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THE

ATONAL Gallery

^c-T

THE
National Gallery
Collection

THE
National Gallery
Collection

Selected By

Michael Levey

National Galler)^ Publications

The National Gallery


London

National Gallen- Publications

Published by order of the Trustees

Michael Levey and The National

Galler\- 198''

Reprinted 1988 (twice). 1989


All rights resen-ed.

No

part of this publication

may be transmitted in any form

or by any

means, elearonic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and

retrieval

system, without the prior permission in wTiting from the publisher.


British Librar\' Cataloguing in Publication Data

National Galler\-

The National
1.

Galler\-

National GalleryI.

Title

II.

coUeaion.

--

Catalogs

Levev. Michael

750'. 7402152'

N1070

0-947645-34-9
0-947645-16-0 Pbk

ISBN
ISBN

Designed by Vassoula Vasiliou


National Gallery Design Studio

Colour origination by Essex Colour


Printed by W.
Tv'peset

Cover

Picture credits:

Cowell Limited. Great Britain

illustration: Raphael.

Lord Liverpool by

National Portrait Galler\'.

S.

by The Printed Word. London

London

An Allegory (detail)

Sir

Thomas Lawrence is reproduced courtesy of the

All

other photographs are from the National Gallery.

Contents
7
Introduction
13
Early Italian Painting

55
Italian Painting

1500-1600

87
Italian Painting after

1600

103
Early Netherlandish Painting

117

German Painting
129
Flemish Painting
141

Dutch Painting
181

Spanish Painting

195
British Painting

209
French Painting

252
List of Plates

256
Plan of Gallery

Introduction

Lovers of painting require

no explanation of why public art galleries exist on

the National Galien," exists and should go

While

literature

problem of being

and music

existing.

are broadly axailable to everyone, paintings present the

physical objects,

single,

not able to be disseminated or adequately

duplicated.

They need

book such

as this can offer a useful appetiser for that experience.

to

be seen in the original

Paintings can. unfortunately, be treated

even prexented.

and

b\"

their

.Moziirts music,

it is

owners
the

in

more

to

ils

be fully enjoyed and understood, though a

property, .\ccess to

freely

if

Western painting

terms with Western music and

some

is

ever to be appreciated, as

literature. In Britain

The

public

doing, though
culture

galleries the

more

to Shakespeare's plays

great paintings brought

- one

to

which we

deserxes to be.
all

and

all

on equal

the visual arts, not

this

makes the

role of

vital.

museum was

some

it

appreciation of

solely painting, has tended to be neglecled in traditional education,

museums and

them can be controlled,

wa\s which happih" do not apply

na^ssan,". therefore, to have

together cared for and displayed pemKinently in a public building

have access

\vh\-. in particular,

ver\

much

a child of nineteenth-ceniur\- thinking and

of the thinking had begun in the previous centur\-. Education and

were then seen

as desirable twin social goals. deser\ing support by

visual arts).

When

considering seriously the need for a national picture

gallen.-.

(whose members were often cultured and knowledgeable about the


England eventually got round

to

governments

the Prime Minister of the day took an aaive part. Not private sources but public funds were
called on.

and the National

Gallerx-

came

into existence bv the will of Parliament.

That event took place

comparison with the great Continental

do

and the Prado

Madrid -

in

humbly housed,

become an

meant

(p. 7).

and

it

had

certiiiniy

like

for thirty years or so


it

it

The

grew.

humble

in

the Louvre in Paris

riches of royal collections. At

however haphazardly,

Yet.

first

it

was

also

lacked a director and

absence of a great

ver}-

positively to strive to acquire paintings, especially

if it

was ever

to

art gallery- of international standing.

By the time the National


achieved.

on the

lacked a constitution,

it

was

infant institution

galleries already in existence

built often

any firm sense of direction.


inheritance

The

1824.

in

had a prominent

It

And behind

was

building, with a fagade that

was

the fagade

1924 that position was

Gallerv' celebrated its centenary' in

Square

familiar, in Trafalgar

a colleaion of paintings not large numerically but in quality

of the greatest choiceness, with a spread of representation across the chief national schools
that gave

admirable character as one of the most balanced of

it

How
by the

achieved

position

its

a stor\' often told, at least in outline. Brilliant

is

wonderfully generous

Director, Sir Charles Eastlake:

first

with the

it

gift

Beaumont and

of Sir George

all Galleries.

buying

and bequests (beginning

gifts

the bequest of the Reverend William Holwell Carr);

sustained efforts by the Trustees to gain sufficient space; and increasing struggles to obtain

and

sufficient ftjnds

to 'save paintings

from export: such are the main threads

in a stor\' that

could pardonably seem in 1924 happy, glorious and concluded. Well might

minded MP have

risen in the

National Galler\' should keep

House of
its

Commons

to

some

thrifty-

propose that by way of celebration the

doors open but close

its

no more

Collection, seeking

public

funds for purchases.


In faa, that did not precisely occur,

been made

to suffer

times of financial

at

though the
crisis. It

Galler\' suffered

never assumed that

as

such.

polic}' in

The

making

it

had no very

acquisitions or in stimulating wider appreciation of painting as

Collection continued to grow, partly in response to growing awareness that there

were periods and schools of painting, and


glaring

has always

days of aaively

its

acquiring paintings were done, though perhaps in the 1920s and 1930s

coherent

it

was the

painters, to

failure to represent the later

which

failed to

it

do

justice.

Most

nineteenth centur\', and there the nation

is

indebted to the generosity of Samuel Courtiiuld. A pioneering collertor in Britain of superb


Impressionists

and other French paintings of the

period, he created a ft.md for public

acquisition of such pictures.

Today the Collection

is still

continues to evolve. E\en in the

not large

hist

- numbering around

twenty-five \ears

t^uste

2,200 paintings

- and

it

and knowledge have broadened

Some of the new


awareness has been reflected in the Caller}' s more recent acquisitions. What is importiint is
that the Collection should be permitted - should possess the financial sinew - to go on

our views about the scope of European painting

growing. Growth in

With
filled),

its

occasional quirks and


it

frorfi

its

admitted gaps' (some

the beginnings in medieval

the present centur\-. Greatly enhanced

unchanged

to 1900.

now

probably never to be

stands provides a marvellously coherent and assimilable oven'iew

of Western European painting:

is

up

signals vitality.

itself

the Collection as

in the centuries

in basic character

It

<'Ls

hiis

it

Ikls

been

in the

Itiily

to the earliest years of

decades since 1924, the Collection

ne\er sought to be a collection of

merek

historical

specimens, embracing ever\- painter, regardless of quality.

The

future of

museums and

galleries in Brit^iin today

assured. Even the public ownership of paintings

is

liable to

is

by no means clear or

arouse hostility in

quite apart from the traditional tendenq' to be indifferent to the value of


institutions cost

money

to

run and money

to repair.

some

quarters,

museums. Such

They perfomi a public function, but one

scarcely quantifiable in financial terms, lltimately, they are justified only as long as they find

an audience eager

to enjoy

what they

offer

c
o

Sir

Thomas Lawrence: The 2>id Earl ofLiverpool (\"\i-\)il'6).


