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Artificial Lift Design

Artificial Lift Design

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You are on page 1of 7

In this exercise, you are required to go through the detailed design for an ESP. The input data is

given in Appendix 1. After completing the design calculations manually, you will then be required to go

through the same design using the SubPump software, compare results and investigate sensitivities

to key parameters.

Base Case:

The design reservoir offtake rate is 4,000 b/d. The required tubing intake pressure for this flowrate

and a flowing tubing head pressure of 200 psi is 2950 psi. This value was calculated using Prosper. It

is assumed that reservoir pressure is maintained by water injection.

1. Estimate Pump setting depth.

The drawdown required to produce the required flow rate is ___ / ___ = .. psi

The flowing bottom hole pressure will therefore be ___ ___. = ___ psi which is very close to the

bubble point. ESPs can tolerate some gas but to leave some flexibility it is better to set the pump as

deep as possible. In addition the fluids are likely to be corrosive given the water cut and the presence

of CO2, hence a deep set pump will minimize casing exposure.

The preferred option is to set the pump just above the perforations in order to maximize cooling and

avoid potential problems equipment erosion by sand produced from the perforations. The selected

pump setting depth is therefore 7900 feet.

The pump intake pressure will be ___ psi (8000 7900)* 0.385 = ____ psi (using rough

approximation for fluid density).

2. Estimate fluid properties at down hole conditions.

As the pump will be operating down hole, the first step is to estimate fluid properties at down hole

conditions. As little data is available we can use standard correlations from the Production Handbook

to estimate Bo, Bg, and fluid viscosity.

2.1. Oil Formation Volume Factor Bo.

From the Production Handbook, Vol. 4, page 78, Fig. 7.3-1b: B o = ____ (Standing correlation)

2.2. Gas Formation Volume Factor Bg

Bg

Psc ZT

Tsc P

Tsc = temperature at standard conditions = 60 F = 520 R

T = 190 F = 650 R

P = ____ psi

The gas deviation factor is estimated using the Standing and Katz correlation, which is given in the

Production Handbook, Vol. 4, page 87, Figure 7.4-1. An estimate of the pseudo critical temperature

and temperature is given in page 89, Fig. 7.4-3.

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Tpc = ___ R

For p = _____ psi and T = 190 F or 650 R, the pseudo reduced pressure and temperature are:

Ppr = P/Ppc = ____ / ____ = ___

Tpr = T/Tpc = ____ /____ = ___

From Figure 7.4-1 Z = ____

Hence Bg = (14.7*____*650)/(520*___) = ______ scf /scf or _______ / _____ = ________ rb/scf

In other words, one cubic foot of gas at standard conditions will occupy 0.0012 barrels at reservoir

conditions.

2.3. Oil viscosity

The viscosity of oil/water mixtures is difficult to estimate, but as a first approximation the viscosity of

the continuous phase can be used in this case the oil viscosity.

The viscosity of saturated reservoir oil can be estimated using the Beggs and Robinson equation

shown graphically in Fig. 7.8-2.

From PH Vol 4, page 95, the density of 34 API oil = 141.36/(API + 131.5) = 0.85 g/cm 3

From Fig. 7.8-1, page 120, tank oil viscosity at reservoir temperature is ca. 2 cP

From Fig. 7.8-2, page 121, saturated oil viscosity at reservoir temperature is ____ cP

From Fig. 7.10-9 page 145, viscosity of water at reservoir conditions is ca. ____ cP

As the viscosity of the oil is very similar to the viscosity of water, no corrections for viscosity will be

required.

Please note that the viscosity of the oil/water mixture can be significantly increased by emulsions

created by the high shear conditions created in the ESP. A chart for estimating the increase in fluid

viscosity due to shear for given water cut can be found in the ESP design Manual, chapter 4.8.

2.4. Fluid density.

The average fluid density can be calculated as follows:

flav = flav * sw

flav = (so * (1-BSW))/Bo + sw * BSW

where:

so = oil specific gravity = 141.5/ (API + 131.5) = _____ for 34 API oil

sw = water specific gravity = 1.15

sw = water density at standard conditions = 0.433 psi/ft

hence

flav = fluid average gravity = (_____ * 0.5)/____ + 1.15 * 0.5 = _____

flav = _____ * 0.433 = _____ psi/ft

277474929.doc

In order to be able to use manufacturers pump charts, the required surface flow rates need to be

converted into down hole flow rates.

