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PRODUCTION OF NITROBENZENE (NB)

(ASSIGNMENT 4)

GROUP 18

YEW CHOON SENG

0903217

1102997

0905714

A project report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of

Bachelor of Engineering (Hons.) Chemical Engineering

EQUIPMENT SIZING

Sizing

Reference: Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering

Type of Reactor = CSTR

Assumption:

1) There is no pressure drop.

2) The Reactor is a steady state but non-isothermal CSTR.

3) T , T out and X is already specified.

From the reference of The Kinetic of Aromatic Nitration, the k value in 25.8 is 0.07824

L/mol.min .

k (25.8 =298.95 K) = 0.07824 L/mol.min

E = (-238.88 (s) + 263.37)

103 J/mol

Thus,

E = (-238.88 (0.37) + 263.37)

R = 8.314 J / K.mol

Thus, rearrange the Arrhenius equation to get the k value for the outlet temperature, which is

50 or 323.15 K.

E 1

1

( )

R T1 T2

v 0 =0.4940 m3 /min

The inlet concentration will be:

Cbenzene = 13.85 lbmol / m3

C Nitric Acid = 10.385 lbmol / m3

r=k C benzene C Nitric Acid

3

V = 2341.12 L = 2.3412 m

For safety and to increase the efficiency, we add increase 10% of the initial volume, thus, the

new volume for the reactor will be

V = 2.3412 1.1 = 2.5752

m3

V 13

(

)

D=

D = 0.9359 m

L = 4D

L = 3.7435 m

Agitator Design

Type of Agitator : Turbine Impeller

Diameter of Turbine Impeller = 0.3120 m

Height of Turbine Impeller = 1.25 m

side products occur. The jacket will fit the reactor of the 80% of height of reactor.

Thus,

Height of Jacket = L 0.8 = 2.9948 m

Whereas the diameter of the jacket is exactly the same as the diameter of the reactor

= 0.9359 m

Sizing

Since the acid wash process is the removal of un-decanted sulfuric acid by react with the

sodium carbonate solid, and the reaction is isothermal, and both the reacted products are

solid, we can design this reactor as a mixer.

As the residence time does not affect to other component except sulfuric acid, we can assume

the residence time for this mixing process is

V = [(46260.4 lb/hr)/(216.057 kg/ m

m

)]

0.08333 hr 2

)] 0.08333 hr 2

V = 16.19 m

1

V 3

D= ( )

D = 1.73 m

L = 4D

L = 6.92 m

Sizing

+ 7.03 10 m

= 16.19703 m

The alkali Wash Reactor is same as the acid wash reactor, the difference is it removes the

water by reacts with it with solid Calcium Sulfate.

Thus, we can make the same assumption and doing the sizing in the same method as the Acid

Wash Reactor.

3

V = [(45958.5 lb/hr)/(217.723 kg/ m )]

0.08333 hr 2

)] 0.08333 hr 2

V = 15.96 m

+ 5.96 10 m

= 15.96596 m

D = 1.7193 m

L = 6.8771 m

Sizing

According to CMC milling, the dispersion unit or dispersion equipment for mix liquids and

liquids are: 1) Horizontal Media Mill, 2) SHRED in-line rotor stator, 3) Batch Mill, 4) Multishaft Mixer, 5) Lab Mixer and 6) Planetary Mixer.

We select multi-shaft mixer with dual shaft.

Thus, the Volume of mixer vessel is = V = [ F L / P L ] 2

3

3

V = [(57378.2 lb/hr)/(85.9847 kg/ m )] 0.08333 hr 2 = 50.45 m

Height of Mixer = L = 10.08 m

The height of the shaft = L/3 = 3.36 m

Diameter of the shafts impellers area = D/3 = 0.84 m

Whereas diameter of each shaft impeller = 0.84 / 2 = 0.42 m

Sizing

The air blowers compress the air from the ambient to bring the reacted GYPSUM to the

dehydration.

