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2010 NYJC Prelim H2 Paper 1 Solutions


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Section A
Answer all questions.
It is recommended that you spend about 1 hour 15 minutes on this section.
1

(a)

State, in words, the 2 conditions that need to be satisfied in order to achieve static
equilibrium.
Resultant
Condition
1: external force acting on the body is zero.
Resultant torque about any point is zero.

[1]
Condition 2:
[1]
(b)

A uniform trapdoor of mass 12 kg and length 1.00 m is smoothly hinged to the wall as
shown in Fig. 1.1 (not drawn to scale). It is supported in equilibrium by a stay wire
connecting the wall to a point on the trapdoor at a distance of 0.25 m from its free end.
The stay wire makes an angle of 60 with the wall and the trapdoor makes an angle of
30 with the horizontal.

60

0.25 m

30

Fig. 1.1
Show that the tension in the stay wire is 78 N.
Taking moments about the hinge,

= 0
mg cos300 0.50 = T sin600 0.75
0.50 12 9.81cos300
T=
0.75 sin600
= 78 N
[2]

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(c)

A 20.0 kg sphere of uniform density rests between two smooth planes as shown in
Fig. 1.2.

Plane A
20 kg
Plane B
70

30
Fig. 1.2

Determine the magnitude of the force acting on the sphere exerted by each plane.
Let the force due to plane A be FA and the force due to plane B be FB. These 2
forces must be perpendicular to the sides of the respective planes.

Resolving vertically,

FB cos 300 + FA cos 700 = mg

Resolving horizontally,
FB sin 300 = FA sin 700
Solving simultaneously,
FA = 99.6 N
FB = 187 N
force due to plane A =
force due to plane B =
2

N
N [3]

The question is about reverse bungee jumping.


Fig. 2.1 shows the set up of a reverse bungee jumping. A capsule is connected by two
identical elastic cords each attached to a tower 30.0 m tall. The mass of the capsule when
fully loaded with three passengers has a total mass of about 300 kg. When released, the
capsule will shoot up at high speed.

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10.0 m

Elastic
cords
30.0 m

Ground level

capsule
Fig. 2.1
(a)

The original length of each of the elastic cords is 25.0 m with an elastic constant of
19 000 N m-1 and the capsule has an effective diameter of 2.0 m. Prove that the total
elastic potential energy at the ground level = 510 kJ when the cord length is 30.2 m.
Extension 30.2- 25 = 5.2 m
Total EPE = 2 kx2 = (19000)(5.2)2 = 510 kJ

(proven)
[1]

(b)

Fill in the blanks in the table below to determine the various amounts of energy when
the capsule starts from the ground level and shoots up to its highest point.

Ground level
30 m above the
ground
Highest point

Total elastic
potential energy /kJ

Gravitational
potential energy of
capsule /kJ

Kinetic energy of
capsule /kJ

510

88

422

336

174

0
[2]

(c)

Use the value in (a) to determine the speed reached by the capsule when the cords
first become loose.
When the cord is unstretched,
Ht above the ground = 30 (252 42) = 10.8 m above the ground.
By conservation of energy,

gain in KE + gain in GPE = loss in EPE


(300)v2 + (300)(9.81)(10.8) = 510 000
v = 56.5 m s-1

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m s-1 [2]

speed =
(d)

State and explain the position where the apparent weight of the passenger will be the
greatest.
The apparent weight of the passenger will be the greatest at the lowest
point immediately after the capsule is released. The EPE is the largest, this
implies that extension is the largest which will results in the largest force.

[2]
3

A flat horizontal plate is made to oscillate with simple harmonic motion in a vertical direction
as shown in Fig. 3.1. The plate starts its oscillation at the equilibrium position and moves
downwards initially.
plate

oscillator

Fig. 3.1
A graph of velocity against displacement for this oscillation is shown in Fig. 3.2. Point S
marks the start of the oscillation.
velocity / m s-1
0.8
0.6
C
0.4
0.2
displacement
/m

- 0.04

- 0.03

- 0.02

- 0.01

0.01

- 0.2
- 0.4
- 0.6
S
- 0.8
Fig. 3.2
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0.02

0.03

0.04

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(a)

Deduce, from Fig. 3.2,


(i)
the amplitude of the oscillation,
amplitude =
(ii)

0.035

m [1]

the angular frequency of the oscillation.

v 0 = x 0
0.66 = (0.035)

= 19 rad s

(b)

(Accept v0 to be 0.65 0.67)

=
19
A mass of 0.100 kg is placed on the plate before oscillation is started.
(i)

rad s-1 [2]

Determine the displacement of the plate when the mass just loses contact with
the plate.

