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Section A

Answer all questions.

It is recommended that you spend about 1 hour 15 minutes on this section.

1

(a)

State, in words, the 2 conditions that need to be satisfied in order to achieve static

equilibrium.

Resultant

Condition

1: external force acting on the body is zero.

Resultant torque about any point is zero.

[1]

Condition 2:

[1]

(b)

A uniform trapdoor of mass 12 kg and length 1.00 m is smoothly hinged to the wall as

shown in Fig. 1.1 (not drawn to scale). It is supported in equilibrium by a stay wire

connecting the wall to a point on the trapdoor at a distance of 0.25 m from its free end.

The stay wire makes an angle of 60 with the wall and the trapdoor makes an angle of

30 with the horizontal.

60

0.25 m

30

Fig. 1.1

Show that the tension in the stay wire is 78 N.

Taking moments about the hinge,

= 0

mg cos300 0.50 = T sin600 0.75

0.50 12 9.81cos300

T=

0.75 sin600

= 78 N

[2]

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(c)

A 20.0 kg sphere of uniform density rests between two smooth planes as shown in

Fig. 1.2.

Plane A

20 kg

Plane B

70

30

Fig. 1.2

Determine the magnitude of the force acting on the sphere exerted by each plane.

Let the force due to plane A be FA and the force due to plane B be FB. These 2

forces must be perpendicular to the sides of the respective planes.

Resolving vertically,

Resolving horizontally,

FB sin 300 = FA sin 700

Solving simultaneously,

FA = 99.6 N

FB = 187 N

force due to plane A =

force due to plane B =

2

N

N [3]

Fig. 2.1 shows the set up of a reverse bungee jumping. A capsule is connected by two

identical elastic cords each attached to a tower 30.0 m tall. The mass of the capsule when

fully loaded with three passengers has a total mass of about 300 kg. When released, the

capsule will shoot up at high speed.

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10.0 m

Elastic

cords

30.0 m

Ground level

capsule

Fig. 2.1

(a)

The original length of each of the elastic cords is 25.0 m with an elastic constant of

19 000 N m-1 and the capsule has an effective diameter of 2.0 m. Prove that the total

elastic potential energy at the ground level = 510 kJ when the cord length is 30.2 m.

Extension 30.2- 25 = 5.2 m

Total EPE = 2 kx2 = (19000)(5.2)2 = 510 kJ

(proven)

[1]

(b)

Fill in the blanks in the table below to determine the various amounts of energy when

the capsule starts from the ground level and shoots up to its highest point.

Ground level

30 m above the

ground

Highest point

Total elastic

potential energy /kJ

Gravitational

potential energy of

capsule /kJ

Kinetic energy of

capsule /kJ

510

88

422

336

174

0

[2]

(c)

Use the value in (a) to determine the speed reached by the capsule when the cords

first become loose.

When the cord is unstretched,

Ht above the ground = 30 (252 42) = 10.8 m above the ground.

By conservation of energy,

(300)v2 + (300)(9.81)(10.8) = 510 000

v = 56.5 m s-1

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m s-1 [2]

speed =

(d)

State and explain the position where the apparent weight of the passenger will be the

greatest.

The apparent weight of the passenger will be the greatest at the lowest

point immediately after the capsule is released. The EPE is the largest, this

implies that extension is the largest which will results in the largest force.

[2]

3

A flat horizontal plate is made to oscillate with simple harmonic motion in a vertical direction

as shown in Fig. 3.1. The plate starts its oscillation at the equilibrium position and moves

downwards initially.

plate

oscillator

Fig. 3.1

A graph of velocity against displacement for this oscillation is shown in Fig. 3.2. Point S

marks the start of the oscillation.

velocity / m s-1

0.8

0.6

C

0.4

0.2

displacement

/m

- 0.04

- 0.03

- 0.02

- 0.01

0.01

- 0.2

- 0.4

- 0.6

S

- 0.8

Fig. 3.2

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0.02

0.03

0.04

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(a)

(i)

the amplitude of the oscillation,

amplitude =

(ii)

0.035

m [1]

v 0 = x 0

0.66 = (0.035)

= 19 rad s

(b)

=

19

A mass of 0.100 kg is placed on the plate before oscillation is started.