Thus, the sizing of the compressors is:

T hp=SCFM

T1

P a

[ 2 1]

8130 a P1

)( )

a=

k1

=0.2857

k

/min of air

518.67 R

100 atm

3

Thus, T hp=7 ft /min 8130 (0.2857) [ 1 atm

)(

0.2857

1]

T hp=4.26

HP

4.26

T hp= HP)(0.8) = 3.41 HP

Assume the efficiency of motor driving compressor is 0.9

W B 1=

W

ncompressor nmotor

= 4.74 HP

1.6 Evaporator

Figure 4

T lm=

( T 1 t 2 ) (T 2t 1)

ln

(T 1t 2)

(T 2t 1)

( 100105 )(8050)

(100105)

ln

(8050)

13.95

The total area of heat exchanger used is determined by the overall heat transfer coefficient, U.

The overall heat exchanger coefficient in this case is 200 btu/ft = 0.00544 kW/m.The heat

duty of the evaporator is obtained from the steam table. The Q is 0.83151kW/hr. To determine

the area of the heat exchanger:

A=

Q

U T lm

0.83151

(0.00544)(13.95)

10.95 m2=117.94 ft 2

1.7 Decanter

Operating Pressure,

Po=14.7 psig

Design Pressure:

Pd =exp {0.60608+ 0.91615 [ ln ( Po ) ] + 0.0015655[ln ( P o ) ]2

exp { 0.60608+0.91615 [ ln ( 14.7 ) ] +0.0015655[ ln ( 14.7 ) ]2

= 21.75psig

At the operating temperature, the maximum allowable stress, S is 14.75psig.

Assume weld efficiency, E=1.0

From the sizing of the feed drum,

Di=2.83 m=111.4

1.8 Dryer

Evaporation rate = amount of steam that is dehydrated from the Gypsum

= 13.8666 lb/hr for V-103

Since the evaporation rate is between 30-3000lb/hr, V-102 is a spray dryer.

We can assume and replace the evaporation rate of the spray dryer V-103 as 30 lb/hr as high

evaporation rate will not affect the product after dehydration.

Heat Exchanger use is a floating head shell and tube heat exchanger. The total area of heat

exchanger used is determine by the overall heat transfer coefficient, U. The overall heat

transfer coefficient can be determined based on type of fluid and temperature of fluid flowing

through shell side and tube side. The overall heat exchanger coefficient in this case is 80 Btu

(0F-ft2-hr) according to (Seider, et al., 2010).

Tin = 146.00 0F

tout = 100.000F

Tout = 377.780F

tin = 200.000F

ln (T1 t2)

(T2 - t1)

ln (146.00 100.00 )

( 377.78 200.00 )

= 97.477 0 F

The heat duty of the heat Exchanger E-103 is obtained from previous manual calculation. The

Q is equal to 709288.78182 Btu/hr. Now, with the information of log mean temperature

difference the heat duty and the overall heat transfer coefficient, we can now determine the

area of the heat exchanger.

A =

Q

UTlm

= 9730121.4512 Btu/hr

( 200) ( 97.477 )

=499.0983232 ft2

According to (Seider, et al., 2010 ), Heuristic 54 the outer diameter of the tube is 0.01905 m

while the tube length is 6.096 m.

= ( 0.01905 ) ( 6.096 )

= 0.3648m2

0.3648

= 127 tubes

For each shell and tube heat exchanger we assume 2 passes so the total number of tubes is

reduced by half which is 64 tubes.

Table

Equipment

E-100

E-101

E-103

E-106

Heat

Exchanger

Sizing

for

Shell

and

Area (m2)

39.214

67.197

46.368

81.114

Tube

Heat

Exchanger

Number of Tubes

54

92

64

111

Equipment

E-105

E-107

E-108

Area (m2)

14.999

14.576

11.958

Number of Tubes

51

50

50

1.10 Mixer

For a simple mixer, there are only two simple parameter needed. Assumed residence time,

Volume , V = [ FV / PV ] * ( ) * 2

= [ (19395/ 1502) * ( 5/60) * 2] + [ ( 301.89 / 1834) * ( 5/60) * 2 ]

= 18925.6312 +n 241.256997

= 19166.89 m

L = 4D , D =

D=

3 V /

19166.89

= 18.27 m

The length of the mixer,

L = 4D

= 4 ( 18.27 )

= 73.08 m

Condition:

Operating Pressure = 1 atm = 14.7 psig

Highest Temperature = 210C = 410F

Number of trays = 15

= 21.755 psig

Condition:

Operating Pressure = 1 atm = 14.7 psig

Highest Temperature = 85C = 185F

Number of trays = 17

= 21.755 psig

COSTING

t p=

Pd Di

4 SE0.4 Pd

However, since the operating pressure is 1 atm =14.22 psig and the reaction is isobaric. We

can directly get the minimum wall thickness with referring the vessel inside diameter.

