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Photoshop Stuff

Selection Tips/Shortcuts

(Week 1)

Remember, if you have made a selection, inside that selection are the only pixels
you are able to edit. Sometimes, you will inadvertently have a tiny selection in
your image and not know it, which of course precludes you from doing anything.
If that is the problem, use Ctrl + D (Windows) or Cmd + D (Mac OS) on your
keyboard to deselect.
The Select menu has everything to do with Selections. It offers ways to
transform, modify, refine the selection edge, feather, and load selections.
In addition to knowing keyboard shortcuts, get used to your modifier keys, (Shift,
Ctrl or Cmd, Alt, or Option). You cannot get by without getting used to them.
Use selection techniques in combination. Do not get stuck with one or two ways
to select items. You will not be efficient and you will become very frustrated.
Don't worry, the more you work with it, the easier it becomes, and the more adept
you become at reading each situation and what works best. Don't get stuck doing
things the hard way!
Make the following distinction right away; when you wish to move a selection,
you must be on a selection tool (for instance, the Marquee tool) to do it. If you
use the Move tool, you will move the pixels with it and cut the image!
Always, always, always, back up your work! Losing work can happen to anybody.
After all, we are working with imperfect computers. So, protect yourself!
Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to nudge the position of your selections,
but still make sure you are on a selection tool. You can also use arrows with the
Move tool when nudging pixels.
Keep an eye on your Options Bar. You may have a feather on your selection or
other options when you do not want one and that will cause problems.
Click space bar + drag = allows you to reposition marquee tool
Cltr + d = deselect
Increase/decrease brush size = Press [ or ] keys
Before using quick selection tool make 1 little swipe in the selection you want
then outside of it hold down alt + drag ( tells Photoshop what you dont want)
Holding down shift constrains marquee tools. Ex: Rectangle marquee becomes
square
If hold down shift k and already have selection that one is adding to the other one
Shift can add to selection and constrain it
Hold down alt +drag to draw from middle of selection
Select > Modify> Expand (get any stray pixels/grow your selection)
Select> Modify> Contract (gets rid of stray pixels/ decreases your selection)
Cltr + x = cut to clip board
Ctlr + - = zoom out
You can combine selection tools and modifier keys to affect active selection

When using a lasso tool ( hold down shift adds to selection/hold down alt subtract
from selection)
To redo a selection (cltr + click on the thumb nail of a mask)
Just using move tool on selection moves pixels( choosing any of the marquee or
lasso tools > put cursor inside selection> shows move too for selection
Select > Transform selection (helps get selection right size
With layer mask selected after moving selection and white loaded chose Edit>
Fill> Fill with White
Selection > Transform Selection >Right Click > Distort ( each corner of selection
can be freely moved
Right Click a selection > Transform Selection
Cltr + J (New Layer via Copy)
Shift + alt + drag ( Transform image from the center)
Hold shift when dragging corner selection to constrain aspect ration (not distort
image)
Right clicking on selection brings up context sensitive menu
Alt and double click on background converts it to layer
To preview image as if printed on white paper (Edit > Preferences >
Transparency & Gamut > Grid Size (None)
Cltr + + (Zoom N)
M = Marquee tool L= Lasso Tool (Shift M or L toggles between tools in that
cateorgry)
Holding down Space bar allows you to move selection while you are making it
Alt + Drag (Drag selection of center
Alt +Click (Removes from selection)
Shift +delete (Brings up fill dialogue box)
Turning on Caps Lock changing the point in which the lasso to starts
With Transform Selection active > Hold down Cltr to distort selection
Shift + arrow keys (nudges in large increments
Hold down alt when at Image Size command( This resets it)
If you Ctrl or Cmd click on a layer in the Layers palette, it will automatically load
the pixels on the layer as a selection. You can consequently use the selection on
a new or different layer for things such as creating a shadow.