F = ma
mg N = ma
N = m (g a )
N = 0 when a = g

a = 2 x
When a = g ,
9.81 = (18.86)2 x
x = 0.0276 m

displacement =
(ii)

(a)

Mark on Fig. 3.2 the point C when the mass just loses contact.

m [3]
[1]

State two conditions that must be satisfied in order to obtain observable interference
patterns.

The sources must be coherent.


The amplitude of the waves at the point of interference must be about
the same.
The distance between the two sources is much larger than the
wavelength of the waves emitted.

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[2]

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The apparatus shown in Fig. 4.1 below (not to scale) is used to demonstrate two-source
interference.
Screen

Double slit
Light,
wavelength

Fig. 4.1
(b)

The separation of the two slits in the double slit arrangement is a and the interference
fringes are viewed on a screen at a distance D from the double slits. When light of
wavelength is incident on the double slit, the separation of the bright fringes on the
screen is x.
(i)

Write the equation that links the quantities described in the above paragraph, and
state the assumption made in the use of that equation.

x=

D
a

condition: D>> a

[2]
(ii)

The slits are separated by a distance of a, with the screen at a distance of 1.00 m
from the plane of the slits. The slits are illuminated by monochromatic light of
wavelength 589.3 nm traveling perpendicular to the plane of the slits. It was
observed that the distance between the two 4th order bright fringes are 20 mm.
Calculate the separation of the slits, a.
x = 20 / 8 = 2.5 mm

x=

D
a

a=

D
x

(589.3 10 - 9)(1.00)
= 0.24 mm
2.5 10 - 3

a=

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m [2]

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(c)

(i)

Explain why the central fringe is always a bright one.


Since the central fringe is equal distance from the double slits, path
difference = 0 . Hence the waves from each slit must arrive in phase
resulting in constructive interference.

[1]
(ii)

Explain why an experiment using two separate sources of light will not show
interference.
Two separate sources of light will not be coherent and hence
interference cannot take place.

[1]
5

(a)

Define electric field strength.


The electric field strength at a point in an electric field is defined as the
electrostatic force acting per unit positive charge on a test charge placed at
that point.

[1]

(b) Fig. 5.1 shows a stream of electrons entering a region between two parallel plates which
have a potential difference.

- 200 V
Parabolic path
between plates

Stream of electrons

Straight path
after plates

+200 V
Fig 5.1

Both blue and red paths are


accepted

(i)

Draw on Fig 5.1, the electric field lines between the plates and the expected path
[2]
of the stream of electrons between and after the plates.

(ii)

Calculate the distance between the plates given that the electric field strength
between the plates is 2.0 x 104 N C1.
E=

V
d

=> d =

V
400
= 0.020 m
=
E 2.0 104

distance =

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m [1]

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(iii)

Calculate the acceleration on the electrons between the plates

F = qE = 1.6 10 19 2.0 10 4 = 3.2 10 15 N


a=

3.2 10 15
F
=
= 3.51 1015 m s 2 (downwards )
me 9.11 10 31
acceleration =

(iv)

Hence, given that the length of each plate is 0.040 m and initial horizontal speed
of the electrons is 1.0 x 108 m s-1, calculate the vertical deflection of the electron
at the end of the plates.

t=

sx
0.040
= 4.0 10 10 s
=
v x 1.0 108

sy = u y t +
sy =

1
ay t 2
2

1
(3.51 1015 )(4.0 10 10 )2 = 0.00028m (downwards )
2

deflection =
6

m s-2 [1]

m [2]

A stationary Polonium-212 nuclide may undergo alpha decay spontaneously to produce the
stable lead-208 daughter nuclide as shown in the equation below:

Po

212
84

208
82

Pb + 24He

The rest masses of these nuclei are


212
208
4
84 Po : 211.9888 u; 82 Pb : 207.9766 u and 2 He : 4.0026 u.
(a)

Calculate the total kinetic energy of the decay products.


