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C10UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN

LEE KONG CHIAN FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

UEMK4353 PROCESS AND PLANT DESIGN II


PRODUCTION OF NITROBENZENE (NB)

SIZING AND COSTING


(ASSIGNMENT 4)

GROUP 18
YEW CHOON SENG

0903217

PANG TUNG HEE

1102997

MARILYN YONG YUEN LING

0905714

DIROSHA A/P THIAGUTHEVAN 0903189

A project report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of
Bachelor of Engineering (Hons.) Chemical Engineering

EQUIPMENT SIZING

1.1 Reactor R-100


Sizing
Reference: Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering
Type of Reactor = CSTR

Assumption:
1) There is no pressure drop.
2) The Reactor is a steady state but non-isothermal CSTR.
3) T , T out and X is already specified.

Figure 1:Steps to determine the volume of steady-state Non-isothermal CSTR

From the reference of The Kinetic of Aromatic Nitration, the k value in 25.8 is 0.07824
L/mol.min .
k (25.8 =298.95 K) = 0.07824 L/mol.min

The Activation Energy for this reaction is


E = (-238.88 (s) + 263.37)

103 J/mol

Where s = the weight percentage in of sulphuric acid in the reactor input.


Thus,
E = (-238.88 (0.37) + 263.37)

103 J/mol = 174984.4 J/mol.

R = 8.314 J / K.mol
Thus, rearrange the Arrhenius equation to get the k value for the outlet temperature, which is
50 or 323.15 K.

ln k 323.15 =ln k 298.95 +

E 1
1
( )
R T1 T2

k (50 = 323.15K) = 15.24 L/mol.min


v 0 =0.4940 m3 /min
The inlet concentration will be:
Cbenzene = 13.85 lbmol / m3
C Nitric Acid = 10.385 lbmol / m3
r=k C benzene C Nitric Acid

r = 0.002192 lbmol / L.min

Volume of reactor will be


3
V = 2341.12 L = 2.3412 m

For safety and to increase the efficiency, we add increase 10% of the initial volume, thus, the
new volume for the reactor will be
V = 2.3412 1.1 = 2.5752

m3

V 13
(
)
D=

D = 0.9359 m
L = 4D
L = 3.7435 m

Agitator Design
Type of Agitator : Turbine Impeller

Diameter of Turbine Impeller = Diameter of Reactor / 3


Diameter of Turbine Impeller = 0.3120 m

Height of Turbine Impeller = L/3


Height of Turbine Impeller = 1.25 m

Cooling jacket of the Reactor

The jacket is used to cool the reactor in order to maintain 50

so it will not have any

side products occur. The jacket will fit the reactor of the 80% of height of reactor.
Thus,
Height of Jacket = L 0.8 = 2.9948 m
Whereas the diameter of the jacket is exactly the same as the diameter of the reactor
= 0.9359 m

1.2 Acid Wash Reactor R-101


Sizing

Figure 2 : Schematic diagram of Acid Wash Reactor R-101

Since the acid wash process is the removal of un-decanted sulfuric acid by react with the
sodium carbonate solid, and the reaction is isothermal, and both the reacted products are
solid, we can design this reactor as a mixer.

As the residence time does not affect to other component except sulfuric acid, we can assume
the residence time for this mixing process is

= 5 minute = 0.08333 hr,

Volume of the Mixer = V = [ F L / P L ] 2


V = [(46260.4 lb/hr)/(216.057 kg/ m
m

)]

0.08333 hr 2

)] 0.08333 hr 2

V = 16.19 m

The diameter of the mixer


1

V 3
D= ( )
D = 1.73 m
L = 4D
L = 6.92 m

1.3 Alkali Wash Reactor V-101


Sizing

+ 7.03 10 m

= 16.19703 m

+ [(236.238 lb/hr)/(2540 kg/

Figure 3: Schematic diagram of Alkali Wash Reactor V-101

The alkali Wash Reactor is same as the acid wash reactor, the difference is it removes the
water by reacts with it with solid Calcium Sulfate.
Thus, we can make the same assumption and doing the sizing in the same method as the Acid
Wash Reactor.