The vessel inside diameter is 0.9359 m = 3.28084 ft = 39.3701 in

Thus, the minimum wall thickness is t p

= in = 0.25 in.

W = (D i+t s )( L+0.8 D i)t s

=

3

(39.3701 in + 0.25 in)(147.38189 in + 0.8(39.3701 in))0.25 in (0.284 lb/ )

= 1580.83 lb

C p =F M C V +C PL

F M = By choosing stainless steel 304 = 1.7

CV

C PL = For horizontal vessel = 2005 (D i)0.20294

Cp

=$ 2551.69

= $ 27397.105

C BM =F BM C P

The bare module factor for horizontal vessels is 3.05

Thus

C BM =( 3.05 ) ( $ 27397.105 ) =$ 83561.17

t p=

Pd Di

2 SE1.2 Pd

However, since the operating pressure of the Acid Wash Reactor is 1 atm = 14.22 psig and it

is isobaric. The low pressure can lead to give sufficient rigidity wall thickness to the vessel by

using the equation above. Thus, we can directly refer to Figure 6.

The vessel inside Diameter of the Acid Wash Reactor is 1.73 m = 5.68 ft = 68.11 in., thus we

can choose the minimum wall thickness = 5/16 in. = 0.3125 in.

W = (D i+t s )( L+0.8 D i)t s

68.11+0.3125

3

68.11

=

(0.284 lb/ )

272.4409+(0.8)()0.3125

= 6236.92 lb

C p =F M C V +C PL

F M = By choosing stainless steel 304 = 1.7

CV

2

= exp {7.0132 + 0.18255 [ln (W)] + 0.02997 [ln(W )] }

C PL = For Vertical vessel

0.73960

( L)0.70684 = 361.8(3.6114)(9.0895) = $ 11876

= 361.8 ( D i )

Cp

= $103681.1

C BM =F BM C P

The bare module factor for vertical vessels is 4.16

Thus

C BM =( 4.16 )( $ 103681.1 )=$ 431313

The wall thickness calculation method is same as the Acid Wash Reactor, and since the

operating pressure is low, which is 1 atm = 14.22 psig, by reffering the same table with

diameter of 1.7193 m = 5.6407 ft, the wall thickness t p

= 0.3125 in = 0.0079375 m

W = (D i+t s )( L+0.8 Di)t s

3

= ( 1.7193 m+0.0079375 m ) ( 6.8771 m+ 0.8(1.7193 m)) 0.0079375 m (0.284 lb/ )

67.69+ 0.3125

3

67.69

=

(0.284 lb/ )

270.75+ 0.8()0.3125

= 6160.21 lb

C p =F M C V +C PL

F M = By choosing stainless steel 304 = 1.7

CV

2

= exp {7.0132 + 0.18255 [ln (W)] + 0.02997 [ln (W )] }

C PL = For Vertical vessel

0.73960

( L)0.70684 = 361.8(3.5946) (9.0496) = $ 11769

= 361.8 ( D i )

Cp

= $102770

C BM =F BM C P

The bare module factor for vertical vessels is 4.16

Thus

C BM =( 4.16 )( $ 102770 )=$ 427523

The wall thickness calculation method is also same as the acid and alkali wash reactor. The

low operating pressure, P = 1 atm = 14.22 psig, with diameter of 2.52 m = 8.27 ft = 99.21 in,

the minimum wall thickness = 7/16 in = 0.4375 in.