The sitter holds papers

The words of
founded, but

though

e\"en

works of

Sir

painted in 1827.

inscrihed National Gallery

George Beaumont, uttered

was

in the year before the Gallen,-

when its founding was being mooted, were admirable and bravely optimistic,
now they have not been entirely realised: think the public already begin to feel
I

art are

not merely toys for connoisseurs, but solid objerts of concern to the

."

nation

Instigation for the founding of the Galler)-

with,
IV.

it

was founded

in the reign of a

The King happened

patron and colleaor.

holding of paintings.
the Royal Academy,
sale in

London

less sum", to the

The
to a

new

to be

It

was

in 1823

monarch more

variet) of sources.

To

start

often ridiculed than respected: George

unusually cultivated and deeply responsive

who many

who

came from a

to painting, a great

some

years before had spoken of the need for

his favourite li\ing painter. Sir

Thomas

strongly urged that a pri\ate collection of pictures

should not be sold abroad, as seemed

national

Lawrence, President of

coming up

possible, but offered

first,

for

for a

go\emment.

collertion

had been made

ver\-

much

with Lawrences guidance.

style of collector, a rich, middle-class, mercantile figure,

It

had belonged

John Julius Angerstein, the

'^

effective

founder of Lloyds. He died in 1823. apparently leaving instructions that his

small yet fine collection of old master paintings should be sold. Angerstein's son took

Lawrences advice and offered the paintings, hung

IS

Pall Mall, to

^
^^

usually regarded
Gallen.".

JIS

bring the Galler>- into existence: and


later,

the government.

in so far as

however, he

is

he

is

regarded

he showed Liverpool holding a

for the nation,

and

Among the
which

Sir

was Lord

100

Liverpool, a politician

as a total mediocrity. To the National

when Lawrence

roll

at

sufficiently positive to

painted his portrait, a few years

of papers referring to the Galler\'s creation (p.9).

to take the lease of his

to

town house

were of

all

the

purchase Mr Angersteins pictures

them

as the place to display

main national

(p. 11).

schools, including the

by a Reynolds and by Hogarth's Marriage a la

mode

series (p.l96).

piaures was Sebastiano del Piombo s huge Raising of Lazarus (p.62 ).

Italian

is still

at all

House of Commons voted

thirty-eight paintings acquired

British, represented

.Minister

something of a hero. His response was

In April 182-4 the

The

The then Prime

London house

in his father's

inventoried as

Number

in the Gallery".

George Beaumont was on the

Gallery- "s

supenising body, which soon became

the Board of Trustees. He deser\"ed his place, for not only had he been advocating the

founding of such an institution but. with rare


to give his

own

he had offered

self-sacrificing generosit)-.

colleaion in his lifetime were his hopes accomplished. His offer became

and must have coloured the governments

public knowledge

Beaumont's colleaion was not


Rubens" superb

large,

Autumn Landscape

it

contained

some major

Although

decision.

among them

paintings,

with a View of Het Steen (p.l3^) and an early

masterpiece by Canaletto (p.%).

Haphazard as purchases appear to have been

in the early times, before the appoint-

ment in 1855 of Eastlake as the first Direaor. the Trustees made some inspired acquisitions,
beginning in 1826 with Titian s Bacchus and Ariadne (p.~5). They also benefited from
some splendid gifts and bequests. In 1828 the future Duke of Sutherland presented Rubens'
Peace and U'^r (p.l32 ). which had been the artist "s own gift to Charles I. Viith the Holwell
Carr Bequest of 1831 came Rembrandt s Woman bathing in a Stream p.r6 and a ver\' rare
item. Saint George and the Dragon by Tintoretto (p.80). thus giving the Gallen.- a fine
)

and

characteristic

example of a painter Ruskin would, many years

'discovered' in Venice.
Bellini's

Nor were the works of earlier Renaissance

Doge Loredan

(p. 51)

was bought

in IS-t-t.

later,

claim to have

artists entirely neglected:

and more remarkable

still

was the

purchase the previous year of the unique Arnolfini portrait by Ian van Eyck (p.KH).

These paintings joined the Colleaion


Gallen,-

designed by William

opened

in 1838.

Imposing though

had

to

and one of
it

W ilkins on
its first

in

its

newly

built

permanent home

the north side of Trafalgar Square.

visitors

was the

recently

had been

It

crowned Queen

might look, the building was only one-room deep, and

in the

\'iaoria.

until

1869

it

be shared with the Royal Academy.

Problems of space existed therefore


continued

to bedevil the Galler>

's

at

future, right

Trafalgar Square from the start.

They have

up to the present day. A bold solution, made

came in 1985 with the announcement that an extension on


the adjoining Hampton site', long designated for the Galler>- s expansion would be funded
by Sirjohn Sainsbury and his brothers. Mr Simon Sainsbury and .Mr Timothy Sainsbur\ .MR
possible by extreme generosity,

Before becoming Direaor in 1855. Eastlake had been

first

Keeper and then a

was only when he took up the new post - which he


held in addition to being President of the Royal Academy - that he showed the full effea
of his combined expertise, pertinacity and fialr. The decade of his direaorship. ending
Trustee of the Gallen.. However,

with his death

in office,

it

has always been looked on.

rightly, as the significant

period for

the establishment of the charaaer and status of the Colleaion. Under Eastlake

10

manv

of


3
O
u

_N9100,,

FALL MALL,

National Gallery of England

or tke

A contemporary print of the town house of John Julius

Angerstein, which housed the National Gallery

in its earliest years.

the great figures of the early Italian Renaissance were introduced into the Gallery,

represented by masterpieces of a kind no longer available and bought

at

a time

when

their

merits were not fully recognised. By going to Italy and purchasing there, Eastlake was
able to acquire such

and Piero

now famous

della Francesca's

Baptism of Christ

wide. He bought the Gallery's

length Reynolds

(p.

200).

masterpieces as Uccello's Battle of San

More

first

38). Eastlake's taste

Rogier van der

daringly, he

which might well have caused a scandal


Eastlake's purchasing

(p.

was so

Weyden

107)

and

(p. 2 7)

was impressively
also

its first full-

added the beautiful Bronzino/l//'^on'

(p.65),

in mid-Victorian England.

brilliant that

it

has possibly tended to throw into the

shade the acquisitions of his immediate successor.


Boxall's directorship that a

(p.