3
V = [(45958.5 lb/hr)/(217.723 kg/ m )]

0.08333 hr 2

+ [(209.577 lb/hr)/(2660 kg/

)] 0.08333 hr 2

V = 15.96 m

+ 5.96 10 m

= 15.96596 m

D = 1.7193 m
L = 6.8771 m

1.4 Electrolysis Unit (or Dispersion Unit) EU


Sizing
According to CMC milling, the dispersion unit or dispersion equipment for mix liquids and
liquids are: 1) Horizontal Media Mill, 2) SHRED in-line rotor stator, 3) Batch Mill, 4) Multishaft Mixer, 5) Lab Mixer and 6) Planetary Mixer.
We select multi-shaft mixer with dual shaft.
Thus, the Volume of mixer vessel is = V = [ F L / P L ] 2
3
3
V = [(57378.2 lb/hr)/(85.9847 kg/ m )] 0.08333 hr 2 = 50.45 m

Diameter of the Mixer = D = 2.52 m


Height of Mixer = L = 10.08 m

Since there will be two shaft inside the mixer,


The height of the shaft = L/3 = 3.36 m
Diameter of the shafts impellers area = D/3 = 0.84 m
Whereas diameter of each shaft impeller = 0.84 / 2 = 0.42 m

1.5 Air Blowers P-100, P-101, P-102


Sizing
The air blowers compress the air from the ambient to bring the reacted GYPSUM to the
dehydration.
Thus, the sizing of the compressors is:
T hp=SCFM

T1
P a
[ 2 1]
8130 a P1

)( )

Heat ratio of Air = k = 1.4


a=

k1
=0.2857
k

According to Heuristic 48, we use 7 ft

/min of air

518.67 R
100 atm
3
Thus, T hp=7 ft /min 8130 (0.2857) [ 1 atm

)(

0.2857

1]

T hp=4.26

HP

Assume the efficiency of the compressor is 0.8


4.26
T hp= HP)(0.8) = 3.41 HP
Assume the efficiency of motor driving compressor is 0.9
W B 1=

W
ncompressor nmotor

= 4.74 HP

1.6 Evaporator

Figure 4
T lm=

( T 1 t 2 ) (T 2t 1)
ln

(T 1t 2)
(T 2t 1)

( 100105 )(8050)
(100105)
ln
(8050)

13.95

The total area of heat exchanger used is determined by the overall heat transfer coefficient, U.
The overall heat exchanger coefficient in this case is 200 btu/ft = 0.00544 kW/m.The heat
duty of the evaporator is obtained from the steam table. The Q is 0.83151kW/hr. To determine
the area of the heat exchanger:

A=

Q
U T lm

0.83151
(0.00544)(13.95)

10.95 m2=117.94 ft 2

1.7 Decanter
Operating Pressure,

Po=14.7 psig

Design Pressure:
Pd =exp {0.60608+ 0.91615 [ ln ( Po ) ] + 0.0015655[ln ( P o ) ]2
exp { 0.60608+0.91615 [ ln ( 14.7 ) ] +0.0015655[ ln ( 14.7 ) ]2
= 21.75psig
At the operating temperature, the maximum allowable stress, S is 14.75psig.
Assume weld efficiency, E=1.0
From the sizing of the feed drum,

Di=2.83 m=111.4

1.8 Dryer
Evaporation rate = amount of steam that is dehydrated from the Gypsum

= 41.5997 lb/hr for V-102


= 13.8666 lb/hr for V-103
Since the evaporation rate is between 30-3000lb/hr, V-102 is a spray dryer.
We can assume and replace the evaporation rate of the spray dryer V-103 as 30 lb/hr as high
evaporation rate will not affect the product after dehydration.

1.9 Heat Exchanger, Coolers and Heaters


Heat Exchanger use is a floating head shell and tube heat exchanger. The total area of heat
exchanger used is determine by the overall heat transfer coefficient, U. The overall heat
transfer coefficient can be determined based on type of fluid and temperature of fluid flowing
through shell side and tube side. The overall heat exchanger coefficient in this case is 80 Btu
(0F-ft2-hr) according to (Seider, et al., 2010).

Tin = 146.00 0F

tout = 100.000F

Tout = 377.780F

tin = 200.000F

Figure 5 : Schematic Diagram for Heat Exchanger E- 103

Tlm = (T1 t2) (T2 t1 )


ln (T1 t2)
(T2 - t1)

= ( 146.00 100.00 ) ( 377.78 200.00 )


ln (146.00 100.00 )
( 377.78 200.00 )
= 97.477 0 F
The heat duty of the heat Exchanger E-103 is obtained from previous manual calculation. The
Q is equal to 709288.78182 Btu/hr. Now, with the information of log mean temperature
difference the heat duty and the overall heat transfer coefficient, we can now determine the
area of the heat exchanger.

A =

Q
UTlm

= 9730121.4512 Btu/hr
( 200) ( 97.477 )
=499.0983232 ft2

According to (Seider, et al., 2010 ), Heuristic 54 the outer diameter of the tube is 0.01905 m
while the tube length is 6.096 m.