(i)

Determine the displacement of the plate when the mass just loses contact with

the plate.

F = ma

mg N = ma

N = m (g a )

N = 0 when a = g

a = 2 x

When a = g ,

9.81 = (18.86)2 x

x = 0.0276 m

displacement =

(ii)

(a)

Mark on Fig. 3.2 the point C when the mass just loses contact.

m [3]

[1]

State two conditions that must be satisfied in order to obtain observable interference

patterns.

The amplitude of the waves at the point of interference must be about

the same.

The distance between the two sources is much larger than the

wavelength of the waves emitted.

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[2]

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The apparatus shown in Fig. 4.1 below (not to scale) is used to demonstrate two-source

interference.

Screen

Double slit

Light,

wavelength

Fig. 4.1

(b)

The separation of the two slits in the double slit arrangement is a and the interference

fringes are viewed on a screen at a distance D from the double slits. When light of

wavelength is incident on the double slit, the separation of the bright fringes on the

screen is x.

(i)

Write the equation that links the quantities described in the above paragraph, and

state the assumption made in the use of that equation.

x=

D

a

condition: D>> a

[2]

(ii)

The slits are separated by a distance of a, with the screen at a distance of 1.00 m

from the plane of the slits. The slits are illuminated by monochromatic light of

wavelength 589.3 nm traveling perpendicular to the plane of the slits. It was

observed that the distance between the two 4th order bright fringes are 20 mm.

Calculate the separation of the slits, a.

x = 20 / 8 = 2.5 mm

x=

D

a

a=

D

x

(589.3 10 - 9)(1.00)

= 0.24 mm

2.5 10 - 3

a=

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m [2]

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(c)

(i)

Since the central fringe is equal distance from the double slits, path

difference = 0 . Hence the waves from each slit must arrive in phase

resulting in constructive interference.

[1]

(ii)

Explain why an experiment using two separate sources of light will not show

interference.

Two separate sources of light will not be coherent and hence

interference cannot take place.

[1]

5

(a)

The electric field strength at a point in an electric field is defined as the

electrostatic force acting per unit positive charge on a test charge placed at

that point.

[1]

(b) Fig. 5.1 shows a stream of electrons entering a region between two parallel plates which

have a potential difference.

- 200 V

Parabolic path

between plates

Stream of electrons

Straight path

after plates

+200 V

Fig 5.1

accepted

(i)

Draw on Fig 5.1, the electric field lines between the plates and the expected path

[2]

of the stream of electrons between and after the plates.

(ii)

Calculate the distance between the plates given that the electric field strength

between the plates is 2.0 x 104 N C1.

E=

V

d

=> d =

V

400

= 0.020 m

=

E 2.0 104

distance =

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m [1]

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(iii)

a=

3.2 10 15

F

=

= 3.51 1015 m s 2 (downwards )

me 9.11 10 31

acceleration =

(iv)

Hence, given that the length of each plate is 0.040 m and initial horizontal speed

of the electrons is 1.0 x 108 m s-1, calculate the vertical deflection of the electron

at the end of the plates.

t=

sx

0.040

= 4.0 10 10 s

=

v x 1.0 108

sy = u y t +

sy =

1

ay t 2

2

1

(3.51 1015 )(4.0 10 10 )2 = 0.00028m (downwards )

2

deflection =

6

m s-2 [1]

m [2]

A stationary Polonium-212 nuclide may undergo alpha decay spontaneously to produce the

stable lead-208 daughter nuclide as shown in the equation below:

Po

212

84

208

82

Pb + 24He

212

208

4

84 Po : 211.9888 u; 82 Pb : 207.9766 u and 2 He : 4.0026 u.

(a)