Mass difference = 211.9888 u (207.9766 u + 4.0026 u) = 0.0096 u

Total kinetic energy = (0.0096 u) c2 = (0.0096)(1.66 10-27)(3.00 108)2 = 1.43


1012 J

total kinetic energy =


(b)

Determine the ratio of

kinetic energy of He-4


. Give your answer in 3 s.f.
kinetic energy of Pb-208

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J [2]

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0 = MPbVPb mHe v He
MPbVPb = mHev He
1
1
2
2
MPbVPb
MPb = mHe v He
mHe
2
2
K .E .He MPb 207.9766
=
=
= 52.0
4.0026
K .E .Po mHe

ratio =

(c)

[2]

Hence, determine the kinetic energy of the alpha particle in MeV.

K .E .He
= 51.9604
K .E .Po
K .E .He
= 51.9604
K .E .Total K .E .He
K .E .He = 51.9604(K .E .Total K .E .He )
52.9604 K .E .He = 51.9604(1.43424 10 12 )

K .E .He = 1.40716 1012 J


= 8.79 MeV

kinetic energy =

(d)

MeV [2]

To escape from the nucleus, the alpha particle must overcome the Coulomb barrier of
26 MeV. Using your answer in (c), comment on how the alpha particle can penetrate
the barrier.

The alpha particles 8.79 MeV of K.E. is unable to overcome the 26 MeV
Coulomb barrier by classical physics. However, the alpha particle can behave
as a wave and be associated with a wave function. The square of the amplitude
of the wave function represents the probability of locating the particle at that
point. Thus it is able to tunnel through the potential barrier and appear outside
the barrier with non-zero amplitude.
[2]

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In the first half of the last century, numerous experiments were conducted to investigate the
absorption and the scattering of X-ray by matter.
It was discovered that when a monochromatic beam of X-rays is incident on a light element
such as carbon, the scattered X-rays have wavelengths dependent on the angle of scattering.
Compton (1923) assumed that the scattering process could be treated as an elastic collision
between an X-ray photon and a free electron, and that energy and momentum would be
conserved.

(a)

Explain what is meant by a photon.

A photon is a quantum of electromagnetic energy. The energy of a photon is


proportional to the frequency of the electromagnetic waves.
[1]

(b)

The elastic collision between a photon and a stationary electron may be represented as
in Fig 7.1.

scattered photon
momentum ps
energy Es

incident photon
momentum pi
energy Ei

Fig. 7.1

electron
mass m, speed v

The incident photon has momentum pi and energy Ei. The photon is scattered through
an angle and, after scattering, has momentum ps and energy Es. The electron of mass
m, which was originally stationary, moves off with speed v at an angle to the original
direction of the incident photon.

(i)

Write down equations, in terms of pi, ps, Ei, Es, m, v, and , that represent,
for this interactions,

1.

Conservation of energy,

Ei = Es + m v2
[1]

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2.

Conservation of momentum along the direction of the incident photon,

Pi = Ps cos + m v cos
[1]

(ii)

Suggest, with a reason, whether the scattered photon will have a wavelength that
is greater or less than that of the incident photon.

Since some energy of the photon is converted to the k.e. of electron,


Ei > Es, hfi > hfs, I < s , the scattered photon has longer wavelength.
[2]

(c)

In an experiment to provide evidence to justify Comptons theory, measurements were


made on the wavelength i of the incident photon, the wavelength s of the scattered
photon and the angle of scattering. Some data from this experiment are given in Fig.
7.2.

i / 10-12 m

s / 10-12 m

/o

=
s - I /m

191.92

193.27

57

1.35 x 10-12

153.30

154.65

57

1.35 x 10-12

965.04

966.84

75

1.80 x 10-12

Fig. 7.2
Use the data in Fig 7.2 to show that, when a photon is scattered, the change in
wavelength produced is independent of the wavelength of the incident photon.
[2]

When is unchanged, is a constant. When is changed, changes.


Hence is independent of I but dependent on .

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(d)

In this experiment, the uncertainty in the measurement of is 5o.


Determine the value of cos , with its uncertainty, for the angle = 75o 5o.

cos 80o = 0.1736


cos 75o = 0.2588
cos 70o = 0.3420
cos = (0.3420 - 0.1736)/2 = 0.084 = 0.08 or 0.09 (1 s.f.)
cos 75o = 0.2588 = 0.26 (2 d.p.)
or

0.2588 - 0.1736 = 0.0852


Take max uncertainty,
cos = 0.085 = 0.09 (1 sig)

0.3420 - 0.2588 = 0.0832

cos =

(e)

0.26

0.09

[3]

Comptons theory suggests that the change in wavelength is related to the angle
of scattering by the expression

= k (1 cos )
where k is a constant.
Experimental data for the variation with cos of are shown in Fig 7.3.