Area for one tube = dl


= ( 0.01905 ) ( 6.096 )
= 0.3648m2

Total number of tubes = 46.368


0.3648
= 127 tubes
For each shell and tube heat exchanger we assume 2 passes so the total number of tubes is
reduced by half which is 64 tubes.

Overall Heat Exchanger Sizing


Table

Equipment
E-100
E-101
E-103
E-106

Heat

Exchanger

Sizing

for

Shell

and

Area (m2)
39.214
67.197
46.368
81.114

Tube

Heat

Exchanger

Number of Tubes
54
92
64
111

Table 2 : Heat Exchanger Sizing for double pipe heat exchanger


Equipment
E-105
E-107
E-108

Area (m2)
14.999
14.576
11.958

Number of Tubes
51
50
50

1.10 Mixer
For a simple mixer, there are only two simple parameter needed. Assumed residence time,

equals to 5 minute = 0.0833 hr

Volume , V = [ FV / PV ] * ( ) * 2
= [ (19395/ 1502) * ( 5/60) * 2] + [ ( 301.89 / 1834) * ( 5/60) * 2 ]

= 18925.6312 +n 241.256997
= 19166.89 m

The diameter of the mixer,


L = 4D , D =

D=

3 V /

19166.89

= 18.27 m
The length of the mixer,
L = 4D
= 4 ( 18.27 )
= 73.08 m

1.11 Distillation Column C-100


Condition:
Operating Pressure = 1 atm = 14.7 psig
Highest Temperature = 210C = 410F
Number of trays = 15

Design Pressure = exp 0.60608+0.91615 [ ln ( PO ) ]+ 0.0015655 [ ln ( PO ) ]

= exp { 0.60608+ 0.91615 [ ln (14.7 ) ] + 0.0015655 [ ln (14.7 ) ]


= 21.755 psig

1.12 Distillation Column C-101


Condition:
Operating Pressure = 1 atm = 14.7 psig
Highest Temperature = 85C = 185F
Number of trays = 17

Design Pressure = exp 0.60608+0.91615 [ ln ( PO ) ]+ 0.0015655 [ ln ( PO ) ]

= exp { 0.60608+ 0.91615 [ ln (14.7 ) ] + 0.0015655 [ ln (14.7 ) ]


= 21.755 psig

COSTING

2.1 Reactor R-100

t p=

Pd Di
4 SE0.4 Pd

However, since the operating pressure is 1 atm =14.22 psig and the reaction is isobaric. We
can directly get the minimum wall thickness with referring the vessel inside diameter.

Figure 6 : Finding Minimum Wall Thickness according to Vessel Inside Diameter


The vessel inside diameter is 0.9359 m = 3.28084 ft = 39.3701 in
Thus, the minimum wall thickness is t p

= in = 0.25 in.

The weight of the shell and two heads is approximately:


W = (D i+t s )( L+0.8 D i)t s
=

3
(39.3701 in + 0.25 in)(147.38189 in + 0.8(39.3701 in))0.25 in (0.284 lb/ )

= 1580.83 lb

The costing of the reactor


C p =F M C V +C PL
F M = By choosing stainless steel 304 = 1.7
CV

= For horizontal Vessels = exp{8,9552 0.2330[ln (W)] + 0.04333 [ln (W )] }

= exp (9.5898) = $ 14614.95


C PL = For horizontal vessel = 2005 (D i)0.20294
Cp

=$ 2551.69

= $ 27397.105

Bare Module Cost


C BM =F BM C P
The bare module factor for horizontal vessels is 3.05
Thus
C BM =( 3.05 ) ( $ 27397.105 ) =$ 83561.17

2.2 Acid Wash Reactor R-101


t p=

Pd Di
2 SE1.2 Pd

However, since the operating pressure of the Acid Wash Reactor is 1 atm = 14.22 psig and it
is isobaric. The low pressure can lead to give sufficient rigidity wall thickness to the vessel by
using the equation above. Thus, we can directly refer to Figure 6.
The vessel inside Diameter of the Acid Wash Reactor is 1.73 m = 5.68 ft = 68.11 in., thus we
can choose the minimum wall thickness = 5/16 in. = 0.3125 in.