Dealing with Mistakes in Photoshop


Undo and Redo
The Undo and Redo commands let you undo or redo operations. Choose Edit > Undo or
Edit > Redo. You can also choose Step Forward or Step Backward from the Edit menu
to move to the next or previous state.
Revert

The Revert command also comes in handy when you need to revert to the last saved
version of your document. Choose File > Revert.
The History Palette
The History palette lets you jump to any recent state of the image created during the
current working session. Each time you apply a change to an image, the new state of
that image is added to the palette. By default, the History palette lists the previous 20
states

Color Stuff/Layer Basics (Week 2)


Color Models
The human eye perceives color according to the wavelength of the light it receives.
Adobe has defined a color model as a method for displaying and measuring color. It
describes the colors we see and work with in digital images. Each color model, such as
RGB and CMYK, represents a different method (usually numeric) for describing color.
Additive Color Model (RGB)
Light is defined as a discrete frequency range that encompasses the visual spectrum of
red through violet. When these various wavelengths of light are added together, the
result is white lighthence the designation additive color. This process is the basis for
the additive color model. Additive color theory deals with light. The primary colors for an
additive system are red, green, and blue (RGB).
Subtractive Color Model (CMYK)
Imagine that colors are from colored light. All the colors are combinations of red, green,
and blue light. When they are overlapped in pairs, the additive secondary colors are
created. When all three of these are overlapped, your visual response is white. The
additive secondary colors will form the basis for the subtractive color. It provides a way
of describing color effects in the printing world where pigment in some form or another
is applied to affect the color of a surfacesuch as a cover of a brochure. Process color,
or CMYK, provides the basis for color effects achieved through the printing process, and
also provides us with an example of the Subtractive Color Model. The three primary
colors used in commercial printing, cyan (C), magenta (M) and yellow (Y), you might
recognize as the same colors used in inkjet printers. A fourth color, black (K), is used for
color definition.
RGB ModePhotoshop assigns an intensity value to each pixel. Bit depth specifies
how much color information is available for each pixel in an image. For example, an
image with a bit depth of 1 has pixels with two possible values: black and white. An
image with a bit depth of 8 has 256 possible values. The more bits of information per

pixel, the more available colors and more accurate color representation. RGB images
are made of three color channels. Combining the three channels provides a full color
image. Each channel is eight-bit which means each channel contains 256 levels of each
color. Put the three channels together and you get a 24-bit color image (three channels
x eight bits or 256 x 256 x 256 = 16.7 million). The three channels combine to reproduce
up to 16.7 million colors per pixel. RGB is also the default mode for new Photoshop
images. As we have learned, the RGB model is used by computer monitors to display
colors, so when working in color modes other than RGB, such as CMYK, Photoshop
converts the CMYK image to RGB for display on screen.
CMYK ModeIn this mode, each pixel is assigned a percentage value for each of the
process inks. In a manner similar to RGB channels, Photoshop creates separate
channels for each of the process colors. These channels or separations show the
amounts of each process color to be printed. The lightest (highlight) colors are assigned
a small percentage of ink; the darker (shadow) colors are assigned a higher percentage.
For example, a bright red might contain 2% cyan, 93% magenta, 90% yellow, and 0%
black. In CMYK images, pure white is generated when all four components have values
of 0%. When the separations are put together they form the composite image. Two
important things to remember when working with CMYK are that a computer display and
printout will be very different because the monitor is an RGB display and the number of
colors that can be printed out using CMYK is much less than 16.7 million.

Digital Image Resolution


Digital Imaging Resolutionlpi
To understand the puzzle of image resolution, you first must understand how an image
is printed. In traditional printing and when using laser printers, images are reproduced
using tiny dots called halftone dots. Many people confuse halftone dots with dpi (dots
per inch), but halftone dots are not the same as dots per inch. In fact, halftone dots were
used long before digital technology and the use of dpi. A halftone dot is nothing more
than a tiny elliptical dot of ink. These tiny dots are often difficult to see without the use of
a magnifying glass, but if you look at a magazine or newspaper very closely, you can
see the dots.
To determine the correct resolution of a digital image, you must know at what lpi it is
going to reproduce. Resolution of a digital image should be no less than 1.5 times the
lpi and no more than 2 times the lpi.
Digital Imaging Resolutionppi
A digital image is made up of pixels. Pixels are tiny squares of digital color. The number
of pixels in a square inch determines the resolution of a digital image. This number is
called ppi or pixels per inch.

A common misperception is that the resolution of a digital image must be at least 300
ppi to print properly. As you learned in the previous section, resolution should be
between 1.5 and 2 times the lpi. For example, a newspaper that prints at 85 lpi, requires
an image to be no less than 128 ppi (85x1.5=128) and no more than 170 ppi
(85x2=170). In most cases, you will never need an image above 300 ppi.
Another point of confusion concerning resolution is the relationship between the
dimensions of a digital image and the ppi resolution. Another way to think about the
resolution is by the size of the pixels. For example, an image at 72 ppi has much larger
pixels than an image at 300 ppi. If the pixels are too large to be hidden by the halftone
dots of a printing device, the image is said to be pixelated. The ratio of 1.5 to 2 times
the lpi is sufficient to hide the pixels of a digital image when it prints. This means that an
image with larger pixels, such as an image at 72 ppi, must be either resized or
resampled prior to printing to make the pixels smaller. There is a very big difference
between resizing and resampling. Resampling can damage the quality of an image;
resizing does not.
Digital Imaging Resolutiondpi
Dpi stands for dots per inch and refers to the output resolution of a printing device. Dpi
is not the same as ppi, even though it is often confused with it. Dpi is not the same as
lpi, even though it is often confused with it. Dpi is something altogether different.
General Technology Guidelines

Image resolution is called ppi or pixels per inch, not dpi.