Romano

Sir

William Boxall. Yet

major purchase was made, of

Sir

it

was

in

Robert Peel's collection,

bringing the Gallery a range of remarkable Dutch seventeenth-century pictures, including

Hobbema's Avenue, Middelharnis

(p.l51),

and some

fine seventeenth-century Flemish


11

works,

was succeeded by

(p.l33). Boxall

and the

o
u

better

known as le Chapeau de Paille', by Rubens

Sir Frederick

Burton, Director for twenty years up to 1894

among them Susanna Lunclen

holder of the post to have sole responsibility for making purchases. He

last

who bought

was

it

Botticelli's l(?A/z^.sY/^/A/^/n'(p.31),theonly mythological painting by the artist

outside Florence. He bought widely and well, and introduced

unfamiliar painters into the Collection, such as Vermeer

some new, then

generally

(p.l71).

By 1900 the outlines of the Collection were becoming set - rather dangerously

much

French painting after the age of Claude and Poussin had never been

so.

collected in

England, and the Gallery went on reflecting that neglect, ignoring the eighteenth century

and uneasy,

not antagonistic, about the nineteenth century,

if

the

all

way from David

when

Post-impressionism. Italian seventeenth-century painting, esteemed

was founded, had dropped from

to

the Gallery

favour, while Italian eighteenth-century painting

- never interested English collectors.


was made to remedy the resulting deficiencies

apart from Canaletto and Guardi


Little

sustained effort

Collection. Yet very great acquisitions continued to be made,

in the

sometimes through the

gift,

or with the help, of the National Art-Collections Fund, a private body which was created
in 1903.

with the aim of assisting the national collections: Velazquez's 'Rokeby Venus'

Duchess of Milan (p. 127)


Bruegel's Adoration of the Kings

(p.

186) in I9O6. Holbein's

in 1909, Masaccio's Virgin

(p.

24) in I9I6,

(p.

Family

130) in 1920, Titian's

and the -Wilton Diptych (p.210) both in 1929.


1917 the Gallery had benefited - more perhaps than

Vendramin

(p.76)

In

bequest of

Sir

Hugh

ings as Manet's

Lane,

Music in the

codicil to his will,

Among
purchase of a

Tliileries

Gardens

deserved

- from

(p.

236) and Renoir's Umbrellas

the

paint-

(p.

242).

enthusiasm about his intentions. Lane added a

bequeathing his pictures

to

Dublin

was unwitnessed.

but the codicil

the few major acquisitions of the 1930s, perhaps the most significant was

late

masterpiece by Ingres, his portrait of Madame Moitessier (p.231). In that

decade also a rare and exquisite early

Italian painter, Sassetta, entered the Collection,

represented by no less than seven of the panels from his


In the early post-war years,

the

it

which included such major nineteenth-century French

Dissatisfied with the Trustees' lack of

share

and Child

life

of Saint Francis

(p. 21).

and given impetus by arrangements with Dublin

Lane paintings on a regular loan

basis,

considerable

effort

went

to

to

strengthening the nineteenth-century French school. Important large-scale examples

were purchased of the work of Cezanne

(p.

249) and Monet

acquisitions were made. After a public appeal,

and with

(p.

240).

Numerous other

financial support

from the

government, the National Art-Collections Fund presented the Leonardo Cartoon

Two

masterpieces by Gainsborough, from early and from

199),

were bought. And the

later Italian

schools received

late in his

career (pp.

(p. 56).

19"^

and

some welcome attention; among

other items a series of frescoes by Domenichino was acquired (p.90). Subsequent

unforeseen opportunities to extend effectively representation of the nineteenth century


in

France and the eighteenth century

in Italy

came with

the purchase of an example of the

work (p.246) and a ceiling painting by Tiepolo (p.lOl). In 1972,


after a public appeal and through the generosity of a single major benefactor, the Gallery
managed to retain in the country Titian's late mythology. The Death ofActaeon (pJl).
More recently, the Gallery's range of acquisitions has consciously been extended.
Some of the more major - by no means all - are reproduced in this book, which
'Douanier' Rousseau's

attempts to

illustrate, in a fairly

small compass, the richness, the variety, the balance and

the sheer quality of the Collection built up

some

Trafalgar Square over the years. Here are just

of the paintings to be found there, of the kind Sir George

works of art which can


12

at

truly be claimed as solid objects of

Beaumont had

concern

in

to the nation'.

mind:

Early Italian Painting


Although today the early

Italian

glories of the Collection, there

the Gallery

s existence.

Renaissance paintings form one of the greatest

was no impetus

to acquire

them

in the first years of

At that date paintings of the period before Raphael tended to

be looked on by most British connoisseurs

appointment of Sir Charles Eastlake as the

curiosities'.

ius

first

It

was not

until the

Director in 18SS that a policy of

collectingearlier Italian paintings positively began.

Paintings of the highest quality were then

still

available in Italy,

and Eastlake was a

constant traveller there. What he purchased as a result remains astonishing. He


negotiated for a complete collection which included Uccellos Battle of San
(p. 27).

By one of the rarest of all

early Italian painters,

Romano

and now among the most

esteemed, Piero della Francesca, he bought a major altarpiece, Ihe Baptism of Christ
(p.38) and the Saint Michael p^Lnd (p.40), which he kept in his own collection. He

missed few of the great names and was not afraid


to acquire, fore.xample, Margarito's Virgin

Eastlake's successors fully shared his

concern

to

range widely, going back in time

and Child Enthroned {pM).


for the early Italian Renaissance,

though well before the end of the nineteenth century

taste

had

drastically revolved,

bringing the painters back into repute and creating fierce competition for their work.
Nevertheless, by 1900 the Collection illustrated with fine examples the development
of Italian painting from Duccio onwards, including the Venetians as well as the

Florentines

and Sienese, taking in the less

culminating

in a

group of paintings by

familiar Schools like that of Ferrara,

The early twentieth century saw some significant


Virgin

and

Botticelli unrivalled outside Florence.

additions,

among them

Masaccio's

and Child (p.24). Even now not every great Italian painter of the period is

included,

and a

figure like Ghirlandaio, so popular with the Victorians,

surprisingly under-represented. Yet the quality


altarpieces via mythological pictures

and the range - from

are superb;

and there can be

is

portraits to

few,

if

any, other

public collections in the world that give such effective visual force to

the words 'early Italian Renaissance painting".

13

.3

MARGARITO
The
Margarito
Virgins

feet.

made me",

'irgin

and Child E)ithro}ied

this painting

proudly declares, being signed thus

at

the

was a famous figure, much employed not only in


but also in Rome. He is one of the earliest Italian painters

In his period the painter

and around his native Arezzo.


to sign his

of Arezzo (active 1262 [?])

work, as well as being one of the

earliest painters represented in the Gallery.

This panel must have been painted for an altar and


figures of the Virgin

and Child with

it

surrounds the

large-scale, majestic

smaller, vivid scenes, chiefly of saints" lives.