W = (D i+t s )( L+0.8 Di)t s

99.21+ 0.4375

3

99.21

=

(0.284 lb/ )

396.85+ 0.8() 0.4375

= 18523 lb

C p =F M C V +C PL

F M = By choosing carbon steel = 1.0

CV

2

= exp{8.9552 0.2330[ln (W)] + 0.04333 [ln(W )] }

C PL = 0 (Platform and ladder are not needed for the dispersion unit)

Cp

= $ 51492

C BM =F BM C P

The bare module factor for horizontal vessels is 3.05

Thus

C BM =( 3.05 ) ( $ 51492 )=$ 157050.6

C P=F D F M C B

FM

PC =3.41 HP

Due to low

PC value

as 10 HP

10

ln

HP)]} = $ 17882

C B=exp {8.1238+0.7243

C P=F D F M C B

= $ 51410.75

C BM =F BM C P

Bare module factor for gas compressor = 2.15

C BM = $110533

2.6 Evaporator

The base cost of the heat exchanger is based on equation design. Since it is a carbon steel horizontal

tube evaporator. The purchase cost is determined by:

C P=4060 A 0.53

4060(117.94 )0.53

$ 50875.24

C BM =F BM C P

Bare module factor for double-pipe heat exchanger = 2.45

C BM = $ 124644.34

2.7 Decanter

t P=

Pd Di

2 SE1.2 P d

( 21.75 )( 111.4 )

2 ( 317.264 ) ( 0.85 ) 1.2 ( 21.75 )

= 4.716 in = 0.393ft

Adding another corrosion allowance of 1/4 in gives a total thickness of 4.716 in.

t s=4.966 0.414 ft

L=4 Di=445.637.12 ft

Density of carbon steel,

=490 lb/ft

Vessel weight:

W = (D i+t S )(L+0.8 D i )t S

( 9.28+ 0.414 ) [ 37.12+ 0.8 ( 9.28 ) ] (0.414)( 490)

87831lb

Cv=exp { 8.95520.2330 [ ln ( W ) ] +0.04333 [ ln ( W )2 ] }

exp { 8.95520.2330 [ ln ( 87831 ) ] +0.04333 [ ln ( 28783175193.73 )2 ] }

= $149863.57

C BM =F BM C P

= 3.05 (149863.57)

= $ 457083.89

2.8 Dryer

V-102

C P=exp {8.2938+0.8526 [ ln ( Q ) ] 0.0229 [ ln ( Q ) ]

= $205,996.87

Bare-Module Factor for dryers = 2.06

C BM

= 424353.55

V-103

C P=exp {8.2938+0.8526 [ ln ( 13.87 ) ] 0.0229 [ ln ( 13.87 ) ]

= $ 44283.36

Bare-Module Factor for dryers = 2.06

C BM

= 424353.55

Heat Exchanger E-103

The shell and tube heat exchanger is assumed to be floating head, thus, the base cost of the

heat exchanger is based on the equation designed for floating head shell and tube heat

exchanger.

Base Cost

CB = exp { 11.667 0.8709(ln A) + 0.09005 (ln A)2}

= exp { 11.667 3.341303271 + 1.325378322}

= $ 15538.5

The tube length correction factor, FL is equal to 1 as the tube length we assume is 20 ft. The

material factor FM is equal to 2.65 because the material used is stainless steel for tube side

while shell side is carbon steel. Now, the pressure factor need to be calculated to determine

the purchase cost of the shell and tube heat exchanger.

Material Factor

Pressure factor

Fp = 0.9803 + 0.018 (P/100) + 0.0017 (P/100 )2

= 0.9803 + 0.018 ( 14.7/100) + 0.0017 (14.7/100)2

=0.983

Purchase Cost

CP = FPFLFMCB

= 0.983 (1) (2.65) (15538.5)

= $ 40 477.0

CBM = FBMCP

= 3.17 ( 40 477.0)

= $ 128312.1

Table 3: Overall Heat Exchanger Costing for Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

Equipment

E-100

E-101

E-103

E-106

Area, (m2)

Number of

CB, $

CP, $

CBM, $

39.214

67.197

46.368

81.114

Tubes

54

92

64

111

16056.59

14 718.1

15 538.5

14 462.8

41 510.94

39 063.3

40 477.0

38 670.1

131 589.7

123 830.7

128 312.1

122 584.2

Table 4: Overall Heat Exchanger Costing for Double Piped Heat Exchanger

Equipment

E-105

E-107

E-108

Area, (m2)

Number of

14.995

14.576

11.958

Tubes

41

40

33

CB, $

CP, $

21419.82

21590.43

7719.30

53270.88

53895.18

19046.10

CBM, $

168 868.79

170 213.72

60376.14

Since the higher operating temperature is 410F. Take design temperature as 460F.