Printer resolution is called dpi or dots per inch. This does not refer to image
resolution but of the halftone resolution of a printed image, although both are
related.
Print resolution of halftone screens is called lpi or lines per inch.
Image resolution should not be less than 1.5 x lpi or more than 2 x lpi. In most
cases, this falls between 200 and 300 ppi. (at least 300 ppi idea is not
accurate). For accurate calculation of ppi, use the auto feature in the resample
dialog box in Photoshop. Photoshop will give you a warning if a file is more than
2.5 x the lpi of the target print.
Web images should be no larger than 96 ppi. The standard is 72 ppi, although
images may be smaller.
The image dimensions are as important as the image resolution in workflow. For
example, if an 8x10 inch image is needed for high-quality printing, a 2x3 inch 300
ppi is not nearly as good as a 32x40 in 72 ppi image. The small dimensions and
large resolution will still require significant upsampling (lots of damage), while the
large dimensions and small resolution will only require downsizing (no damage).
As a rule, images should be resized or resampled in Photoshop to the correct
image dimensions and resolution required for a design before placing them in
another program for printing. Changing the size of an image in other software
can cause unnecessary resampling and printing issues.

Archiving images at any resolution is fine because they can be resized later
depending on their purpose. Generally, saving them at the largest manageable
file size is recommended. Whether the file is 72 ppi or 300 ppi is not important.
What is important is the file should be saved as an RGB (the most color data),
instead of CMYK and in a non-lossy file format such as psd, eps, or tiff instead of
lossy file formats such as jpg, gif, or png.
Resizing a file is different from resampling a file. Resizing changes the image
dimensions and pixel size (and therefore the resolution) at the same time,
creating no loss of quality.
Resampling involves changing the pixel size (and therefore resolution)
independently of the image dimensions causing the computer to either discard
pixels (downsampling) or generate new pixels (upsampling). This creates some
damage to the image. Generally downsampling creates less quality issues than
upsampling. The more an image is resampled, the more damage is done.

Raster vs. Vector Images


A bitmap application interprets an image by turning on and off tiny dots called pixels.
These pixels are laid out in a Cartesian grid. The location of the first pixel is the upper
left corner of the screen. Recall that we said earlier that each pixel holds information.
The information assigned by computers to pixels is measured as bits or bytes. This is
referred to as bit depth. The more information stored in each pixel, the more bit depth it
has.
So then, each of these pixels is assigned a value based on whether or not the image is
black and white or color, and so forth. Black and white images have a value of zero to
255 (zero = black, 255 = white). Color can have a number of color ranges and values.
Suffice it to say the most common is 24-bit color, which has 16,777,216 colors. Bitmap
images tend to be much larger in file size than other documents, such as text files or
vector files, requiring larger disk storage. Each pixel contains between one and four
bytes of information. A color image for a common screen (640 x 480) will be nearly one
megabyte (1,000,000 bytes) in size.
Vector
A vector image, on the other hand, is a collection of objects, mathematically defined
lines and shapes. There are no pixels in vector images. These images consist of Bezier
curves (lines) that are smooth no matter how large or small they are scaled. Thus,
vector images are considered resolution independent because you can enlarge a vector
image to fit the side of a bus and not lose quality

Smart Objects

Smart Objects are layers that contain image data (from raster or vector images such as
Photoshop or Illustrator files) while preserving an images source content (keeping all its
original characteristics intact).
With Smart Objects, you can:

Perform nondestructive transforms (such as scale, skew, and warp) without


losing the original image data or quality.
Perform nondestructive filtering and edit filters applied to Smart Objects at any
time.
Work with vector data (such as Illustrator) that would otherwise be rasterized in
Photoshop.
Edit a Smart Object and update all linked instances automatically.
Apply a layer mask to a Smart Object layer

