As a matter of facts there is no particular origin of research, any thing which is discovered for the first time is considered to be a research. It is not necessary that research will always be pre planned it may be due to a mistake also for i.e. Newton’s discovery of law, it was not a planned process therefore research is considered as discovery of new facts or to modify older ones in any branch of knowledge. It is presumed by researchers that the origin of the research is curiosity because it is believed that its only curiosity of a person to learn and search for new facts, it is curiosity only which instigates the person to explore more and more. In simple words research can be defined as any scholarly investigation in search for truths, for facts, for certainties. Systematized efforts to gain knowledge is also known as research Research can be defined to be search for knowledge or any systematic investigation to establish facts. The primary purpose for applied research (as opposed to basic research) is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. Research can use the scientific method, but need not do so
Scientific research relies on the application of the scientific method, a harnessing of curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world around us. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines
Objectives of Research
The purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures. The main aim of research is to find out the truth which is hidden and which has not yet been discovered. Though each research study has its own specific purpose, some of them are as follows:i) To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it ( studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory or formulative research studies).
To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group ( studies with this object in view are known as descriptive research studies).
To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with it is associated with something else (studies with this objective in view are known as diagnostic research studies).
To test a hypothesis of casual relationship between variables ( such studies are known as hypo- testing research studies).
Meaning of research
Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. One can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of current English lays down the meaning of research as “ a careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.”. some people consider research as a system a movement, a movement from the known to the unknown. The inquisitiveness is the mother of all knowledge and the method, which man employs for obtaining the knowledge of whatever the unknown, can be termed as research. Research is an academic activity and as such the term should be used in a technical sense. Research is, thus, an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement. It is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment. In short, the e term problem is research. As such the term ‘research’ refers to the systematic method consisting of enunciating the problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting the facts or data, analyzing the facts and reaching certain conclusion either in form of solution towards the concerned problem or certain generalization for some theoretical formulation
Definition of research
Redman and Mory define research as a “systematized effort to gain new knowledge.”
Clifford Woody define research as “defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis or not.”
M. Stephenson define research as “the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of art.”
Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of current English lays down the meaning of research as a “a careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.”
1.4 Types of research
The basic types of research are as follows:-
Descriptive vs. analytical: Descriptive includes surveys and facts finding enquiries of different kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present. In social sciences research we quit often use the term Ex post facto research for descriptive research studies. In analytical research, on the other hand has to use facts or information already available, and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material
. ii) Applied vs. fundamental: Research can either be applied or fundamental research. Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial/business organization, whereas fundamental research is mainly concerned with generalizations and with the formulation of theory
Quantitative vs. Qualitative: Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. It is applicable to phenomenon that can be expressed in terms of quantity. Qualitative research, on the other hand, is concerned with qualitative phenomenon, i.e., phenomenon relating to or involving quality or kind .
Conceptual vs. Empirical: Conceptual research is that related to some abstract ideas or theory. It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing ones. On the other hand, empirical research relies on experience or observation alone, often without due regards for system and theory. It is data based research, coming up with conclusions which are capable of being verified by observation or experiment.
1.5 Significance of research
Research inculcates scientific and inductive thinking and it promotes the development of logical habits of thinking and organization.
The increasingly complex nature of business and government has focused attention on the use of research in solving operational problems. For instance, government’s rest in part on an analysis of the needs and desires of the people and on the availability of revenues to meet these needs .The cost of needs has to be equated to probable revenues and this is a field where research is most needed.
Research has its significance in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry.
Research is equally important for social scientists in studying social relationships and in seeking answers to various social problems.
ORIGIN OF RESEARCH IN DIFFERENT SOCIAL SCIENCES
Sociology is the scientific or systematic study of human
societies. It is a branch of social science (with which it is informally synonymous) that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop and refine a body of knowledge about human social structure and activity, often with the goal of applying such knowledge to the pursuit of social welfare. Its subject matter ranges from the micro level of face-to-face interaction to the macro level of societies at large
Sociology is a broad discipline in terms of both methodology and subject matter. Its traditional focuses have included social stratification (or class), social relations, social interaction, religion, modernity, culture and deviance, and its approaches have included both qualitative and quantitative research techniques. This research is always been an important part of sociology and uses its different types to make it more explained and understandable i.e., empirical research, qualitative research, quantitative research etc. these research types helps the sociologists to provide different types of information, therefore research is considered to be an inseparable part of sociology.