3.1. Oil flowrate at intake conditions:

Qro = Q *(1-BSW)* Bo = 4000 * 0.5 * _____ = _____ rb/d

3.2. Water flowrate at intake conditions:

Qrw = Q *(1-BSW) = 4000 * 0.5 = 2000 rb/d

3.3. Gas flowrate at intake conditions:

We need to consider the flow rate of free gas at intake conditions.

Qrg = Qo * (Rt-Rs)*Bg

In order to estimate the solution gas ratio at the intake pressure, we can make a linear interpolation.

Rs (2219 psi) = Rs (2200 psi) * (2165/2200) = 580 * (2165/2200) = 570 scf/bbl.

Hence Qrg = 2000 * (580-570)* ______ = ____ rb/d

3.4. Total flowrate at intake conditions:

Hence the total rate at intake conditions is:

Qt = Qro + Qrg + Qrw = _____ + 2000 + ___ = _____ rb/d

We can also calculate the fluid level for these conditions. The height of the fluid column will be

2200/____ = ______. Hence the fluid level will be 8000 ____ = ____ ft.

4. Requirement for gas separator

In this case with the pump close to the perforations and the flowing pressure close to bubble point

there is unlikely to be a requirement for a gas separator. The gas fraction is calculated as follows:

Free gas fraction = Qg / Qt = __ / _____ = less than _____%

There is no need to consider a gas separator.

5. Determination of required pump dynamic head.

The required tubing intake pressure to enable production of 4,000 b/d of fluid through the completion

has been calculated as 2950 psi. this includes the hydrostatic head, friction and back pressure

requirements. The total pressure required to be generated by the pump is:

P discharge = P tubing intake P pump intake = 2950 _____ psi = ___ psi

To enable the use of manufacturers charts, the pressure must be converted into head directly. For this

example with little free gas, the fluid density will not vary much as the fluid is presurised in the pump

and it is acceptable to use the average fluid density calculated earlier.

Hence Head pump discharge = P discharge / flav = ___ / ____ = 2046 ft

277474929.doc

6. Pump Selection

We will now select the largest pump that can provide ____ b/d at a head of ____ ft. For this casing the

ID is 6.184 in. A 5 inch pump would be suitable for this duty. Selection of a GN5600 pump was made

as the flow rate is close to the peak efficiency operating point.

For this pump, the efficiency is 70% and the head is 20 ft per stage. Hence the number of stages

required is ___ / 20 = ___ stages.

In reality this must be corrected for motor slip as the motor will be running at a slightly different

rotational speed than the nominal speed at which the pump characteristic was measured. For this

motor the required loading is 93% obtained by dividing the required horsepower of 97 by the actual

motor rating of 104 hp. The rotational speed for this loading will be 2880 rpm from Reda motor charts.

277474929.doc

Ns = N (Sdesign/Sslip)2

Ns = ____ (2917/2880)2 = ___ stages.

6. Conclusion

Having gone through this exercise, one can appreciate that the manual design procedure is labor

intensive and requires a lot of iterations in order to obtain a reasonable solution. The main learning

objective of this exercise is to appreciate all the data required for the design of an ESP.

277474929.doc

After completing the design calculations manually, you are now required to go through the same

design using the SubPump software, compare results and investigate sensitivities to key parameters.

1. Input and run base case in SubPump

Use the power point slides in attachment as a guide. Once you have run the base case, print a copy

of the summary report and report the main differences with the manual design procedure. Save your

SubPump file as SubPump1 and submit with your assignment.

Answer:

2. Sensitivities.

We will now investigate what happens when water cut increases from 50% to 80%. Identify the key

effects and explain the results where necessary.

Answer:

Assuming it is acceptable to increase the offtake rate, design an ESP system that gives maximum

offtake rate. Which pump and motor system have you selected? What is the maximum rate

achievable? Save your SubPump file as SubPump2 and submit with your assignment.

Answer:

277474929.doc

Formation

Inflow performance

Perforated depth

Reservoir pressure

Reservoir temperature

Sandstone

5

8000

3000

190

b/d/psi

ft

psi

F

Oil gravity

Gas gravity

Bubble point pressure

GOR

BSW

Water density

H2S

CO2

34

0.85

2200

580

50

1.15

0

2

API

(air = 1)

psi

scf/bbl

%

sg

mol %

mol %

Casing

Tubing

Required FTHP

Power available

Required tubing intake

pressure (4000 b/d and 200

psi FTHP)

inch

200 psi

20kV, 50 Hz

2950

psi

4000

b/d

277474929.doc

Comments

Prosper

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