There are several ways to create Smart objects. You can use the Open As Smart
Object command by placing a file or pasting data from Illustrator. You could also convert
Photoshop layers into Smart Objects via the Convert to Smart Object command.
Layer Styles
Layer styles provide you with some of the most powerful, creative tools in your arsenal.
They allow you to add a variety of effects from shadows to complex textures that can
add the wow! appeal to an image. They are available on the menu (Layer>Layer
Styles) or from the layer styles button at the bottom of the layers palette. You can apply
preset styles that come with Photoshop as well as create and save your own custom
styles.
Advanced Layer Style Options
Double clicking on a layer thumbnail will open the Layers Style dialog box. You can also
right click (Windows) or control click (Mac OS) and choose Layer Properties from the
drop-down menu.
What is the difference between the Opacity and Fill sliders?
The Opacity slider will work on any layers. The Fill option in the Layers palette appears
to achieve the same effect, but is utilized more when creating a Layer Styles in the
layers palette.
Opacity and Blending Modes
Opacity

Opacity and blending modes are two ways to achieve fast effects. Not only will you see
them in your Layers palette, you will start to notice them in other areas such as options
in the Options Bar for some tools.
Blending Modes
Blending modes allow you to blend the pixels of one layer to the layer directly below it in
a variety of ways to create interesting effects. You need at least two layers to make
blending modes work. Normal mode, which is the default, applies no blend at all. But
options such as multiply, screen, overlay, saturation, and more can create quick and
easy effects without ever altering the original image. To get rid of the effect, just change
the blending mode back to normal.
You may also adjust the transparency of an image on any layer by changing the opacity
or fill of the layer. Opacity changes everything on a selected layer, while fill only
modifies the fill within a shape and will not change certain layer styles. We will learn
more about layer styles in the next section.
Filters and Transformation Effects

Filters and transformations are creative tools that can be use to retouch or apply special
effects to layers.
Filters
Filters can be used to create an artistic quality similar to a sketch or painting. You can
also add lighting effects, distortions, and blur or sharpen an image.
Filters seem to fall into one of two categories: utilitarian or window dressing. Filters such
as Sharpen will become a regular part of your everyday Photoshop effects, whereas
filters like Ripple might only be used occasionally. Find an image that is interesting, and
try out all the filters on the image or part of an image. It is one thing to read about a filter
and is quite another to try the filter yourself. There are limitless possibilities with filters;
and as you can see, you are trying some of them out in various exercises.
One thing to consider, however, is whether or not you need a filter. Try not to use too
many filters as your image may become muddy. Choose your filters with purpose. For
example, consider how the Ripple filter, mentioned above, can be used for an
advertisement for a retailer of fish tanks or for a business that offers swimming lessons.
This is not to say that you cant use the Ripple filter for designs such as a promotional
piece (something designers often use to promote their work to prospective employers or
clients).
Smart Filters

You can perform nondestructive smart filtering in Photoshop by converting a layer to a


Smart Object (Filter >Convert for Smart Filters). Filters appear in the Layers panel
below the Smart Object layer to which they are applied so you adjust, remove, or hide
Smart Filters directly in the layers panel.
Puppet Warp
The puppet warp is an exciting new transformation tool. It allows you to distort specific
areas within an image while leaving other areas intact. It can be used on layers, type,
shapes, layer and vector masks, and smart objects. It works by laying a visual mesh
over an image. Pins can be placed on different points of an image to control movement
in the areas you want to transform and pinning down areas you want to anchor in place.
You can use it to swing a persons arm into another position, reshape an element, or
stretch, twist, or bend an image or text to create fun effects.

More About Layers/Masks (Week 3)


Masks
In Photoshop, you put a mask on, but the pixels underneath are still there and are
editable. Although you have the option of applying a layer mask, we don't recommend
you do that. Once you apply a mask, the pixels hidden by the mask will be removed,
and no longer editable (you cannot go back and change it easily). Remember, think
ahead and remain flexible at all times. In other words, if you leave the mask intact (and
do not apply it), you will still be able to edit it.

You can also think of the term "mask" as an electronic stencil. Photoshop uses masks
to isolate and manipulate specific parts of an image. You can create a temporary mask
for one-time use, or you can save masks (called alpha channels) for repeated use.
Think of a mask as something that protects an area that you don't want affected. An
example of this would be the way that you would mask a window before you painted its
frame.
You can also think of the term "mask" as an electronic stencil. Photoshop uses masks
to isolate and manipulate specific parts of an image. You can create a temporary mask
for one-time use, or you can save masks (called alpha channels) for repeated use.