(-0.50, 3.70)

2.50

(1.00, 0.12)

(i)

On Fig. 7.3, draw the best-fit line for the points.

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[1]

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(ii)

Use two different ways to determine the constant k from the graph of Fig. 7.3.
Find the average value of k.
-12
= gradient
2.45 10and
mk is the intercept)
[4]
k cos value
(-kof
iskthe
= k average

k is the y-axis intercept.


k = 2.50 x 10-12
k = - gradient=

(3.70 0.12) X 10 12
= 2.39 X 1012
(0.50) 1.00

<k> = 2.45 x 10-12 m

(f)

For a carbon atom, the binding energy of an electron is of the order of a few
electronvolts. Compton's theory assumes that the electrons are not bound in the atoms
but are free. Suggest whether, for 30 keV photons, this assumption is justified.

The binding energy of an electron of a carbon atom is very much smaller


than the energy of the incident photons (30 keV), the binding energy of the
electrons can be ignored. Thus it is justified to assume that the electrons
are free.

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[1]

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Section B
It is recommended that you spend about 30 minutes on this section.
8

Many musical instruments, such as organ pipes, flutes and clarinets, employ resonating air
columns to produce note of particular frequencies. The length of the resonating column may
be changed to produce a note of a different frequency. It is suggested that different volumes
of air in a container may resonate at frequencies which depend on the volume of the air.

Design an experiment to investigate how the resonant frequency of the fundamental mode of
vibration of air in a container depends on the volume of the air. You may assume that the
following apparatus is available with any other standard equipment which may be found in a
school or college:
Flute

Microphone

Ammeter

Measuring cylinder

Bunsen burner

Oscilloscope

Containers having different volumes

Loudspeaker

Bucket of water

Signal generator

Voltmeter

Thermometer

Your answer should contain a diagram showing how the chosen equipment would be
arranged, together with details of
(a)

the procedure to be followed,

(b)

the method by which the volume of the air and the resonant frequency may be
measured,

(c)

the control of variables,

(d)

any precautions you would take which may improve the accuracy of your experiment.
[12]

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Diagram
Oscilloscope
Loudspeaker

Resonance
bottle

Signal
generator

1.

Perform this experiment in a sound-proof room.

2.

Fill up the resonance bottle completely with water. Pour the water from the resonance bottle
into a measuring cylinder, pouring out in stages if necessary, until the total volume VT of
water has been measured. Read all volumes at the lower meniscus.

3.

Ensure room temperature is constant by monitoring using a mercury in glass thermometer.

4.

Using a measuring cylinder, measure and pour a volume VW of 50 cm3 of water into the
empty resonance bottle. The volume of the air in the resonance bottle is now V = VT Vw

5.

Set up the resonance bottle with the apparatus as shown in the diagram above. Throughout
the experiment, clamp the resonance bottle and the measuring cylinder to avoid spillage or
breakage.

6. Switch on the signal generator. Starting with the lowest possible value of frequency,
gradually increase the frequency output of the signal generator. The loudness of the sound
from the resonance bottle will increase gradually even though the amplitude of the signal is
not adjusted. Stop increasing the frequency when the sound is perceived to be the loudest.
Make small changes to this frequency to locate the frequency at which the loudest value is
heard.
7. The amplitude of the sound wave to the speaker is kept constant.
8. The speaker is placed at the same position for every part of the experiment.
9.

By multiplying the number of divisions on the x-scale occupied by a complete waveform in


the oscilloscope screen with the time scale of the oscilloscope, the periodic time of the
sound wave can be found. Calculate the resonant frequency by f =

1
.
T

10. Add another 20 cm3 of water to the resonance bottle. Repeat the experiment to find 8 sets
of values of f vs V
11. Plot a graph of f vs V

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OTHER ACCEPTABLE VARIATIONS


1. Use of constant frequency and gradually changing volume of water.

 Start with full container of water and gradually remove water, to ensure first resonance
detected is fundamental mode. Use syringe or dropper for fine changes to the volume of
the container
 Use of a container with some means of gradually draining water out.
2. Use of tuning forks instead of signal generator with loudspeaker
3. Use of ruler/vernier calipers to measure dimensions of resonance bottle and using
calculations to find volume of air in container.

 V = r2 d
4. Use of microphone and oscilloscope to detect loudest sound. Microphone must be place
OUTSIDE the resonance bottle.

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