The weight of the shell and two heads is approximately:


W = (D i+t s )( L+0.8 D i)t s

68.11+0.3125

3
68.11
=
(0.284 lb/ )
272.4409+(0.8)()0.3125

= 6236.92 lb

The costing of the Acid Wash Reactor


C p =F M C V +C PL
F M = By choosing stainless steel 304 = 1.7
CV

= For Vertical Vessels

2
= exp {7.0132 + 0.18255 [ln (W)] + 0.02997 [ln(W )] }

= exp {7.0132 + 1.5952 + 2.2884} = $ 54003


C PL = For Vertical vessel
0.73960
( L)0.70684 = 361.8(3.6114)(9.0895) = $ 11876
= 361.8 ( D i )

Cp

= $103681.1

Bare Module Cost


C BM =F BM C P
The bare module factor for vertical vessels is 4.16
Thus
C BM =( 4.16 )( $ 103681.1 )=$ 431313

2.3 Alkali Wash Reactor V-101


The wall thickness calculation method is same as the Acid Wash Reactor, and since the
operating pressure is low, which is 1 atm = 14.22 psig, by reffering the same table with
diameter of 1.7193 m = 5.6407 ft, the wall thickness t p

= 0.3125 in = 0.0079375 m

The weight of the shell and two heads is approximately:


W = (D i+t s )( L+0.8 Di)t s
3
= ( 1.7193 m+0.0079375 m ) ( 6.8771 m+ 0.8(1.7193 m)) 0.0079375 m (0.284 lb/ )

67.69+ 0.3125

3
67.69
=
(0.284 lb/ )
270.75+ 0.8()0.3125

= 6160.21 lb

The costing of the Alkali Wash Reactor


C p =F M C V +C PL
F M = By choosing stainless steel 304 = 1.7
CV

= For Vertical Vessels

2
= exp {7.0132 + 0.18255 [ln (W)] + 0.02997 [ln (W )] }

= exp {7.0132 + 1.5929 + 2.2819} = $ 53530


C PL = For Vertical vessel

0.73960
( L)0.70684 = 361.8(3.5946) (9.0496) = $ 11769
= 361.8 ( D i )

Cp

= $102770

Bare Module Cost


C BM =F BM C P
The bare module factor for vertical vessels is 4.16
Thus
C BM =( 4.16 )( $ 102770 )=$ 427523

2.4 Electrolysis Unit (or Dispersion Unit) EU


The wall thickness calculation method is also same as the acid and alkali wash reactor. The
low operating pressure, P = 1 atm = 14.22 psig, with diameter of 2.52 m = 8.27 ft = 99.21 in,
the minimum wall thickness = 7/16 in = 0.4375 in.

The height of the mixer is L = 10.08 m = 396.85 in.

The weight of the shell and two heads is approximately:


W = (D i+t s )( L+0.8 Di)t s
99.21+ 0.4375

3
99.21
=
(0.284 lb/ )
396.85+ 0.8() 0.4375

= 18523 lb

The costing of the Dispersion Unit


C p =F M C V +C PL
F M = By choosing carbon steel = 1.0
CV

= For Horizontal Vessel

2
= exp{8.9552 0.2330[ln (W)] + 0.04333 [ln(W )] }

= exo{8.9552 2.290 + 4.184} = $ 51492


C PL = 0 (Platform and ladder are not needed for the dispersion unit)
Cp

= $ 51492

Bare Module Cost


C BM =F BM C P
The bare module factor for horizontal vessels is 3.05
Thus
C BM =( 3.05 ) ( $ 51492 )=$ 157050.6

2.5 Air Blowers P-100, P-101, P-102


C P=F D F M C B

F D = 1.15 for gas turbine drive (Air)


FM

= 2.5 for Stainless Steel

PC =3.41 HP
Due to low

PC , we use screw compressor for our air blower, by replacing the

PC value

as 10 HP

10
ln
HP)]} = $ 17882
C B=exp {8.1238+0.7243
C P=F D F M C B
= $ 51410.75

Bare module cost


C BM =F BM C P
Bare module factor for gas compressor = 2.15
C BM = $110533

2.6 Evaporator
The base cost of the heat exchanger is based on equation design. Since it is a carbon steel horizontal
tube evaporator. The purchase cost is determined by:

C P=4060 A 0.53

4060(117.94 )0.53
$ 50875.24

Bare module cost


C BM =F BM C P
Bare module factor for double-pipe heat exchanger = 2.45
C BM = $ 124644.34
2.7 Decanter

The pressure-vessel code: (Assuming efficiency for carbon steel)


t P=

Pd Di
2 SE1.2 P d

( 21.75 )( 111.4 )
2 ( 317.264 ) ( 0.85 ) 1.2 ( 21.75 )

= 4.716 in = 0.393ft
Adding another corrosion allowance of 1/4 in gives a total thickness of 4.716 in.
t s=4.966 0.414 ft
L=4 Di=445.637.12 ft
Density of carbon steel,