They

include Saint Benedict rolling in brambles to conquer his lustful thoughts, and a
decorative, heraldic-like dragon disgorging quite safely Saint .Margaret
it

14

had previously swallowed.

whom

"3

DUCCIO (active
The Virgin

1278, died 1319)

and Child with Saints

This beautifully preserved small triptych can be closely associated with the
great Sienese painter, Duccio, a master of both line
for private devotion

Untroubled by any urge


painter

out

to

makes

as

and breathes a tender intimacy

to depict 'reality' in the

It

Much

less

He plays with

far bigger

as well as sophistication.

sense of the normal, visible world, the

which angels peer

image of the Virgin gazing intently

solemn than Margarito's

first

was probably painted

of his central panel a heaven of gleaming gold, from

adore the deliberately

she clasps.

and colour.

at

the Child

Child, this baby returns the Virgin's gaze

folds of her delicately fringed veil,

and the painting seems

with a double sense of movement and

to quiver

piety.

15

w^^mm^;

DLCCIO

(active 12^8. died 1319)

The Annunciation
Duccio's most famous

on both

sides, set

work was the Maesta

up on the high

panels were detached from the main group


Gallery

owns

altarpiece. All

altarpiece. consisting of

at

some much

three of these, of which ihe Annunciation

Duccios

gifts are

later date

comes from

Son of God. Duccio creates

the front of the

announce

that she will give

a marvellous, mildly three-dimensional

pink and grey that opens out. almost as

if

house of

cut in cardboard, in a series of crisp archways,

through one of which the angel enters commandingly. clad

mauve and bright blue.

panels

concentrated in this narrative composition which shows

the Angel Gabriel entering the Virgin's house at Nazareth to


birth to the

many

A few of the small


and dispersed. The

altar of the cathedral in Siena in 1311.

For clarity of colour and

line,

in

robes of aerial tones.

and for sheer lucidity of narrative.

this jewel of a painting challenges the greatest of later interpretations of the subject, like

those by Lippo Lippi and Crivelli (pp.29 and 54).

16

c
15

UGOLINO

di

Nerio (active 1317-1327)

The Way to Calvary


What Duccio had achieved was
painters

and most strongly

outstanding representative.
typical,

many-panelled

several portions

mean much

affected the

He worked

altarpiece,

owned by

to

to several

generations of Sienese

immediate one, of which Ugolino

for the

is

an

church of S. Croce in Florence, painting a

most of it surviving though

dispersed.

Among the

the Gallery are four panels from the predella at the base of

the altarpiece, dealing with Christ's Passion and Resurrection. Ugolino

tells

the story

with instinctive compositional sureness, making Christ the central sad figure of an

emotional drama, pushed and tugged on towards the right by the press of soldiers,
but turning back

to the

group of women

at

the extreme

left,

who include His grieving Mother.

17

e
.2

Ascribed to

GIOTTO

(12661

:^]

-133")

Pentecost
The great founder-figure of Florentine painting was Giotto, offering an alternative
three-dimensional
vision to that of Duccio. one far more concerned with settings of
one of a scattered series
realism', occupied by figures of sculptural solidity. In this panel,
illustrating the Life of Christ, the painter creates a

room

of strong, four-square

see also
geometrical effect and firm symmetry, enclosing the Apostles but allowing us to
descends in tongues
the amazement of the people outside the room, as the Holy Ghost
Vihether
or not the painting is
of fire and the Apostles begin to speak in other languages.

by Giotto himself,

it

is

an impressively coherent, carefully thought-out visualisation of


a subject quite difficult for

18

art.

e
.2

StyleofORCAGNA(AndreadiCione)(activec.l343, died 1368/9)


The Adoration of the Kings
Notblazingly original but highly agreeable and easily assimilable, ihis Adoration
is

in a

popular Florentine

style, that

himself was apparently dead

which

it

of the leading painter of the day, Orcagna.

when the work began on

comes, for the church of S. Pier Maggiore

altarpiece are in the Gallery, including


Virgin.
this

The

style

is

less

composition has

trotting off

its

The major portions of the

Coronation of the
more decorative than 'realistic', though

unexpected touches

from the central incident of homage


inserted

in Florence.

large central panel of the

rigorous than Giotto's,

lively

He

the elaborate altarpiece from

like

the rather rodent-looking dog

to seek a

amid the foreground

drink from the pipe oddly

rocks.

19

c
.S
"3

GIOVANNI

di

Paolo (active 1420, died 1482)

SaintJohn the Baptist retiring to the Desert


It is

no surprise

to learn tliat

Giovanni

Paolo was a Sienese

di

the active lifetime of Leonardo da Vinci but

had formulated so many years


fresh

and exquisite work of art, with

positively springs

and curve

at his

up

into

still

speaking in

before. Yet 'old-fashioned'

is

artist, living

effect the

on

into

language Duccio

not a word to apply to this

almost electric

vitality of line. Saint John


where
the jagged peaks seem to bend
the mountain wilderness

approach. With no

its

less vitality

does the painter add those natural grace-

notes of a white rose and a red, on curving, springing stems,

at either side of

the

composition enhancing the wild charm and unforced sweetness of the scene.
,

20

c
.S

SASSETTA (Stefano

di

Giovanni) (1392

?]

-1450)

The Dream of Saint Francis


The composition smoothly combines two
Francis of Assisi and

them

the

is

in the Gallery).

first in

incidents from the early

whose destitution

is

its

of a floating palace,

slips off his

contrasted with for example. Saint


,

Francis's spurred, well-shod feet. Subsequently, Saint Francis sleeps

canopy of gold stars

of Saint

a series of eight panels dealing with the saint (seven of

Prosperous and chivalrous, the youthful future saint

cloak for a poor, barefoot knight

bed, with

life

in a

heavenly

on a blue ground - while an angel shows him a vision

hung with banners bearing the Cross, which symbolises

Franciscan Order he will found. Sassetta

is

the

the Fra Angelico of Siena, touched artistically

with awareness of Renaissance concerns about perspective and atmosphere (no longer
is

the sky

shown as gold) and able also

to call

on

a faith

which

is

wonderfully

untroubled and impressively sure.

21

13

PISANELLO (living 1395. died H55[?])


The Virgin and Child with Saints
There were
Italy,

and

it

is

great, highly individual painters all over fifteenth-century

one of the glories of the Gallery Collection

like Pisanello,

very rare

are to be

found

in

it.

drawings, often of animals and birds, Pisanello brings

of a dark

accompanied by

Anthony "s

all

his gifts to this

in a medallion-like

saint. Saint

young soldier

in

Anthony Abbot, comes with

As a

final

is

and provoking Saint

touch of fantasy, Pisanello has twisted the foreground

grasses into a form of signature: /)w^MA^/(n.\it).

22

his pig. while Saint

smart armour and broad-brimmed straw hat.

his familiar dragon, here shflwn snarlingly alive

pet.

haunting

halo in the sky,

two contrasted saints below, encountering each other on the edge

wood. The hermit

George, the dapper

Northern

many of them - some,

A master of line and author of sensitive

composition. The Virgin and Child are suspended


scarcely sensed by the

that so

c
.2
"3

PISANELLO (living 1395, died 1455[?])