History : for writing history one has to utilize various processes right from the collection of the source material up to the giving of the bibliography towards the end of the book. A research has to be based on original sources, which may be published or unpublished. It must also embody the original contribution of the author. A mere narration of facts is no real history, for it would be a mere catalogue of events and dates. The life breath of history is interpretation, which also gives a definite viewpoint to a work of history. History, it is said to be the written objectively. What is really meant by the expression is that the whole narrative of facts, the interpretation of facts, and the conclusion deduced therefrom, must be always based on the solid foundation of historical facts carefully selected from the vast mass of source
materials having varying degrees of credibility. Therfore it can be easily seen that from collecting of material to writing there is a great need of research, without research it is impossible to have history, i.e., Newton discovered law of gravitational force and it became history and after that, now also research is required for writing on to that subject so research and history are deepley connected with each other or you can say that research is an integral part of history which cannot be separated from it.
Psychology: Psychology is defined as an study of state of mind, it is an subject which studies the cause of all the things, it is a typical subject with the typical objectives, it requires study of different perspective of a person under different situations or circumstances, which require a great research work such as, analyzing, creating hypothesis, and then testing whether hypothesis is fit for treatment or not, therefore psychology is greatly depended upon research, only an good research work can help a psychologist to achieve success in study/case, so it is clearly seen that without research psychology is incomplete, and origin of research in psychology cannot be said exactly but it is proved that research is being used with psychology since psychology since psychology came into existence.
Political science: political science has always been most interesting subject for most of the researchers, it is a subject in which each and every field requires a good work of research, from the small colony to the whole country, from individual to the group research is required, they need to identify target voters, needs of the society, past work, its impact, & the work which public wants to be done in future, policies need to be implemented in
the society, ways of getting votes, how to change the mind of the voters and even advertisements, campaigns & pamphlet are result of good research, therefore it can be seen that research is required in each and every field even in policy making government and politicians need to research about the market trends and formulate the policies accordingly. So origin of research in political science is from the beginning when political science came into existence. it can be proved because political science or any other subject cannot be move or study further because every thing / subject has an end and research is a subject which restricts the end by providing new facts and knowledge to the subject.
3. ORIGIN OF RESEARCH IN THE FIELD OF LAW
Ancient Egyptian law, dating as far back as 3000 BC, contained a civil code that was probably broken into twelve books. It was based on the concept of Ma'at, characterised by tradition, rhetorical speech, social equality and impartiality.
By the 22nd century BC, the ancient Sumerian ruler Ur-Nammu had formulated the first law code, which consisted of casuistic statements ("if ... then ..."). Around 1760 BC, King Hammurabi further developed Babylonian law, by codifying and inscribing it in stone. Hammurabi placed several copies of his law code throughout the kingdom of Babylon as stelae, for the entire public to see; this became known as the Codex Hammurabi. The most intact copy of these stelae was discovered in the 19th century by British Assyriologists, and has since been fully transliterated and translated into various languages, including English, German, and French.
The Old Testament is likely the oldest surviving body of law still relevant to modern legal systems. It dates back to 1280 BC, and takes the form of moral imperatives as recommendations for a good society
The small Greek city-state, Ancient Athens, from about 8th century BC was the first society to be based on broad inclusion of its citizenry; excluding women and the slave class. However, Athens had no legal science, and no word for "law" as an abstract concept .Yet Ancient Greek law contained major constitutional innovations in the development of democracy.
Roman law was heavily influenced by Greek philosophy, but its detailed rules were developed by professional jurists, and were highly sophisticated. Over the centuries
between the rise and decline of the Roman Empire, law was adapted to cope with the changing social situations, and underwent major codification during Justinian I.
Although it declined in significance during the Dark Ages, Roman law was rediscovered around the 11th century when mediæval legal scholars began to research Roman codes and adapt their concepts. In mediæval England, the King's judges developed a body of precedent, which later became the common law. A Europe-wide Lex Mercatoria was formed so that merchants could trade with common standards of practice; rather than with the many splintered facets of local laws. The Lex Mercatoria, a precursor to modern commercial law, emphasised the freedom of contract and alienability of property]As nationalism grew in the 18th and 19th centuries, Lex Mercatoria was incorporated into countries' local law under new civil codes. The French Napoleonic Code and the German became the most influential. In contrast to English common law, which consists of enormous tomes of case law, codes in small books are easy to export and easy for judges to apply. However, today there are signs that civil and common law are converging. EU law is codified in treaties, but develops through the precedent laid down by the European Co.
