CHAPTER 6 BASILIO Basilio was the eldest of the two sons of Sisa, the crazy woman on the two

novels. He left San Diego and went to Manila to find a house that will accept him to be a helper and to continue his studies. There, he found Capitan Tiago and Tia Isabel who were in deep sorrow because of Maria Clara’s decision to enter the convent. He was accepted to become a helper without pay but he had the privilege to continue studies at San Juan de Letran. Basilio worked hard to attain high grades and to pass all his subjects. Every year in his life in Letran was a challenge. After his fourth year in Letran, Capitan Tiago encouraged him to transfer to Ateneo because of his contempt to the friars since Maria Clara entered convent. In the school of the Jesuits, he found the kind of professors and teachings that he liked. He chose Medicine. On his fourth year, he sees himself as a Doctor two years after and marrying Juli. He also sees himself as the student who will deliver speech in front of other graduates.

CHAPTER 7 SIMOUN Simoun is Crisostomo Ibarra in the 2nd novel of Rizal, the Noli MeTangere. He came back to San Diego to justice on the death of his father Don Rafael Ibarra snd revenge on his misfortunes and adversities he suffered from the Spanish cruelty and brutality. Simoun is wrapped by the bitter memories and experiences that led him to condemn the Spanish government and plot its downfall. In behalf of his sugfferings, he desire to free the Filipinos in the bondage of slavery from the hands of the Spaniards, by being independent, bold and free from the Spaniards. In his own battle for justice, he became a jeweler and political adviser to sow greediness in the hearts of Spanish officers.

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IMPACT OF THE CHARACTERIZATION OF BASILIO AND SIMOUN IN THE NATIONALISM OF THE FILIPINOS Basilio and Simoun are the two lead protagonists in Dr. Jose Rizal’s second novel, entitled El Filibusterismo. These two different characters brought new meanings to the nationalism of our fellow Filipinos during the Spanish period. These two were the faces representing the life of the Filipinos during those times. Simoun was actually Don Crisostomo Ibarra who disguised as a wealthy jeweler, bent on starting a revolution. This time, he does not attempt to fight the authorities through legal means, but through violent revolution using the masses. Simoun has reasons for instigating a revolution. First is to rescue Maria Clara from the convent and second, to get rid of ills and evils of Philippine society. His true identity is discovered by a now grown-up Basilio while visiting the grave of his mother, Sisa, as Simoun was digging near the grave site for his buried treasures. Simoun spares Basilio’s life and asks him to join in his planned revolution against the government, egging him on by bringing up the tragic misfortunes of the latter's family. Basilio declines the offer as he still hopes that the country’s condition will improve. These two characters are actually at the opposite sides of the spectrum. Simoun wanted revenge by way of inflicting violence secretly against the Spaniards while Basilio still hopes that the country will be fine and better in God’s time. Simoun’s personality instigated the Filipinism of the Filipinos which urged them to revolt against the Spaniards. Violence and anger ruled the hearts of the Filipinos as what was characterized in the persona of Simoun. Basilio was the opposite of Simoun who never had violence as an option for changing the status of the country. In one part of the story, because of the death of her girlfriend Juli, he changed his mind by joining in Simoun’s plan. However, in the end, his kindheartedness and good-natured personality still brought him back to what he believed before. This was exemplified when he sabotaged the plan of Simoun at Paulita Gomez’s wedding. This character of Basilio showed the lenient personality of the Filipinos during those times which were more of going with the flow. They just let the Spaniards do what they’re up to because of the belief that the Spaniards are superior over us. These two clashing personalities of the two protagonists emphasized the two sides of the Filipinos during the revolution against the Spaniards. These two characters aflame the Filipinism in two opposite ways and both of which contributed, in their respective ways, to the redemption of our independence from the Spaniards.