=490 lb/ft

Vessel weight:
W = (D i+t S )(L+0.8 D i )t S
( 9.28+ 0.414 ) [ 37.12+ 0.8 ( 9.28 ) ] (0.414)( 490)
87831lb

The purchase cost of vessel:


Cv=exp { 8.95520.2330 [ ln ( W ) ] +0.04333 [ ln ( W )2 ] }
exp { 8.95520.2330 [ ln ( 87831 ) ] +0.04333 [ ln ( 28783175193.73 )2 ] }
= $149863.57

Bare Module Cost


C BM =F BM C P
= 3.05 (149863.57)
= $ 457083.89

2.8 Dryer
V-102
C P=exp {8.2938+0.8526 [ ln ( Q ) ] 0.0229 [ ln ( Q ) ]

exp {8.2938+ 0.8526 [ ln ( 223.443 ) ] 0.0229 [ ln ( 223.443 ) ]

= $205,996.87
Bare-Module Factor for dryers = 2.06
C BM

= 424353.55

V-103
C P=exp {8.2938+0.8526 [ ln ( 13.87 ) ] 0.0229 [ ln ( 13.87 ) ]

= $ 44283.36
Bare-Module Factor for dryers = 2.06
C BM

= 424353.55

2.9 Heat Exchanger


Heat Exchanger E-103
The shell and tube heat exchanger is assumed to be floating head, thus, the base cost of the
heat exchanger is based on the equation designed for floating head shell and tube heat
exchanger.
Base Cost
CB = exp { 11.667 0.8709(ln A) + 0.09005 (ln A)2}
= exp { 11.667 3.341303271 + 1.325378322}
= $ 15538.5
The tube length correction factor, FL is equal to 1 as the tube length we assume is 20 ft. The
material factor FM is equal to 2.65 because the material used is stainless steel for tube side
while shell side is carbon steel. Now, the pressure factor need to be calculated to determine
the purchase cost of the shell and tube heat exchanger.

Material Factor

FM = 1.75 + { 46.368 / 100 }0.13 = 2.65

Pressure factor
Fp = 0.9803 + 0.018 (P/100) + 0.0017 (P/100 )2
= 0.9803 + 0.018 ( 14.7/100) + 0.0017 (14.7/100)2
=0.983

Purchase Cost
CP = FPFLFMCB
= 0.983 (1) (2.65) (15538.5)
= $ 40 477.0

CBM = FBMCP
= 3.17 ( 40 477.0)
= $ 128312.1

Overall Heat Exchanger Costing


Table 3: Overall Heat Exchanger Costing for Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
Equipment
E-100
E-101
E-103
E-106

Area, (m2)

Number of

CB, $

CP, $

CBM, $

39.214
67.197
46.368
81.114

Tubes
54
92
64
111

16056.59
14 718.1
15 538.5
14 462.8

41 510.94
39 063.3
40 477.0
38 670.1

131 589.7
123 830.7
128 312.1
122 584.2

Table 4: Overall Heat Exchanger Costing for Double Piped Heat Exchanger
Equipment
E-105
E-107
E-108

Area, (m2)

Number of

14.995
14.576
11.958

Tubes
41
40
33

CB, $

CP, $

21419.82
21590.43
7719.30

53270.88
53895.18
19046.10

CBM, $
168 868.79
170 213.72
60376.14

2.10 Distillation Column C-100


Since the higher operating temperature is 410F. Take design temperature as 460F.
For carbon steel,
Maximum allowable stress, S = 15000 psi
Assume:
Wall thickness < 1.25 inch
Fractional weld efficiency, E = 0.85
Inside shell diameter = 5ft = 60 inch
Cylindrical shell wall thickness, tp =

Pd D i
2 SE1.2 Pd

( 21.755 ) (5 )
2 ( 15000 ) ( 0.85 )1.2 ( 21.755 )

= 0.00427ft
= 0.05124 inch (too small)
Due to low pressure, wall thickness calculated too small to give sufficient turgidity.
According to book: Product and Process Design Principles: Synthesis, Analysis and
Evaluation,
For internal shell diameter, Di = 5ft, minimum wall thickness tp = 0.3125 inch.
Outer diameter, Do = Di + tp
= 60 + 0.3125
= 60.3125 inch

Tangent-to-tangent length, L = (N 1) 2 = (15 1) 2 = 28ft = 336 inch


0.22 ( D0 +18 ) L2

Additional wall thickness to withstand wind load or earthquake, tw =

S D 20

0.22 ( 60.3125+18 ) 1682


15000 ( 60.3125 )2

= 0.036 inch
Required thickness to withstand internal pressure and wind load = 0.3125 + 0.036
= 0.3485 inch
Average thickness, tv =

