the growth-cycle

of the molten tip. This is an important aspect of the detachment of droplets from the

molten tip of an arc electrode that does not appear to have received any attention before.

Let us remind ourselves once again that we can expect no generality in our treatment at

this stage of our knowledge. We can however construct a sequence of droplet profiles

which approximate an actual droplets profile-cycle, one which has all the essential features

of the growth, necking-down, and detachment of a symmetric droplet from a molten tip

of an electrode. The korentz force can now be calculated for each profile in the sequence.

Such a profile is shown generally, in figure 6, and the corresponding sequence of such

profiles in figure 7. The geometrical construction of the profiles is deliberately naive and

yet remains quite representative at least of those associated with medium diameter wires

in commonly used metals; droplets from small diameter wires tend to have rounded

shoulders near the wires melting zone, their cycle usually starts further along the sequence

shown, and their neck during detachment is often more attenuated and filamentary-but

approximate pendent droplet profile, showing

the definition of the timing parameter B.

droplet profiles during one complete cycle of

droplet growth and detachment.

1177

these are details, and their inclusion here would not substantially change the form of the

conclusions reached in this section. The 'timing' of this droplet cycle is not on a uniform

natural time scale of course, but is referred instead to a simple geometrical parameter (in

this case the angle j3). Some relation between j3 and natural time can readily be obtained

from a suitable inspection of an actual growth-cycle (cf. the illustrations of Needham

et al. 1960, Ishizaki 1963); the relation is non-linear, especially near the value j3 = 90",

i.e. at the onset of neck-down.

The results of the Lorentz force calculations under the assumption of a uniform distribution of current density over the entire surface of the droplet, are shown in figures 8,

9, IO. The gross Lorentz force at constant current (i.e. the force that exists in the total

volume of the molten tip; see figure 8) is at first negative, acting to retain the incipient

droplet. After becoming positive, the force reaches a maximum value of about

0.18 (p,,/47) I 2 newtons, the value adopted for the stylized droplets employed by Amson

(1962). Thereafter the force diminishes as the neck forms rapidly, and it becomes once

!42.5"

Figure 8. Variation of the gross Lorentz force coefficientl(p) in a detachhg droplet (assmir,g

uniform current density distribution over all the droplet surface, and constant droplet current).

54

h

QL

c

90"

105"

120"

I'mn

XIo

B

Figure 9. Variation of the net Lorentz force

coefficients ma(& and mb(p) in a detaching

droplet (assuming uniform current density

over all the droplet surface, and comtant

droplet current).

coefficient n(p) at the equator of the neck of a

detaching droplet (assuming uniform current

density distribution over all the droplet

surface, and constant droplet current).

1178

J. C. Amson

again negative (retentive). This last reversal of sign shows that the gross Lorentz force

can obviously not be wholly responsible for detachment. We must look further at the

division of Lorentz force between the parts of the droplet above and below the equator

of the droplet's neck, as soon as the latter appears (figure 9).

Let La and Lb stand for the values of the Eorentz force in the parts of the molten tip

above and below the droplet equator, respectively. Since there is no neck before ,B = go',

we have La = 0 and the gross Lorentz force L = the net Lorentz force Lb, for 0 ,f3 90'.

Between ,8 = 90" and R, N l l l " , La and Lb are both positive and both are aiding detachment. But at about ,B = l l l " , the net Lorentz force Lain the shoulders of the droplet

has once again vanished and a detaching force now exists in the lower droplet alone, whose

value is again about 0.18 (po/47r)P newtons, the same as the gross value for the whole

droplet at that point. Thus at his critical value ,B = 111" in the droplet cycle, the positive

(detaching) Lorentz force ceases to occupy the whole droplet and becomes concentrated

in the lower droplet. Thereafter the upper part of the droplet is the seat of only a retaining

force. We might say that up to /3 = 111" the droplet is merely growing ready for detachment, but that detachment properly commences when ,B = 111" and L = 0.18 (p0/4ir)1s

newtons, and continues throughout the shrinking of the droplet's neck. The upper part

of the droplet is then being forced upwards (La negative) whilst the lower part is being

forced downwards (Lb positive), and the combined result is the appearance of a 'Lorentz

tension' at the neck's equator (figure 10) with values T = Lb - La which increase very

rapidly indeed as the necking-down proceeds. At the same time the ability of the neck

to withstand this tension is shrinking as rapidly as the neck's radius. This combination of

rising tension and falling retention will readily account for the marked and puzzling acceleration of a tethered droplet approaching detachment so often observed in practice, quite

apart from the additional acceleration to be derived from the increasing surface area of

the droplet exposed to the plasma streams about it.