Islamic law and jurisprudence developed during the Middle Ages. The methodology of legal precedent and reasoning by analogy used in early Islamic law was similar to that of the later English common law system. This was particularly the case for the Maliki school of Islamic law active in North Africa, Islamic Spain and the Emirate of Sicily. Between the 8th and 11th centuries, Maliki law developed several legal institutions
Ancient India and China represent distinct traditions of law, and have historically had independent schools of legal theory and practice. The Arthashastra, probably compiled around 100 AD (although it contains older material), and the Manusmriti (c. 100– 300 AD) were foundational treatises in India, and comprise texts considered authoritative legal guidance. Manu's central philosophy was tolerance and Pluralism, and was cited across Southeast Asia. This Hindu tradition, along with Islamic law, was supplanted by the common law when India became part of the British Empire Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore and Hong Kong also adopted the common law. The eastern Asia legal tradition reflects a unique blend of secular and religious influences. Japan was the first country to begin modernising its legal system along western lines, by importing bits of the french but mostly the German Civil Code This partly reflected Germany's status as a rising power in the late 19th century. Similarly, traditional Chinese law gave way to westernisation towards the final years of the Ch'ing dynasty in the form of six private law codes based mainly on the Japanese model of German law. Today Taiwanese law retains the closest affinity to the codifications from that period, because of the split between Chiang Kai-shek’s nationalists, who fled there, and Mao Zedong’s communists who won control of the mainland in 1949. The current legal infrastructure in the People's Republic of China was heavily influenced by Soviet Socialist law, which essentially inflates administrative law at the expense of private law rights. Due to rapid industrialisation, today China undergoing a process of reform, at least in terms of economic, if not social and political, rights. A new contract code in 1999 represented a move away from administrative domination. Furthermore, after negotiations lasting fifteen years, in 2001 China joined the World Trade Organization with later common law institutionsurt of Justice
This shows that different laws which are there in our society in a modified form are the result of different countries which they have done thousands of years ago, this also shows the prevalence of law and research in that time and proves that law is a result of research
done by different people of different countries, and law & research both exist at the same time.
3.1 Importance of research in law
You can arrange to have legal research and writing done by a variety of services. One might think that nowadays in the democracy that we live in all the laws would be easily accessible to any ordinary citizen, but unfortunately that's not true. Of course, you might be able to do some kind of limited legal research on your own but that's all. For instance, if you know the number of a specific law you'd like to read, then you might stand a chance. However, if you are searching to find how a genuine law applies to your area of concern, then you'd have to read hundreds of pages until you find it and that simply won't do.
Outside legal research is very useful especially when you want to research a whole area of law. In case you know how the law is organized, you might try, otherwise don't waste your time as you won't succeed. There is only one reason why our laws are so arduous, concealed and complex and it is because it gives power to legal professionals such as lawyers and legislators. This is how they get work which we could have otherwise done by ourselves. Consequently, if you need to understand a specific area of law concerning your business or rights, then you'd better consult a professional who will do your advanced search, or else you might waste many hours in vain trying to do it by yourself.
Generally you can try to cope without legal researchers. Often there are times when you can learn how to do legal research on a certain topic and you might be quite successful at it. For instance, writer says that once he fought for saving some of the last wetlands in the San Francisco bay. As his campaign lacked money for legal researchers they did it by there own. However, in our case there has already been much pioneering environmental work done, so it was not that difficult to do advanced legal search; we even managed to find the existing endangered species laws we needed. Legal research can easily frighten you and make you quit when you try it for the first time, that was the situation with us. However, we were determined to succeed and didn't give up. After all, if you put some considerable efforts into fighting with the legal system, then even you, an ordinary citizen can take part in the democratic process
Research helps in the modification of laws by adding to them different concepts according to the need of society.
Research helps in the formulation of new laws which can be done by using the various research techniques, research helps in knowing present scenario and formulate laws by keeping in view present need of society.
By ending this project I want to conclude that, research is a subject which is present in each & every thing/subject, even in our daily life, it is a subject which makes all other subjects interesting & unending because research is the subject which provides new concepts and facts and adds more & more to that subject. However there is no evidences about origin of research in different subjects, but it is proved that research is inherited in each and every subject and research is the only subject which makes all other subjects going on.