Mass difference = 211.9888 u (207.9766 u + 4.0026 u) = 0.0096 u

1012 J

(b)

. Give your answer in 3 s.f.

kinetic energy of Pb-208

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J [2]

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0 = MPbVPb mHe v He

MPbVPb = mHev He

1

1

2

2

MPbVPb

MPb = mHe v He

mHe

2

2

K .E .He MPb 207.9766

=

=

= 52.0

4.0026

K .E .Po mHe

ratio =

(c)

[2]

K .E .He

= 51.9604

K .E .Po

K .E .He

= 51.9604

K .E .Total K .E .He

K .E .He = 51.9604(K .E .Total K .E .He )

52.9604 K .E .He = 51.9604(1.43424 10 12 )

= 8.79 MeV

kinetic energy =

(d)

MeV [2]

To escape from the nucleus, the alpha particle must overcome the Coulomb barrier of

26 MeV. Using your answer in (c), comment on how the alpha particle can penetrate

the barrier.

The alpha particles 8.79 MeV of K.E. is unable to overcome the 26 MeV

Coulomb barrier by classical physics. However, the alpha particle can behave

as a wave and be associated with a wave function. The square of the amplitude

of the wave function represents the probability of locating the particle at that

point. Thus it is able to tunnel through the potential barrier and appear outside

the barrier with non-zero amplitude.

[2]

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In the first half of the last century, numerous experiments were conducted to investigate the

absorption and the scattering of X-ray by matter.

It was discovered that when a monochromatic beam of X-rays is incident on a light element

such as carbon, the scattered X-rays have wavelengths dependent on the angle of scattering.

Compton (1923) assumed that the scattering process could be treated as an elastic collision

between an X-ray photon and a free electron, and that energy and momentum would be

conserved.

(a)

proportional to the frequency of the electromagnetic waves.

[1]

(b)

The elastic collision between a photon and a stationary electron may be represented as

in Fig 7.1.

scattered photon

momentum ps

energy Es

incident photon

momentum pi

energy Ei

Fig. 7.1

electron

mass m, speed v

The incident photon has momentum pi and energy Ei. The photon is scattered through

an angle and, after scattering, has momentum ps and energy Es. The electron of mass

m, which was originally stationary, moves off with speed v at an angle to the original

direction of the incident photon.

(i)

Write down equations, in terms of pi, ps, Ei, Es, m, v, and , that represent,

for this interactions,

1.

Conservation of energy,

Ei = Es + m v2

[1]

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2.

Pi = Ps cos + m v cos

[1]

(ii)

Suggest, with a reason, whether the scattered photon will have a wavelength that

is greater or less than that of the incident photon.

Ei > Es, hfi > hfs, I < s , the scattered photon has longer wavelength.

[2]

(c)

made on the wavelength i of the incident photon, the wavelength s of the scattered

photon and the angle of scattering. Some data from this experiment are given in Fig.

7.2.

i / 10-12 m

s / 10-12 m

/o

=

s - I /m

191.92

193.27

57

1.35 x 10-12

153.30

154.65

57

1.35 x 10-12

965.04

966.84

75

1.80 x 10-12

Fig. 7.2

Use the data in Fig 7.2 to show that, when a photon is scattered, the change in

wavelength produced is independent of the wavelength of the incident photon.

[2]

Hence is independent of I but dependent on .

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(d)

Determine the value of cos , with its uncertainty, for the angle = 75o 5o.

cos 75o = 0.2588

cos 70o = 0.3420

cos = (0.3420 - 0.1736)/2 = 0.084 = 0.08 or 0.09 (1 s.f.)

cos 75o = 0.2588 = 0.26 (2 d.p.)

or

Take max uncertainty,

cos = 0.085 = 0.09 (1 sig)

cos =

(e)

0.26

0.09

[3]

Comptons theory suggests that the change in wavelength is related to the angle

of scattering by the expression

= k (1 cos )

where k is a constant.

