Structure And Functions Of The Organs In Metabolism 3 Processes of Digestion Oral or Buccal Cavity (mouth) • Lips, tongue, cheeks

, teeth, taste buds, and salivary glands. Pharynx • Actively moves food into the esophagus Esophagus • Provides a passage for food from pharynx to the stomach thru peristalsis Cardiac Sphincter • Prevents gastric reflux Stomach • Consist of the ff: o Cardia o Fundus – brings food in the stomach thru peristaltic wave o Body o Antrum and/or pylorus Small Intestine • Divided into: o Duodenum – digestive process o Jejunum – absorption process o Ileum – absorption process Large Intestines • Consists of the: o Colon o Cecum o Rectum Feces • Consists ¾ Water, ¼ Solid Pancreozymin • Stimulates enzyme secretion of the ff: o Amylase – digestion of carbohydrates o Lipase – digestion of fats o Trypsin – digestion of proteins It takes 3-10 hours food feces 1. Physical • Involves mastication • Chyme – semi-solid mixture; a thick fluid mass of partially digested food and gastric secretions passed from the stomach to the small intestine 2. Chemical • Churning(mixing) action • Chyme within mixes with gastric juices 3. Metabolic • Physical • Chemical • Starch (amylase) (acid) glucose


Absorption • Passage of soluble digested food materials thru the intestinal walls of blood, either directly or through osmosis is by way of the lymphatic system • GI tract Metabolism • Refers to all biochemical and physiologic processes by which the body grows and maintains itself • Classified as: o Anabolism – building up; metabolic process in which energy is used to make compounds and tissues from simple molecules o Catabolism – braking down; the production of energy through the conversion of complex molecules into simpler ones o Oxidation – use of oxygen in metabolic process Elimination • Elimination of waste products of digestion from the body is essential to health. • Involves the ff: o Urination – to discharge urine from the body o Defecation – expel feces from the bowel through the rectum Nutrients • Organic and inorganicsubstances found in food and are required for body functioning • Classes of Nutrients o Energy – Carbohydrates o Organic Nutrients – Vitamins o Inorganic Nutrients – Minerals

Nutrition • The sum of all interactions between an organism and the food it consumes • Process by which the body metabolizes and utilizes nutrients Digestion • The change of food from complex to simpler form and insoluble to a soluble state in the digestive tract • These changes facilitate absorption thru the intestinal wall into circulation for eventual use by the body cell

Essential Nutrients 1. Water • The body’s most basic nutrient need (60-80%) • 25-50% below could lead to 30% decreased in work performance 2. Carbohydrates • Simple Sugars (monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharide) • Complex Sugars – fiber – bulk; branches and chains of molecules; plants sources • CHO Metabolism/Storage Conversion o Glycogen - a polysaccharide found in the liver and muscles that is easily converted to glucose for energy o Glycogenesis – the formation of glycogen from glucose o Glycogenolysis – the breakdown of glycogen to glucose o Glucogenesis – the production of glucose, especially in the liver, from amino acids, fats, and other substances that are not carbohydrates 3. Proteins • Essential Amino Acids – any amino acid that the body cannot make and that must be obtained from food to maintain growth • Nonessential Amino Acids – opposite of essential amino acids • Protein digestion/Storage/Metabolism o Anabolism – body cells synthesize protein from amino acids o Catabolism – converted to energy or fats o Nitrogen Balance – nitrogen intake and output • If increased intake than output (positive nitrogen balance) • Trytophan – milk 4. Lipids • Soluble in organic substances such as alcohol and ether • Simple – glycerol + triglycerides • Compound – triglycerides + ether compounds(organic solvents) • Glycolipid – important in brain tissue function • Fats – solid at room temperature • Oils – liquid at room temperature 5. Vitamins

• Water Soluble – Vitamin C and Vitamin B Complex; not stored in the body • Fat Soluble – Vitamin A, D, E, and K; can be stored and has a limit • Complications: o Vitamin B1(Thiamine) – beriberi o Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) – skin lesions o Vitamin B3 (Niacin) – pellagra – deficiency disease characterized by 4 Ds namely dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea and even death o Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid) – megaloblastic anemia – anemia with large red blood cells o Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) – pernicious anemia – a severe form of anemia, that results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12. o Vitamin A (Retinol) – night blindeness, xerophthalmia (an eye disease caused by vitamin A deficiency, marked by dryness and ulceration of the conjunctiva and cornea) o Vitamin D (Calciferol) – osteomalasia(softening of the bones), rickets o Vitamin E (Tocopherol) – megaloblastic anemia o Vitamin K (Phylloquinone) – bleeding/hemorrhage 6. Minerals • Catalyst • Macrominerals – essential at levels of 100mg or more o Calcium, Phosphorus, Sulfur, Potassium. Chloride, Sodium and Magnesium • Microminerals - Iron, Fluorine, Zinc, Copper, Iodine, Chromium, Cobalt • Low in Na could lead to muscle twitching • Low in Fluorine could lead to tooth decay Energy Balance • The relationship between the energy derived form food and the energy use by the body (calories) • Energy Intake – amount of energy that nutrients or foods supply to the body is the caloric value • Energy Output – Resting Energy Expenditure • Amount of energy required to maintain basic body functions, in other words, the calories required to maintain life • Males – 1cal/kg/hr • Females – 0..9cal/kg/hr Caloric Value

• Amount of food that nutrients or foods supply to the body

• An educational food that suggests the number of
daily servings from each of the 5 basic food groups.

Calorie • Quantity of energy released from the different foods or expanded by the different functional processes of the body • Unit for heat energy • 2 types: o Large Calories – kilocalorie o Small Calorie – the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of pure water by 1º C. Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) • Refers to the energy needed to maintain essential physiological function, when a person is at complete rest physically or mentally BODY WEIGHT AND BODY MASS STANDARDS Ideal Body Weight (IBW) • Optimal weight recommended for optimal health • Rule of 5 – Women; 100 lbs.; +5 each inch • Rule of 6 – Men; 106 lbs. +6 each inch Body Mass Index (BMI) • An indicator of changes in body fat stores and whether a person is at appropriate height. • To calculate BMI o Measure the person o Calculate the BMI using the ff formula

Dietary Guidelines • Eat a variety if foods • Balance food with physical activity to maintain weight and improve it • Eat plenty of grain products, vegetables and fruits • Eat a diet low in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol • Use sugars in moderation • If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation Recommended Daily Allowanced • Level of intake in grams and milligrams of essential nutrients to meet dietary needs • Recommended allowances of essential nutrients by age, category, inclusive of weight and height • It was established by the National Board of Academy of Sciences – National Research Council

o < 16 – Malnourished
16- 19 – Underweight 20 – 25 – Normal 26 – 30 – Overweight 31 – 40 – Moderately to severely obese > 40 – Morbidly obese Food Guide Pyramid • First developed by the USDAB in 1992 to meet the dietary needs of a healthy person over 2 years of age

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