Quick Mask

A quick mask is merely another way to help you make a selection. It just so happens,
though, that the function is performed in the Channels palette. When you create a Quick
Mask (in Quick Mask mode), a temporary mask will appear in the Channels panel while
you work. And although the mask appears in the Channels palette, you can do all
editing to the mask in the image window.
Do not be scared by the term "channels." Think of the Channels palette in basically two
ways:

It stores the color information of the image. An images color mode determines
the number of color channels that are created and each color has its own
channel. For example, an RGB image contains three channels: red, green, and
blue.
It is also a place to save your selections, no matter what selection technique you
have used to make them. When you save a selection, it becomes an Alpha
Channel (another term not to be afraid of it is just a saved selection). Alpha
Channels are stored in the Channels Palette.

Pay particular attention to loading your saved selection. What this means is once you
have saved your selection (an Alpha Channel), you can go back to it and use it again
later. This is an invaluable feature, and you will see a similar functionality later in layers.
Also, get used to using the palettes shortcuts. Those little icons on the bottom of the
palettes will save you loads of time.
Memorize and use the D key on your keyboard to take you to the default colors of black
and white.
Memorize and use the X key on your keyboard to toggle between the foreground and
background color. In the case of using a quick mask, you will be toggling between black
and white, so try keeping one hand near the X key as the other hand works with the
mask.

Basic Layer Masking


Layer masks let you hide or show portions of the artwork on an individual layer. You can
become good at these very quickly.
Adjustment Layers
Adjustment layers are a powerful non-destructive option in Photoshop. The Adjustments
panel can be accessed through the Window menu or you can add adjustment layers
through the layers palette adjustment layer icon. You use them to perform tonal and

color corrections, such as Brightness/Contrast or Hue/Saturation. Suppose the client


changed his mind. We could go back into the adjustment layer and
make changes without starting over. There is that flexibility again! Get used to
adjustment layers; you cannot work effectively in Photoshop without them.
Remember:

You are not limited to one adjustment layer for each layer (or layer effect for that
matter). You can throw them away by dragging them to the trash.
You can apply them to a selected area on a layer. To edit an adjustment layer,
click the adjustment layer's thumbnail in the Layers palette to display the options
in the Adjustment panel.
You can either create your own adjustments by clicking on the various icons
(Vibrance, Hue/Saturation, and so forth) or you can try one of the Presets.
If an adjustment layer has no associated adjustment dialog box (for example, the
Invert adjustment), double clicking the layer opens the Layer Style dialog box.
Adjustment layers are also layer masks, in that when an adjustment layer is
active, you can use the paintbrush and the default colors to edit the adjustments
to whatever portions of the underlying layers.

As previously stated, you have the capability to change the position of adjustment layers
in the Adjustments panel. Notice that they affect all of the layers underneath them. That
can be a problem. Maybe you don't want all of your layers affected. This brings us to
Clipping Masks.
Clipping Masks
A clipping mask allows you to use the content of a layer to mask the layers that reside
above it. In a clipping mask, the bottommost layer, or base layer, acts as a mask for the
entire group. For example, you might have a shape (or text) on the bottom layer, a
texture on the overlying layer, or an adjustment layer on the topmost layer. If you define
all three layers as a clipping mask, the texture and the adjustment appear through the
shape on the base layer and take on the opacity of the base layer.
Note that only successive layers can be included in a clipping mask. When you create a
clipping mask, dotted lines appear between the grouped layers in the Layers palette.
The name of the base layer in the group is underlined, and the thumbnails for the
overlying layers are indented. Applying a blending mode to an indented layer affects
only the blending of the layers within the group. Applying a blending mode to the base
layer determines how the entire clipping mask blends with the underlying layers.
In other words, you use clipping masks:

To tell the adjustment layers, the layers to be grouped, to only affect those
layers. If you do not grasp this concept, working with adjustment layers will be
very confusing.
To confine an adjustment layer to a specific layer or to layers that are below it in
a group.
To mask an object on one layer using an image from another layer. In a clipping
mask, the pixels you want to clip to (or act as the mask) should always be on the
bottom of the group. Not necessarily the palette, but the group.