For carbon steel,

Maximum allowable stress, S = 15000 psi

Assume:

Wall thickness < 1.25 inch

Fractional weld efficiency, E = 0.85

Inside shell diameter = 5ft = 60 inch

Cylindrical shell wall thickness, tp =

Pd D i

2 SE1.2 Pd

( 21.755 ) (5 )

2 ( 15000 ) ( 0.85 )1.2 ( 21.755 )

= 0.00427ft

= 0.05124 inch (too small)

Due to low pressure, wall thickness calculated too small to give sufficient turgidity.

According to book: Product and Process Design Principles: Synthesis, Analysis and

Evaluation,

For internal shell diameter, Di = 5ft, minimum wall thickness tp = 0.3125 inch.

Outer diameter, Do = Di + tp

= 60 + 0.3125

= 60.3125 inch

0.22 ( D0 +18 ) L2

S D 20

15000 ( 60.3125 )2

= 0.036 inch

Required thickness to withstand internal pressure and wind load = 0.3125 + 0.036

= 0.3485 inch

Average thickness, tv =

0.3485+ 0.3125

2

= 0.3305 inch

= 0.3305 + 0.125

= 0.4555 inch

Vessel weight, W = (Di + ts) (L + 0.8Di) ts

= (3.142) (60 + 0.4555) [168 + 0.8(60)] (0.4555) (0.284)

= 5306.96lb

5307lb

Purchase cost at vertical tower, Cv = exp {7.2756 + 0.18255[ln (W)] + 0.02297[ln (W)]2}

= exp {7.2756 + 0.18255[ln (5307)] + 0.02297[ln (5307)]2}

= $37458

Carbon steel material factor, FM = 1

FMCV = $37458

Cost of platform and ladder, CPL = 300.9 (Di)0.63316 (L)0.80161

= 300.9 (5)0.63316 (28)0.80161

= $12052

Purchase cost at the CE index 576 for tower, ladder and platform, CP =

576

( 37458+12052 )

500

( )

= $57036

For sieve tray,

= $1117

FNT =

2.25

1.0414 NT

2.25

1.0414 15

= 1.224

576

= (15) (1.224) (1) (1) (1117) ( 500 )

= $23625.35

$23626

Total purchase cost for distillation column C-100 = $57036 + $23626

= $80662

Since the higher operating temperature is 185F. Take design temperature as 235F.

For carbon steel,

Maximum allowable stress, S = 15000 psi

Assume:

Wall thickness < 1.25 inch

Fractional weld efficiency, E = 0.85

Inside shell diameter = 5ft = 60 inch

Cylindrical shell wall thickness, tp =

Pd D i

2 SE1.2 Pd

( 21.755 ) (5 )

2 ( 15000 ) ( 0.85 )1.2 ( 21.755 )

= 0.00427ft

= 0.05124 inch (too small)

Due to low pressure, wall thickness calculated too small to give sufficient turgidity.

According to book: Product and Process Design Principles: Synthesis, Analysis and

Evaluation,

For internal shell diameter, Di = 5ft, minimum wall thickness tp = 0.3125 inch.