The Vision of Saint Eustace (F)
Pisanello

one,

is

was much employed

admirably suited

rabbits

is

to his style.

and

Out hunting,

a courtly-religious subject, like this


in a

landscape alive with the shapes of

as well as deer

the image of the Crucified Christ.


totally

courts,

and hounds, the young saint (either Saint Eustace or


abruptly confronted and converted by a stag bearing between its horns

and birds,

Saint Hubert)

at

excludes the sky and

lets

The effect

the rocky

is

very similar to that of a tapestry. Pisanello

woodland

setting

form

a screen against

shine out the profiles of the saint and his richly caparisoned horse.

enchanted world the miracle takes place quite

And in

which

this

naturally.

23

MASACCIO (1401-1427/9)
The Virgin

and Child

Masaccio was almost Giotto re-born, though with a shorter lifespan. He was the
Florentine painter
Giotto

who best understood and could best develop the achievements of

- and he was

not alone in Florence in his concern for visual logic, space and

mass. He was part of the inspired triumvirate made up of the sculptor Donatello and the
architect Brunelleschi.
classical feel

The Virgin's throne here, with

its

carefully varied columns

may owe something to Brunelleschi and the monumental


.

and its

bulky figure of

is severe and grave, in no


way does the solidly modelled Child on the Virgin's knee suck grapes, as literal

the Virgin has a strongly sculptural quality. Masaccio's art


playful

foretaste of the Passion. This painting

Masaccio

in

the central panel of an altarpiece painted by

1426 for thechurch of S. Maria del Carmine

and mature:

a manifesto of
live to

24

is

in Pisa.

It is

at

once youthful

new' aims in art which Masaccio did not


see develop further.

Fra

ANGELICO (active

Christ Glorified in the

k55)
Court ofHeaven
1417, died

Fra Angelico's output consists entirely of religious paintings,

Tightness in this for he seems the


as an artist.

was

It

for his

embodiment of total

which comes

glorified in heaven. Fra Angelico (in secular

it

Guido

is

saluted as

di Pietro) is

friar

and

just outside

He appears

himself perfectly

fondly delineates the variety of musical instruments

harps and violins, as well as long trumpets

piety,

life

a certain

this central predella panel.

To the sounds of a massed angelic orchestra, the risen Christ

winged angels

is

Dominican

own friary church of S. Domenico near Fiesole,

Florence, that he painted the altarpiece from

home there. He

and there

faith as a

at

organ. c\mbals.

played by about a hundred spangled-

who joyously greet the Redeemer. And in paying tribute to Fra Angelico's

should be stressed that he was no naive amateur but a wonderfully


highly sophisticated

gifted,

artist.

25

.2
"3

Follower of FraAXGELICO (active

kP.

died 1455)

The Rape ofHelen by Paris


The author of this marvellous mid-fifteenth-century Florentine painting is

n(

)t

known, though it has been associated with Benozzo Gozzoli. sometime assistant to Fra
Angelico and painter of the famous frescoes in the Medici chapel. The shape of the
painting suggests that it was planned to decorate a piece of furniture, possibly a chest,
and its classical antique subject-matter is typical of such decoration. The painter puts the
story into the

costume and setting of his own period. The abduction by

Paris of Helen

the wife of the Greek king .Menelaus. caused the outbreak of the Trojan war. but here

conducted

in the spirit of party-games played

so marvellous about the picture

is

it

is

by well-dressed, well-bred people. What

is

the vivacity

and sureness of the

artist s vision.

From

the pink temple to the milky green sea. on which floats a castle-like ship, everything

has a new-minted freshness and clarity, very different from normal


yet utterly convincing.

26

reality

Paolo UCCELL0(6\1397-1475)

The Battle of San


This

is

one of three scenes of the

which hung together

Romano

Battle of San

Romano painted by

in the Palazzo Medici in Florence.

The

battle

Uccello

and

had been fought

in

1432 between the Florentines and Sienese, and here the victorious Florentine
.

commander, Niccolo Mauruzi da


a baton

which might almost be

Tolentino, rides forward

that of a

on

a white horse, brandishing

music conductor or tournament-organiser

On a

platform-stage hedged by rose-bushes and orange-trees, the battle becomes a pageant of

banners, armour, prancing horses, and visored knights, exchanging blows but spilling

no blood.
helmet

Niccolo's

like a

own page quite safely

rides into the affray bare-headed, holding a

lacquered waste-paper basket. Uccello delights in delineating

- and indeed all the contours,

so that the floor, with

horizontal lines (made up of lances), takes

on

all

its

its

contours

crisscross of vertical

and

the abstract quality of a Mondrian.

27

c
.2
"3

Alesso BALDOVIXETTI (r.l426-k99)

ALadvin
Renaissance interest

and not

in

humanity

Yellow

fostered the

development

solely of famous or important people.

particularly developed in Florence, influenced

The

ot portrait painting

portrait in profile

no doubt by

was

classical coins

a type

and medals

but also offering opportunities for incisive draughtsmanship which remained


characteristic of Florentine art.

the fifteenth century,

overshadowed by

and

it

The female

too

was

was somethingof a novelty before

fostered in Florence. Baldovinetti tends to be

his great contemporaries like L'ccello. but here he displays a strong

sense of design. Complementing the

unusual colour

portrait

for

sitter s

blond hair with a dress of yellow - an

costume - he gives her a refined, palely

delicate air

and adds a

further stamp of individuality in the device of the three spiky black palms that writhe
like

28

wrought-iron rather than

lie

along her embroidered

sleeve.

c
.2
"3

Fra Filippo LIPPI (c.l406[ ?] -1469)

The Annunciation
The Medici family must have commissioned
with the hoped-for birth of an

heir,

this painting,

perhaps

connection

in

because on the low balustrade between the Virgin's

courtyard and her garden, under the pot of lilies, the painter depicts a favourite Medici

emblem, of three

feathers in a

interest to the Gallery, since

Charles Eastlake

it

diamond ring. The painting's


entered the Collection as the

a nice gesture to

have been able

to

later

gift

provenance

of the

first

this

popular and beautiful work. Lippi divides the composition between the
s

house (with a glimpse of her bed) and the

also of

Director, Sir

make. The Victorians probably

esteemed the painter more highly than do many scholars today but

the Virgin

is

is

a deservedly

tiled interior

tree-lined garden outside,

of

and

makes charming the encounter of two worlds. The haloed profile heads of the Virgin
and the Angel Gabriel complement each other as they slightly bow at meeting, she
humbly from within her domestic environment and he - an exotic, almost
hovering presence borne on peacock wings - half-shyly, arrived from
heaven to hail the future mother of the Saviour.

29

a
.S
13

Is

Sandro BOTTICELLI (c.l445 - 1510)


Portrait of a Young Man
After Baldovinetti's typical profile portrait (p.28), there

impact of Botticelli's
the spectator.

full-face portrayal of a

Supreme master

is

a distinct shock in the

young man, gazing directly

of line though he

is,

Botticelli

if

impassively

at

seems equally concerned

here with modelling the planes of the face out of light and shadow, so that the head juts

convincingly forward, increasing the three-dimensional

drawing of the eyelids, while the hair

The

result

is

partly real

and

is

effect.