Remember:
To create a clipping mask, you can hold down Alt/Option, position the pointer over the
solid line dividing two layers in the Layers palette (you will notice that the pointer
changes to two overlapping circles), and click. Of course, you can take the menu route
by selecting a layer in the Layers palette and choosing Layer > Create Clipping Mask,
but that is the long way.
You can also remove a layer from a clipping mask and release all layers in a clipping
mask. Utilize your lessons to practice and learn these techniques. They will help you
become a professional.
Gradient Map
Under the Layer menu, you will find New Adjustment Layer > Gradient Map. You could
also click the Gradient Map icon in the Adjustments panel or use the Create new fill or
adjustment layer button at the bottom of the layers palette and select Gradient Map
from the pop-up menu. Open one of your own images and try out this command.
Experiment with different gradients and watch Photoshop apply the colors in the
gradient to the values in the image.

About Mask and Masking:


An alpha channelalso called a mask or selectionis an extra channel added to an
image; it stores selections as grayscale images. You can add alpha channels to create
and store masks.
A layer mask is like an alpha channel, but its attached to a specific layer. A layer mask
controls which part of a layer is revealed or hidden. It appears as a blank thumbnail next
to the layer thumbnail in the Layers panel until you add content to it; a black outline
indicates that its selected.
A vector mask is essentially a layer mask made up of vectors, not pixels. Resolutionindependent, vector masks have crisp edges and are created with the pen or shape
tools. They dont support transparency, so their edges cant be feathered. Their
thumbnails appear the same as layer mask thumbnails.

A clipping mask applies to a layer. It confines the influence of an effect to specific


layers, rather than to everything below the layer in the layer stack. Using a clipping
mask clips layers to a base layer; only that base layer is affected. Thumbnails of a
clipped layer are indented with a right-angle arrow pointing to the layer below. The
name of the clipped base layer is underlined.
A channel mask restricts editing to a specific channel (for example, a Cyan channel in
a CMYK image). Channel masks are useful for making intricate, fringed, or wispy-edged
selections. You can create a channel mask based on a dominant color in an image or a
pronounced contrast in an isolated channel, for example, between the subject and the
background.

Type (Week 4)
Type
When you create type in Photoshop, it is a vector object (mathematically defined
shapes that describe the typeface) and placed on its own layer. The vector-based type
outlines are preserved giving you the flexibility to edit and scale the type.
You can create paragraph and point type. You can also place type along a path and
change the appearance of type by warping the text, applying layer styles, converting
type to a shape, rasterizing text, and using text as a mask.
Point Type
Point type is created by directly clicking in the image. It is important to note that in order
to create a line break, you must press the return key. Point type can be placed in a
horizontal or vertical line and is very useful for adding a few words to your image.
Paragraph Type
Paragraph type is created by defining a text box to establish a boundary in order to
control the flow of the characters. A line break is automatically created when the text
reaches the end of the bounding box. Paragraph type can also be placed horizontally or
vertically and is useful for creating one or more paragraphs (again it is stressed that a
layout program be used for body copy or any substantial amounts of text).
Character and Paragraph Formatting
Character Formatting
The character panel provides many options for setting type attributes. You can specify
typeface, style, size, scale, leading, tracking, and kerning. The characters must be
selected before you can format them by selecting one character, a range of characters,

or all the characters on the type layer using the type tool. You can also access some
formatting options in the options bar.
Paragraph Formatting
Just as the character panel contains options for formatting characters, the paragraph
panel provides options for formatting paragraphs. You can specify alignment,
justification, indentation, and paragraph spacing. Paragraphs can be formatted to one
paragraph, a range of paragraphs, or all the paragraphs on the type layer using the type
tool. You can also access some formatting options in the options bar.
Type Transformation
Photoshop has the ability to place type on a path. You can enter type directly on the
edge of a path or enter the text inside a shape (closed path). To put text on a path, you
need to create a path. You can copy and paste paths or shapes from Illustrator or
create paths directly in Photoshop using the pen tool, shape tool, or line tool to create a
path. Then select the type tool and position it on the path. When the baseline indicator
appears, click on the path. An insertion point will appear on the path. Then just enter the
type. If you want to fill a shape with text, just move the cursor inside the closed path or
shape. When the I-beam appears with dashed parentheses, click to insert the text.
Rasterizing Type
There are also rasterizing options in Photoshop that allow you to convert a type layer to
pixels. One can be found in the Layer menu (Layer>Rasterize>Type). Another can be
accessed by choosing the paste as pixels option when copying and pasting from
another document. For example, if you copy text (or another vector object) from an
Illustrator file to a Photoshop file you can choose to paste as pixels which will rasterize
the object. You can also paste it as a path, a shape layer, or as a smart object. Be
aware that once type is rasterized, it becomes uneditable as type.