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There are 1000 mg in one gram

Distilled water is a pure substance.


A gas contains no definite volume or shape
0.03056 = 4 significant figures
- numbers with real numbers = significant numbers
1 cc = 1 ml (equivalent)
rust in an iron nail = compound
Opposite charges attract each other
Carbon is a unique element on the periodic table because it can form bonds with itself
and a wide variety of other elements

Test 2
Oxide anion = 10 electrons
Carbon Tetrachloride = CCl4!
Fluorine = most electronegative
Carbon and Nitrogen = polar covalent
The shape of a compound with the formula CH2O = trigonal planar.
The correct name of Cu2S = Copper (I) Sulfide
The correct formula for a compound consisting of Silver and Sulfur = Ag2S
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--- Potassium and Phosphate = K2PO3
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Octect rule = main group elements are especially stable wen it has 8 valence electrons.
Mole = 6.02 x 10^23
Condensation = Solid --> liquid
Vaporization = liquid --> gas
Sublimation = solids --> gas!
Deposition = gas ---> solid

** skip LIQUID phase**

Melting = Solid --> Liquid


Freezing = Liquid --> Solid
If there are 4 calories per gram of carbs. and 6 calories per gram of fat how many
Calories would a teaspoon of oil be vs. how many a teaspoon of sugar?
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= 30 calories of sugar and 20 calories for oil
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** 1 J = 4.184 cal **
CHCl3 would exhibit a intermolecular force of London Dispersion and Dipole.
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London Dispersion = all covalent bonds
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Dipole = two polar molecules!
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Hydrogen Bonding = hydrogen bonded to O, N. or F
Solid = A heating curve starts at the lowest energy
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- GREATEST degree of intermolecular interaction
Liquid = fixed volume that takes shape of container
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- randomly arranged
Gas = particle movement = FAST
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- fills container (fall apart)

Test 3
At high temps. the solubility increases of a solid substance in water.
Catalyst = reduces the activation energy of a reaction
Not Water Soluble = Ocatne = C8H18 = has hydrogen
Osmotic pressure is determined by the number of solute particles.
If you were to dissolve as much sugar in a container as you could until there was still a
little sugar left undissolved ever after vigorous mixing, that solution would be considered
saturated,
Water can be an acid and a base = Amphoteric
Bronsted-Lowry acid has Hydrogen ions.
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- base has electron pairs that may accept a proton
Dialysis utilizes a semi-permeable membrane to remove waste products from the blood.
If citric acid is a stronger acid than lactic acid, the Latic Acid will have the stronger
conjugate base.

CHAP 8= RECENT
Acid Base = salt + water
pH = saliva (5.8-7.1) acidic
blood (7.4) neutral
stomach (1.6-1.8) basic
Titration = determines concentration of an acid or base in a solution
- if we want to know the concentration of an acid solution, a base is added slowly until
the acid is neutralized
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= # of mol. of acid = # of mol. of base
Buffers = a solution whose pH changes very little w/ acid+base is added
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- a weak acid + salt conjugate base
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- If the ACID is the buffer = left
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- if the BASE is the buffer = right
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- normal pH in human = 7.35 <x> 7.45
Respiratory Acidosis = fails to eliminate enough CO2 (^ bicarbonate; low pH)
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Alkalosis = hyperventilating
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- not enough CO2 (low bicarbonate; high pH)
CHAP 9
Isotope: Atomic number = Z
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Mass number = A
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Radioactive isotope = emits energy to form more stable nucleus


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Radioactivity = nuclear radiation emitted by radioactive isotope
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264 = stable
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300 = unstable
Artifical isotope = large # of radioactive isotope

Radiation = Alpha particles = 2 proton + 2 neutrons


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mass of 4
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Beta particles = position & antiparticle
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- charge -1 = no mass
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- formed when a neutron is converted to an electron
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Gamma rays = high energy radiation
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- released from radioactive nucleus
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- NO MASS + NO ENERGY
Radioactivity = POWERFUL
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- kill and damage rapidly dividing cells
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- cancer cells = effective for treatment
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- food is irradiated, exposed to gamma radiation to kill living organisms

Nuclear Reactions = radioactive decay = unstable nucleus emits radiation


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nucleus ---> new nucleus + radiation emitted
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Alpha emission = decay of a nucleus emitting an alpha particle


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- subtract A and Z from
Beta emission = _______________________ beta particle
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- 1 neutron lost
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- 1 proton gained
Position emission = decay of a nucleus by emitting a position beta;
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- 1 proton lost & 1 neutron gained
Gamma emission = decay of a nucleus by emitting gamma rays
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- no change in A# or Z mass

Half Life = takes one-half of the sample to decay (archeological dating)


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- a property of a given isotope and its independent of he amount of
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sample, temp. or pressure.
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- carbon-14 = 5,730 yrs.
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Ex: the half-life of iodine is 8.0 days, how mush is a 100 mg sample remains after
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32 days?

Amount of Radioactivity in a sample is measured by the # of nuclei that decay per unit
time.
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1 Curie = 3.7 x 10^12 disintigration/sec.
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= 1,000 millicuries
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= 1,000,000 microcurries
RAD = radiation absorbed dose = amount of radiation absorbed by 1g. of substance
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= varies
REM = radiation equivalent for man = amount of radiation that factors in its energy
and potential to damage tissue
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1 rem = damage tissue
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- > 25 = no damage
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- 25-100 rem causes decrease in WBCs
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- < 100+ = radiation sickness
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= nausea, vomiting, fatigue
Diagnosis= used to inject to determine if an organ is functioning properly or to detect a
tumor
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-Technetium-99= used to elevate gall bladder and bile ducts for internal bleeding
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- Thallum-201 = used in stress tests to diagnose coronary artery disease
Nuclear Fission = splitting apart of a heavy nucleus into lighter nuclei and neutrons
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Fusion = join 2 light nuclei to form a larger nucleus (^ temps & pressures)

CHAP 10
Organic Chemistry = study of compounds that contain Carbon
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- Everything in our lives (clothes, foods, medicines, gas, and soaps)
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- Can produce cotton, wool and silk
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- synthetically produce nylon and polyester
Methane = main component of natural gas
Ethylene = used to starting material in preparation of plastic polythylene
Organic Compounds
Characteristics = 1) Must contain Carbon (4 bonds) and Hydrogen (1 bond)
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2) Carbon forms single, double, and triple bonds to other carbon
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3) Some compounds have chains of atoms and some rings
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4) Contain elements other than carbon + hydrogen
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- no hydrogen or carbon = heteroatom
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Heteroatom: (N, O, F, Cl, Br, & I) ! !
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- with C and H + heteroatom = carbon-oxygen double bond
Drawing: R = C+H bonds
Hydrocarbons !
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Alkane - C-C single bonds (1)
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Alkenes = C-C double bonds (2)
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Alkynes = C-C triple bonds (3)
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Asomatic = benzene ring = 6 membered ring w/ 3 double bonds