0.3485+ 0.3125
2

= 0.3305 inch

Shell wall thickness, ts = tv + corrosion allowance


= 0.3305 + 0.125
= 0.4555 inch
Vessel weight, W = (Di + ts) (L + 0.8Di) ts
= (3.142) (60 + 0.4555) [168 + 0.8(60)] (0.4555) (0.284)
= 5306.96lb
5307lb
Purchase cost at vertical tower, Cv = exp {7.2756 + 0.18255[ln (W)] + 0.02297[ln (W)]2}
= exp {7.2756 + 0.18255[ln (5307)] + 0.02297[ln (5307)]2}
= $37458
Carbon steel material factor, FM = 1
FMCV = $37458
Cost of platform and ladder, CPL = 300.9 (Di)0.63316 (L)0.80161
= 300.9 (5)0.63316 (28)0.80161
= $12052
Purchase cost at the CE index 576 for tower, ladder and platform, CP =
576
( 37458+12052 )
500

( )

= $57036
For sieve tray,

Cost per tray, CBT = 468 exp (0.1739Di)

= 468 exp [0.1739(5)]


= $1117
FNT =

2.25
1.0414 NT

2.25
1.0414 15

= 1.224

Purchase cost of trays with CE index 550, CT = NTFNTFTTFTMCBT


576
= (15) (1.224) (1) (1) (1117) ( 500 )
= $23625.35
$23626
Total purchase cost for distillation column C-100 = $57036 + $23626
= $80662

2.11 Distillation Column C-101


Since the higher operating temperature is 185F. Take design temperature as 235F.
For carbon steel,
Maximum allowable stress, S = 15000 psi
Assume:
Wall thickness < 1.25 inch
Fractional weld efficiency, E = 0.85
Inside shell diameter = 5ft = 60 inch
Cylindrical shell wall thickness, tp =

Pd D i
2 SE1.2 Pd

( 21.755 ) (5 )
2 ( 15000 ) ( 0.85 )1.2 ( 21.755 )

= 0.00427ft
= 0.05124 inch (too small)
Due to low pressure, wall thickness calculated too small to give sufficient turgidity.

According to book: Product and Process Design Principles: Synthesis, Analysis and
Evaluation,
For internal shell diameter, Di = 5ft, minimum wall thickness tp = 0.3125 inch.
Outer diameter, Do = Di + tp
= 60 + 0.3125
= 60.3125 inch
Tangent-to-tangent length, L = (N 1) 2 = (17 1) 2 = 32ft = 384 inch
Additional wall thickness to withstand wind load or earthquake, tw =

0.22 ( D0 +18 ) L2
S D 20

0.22 ( 60.3125+18 ) 384 2


15000 ( 60.3125 )2

= 0.0466 inch
Required thickness to withstand internal pressure and wind load = 0.3125 + 0.0466
= 0.3591 inch
Average thickness, tv =

0.3591+ 0.3125
2

= 0.3358 inch

Shell wall thickness, ts = tv + corrosion allowance


= 0.3388 + 0.125
= 0.4608 inch
Vessel weight, W = (Di + ts) (L + 0.8Di) ts
= (3.142) (60 + 0.4608) [408 + 0.8(60)] (0.4608) (0.284)
= 11336.4lb
11337lb
Purchase cost at vertical tower, Cv = exp {7.2756 + 0.18255[ln (W)] + 0.02297[ln (W)]2}
= exp {7.2756 + 0.18255[ln (11337)] + 0.02297[ln (11337)]2}
= $58798
Carbon steel material factor, FM = 1
FMCV = $58798
Cost of platform and ladder, CPL = 300.9 (Di)0.63316 (L)0.80161
= 300.9 (5)0.63316 (32)0.80161

= $13412
Purchase cost at the CE index 576 for tower, ladder and platform, CP =
576
( 58798+ 13412 )
500

( )

= $83186
For sieve tray,
Cost per tray, CBT = 468 exp (0.1739Di)

= 468 exp [0.1739(5)]


= $1117
FNT =

2.25
1.0414 NT

2.25
1.0414 17

= 1.129

Purchase cost of trays with CE index 550, CT = NTFNTFTTFTMCBT


576
= (17) (1.129) (1) (1) (1117) ( 500 )
= $24697.25
$24698
Total purchase cost for distillation column C-101 = $83186 + $24698
= $107884