Outer diameter, Do = Di + tp

= 60 + 0.3125

= 60.3125 inch

Tangent-to-tangent length, L = (N 1) 2 = (17 1) 2 = 32ft = 384 inch

Additional wall thickness to withstand wind load or earthquake, tw =

0.22 ( D0 +18 ) L2

S D 20

15000 ( 60.3125 )2

= 0.0466 inch

Required thickness to withstand internal pressure and wind load = 0.3125 + 0.0466

= 0.3591 inch

Average thickness, tv =

0.3591+ 0.3125

2

= 0.3358 inch

= 0.3388 + 0.125

= 0.4608 inch

Vessel weight, W = (Di + ts) (L + 0.8Di) ts

= (3.142) (60 + 0.4608) [408 + 0.8(60)] (0.4608) (0.284)

= 11336.4lb

11337lb

Purchase cost at vertical tower, Cv = exp {7.2756 + 0.18255[ln (W)] + 0.02297[ln (W)]2}

= exp {7.2756 + 0.18255[ln (11337)] + 0.02297[ln (11337)]2}

= $58798

Carbon steel material factor, FM = 1

FMCV = $58798

Cost of platform and ladder, CPL = 300.9 (Di)0.63316 (L)0.80161

= 300.9 (5)0.63316 (32)0.80161

= $13412

Purchase cost at the CE index 576 for tower, ladder and platform, CP =

576

( 58798+ 13412 )

500

( )

= $83186

For sieve tray,

Cost per tray, CBT = 468 exp (0.1739Di)

= $1117

FNT =

2.25

1.0414 NT

2.25

1.0414 17

= 1.129

576

= (17) (1.129) (1) (1) (1117) ( 500 )

= $24697.25

$24698

Total purchase cost for distillation column C-101 = $83186 + $24698

= $107884

2.12 Mixer

Costing for Mixer M-100

Operating temperature, To = 146.039 o F

Design Pressure

= exp [0.60608 + 0.91615 [ ln (14.7)] + 0.0015655 [ ln (14.7)2]

= 26.76 psig

At the operating temperature, the maximum allowable stress, S is 15 000 psi. Assume that the

wall thickness will be greater than 1.25in, giving a weld efficiency , E=1.0

Di = 18.27m

= 59.94 ft

= 719.3 in

= [(26.76) ( 719.29134)] / [ (2)(15000) (1.2)(719.29134)]

= 0.6604

The value obtained lower than expected because of low operating pressure, P o. Adding

another corrosion allowance of 1/8 in gives a total thickness of 0.7854 in.

ts = 0.7854 in

L = 4Di = 239.76 ft = 2877.2 in

Density for carbon steel,

= 0.284 lb/in3

Vessel Weight

W = (Di + ts) (L + 0.8 Di) tsp

= ( 719.3 + 0.7854 )(2877.2 + (0.8)(719.3) (0.7854)(0.284)

= 1741 766 lb

Cv = exp [ 7.0132 + 0.18255 (lnW) + 0.02297 [ln(W)2]

= exp [ 7.0132 + 0.18255 (ln 1741 766) + 0.02297 [ln(1741 766)2]

= $ 690 796

Assuming carbon steel, FM = 1.0

Cp = (FMCV + CPL)

= [ (1.0) ($ 690 796) + 0 ]

= $ 690, 796

Bare Module Cost

CBM = FBMCP = (4.16) (690.796) = $ 2873.71

In Summary,

Equipment

Heat Exchanger

E-100

E-101

E-102*

E-103

E-104*

E-105

E-106

E-107

E-108

R-100

V-100

R-101

V-104

V-101

V-102

V-103

P-100

P-101

P-102

M-100

EU

C-100

C-101

Total Bare Module Cost ($)

Reactor

Decanter

Acid Wash Reactor

Evaporator

Alkali Wash Reactor

Spray Dryer

Air Blower

Mixer

Electrolysis Unit

Distillation Column

131589.70

123830.70

128312.10

168868.79

122584.20

170213.72

60376.14

83561.17

149863.57

103681.10

91575.43

427523.00

424353.55

44283.36

110533.00

110533.00

110533.00

2873.71

157050.60

80662.00

107884.00

2910685.84

1. Gross Roots Capital (GRC)

Contingency and Fees = Total Bare Module Cost 0.08

= $ 3353110 0.08 = $ 268248.81

= $ 3353110 + $ 268248.81 = $ 3621358.81

Auxiliary Facilities

Gross Roots Capital, GRC

= $ 3621358.81 + $ 362135.88 = $ 3983494.69

Specification

Direct Cost

Cost ($)

Total ($)