Line

made into a rippling pattern

is

all

re-asserted in the

the artist's

partly ideal, the portrait of an actual Florentine,

one

own.

feels.

hut merging under Botticelli's touch with the angel faces the painter likes to depict in
religious pictures pressing ahout the

30

Madonna.

.2
"9

Sandro BOTTICELLI (c.l445-1510)

Venus and Mars


This

is

the sole mythological painting by Botticelli to be found outside

Italy. Its

presence in the Collection, along with other rare paintings by him indicates the
,

pronounced English

taste in the

a revival of interest in

nineteenth century for the

him and his work. With

Botticelli,

artist,

which contributed

pagan subject-matter

is

with a seriousness previously reserved for Christian themes. His goddess Venus
only beautiful but

which she once


folds.

Perhaps
will

felt to

rose,
at

to

treated
is

not

be a great power, as she reclines elegantly beside the sea from

wrapped

in a

white dress that ripples and eddies in countless fluid

her bidding the baby satyrs, frolicking with the naked god's armour,

wake him from

his deep slumber,

and love

will again

conquer war

31

c
.S
13

Sandro BOTTICELLI (c.l445-1510)


Mystic Nativity
imprints on his paintings a sense of personality so marked that

Botticelli

verge

on

the disturbing. His thought

unique interpretation of a familiar

is

always original

subject.

What did it

can

it

- never more so than

in this

mean, he seems

to ask,

really

when God was born in human form and angels rejoiced in heaven singing of peace on
earth to men of good will? He asks the question with special urgency, for he was
,

painting his picture around 1500

'in

the troubles of Italy', as his inscription in Greek

states at the top of the painting. Christ's Birth

molten gold, interlinked angels dance amid

is

seen as

it

were cosmically. In a heaven of

laurel sprays

and crowns. On earth three


,

angels embrace three mortals, and others guide the groups of shepherds and kings,

laurel-crowned and depicted in a very similar way,

to

all

worship the Child, Himself the

Prince of Peace.

Antonio and Piero del POLLAIUOLO (c.l432-l498, c.l44l-c.l496)

The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian


Even
nine

feet

in fifteenth-century

high

Renaissance Florence, the size of this altarpiece

- was imposing. The

was painted

Pollaiuolo brothers

may have collaborated on

for the Oratory of Saint Sebastian attached to the

Annunziata and commissioned by a member of the Pucci


records that a

The

member of another

land.scape

is

certainly

leading Florentine family

modelled on

that of the

bodies of the archers are obviously studied from

Arno

life.

32

Vinci, in his early twenties

church of the

family.

An old

was the model

valley

it. It

SS.

tradition
for the saint.

around Florence, and the

The painting asserts

almost scientific naturalism and realism quite alien

approach of Leonardo da

- over

a standard of

to Botticelli, anticipating the

when

the altarpiece

was

painted.

c
.S
"3

Antonio and Piero del

The
\\\Q

scale of this painting

POLLMUOLO (cl432-l498. c.U^l-c.U%)


Apollo and Daphne

just

over a foot high

abruptly contrasts with that of

Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian. And despite the attribution above, it is hard to


two artists - brothers though they were - could have worked on it

believe that the


together. Quality

and commonsense suggest

of the two. a sculptor and goldsmith

it is

likely to

be by Antonio, the more gifted

who could give to figures nervous energy of the

kind embodied here in the athletic Apollo and the rapidly metamorphosing Daphne.
turning into a laurel-tree even as the god

scene

is

enhanced by

its

tries to

grasp her body. The vivid poetry of the

being set in the landscape of the painter's native Tuscany, and

Apollo himself lives again in fifteenth-century Florentine dress.

55

c
.2

VERROCCHIO (c. 1435-1488)


Tobias and the A ngel

Follower of Andrea del

For

where

many
it

people this rightly popular painting virtually

has hung for well over a century. The

fact that its

is

the National Gallery,

author

not in the least and certainly does not hinder enjoyment of


associated with the great Florentine artist Verrocchio, best

its

unknown matters

is

mastery.

It is

loosely

known as a sculptor. The

painting speaks of an artistic climate of absolute certitude and optimism. The


Tobias takes the angel's

arm with

overlooked woolly dog have


conveyed. The story

is

trusting faith

to step

on

life's

journey

the boy

is

returning

And beyond

men should have faith

home with

the fish

whose gall

the story are wider implications:

put their trust in angel guardians and they

too will reach their heavenly home.

34

and the not-to-be

out to keep pace with the angelic velocity so well

happy one. Tobias

will cure the blindness of his father, Tobit.

that

- and both

young

PIERO

di

Cosimo (r.l452-after

1515)

A Mythological Subject
By the salty-looking shore
already dead,
faun: the

is

the throat. At her feet

dog looks on mournfully

do more than
clear

wounded in

of a chill estuary a

grieve. Exactly

Piero di

woman lies dying, or perhaps

and head crouch a dog and a shagg\"

as the faun tends the

what classical story

is

woman yet seems powerless to

illustrated

remains unclear. Vthat

is

Cosimos profound empathy with wild creatures and lonely places. He


and birds, where grassy earth forms the

gives poignanq." to death in this Arcadia of dogs

woman's bier.

It is

not surprising that the painter of this picture once devised for the

carnival in Florence a fantastic Car of Death,


eccentric,

and

that

he himself was considered an

with his fears about dying, his fondness for animals and his
indifference to worldlv success.

33

Ascribed to PIERO

di

Cosimo (c.l462-after

1515)

A Ma?UN Armour
Both the

perhaps

it is

sitter

and the painter of this fascinating portrait

through the wistful doggy look of the

associated with Piero

di

unknown, and
the painting became

are

sitter that

Cosimo. The view in the background identifies the setting as

Florence and shows the seal of government, the Palazzo della Signoria. with
Michelangelo's famous statue of David, set up in ISO-4 The
.

like,

one hand on

his sword-hilt as

he stands guard over Florence

was banished -

the period

- when

sitter

to

broods almost Hamlet-

draw

it.

Vet possibly

the ruling .Medici family

incarnating steadfastness of purpose and a determination


to

36

at

though hesitant

defend the republic.

"3

Pietro

The Virgin

PERUGINO (living

1469, died 1523)

and Child with Saints Michael and Raphael

These three panels are part of an altarpiece commissioned

for the Certosa at Pavia

from a painter more usually associated with the city from which he gets
Perugia. Prolific
posterity, at least

and competent, Perugino was


up

Renaissance painters

to the nineteenth century.


to

is

He was one of the

less in

Umbrian

style,

little

name,

early Italian

bland perhaps for

all its

favour In these gently luminous compositions, especially

that of Saint Michael, he achieves a sense of balance

position as an

first

his

and with

be represented in the Gallery (these panels being bought in

1856). Today, his calm, typically

accomplishment,

a success in his lifetime

artist,

which seems

the pupil of Piero della Francesca

and

to

echo his

own

traditionally

the master of Raphael.