2.12 Mixer
Costing for Mixer M-100

Operating pressure, Po = 14.7 psig


Operating temperature, To = 146.039 o F

Design Pressure

Pd = exp [0.60608 + 0.91615 [ ln (Po)] + 0.0015655 [ ln (Po)2]


= exp [0.60608 + 0.91615 [ ln (14.7)] + 0.0015655 [ ln (14.7)2]
= 26.76 psig
At the operating temperature, the maximum allowable stress, S is 15 000 psi. Assume that the
wall thickness will be greater than 1.25in, giving a weld efficiency , E=1.0

From the sizing of the Mixer,

Di = 18.27m
= 59.94 ft
= 719.3 in

The pressure-vessel code formula

tp = PdDi / (2SE 1.2 Pd)


= [(26.76) ( 719.29134)] / [ (2)(15000) (1.2)(719.29134)]
= 0.6604

The value obtained lower than expected because of low operating pressure, P o. Adding
another corrosion allowance of 1/8 in gives a total thickness of 0.7854 in.

ts = 0.7854 in
L = 4Di = 239.76 ft = 2877.2 in
Density for carbon steel,

= 0.284 lb/in3

Vessel Weight
W = (Di + ts) (L + 0.8 Di) tsp
= ( 719.3 + 0.7854 )(2877.2 + (0.8)(719.3) (0.7854)(0.284)
= 1741 766 lb

The Purchase Cost of Vessel


Cv = exp [ 7.0132 + 0.18255 (lnW) + 0.02297 [ln(W)2]
= exp [ 7.0132 + 0.18255 (ln 1741 766) + 0.02297 [ln(1741 766)2]
= $ 690 796

The purchase cost of platforms and ladders, CPL = 0


Assuming carbon steel, FM = 1.0

Total Purchase Cost


Cp = (FMCV + CPL)
= [ (1.0) ($ 690 796) + 0 ]
= $ 690, 796
Bare Module Cost
CBM = FBMCP = (4.16) (690.796) = $ 2873.71

2.13 Total Plant Costing


In Summary,
Equipment
Heat Exchanger

E-100
E-101
E-102*
E-103
E-104*
E-105
E-106
E-107
E-108
R-100
V-100
R-101
V-104
V-101
V-102
V-103
P-100
P-101
P-102
M-100
EU
C-100
C-101
Total Bare Module Cost ($)

Reactor
Decanter
Acid Wash Reactor
Evaporator
Alkali Wash Reactor
Spray Dryer
Air Blower

Mixer
Electrolysis Unit
Distillation Column

Bare Module Cost ($)


131589.70
123830.70
128312.10
168868.79
122584.20
170213.72
60376.14
83561.17
149863.57
103681.10
91575.43
427523.00
424353.55
44283.36
110533.00
110533.00
110533.00
2873.71
157050.60
80662.00
107884.00
2910685.84

*Heat exchangers are eliminated after process integration process (assignment 1)


1. Gross Roots Capital (GRC)
Contingency and Fees = Total Bare Module Cost 0.08
= $ 3353110 0.08 = $ 268248.81

Total Module Cost, TMC

= Total Mare Module Cost Contingency and Fees


= $ 3353110 + $ 268248.81 = $ 3621358.81

Auxiliary Facilities

= Total Module Cost 0.1

= $ 3621358.81 0.1 = $ 362135.88


Gross Roots Capital, GRC

= Total Module Cost + Auxiliary Facilities


= $ 3621358.81 + $ 362135.88 = $ 3983494.69

2. Fixed and Total Capital Investment


Specification
Direct Cost

Cost ($)

Total ($)

1. Onsite
398349.4
7
398349.4
7
199174.7
3
199174.7
3

1195048.41

199174.7
5% GRC
3
2% GRC
79669.89
1.5% GRC
59752.42
1% GRC
39834.95
Total Direct Cost

378432.00
1573480.40

Purchased Equipment Installation

10% GRC

Piping Installation

10% GRC

Instrumentation and Control installation

5% GRC

Electrical and Material Installation

5% GRC

2. Offsite
Building
Yard Improvement
Land
Service Facilities

Specification

Cost ($)

Indirect Cost
Contingency
Construction Expenses
Engineering and Supervisions
Constructor's Fee

5% GRC
3% GRC
2% GRC
1% GRC
Total Indirect Cost

Total Cost

199174.7
3
119504.84
79669.89
39834.95
438184.4
2

= Total Direct Cost + Total Indirect Cost


= $ 1573480.40+ $ 438184.42 = $2011664.82

Fix Capital Investment, FCI = Total Cost + GRC

== $2011664.82 + $ 3983494.69 = $ 2011664.82

Total Capital Investment, TCI = Total Indirect Cost + Total Cost + Fix Capital Investment
= $ 438184.42 + $ 2011664.82 + $ 2011664.82 = $
4461514.06