1. Onsite

398349.4

7

398349.4

7

199174.7

3

199174.7

3

1195048.41

199174.7

5% GRC

3

2% GRC

79669.89

1.5% GRC

59752.42

1% GRC

39834.95

Total Direct Cost

378432.00

1573480.40

10% GRC

Piping Installation

10% GRC

5% GRC

5% GRC

2. Offsite

Building

Yard Improvement

Land

Service Facilities

Specification

Cost ($)

Indirect Cost

Contingency

Construction Expenses

Engineering and Supervisions

Constructor's Fee

5% GRC

3% GRC

2% GRC

1% GRC

Total Indirect Cost

Total Cost

199174.7

3

119504.84

79669.89

39834.95

438184.4

2

= $ 1573480.40+ $ 438184.42 = $2011664.82

Total Capital Investment, TCI = Total Indirect Cost + Total Cost + Fix Capital Investment

= $ 438184.42 + $ 2011664.82 + $ 2011664.82 = $

4461514.06

Working Capital

= $ 5995159.51 0.1 = $ 599515.95

Start Up

= $ 5995159.51 0.07 = $ 419661.17

3.1. Use of Utilities

Specification

Cost ($)

Utilities Cost

Electricity

Cooling Water

Steam

Waste Water Treatment

55000 kW

50000 m/h

100000 kg/h

1261.58 kg/h

$ 0.06/ kW-hr

$ 0.02/m

$ 6.60/1000kg

$ 0.33/kg

Total Utilities Cost

Direct Salary and Benefits

Operating Supplies and Services

Technical assistance to

manufacturing

Control Laboratory

Total ($)

26136000.0

0

7920000.00

5227200.00

3297265.50

42580465.5

0

Specification

Cost ($)

Total ($)

Operational Cost

18

$ 35/operator-hr

4989600.00

15% DW& B

748440.00

6% DW& B

299376.00

$ 60000/

9

(operation/shift)-yr

540000.00

$ 60000/

9

(operation/shift)-yr

540000.00

Total Operational Cost 7117416.00

= $ 49697881.50

Raw Material

Price ($/kg)

Specification

Cost ($)

Benzene

1.37

10905.7 kg

118331207.28

Nitric Acid

0.36

8797.4 kg

25083146.88

Sulphuric Acid

0.22

136.9 kg

238534.56

143652888.72

Specification

Cost ($)

Insurance

1% FCI

59951.60

5% FCI

299757.98

359709.57

4.1. Total Manufacturing Expenses

Total Manufacturing Expenses, AME = Direct Production Cost + Utilities

+ Indirect Production Cost

= $ 143652888.72 + $ 359709.57 + $ 49697881.50

= $ 193710479.79

Research and development

Administration

Specification

8% FCI

5% FCI

3% FCI

Total General Expenses

Cost ($)

479612.76

299757.98

179854.79

959225.52

Total Production Cost, APC

= $ 193710479.79 + $ 959225.52 = $ 194669705.31

Raw Material

Nitrobenzene

Calsium Sulfate

Carbonic Acid

Price ($/kg)

Specification

Cost ($)

17181.53 kg

544310870.40

46.28kg

29323008.00

46.28 kg

73307.52

Total Revenue

573707185.92

4

0.8

0.2

Depreciation, AD

= 15% of FCI

= 0.15 $ 5995159.51 = $ 899273.93

= $ 194669705.31 + $ 899273.93 = $ 195568979.24

= $ 573707185.92 - $ 195568979.24

= $ 349108428.76

= 0.04 $ 349108428.76 = $ 139643371.50

= $ 349108428.76 - $ 139643371.50 = $ 209465057.26

A NNP

Return of Investment = Total Capital Investment 100

=

$ 209465057.26

100

$ 4461514.06

Total Depreciation Capital, CTD

= FCI

= $ 5995159.51

Payback Period

CTD

A NNP + A D

$ 5995159.51

$ 209465057.26+ $ 899273.93

=: 0.028498936 year

First year:

No sales (the plant still construction)

Second year:

No sales (the plant just start to operate)

Third year:

No sales (the plant just start to operate)

Fourth year:

Federal income taxes existed

Assume there is increment 1% of income from previous year

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