Experimental data for the variation with cos of are shown in Fig 7.3.

(-0.50, 3.70)

2.50

(1.00, 0.12)

(i)

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[1]

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(ii)

Use two different ways to determine the constant k from the graph of Fig. 7.3.

Find the average value of k.

-12

= gradient

2.45 10and

mk is the intercept)

[4]

k cos value

(-kof

iskthe

= k average

k = 2.50 x 10-12

k = - gradient=

(3.70 0.12) X 10 12

= 2.39 X 1012

(0.50) 1.00

(f)

For a carbon atom, the binding energy of an electron is of the order of a few

electronvolts. Compton's theory assumes that the electrons are not bound in the atoms

but are free. Suggest whether, for 30 keV photons, this assumption is justified.

than the energy of the incident photons (30 keV), the binding energy of the

electrons can be ignored. Thus it is justified to assume that the electrons

are free.

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[1]

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Section B

It is recommended that you spend about 30 minutes on this section.

8

Many musical instruments, such as organ pipes, flutes and clarinets, employ resonating air

columns to produce note of particular frequencies. The length of the resonating column may

be changed to produce a note of a different frequency. It is suggested that different volumes

of air in a container may resonate at frequencies which depend on the volume of the air.

Design an experiment to investigate how the resonant frequency of the fundamental mode of

vibration of air in a container depends on the volume of the air. You may assume that the

following apparatus is available with any other standard equipment which may be found in a

school or college:

Flute

Microphone

Ammeter

Measuring cylinder

Bunsen burner

Oscilloscope

Loudspeaker

Bucket of water

Signal generator

Voltmeter

Thermometer

Your answer should contain a diagram showing how the chosen equipment would be

arranged, together with details of

(a)

(b)

the method by which the volume of the air and the resonant frequency may be

measured,

(c)

(d)

any precautions you would take which may improve the accuracy of your experiment.

[12]

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Diagram

Oscilloscope

Loudspeaker

Resonance

bottle

Signal

generator

1.

2.

Fill up the resonance bottle completely with water. Pour the water from the resonance bottle

into a measuring cylinder, pouring out in stages if necessary, until the total volume VT of

water has been measured. Read all volumes at the lower meniscus.

3.

4.

Using a measuring cylinder, measure and pour a volume VW of 50 cm3 of water into the

empty resonance bottle. The volume of the air in the resonance bottle is now V = VT Vw

5.

Set up the resonance bottle with the apparatus as shown in the diagram above. Throughout

the experiment, clamp the resonance bottle and the measuring cylinder to avoid spillage or

breakage.

6. Switch on the signal generator. Starting with the lowest possible value of frequency,

gradually increase the frequency output of the signal generator. The loudness of the sound

from the resonance bottle will increase gradually even though the amplitude of the signal is

not adjusted. Stop increasing the frequency when the sound is perceived to be the loudest.

Make small changes to this frequency to locate the frequency at which the loudest value is

heard.

7. The amplitude of the sound wave to the speaker is kept constant.

8. The speaker is placed at the same position for every part of the experiment.

9.

the oscilloscope screen with the time scale of the oscilloscope, the periodic time of the

sound wave can be found. Calculate the resonant frequency by f =

1

.

T

10. Add another 20 cm3 of water to the resonance bottle. Repeat the experiment to find 8 sets

of values of f vs V

11. Plot a graph of f vs V

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1. Use of constant frequency and gradually changing volume of water.

Start with full container of water and gradually remove water, to ensure first resonance

detected is fundamental mode. Use syringe or dropper for fine changes to the volume of

the container

Use of a container with some means of gradually draining water out.

2. Use of tuning forks instead of signal generator with loudspeaker

3. Use of ruler/vernier calipers to measure dimensions of resonance bottle and using

calculations to find volume of air in container.

V = r2 d

4. Use of microphone and oscilloscope to detect loudest sound. Microphone must be place

OUTSIDE the resonance bottle.

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