57

"3

38

PIERO

della Francesca (active 1439, died 1492)

The Baptism of Christ

Piero della Francesca painted this altarpiece for the priory of Saint John the

town of Sansepolcro

Baptist in his native

background. Although the painting

work by him.
execution.
quality;

Its

Early or not,

pale tonality

is

it

is

in

Umbria, and the town can be seen

not dated,

it

is

usually

assumed

to

be an early

reveals Piero's originality as a painter, in concept

almost that of fresco. The figures have an

theirfleshiscompacted,itseems,ofthousandsoftiny

atmosphere compressed and made

visible.

And

in the

ideal,

particles, like

everything in the painting

and

in

statuesque

'^

^^C^

motes of

is felt

to

be

the product of profound, meditated thought.

At once buried in the composition

- and yet immediately

apparent

is

the geometry

of triangles, horizontals and verticals, and nicely calculated intervals, which gives the

composition

its

structure

and invests the scene with intense timelessness. The

the middle distance seems fixed in the action


his shirt.

The angels

scrupulously observed -

take root like the tree beside

more embodied than

in

of removing

which they stand, and over Christ's

head water forever pours from the pure oval of the bowl held by the
ether above, hardly

man

Baptist, while in the

the cloud-shapes that float parallel, the

Dove

hovers whitely with outstretched wings.

39

c
.2
"3

PIERO

della Francesca (active 1439- died 1492)

Saint Michael
ii

was. again, for his

own town of Sansepolcro that

partly destroyed altarpiece


laid

on

from which

the painter s intellect

and

his vivid response to textures

thickens as

sensuous

crown

if

responding

this

panel conies. Today so

his mathematical interests that

and

his sensiti\e technique, in

to the play of light

effect all the .Archangel's

it

easy to underplay

which paint thins and

over surfaces. Here

iathe jewelled

it

embraces with

buttons that stud

like

skirt of his cuirass

and not

minute pebbles the rippling

current of his near-transparent shin sleeves.

40

is

is

various accoutrements: from his bristling laurel

to his soft red leather boots, taking

failing to record the coral

now dispersed.
much emphasis

Piero painted a

"3

^
^

PIERO

della Francesca (active 1439, died 1492)

The Nativity
Damaged though

this painting

is

in places,

impressive and ambitious works, assumed


career.

That the scene

concept, infusing

it

is

set

on

it is

one of the

stylistic

on the morning of Christ's

grounds

Nativity

painter's
to

most

be done

late in his

seems central

to Piero's

with cool, clear tones. In one way, everything looks matter-of-fact,

- no haloes, for example, and no wings for


Each person and indeed each shape - even the saddle on which Saint Joseph

stripped of ostensible religious' trappings

the angels.
sits

has, however,

the

still

more than

natural gravity.

figure of the Virgin herself, richly

if

Nowhere

more impressive than


clad for such humble sur-

is

discreetly

that

in

roundings, her blue robes and blond head modelled with a subtlety and feeling for
light at its coolest that

hardly enter painting again until Vermeer.

41

c
.2
15

PINTORICCHIO (active 1482, died

1513)

Scenesfrom the Odyssey


Somewhat underestimated as an
decorative painter of his day,

famous

artist

nowadays. Pintoricchio was a leading

summoned to work

Pope

for the Borgia

in

Rome and

for the frescoes in the Piccolomini Library of the cathedral in Siena.

palace there that he frescoed this scene, the chief portion of which

her loom and her son Telemachus hastening

in,

ship in the background, and supplies plenty of delightful details


ball of yarn.

The

result

42

is

life

less

in

for a
at

returned from seeking his father


,

enhanced view of domestic

was

shows Penelope

Odysseus. Pintoricchio makes effective use of the lines of the loom helping

with a

It

like

to

the cat playing

Homer's Odyssey than an appealing,

an upper-class household

in

frame the

slightly

Renaissance

Italy.

CosimoTUL\(c.l431-l495)
Saintjerome
By the

fifteenth centun' there flourished in Italy

numerous small centres of

painting marked by very distinct styles and fostering painters of highly original talent.
Ferrara \va5

one of the most individual of these centres,

enlightened

Jerome is
art.

artistic patrons.

cir\"

ruled by the Este family.

Tura was the outstanding painter there, and the Saint

typical of his fer\id. restless, almost hallucinatory"

Other painters might depict Saintjerome

in a

and partly non-naturalistic

green and pleasant wilderness, but

Tura loves the challenge and the opportunity of depicting a truly arid desert of stone and
stony forms, with a semi-petrified tree-trunk bent into a strange shape and
stranger by the staring owl perched

on

its

sole branch. Draperies like tinfoil encase the

saint, writhing about him in folds with a

personal, and

it is

hard not

made

life

of their

to feel that in Ferrara

own.

Tura's vision

he had the

ideal

is

intensely

environment.

45

.3
73

Lorenzo COSTA (1459/60-1535)


A Concert
Subjects for painting diversified during the fifteenth century,

one

is

introduced by the 'concert'

ordinary

The

not of angels

men and women shown assembled,

Ferrarese painter Costa paints

scenes in

Itiilian art.

Ferrarese precision
central

trio

what

of people

- down

man and the extent

is

is

and

at Christ's Birth

as in real

life,

virtually a

new

but performed by

for private

music-making.

probably one of the earliest secular concert-

grouped together and observed with

typical

to the exquisitely fretted rose of the lute

played by the

which each performer's mouth opens

in singing his

to

or her part. Music easily becomes a metaphor for general harmony, and from
this concert

44

exudes an

air of civilised

concord.

c
.S
"3

Luca SIGNORELLI (I44I [?] -1523)

The
Signorelli

is

n'ghi

example of a painter famous

yet another

somewhat underestimated,
Orvieto. This

is

one of several

large altarpieces by
it

nude were

to

him bought by the

saint

is

Gallery

around the

who was Signorelli's family

be admired by Michelangelo, and here the

painter takes the opportunity of Saint Sebastian

The female

now

has the additional interest of having been painted

Lodovicus de Rutenis (Rodez).

doctor. Signorelli's studies of the

the male body.

in his lifetime but

despite his Last Judgement frescoes in the cathedral in

end of the nineteenth century, and


for a French physician.

and Child with Saints

and the angels

Saint Christina, to

flying overhead to depict

whom de Rutenis had a special

devotion, having built a chapel dedicated to her, where this painting originally hung.