The infinitely large values apparently attainable by Laand Lb as /? tends to 150" (and

the neck radius tends to zero) will not of course be attained in reality, since these values

are calculated on the assumption that the current density remains uniform over the whole

droplet surface, which in turn implies that a large proportion of the current will continue

to flow into the detaching droplet through the vanishing neck. Clearly this will not

happen; there will come a point when the current must dispose itself afresh throughout the

entire conductor comprising the electrode tip, droplet, and arc, in order to secure for

itself the paths of least overall resistance, and then the arc root will vacate the almost

insulated lower droplet and concentrate itself anew on the fresh shoulders of the wire.

In fact this point will be delayed for some time even though the resistance of the filamenting

neck is increasing rapidly in response to its shrinking diameter and rising temperature.

For apart from any arc heat proper, the resistive heating of the neck and its vicinity will

augment the supply of metal vapour from this region and this will produce a compensating

reduction in the local arc resistance. Unfortunately the shift of current from the droplet

to the shoulders is not yet identifiable under observation, since this copious production of

metal vapour is nearly always seen to persist even after the droplet has become detached

and is in flight across the arc. The actual values of T, La, L b , as the droplet approaches

very close to detachment will reach maxima which may still be very large; after this, T

and Lb will cease to grow, will diminish, and then vanish as the neck severs, La will then

become L again at a value equal to that of an incipient droplet at some earlier point in the

cycle; and the whole cycle will repeat itself.

< <

5. Conclusions

(1) The Lorentz force in the molten tip of an arc electrode can be found by integrating

the Maxwell stress over the total surface of the tip; when current density is uniformly

distributed over the surfaces the result can be expressed as the product of a constant, the

square of the total current passing through the tip, and a coefficient which depends on

the shape of the tip.

1179

(2) The Lorentz force in an axially symmetric tip is independent of the shape and size

of the melting interface if this is conical or flat.

(3) The Lorentz force in an axisymmetric conductor is independent of the surface profile

of any zone where the surface current density is zero; the integrated Maxwell stress there

has a particularly simple form.

(4) The Lorentz force in molten tips with empirically determined profiles can be readily

evaluated when these profiles lend themselves to simple geometric approximation; in

certain instances the Lorentz force can then be expressed as the product of a constant,

the square of the total current passing through the tip, and a coefficient depending solely

on the ratio of the diameters of the tip and the electrode wire.

(5) Calculation of the Lorentz force in a sequence of tip profiles, representative of the

growth and detachment cycle of a droplet on the molten tip, reveals that Lorentz force at

first hinders detachment, then assists it, and finally promotes it as soon as the neck of the

droplet has been substantially formed.

(6) A new concept-'Lorentz tension'-can be defined and seen to play an important

part in the severance of a detaching droplet from the parent tip of an arc electrode; an

evaluation of the components of the Lorentz tension in the shrinking neck of a droplet

reveals the rapid rise to large values of the forces aiding detachment in the last phase of

the detachment cycle ; this behaviour could then account for the frequently observed inrush of acceleration to the droplet.

Acknowledgments

This paper is condensed from Report A1/35/63 prepared for the A1 Committee of the

British Welding Research Association, whose permission to publish is gratefully recorded.

References

ABRAHAM,

M, and BECKER,R, 1943, Electricity and Magnetism (London: Blackie), Chaps 5, 8.

AMSON,J. C., 1962, Brit. Weld. J., 9, 23449.

AMSON,J. C., and SALTER,G. R., 1963, Brit. Weld. J., 10, 472-83.

C. J., and MILNER,

D. R., 1962, Proc. Conf. Physics of Welding Arc, London (London:

COOKSEY,

Institute of Welding).

ECKER,G., 1961, Erg. exact. Natnr. Wiss., 33, 1-104.

GREENE,

W. J., 1960, Trans. Amer. Inst. Elect. Engrs, Part 2, 194203.

ISHIZAKI,

K., 1963, Japan Weld. J . , 32, 1047-53.

LANDAU,L. D., and LIFSHITZ,

E. M., 1960, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Oxford:

Pergamon), Pts 15, 34.

MAECKER,

H., 1955, Z. Phyz., 141, 198-216.

J. C., COOKSEY,

C. J., and MILNER,D. R., 1960, Brit. Weld. J., 7, 101-14.

NEEDHAM,

NESTOR,0. H., 1962, J . Appl. Phys., 33 (5)) 163848.

SERDJUK,G. B., 1962, Proc. Conf.Physics of Welding Arc, London (London: Institute of Welding).

WELLS,A. A., 1962, Brit. Weld. J., 9, 227-31.

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