Working Capital

= Fix Capital Investment 0.1


= $ 5995159.51 0.1 = $ 599515.95

Start Up

= Fix Capital Investment 0.07


= $ 5995159.51 0.07 = $ 419661.17

3. Estimation of Operating Cost


3.1. Use of Utilities
Specification
Cost ($)
Utilities Cost
Electricity
Cooling Water
Steam
Waste Water Treatment

55000 kW
50000 m/h
100000 kg/h
1261.58 kg/h

$ 0.06/ kW-hr
$ 0.02/m
$ 6.60/1000kg
$ 0.33/kg
Total Utilities Cost

Direct Wages and benefits


Direct Salary and Benefits
Operating Supplies and Services
Technical assistance to
manufacturing
Control Laboratory

Total ($)
26136000.0
0
7920000.00
5227200.00
3297265.50
42580465.5
0

Specification
Cost ($)
Total ($)
Operational Cost
18
$ 35/operator-hr
4989600.00
15% DW& B
748440.00
6% DW& B
299376.00
$ 60000/
9
(operation/shift)-yr
540000.00
$ 60000/
9
(operation/shift)-yr
540000.00
Total Operational Cost 7117416.00

Total Cost of Utilities = $ 42580465.50 + $ 7117416.00


= $ 49697881.50

3.2. Direct Production Cost


Raw Material

Price ($/kg)

Specification

Cost ($)

Benzene

1.37

10905.7 kg

118331207.28

Nitric Acid

0.36

8797.4 kg

25083146.88

Sulphuric Acid

0.22

136.9 kg

238534.56

Total Raw Material Cost

143652888.72

3.3. Indirect Production Cost


Specification

Cost ($)

Insurance

1% FCI

59951.60

Rate (local Authority Taxes)

5% FCI

299757.98

Total Indirect Cost

359709.57

4. Manufacturing Cost Summary


4.1. Total Manufacturing Expenses
Total Manufacturing Expenses, AME = Direct Production Cost + Utilities
+ Indirect Production Cost
= $ 143652888.72 + $ 359709.57 + $ 49697881.50
= $ 193710479.79

4.2. General Expenses

Distribution & Selling Expenses


Research and development
Administration

Specification
8% FCI
5% FCI
3% FCI
Total General Expenses

Cost ($)
479612.76
299757.98
179854.79
959225.52

4.3. Total Production Cost


Total Production Cost, APC

= Total Manufacturing Expenses + Total General Expenses


= $ 193710479.79 + $ 959225.52 = $ 194669705.31

4.4. Production Sales


Raw Material
Nitrobenzene
Calsium Sulfate
Carbonic Acid

Price ($/kg)

Specification
Cost ($)
17181.53 kg
544310870.40
46.28kg
29323008.00
46.28 kg
73307.52
Total Revenue
573707185.92

4
0.8
0.2

5. Cash Flow Analysis


Depreciation, AD

= 15% of FCI
= 0.15 $ 5995159.51 = $ 899273.93

Total Expenses, ATE

= Total Production Cost, APC + Depreciation, AD


= $ 194669705.31 + $ 899273.93 = $ 195568979.24

Net Annual Profit, ANP

= Total Revenue - ATE


= $ 573707185.92 - $ 195568979.24
= $ 349108428.76

Income Taxes = 40% ANP


= 0.04 $ 349108428.76 = $ 139643371.50

Net Annual Profit after tax, ANNP

= ANP - Income Taxes


= $ 349108428.76 - $ 139643371.50 = $ 209465057.26

A NNP
Return of Investment = Total Capital Investment 100
=

$ 209465057.26
100
$ 4461514.06

Assume no salvage value,


Total Depreciation Capital, CTD

= FCI

= $ 5995159.51

Payback Period

CTD
A NNP + A D

$ 5995159.51
$ 209465057.26+ $ 899273.93

=: 0.028498936 year

First year:

Assume capital Investment = 15% of TCI


No sales (the plant still construction)

Second year:

Assume capital investment = 30% of TCI


No sales (the plant just start to operate)

Third year:

Assume capital investment = 55% of TCI + Working capital


No sales (the plant just start to operate)

Fourth year:

Sales Income = Total revenue (sales)


Federal income taxes existed

Fifth year onward:

Sales income = Total revenue + 1% of total revenue


Assume there is increment 1% of income from previous year