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SUMMARY OF THE TWO CHAPTERS CHAPTER 6 – BASILIO It is almost time for Christmas Eve midnight mass when Basilio secretly makes his way to the forest previously owned by the Ibarra family. He does not want anyone to see him. Recall that thirteen years had passed since he buried his mother, Sisa, in that same forest. Thirteen years ago, he was as a fugitive along with his brother Crispin (now dead). In the Noli Me Tangere, Padre Salvi was after these two sacristans. In the El Fili, Padre Salvi still wields considerable power. No wonder Basilio needs to keep his past a secret. In the forest is a stream, near which is a small hill, beyond which was a space enclosed by crumbling walls. In the center of this is a balete tree, and near it is a pile of stones—Sisa's unmarked grave. Basilio painfully remembers that night thirteen years ago when Sisa did not recognize him (she was out of her mind at that time). She died in the forest and a stranger (Elias?) came and ordered Basilio to build a funeral pyre. When Basilio came back with the wood, he saw yet another stranger (Ibarra?); the first stranger had died. This second stranger helped Basilio place the dead stranger on the pyre and also helped Basilio bury his mother, Sisa. He also gave Basilio some money. Basilio remembers leaving the forest for Manila, where he served in Capitan Tiago's home. Instead of being paid a salary, his tuition was paid for instead. Capitan Tiago took him in because the old man was depressed—that was the day Maria Clara entered the nunnery. Imagine Baislio in his first year of Latin, wearing bakya (wooden clogs). Students avoided the poorly-attired Basilio. Even his teachers didn't ask him to participate in classroom discussion. Of course he felt terrible and alone, and often cried atop his mother's grave. Yet somehow Basilio passed school, through sheer memory work. It's amazing how he managed to motivate himself in a class size of about 400 students, only 40 of which were called to recite. Those not called by the teacher felt relieved. In Basilio's third year, a Dominican teacher decided to make fun of him. Basilio, however was able to answer sensibly and the embarrassed teacher ever called on Basilio again. (Basilio understood Spanish and therefore could not be turned into a class stooge.) One of the professors got into a fight with some cadets. Basilio, in defense of the teacher, participated in the duel of canes and sabers. He survived and went on to graduate with good grades and medals. Nope, it wasn't due to his fencing skills; he was also a diligent student. Capitan Tiago convinced Basilio to transfer to the Ateneo. The different educational system amazed Basilio. Anyway, Basilio took up medicine. While Capitan Tiago first wanted him to take up Law, he accepted Basilio's choice. Tiago was interested in getting the blood of some Chinese who died of venereal disease—perhaps medical students
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like Basilio could get hold of it so that Tiago can smear the metal gaffs of his fighting cocks with poisoned blood. In Basilio's third year at medical school, he started to cure people. This provided him with funds for savings and for elegant clothes. Basilio healed a leper who gave him a locket for payment. Recall that, that locket was given by Maria Clara when she saw the leper begging in the streets. That locket will be given by Basilio to Juliana. So Basilio is in the forest. He is in his last year of studies and will be a physician in a couple of months. He plans to retire in his hometown and to marry his sweetheart Juliana. We see here a reversal of fortunes: the boy who used to wander the streets, dirty, unkempt, and disdained by society, is now about to become a respected physician. In fact, he had been selected to deliver the valedictory address—a message, not about himself, but about the needy students of the future. CHAPTER 7 – SIMOUN Basilio was about to leave his mother's grave when he notices someone approaching the balete tree. Remember, it is deep in the night and Filipinos attribute supernatural things to balete tree which are believed to house evil spirits and others creatures of middle earth. The newcomer turns out to be Simoun, the jeweler. He has a spade and begins digging for the treasure buried thirteen years ago. Basilio tries to figure out whether Simoun is Elias or Ibarra. Basilio never did go for the treasure all these years because the stranger (Elias) told him that he could get the treasure only if no one else came looking for it. On the night Elias died, Crisostomo Ibarra went to the forest and helped Basilio bury Sisa and cremate Elias. Without waiting to be discovered, Basilio announce his presence and acknowledges Simoun as the person who helped Basilio bury his mother, Sisa, more than a decade ago. Simoun points a revolver at Basilio. Fortunately for Basilio, Simoun does not pull the trigger even if he realizes that Basilio's newfound knowledge jeopardizes the plans of Simoun. He figures that Basilio will not squeal on him because Basilio is still a fugitive while Simoun, the rich jeweler, is still in favor with the government and the frailocracy. Besides, Simoun reasons that since they are both victims of injustice, they should help one another. Simoun reminisces and waxes poetic about that “great and noble soul” who wished to die for him. He was most likely referring to Elias. Simoun narrates how he worked hard to save money so that he could come back to the Philipppines to hasten the destruction of the religio-political system by inciting greed and corruption, among others. But before Simoun succeeds in corrupting the government and thus turn the Filipinos against the powers that be, he points out how frustrated he is with Basilio's call for Hispanization and parity rights. I'm particularly pierced by Simoun's:
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What will you be in the future? A people without character, a nation without liberty. You are asking to be Hispanized and you do not blanch with shame when it is denied you! Basilio has good intentions, though. He believes that knowing Spanish can unite the people not only with the Government, but with other people in other islands. Take note of Simoun's reaction: Spanish will never be the common language in the country; the people will never speak it because for the ideas of its mind and the sentiments of its heart, there are no words in that idiom. Simoun allows Basilio to live hoping this message can be spread to other students pursuing for Hispanization. What follows is a discussion between Science (or medicine) and Politics (or the aspiration to be an independent nation). Recall that Basilio studied to become a doctor and feels that he is powerless to do anything about the political situation. Simoun fails to convince Basilio to change his mind so he instead tries to provoke Basilio by asking about Sisa and Crispin (the dead younger brother). Basilio explains there is no way he can obtain justice. Besides, even if Simoun were to provide support, revenge cannot bring back Basilio's mom and brother. Before dawn, Simoun sends Basilio away but invites him to go to Simoun's house in Escolta in case Basilio changes his mind and decides to ssek help in avenging his mom's and borther's deaths. The chapter closes with Simoun asking the spirits of Don Rafael (his father) and Elias to have patience. Simoun explains that while his means differ from that of Elias, the results will come faster. There is some foreboding that Simoun will die in his attempt to help the Philippines gain independence. Soon, it will be Christmas.a

REFERENCES: Bandril, Lolita L., Francia, Loreto Z. El Filibusterismo ni Jose P. Rizal Tabotabo, Claudio V, Leaño, Roman Jr. D. Jose P. Rizal: A Hero’s Life

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