45

ANTONELLO da Messina (active


Portrait of a
In

its

quiet way, this

is

in

such close-up, minute

Man

one of themost compelling andmemorable of all the

portraits in the Gallery, partly because of

less precisely

1456, died 1479)

detail,

down

its

flawless technique,

to the stubble

which records the

sitter

covering his cheeks and throat.

rendered are the few folds of white linen

at his

No

neck and the satisfying bulk

of his berry-red cap. Antonello was certainly aware of Netherlandish achievements, and
to

some extent

(p.l06).

this portrait

is

like

has about

it

Italian

something so probing as
thoughts that

46

an

reworking of van Eyck's Man in a Turban

Above all. the unflinching scrutiny conveyed

this

is

to

in the glassy, large-pupilledeyes

encourage, however misguidedly,

the painter's self portrait.

"3

H^

ANTONELLO da Messina (active

1456, died 1479)

Christ Crucified
Antonello

is

a slightly mysterious

artist,

though one of great

power. Out of a native Southern temperament and an


chiefly Netherlandish painting (includingjan

van

artistic

Eyck's),

and

originality

response

to

Northern,

he created a style that

is

rigorous yet far from inhuman. He invests the scene of Christ Crucified with deep

poignancy and a sense of desolation extending beyond the eloquently grieving Saint

John and the

Virgin huddled

mourning. Golgotha as the


of the

tall

on the ground,

until the

'place of the skulls'

is

whole world seems

to

rendered starkly, and the

Cross on which the thin, exhausted Christ has been nailed

be in

wood

is

drenched with His blood.

47

c
.2

M^

Ascribed to Gentile BELLINI (active 1460, died 1507)

The Sultan Mehmet II


In 1455 Constantinople

new era began

for the city.

Ottoman empire. Mehmet


exist,

and

it is

fell

to the forces of the

Renamed Istanbul
II is

the

first

it

Ottoman Sultan Mehmet

of the Sultans of whom authentic likenesses

not unreasonable to associate this sadly repainted yet impressive image

in Ist^mbul.

With Western technique and

convey the sense of an

exotic,

title

who certainly

attitude, the painter

shrewd and powerful

ever honoured with the

48

and

became the centre of the expanding

with the Venetian painter Gentile Bellini (the brother of Giovanni)

worked

II

ruler

- and

the Conqueror'.

manages

to

the sole Sultan

.2
"3

Andrea MANTEGNA (c.k30/l-1506)


The Agony in the Garden
Mantegna seems

to

inventive composition,

work not so much

where even"

rift is

in paint as in metal,

loaded with

and

artistic ore.

this richly

might have been

An essentially linear precision


car\es out the tall, sugar-loaf peaks of the distant mountains as much as the fissures of
rock and foreground blades of grass that make up a very dry garden of Gethsemane for
executed not with a brush but with an engraver's

Christ

tool.

and His sleeping Disciples. Even the clouds might be chips of stone or steel.

Mantegna's vision
as an antique

city,

is

all-embracing.

He conjures up a magnificent prospect of Jerusalem

records the inexorable line of Christ's advancing captors, and

makes

visually inexorable also Christ's forthcoming Passion, seen in an angelic vision in

which the foremost angel

displays the Cross.

^9

e
.S

3
u

Giovanni BELLINI (active c.1459, died 1516)


The Agony in the Garden
Bellini

was the brother-in-law of Mantegna, and

comparing the two


Collection.

it

is

hardly possible to avoid

painters' treatment of this subject, since both paintings belong to the

Mantegna seems anyway

to

have influenced

composition suggests distinct awareness of Mantegna's

Bellini,

(p.49).

'V'et

and here

Bellini's

Mantegna's steady

illumination has been replaced by a subtle, half-shadowy atmosphere, marvellously


affecting the tone of the

whole

incident. Light

is

slowly seeping back into the green

landscape as morning comes and Christ sees floating before Him a single, barely
substantial child, holding the cup of His Passion

Giovanni BELLINI (active

which

6-.1459,

will not pass

from Him.

died 1S16)

The Madonna of the Meadow


Although the present
it

title is

probably of no great age or art-historical authenticity,

aptly penetrates to the heart of this painting.

soil,

a true

Madonna

them goes on the

life

The Madonna

of Humility, praying over her sleeping,


of the fields.

and the atmosphere

is at

The

indications are that this

once keen and sensuous, with

is

shown seated on

the

naked Son. while around

light

is

day of early spring,

washing around each

The sleeping Child's pose may anticipate that of the dead Christ but the painting
seems no less to hint at renewal, natural and divine, with a reminder that Christ's Death
was followed bv His Resurrection.
object.

50

c
.3

Giovanni BELLLM (active c.l459. died 1516)

Doge Leonardo Loredan


Fearless, faithful, patient, impenetrable, implacable,

the \enetian senate in

its

great Renaissance days,

wrote Ruskin

in praise of

and he might almost have been

describing this portrait of Leonardo Loredan as Doge, titular head of the Venetian

Figurehead the Doge might

be.

but no figurehead

was ever more proudly modelled to

convey the essence of wise, firm and benevolent government. The

mummified, swathed

in stiff

state.

man is virtually

embroidered robes, the swelling nut-like buttons of which

help to reinforce the message of dignity and undeviating purpose. Vet the portrait.
official

comes

commission though
alive artistically

it

doubtless was.

is

no dead or routine

piece of recording.

It

through the painter's magic manipulation of light. Even while

deif\ing the Doge. Bellini subtly subordinates

him

to his

own painterly ends.


51

c
.2
13

Giovanni Battista CIMA da Conegliano (1459/60[ >] -15r/18)

Dai 'id andJonathan


While David, as shepherd boy. slayer of the gianKioliath and King ot

common subiect in painting at all periods,


of his friend Jonathan, son of King Saul.

he

is

rarely depicted as here, in the

Cima seems

to

taller,

thinner and

and admiring. Cima.

rarely fails to introduce

born

company

is

both affectionate

in the small hill-town of Conegliano.

some landscape touches

into his paintings,

and here the two

friends trudge contentedly through a typical .North Italian countryside.

52

like a surreal carrier-bag,

more soldierly Jonathan whose glance

active in Venice but

is

enjoy contrasting the slightly

pudgy, rustic David, matler-of-factly toting Goliath's head,

with the

Israel,

c
.S

Andrea SOLARI

by 1495 died 1524)


with a Pink

(active

A Man

The occasional outstanding success by


disconcerting

phenomenon than

a rather

minor painter

is

the occasional failure by a great

probably a more
artist. Solari is

not

among the great artists, though perfectly competent if rarely very individual. He seems
to

have fallen under a variety of influences, above

all

that of Leonardo da \mci. Earlier,

Venetian painting had influenced him and the result here


.

- thanks partly

to the

a fine painting. The


mouth and his pale blue eyes, matching
the blue gem set in his ring, suggests someone likely to brandish an object more
threatening than a flower - but that may malign him. What Solari has seized is

features of the sitter


sitter's

is

physiognomy, not

pungent piece of characterisation and

least the line of his

the strong physical impact of a personality.

53

c
.2
13

?:?^ECCLFS1AST1CA^<
Carlo CRIVELLI (active 1457-1493)

The Annunciation
For

many

painters living in

attraction as the place to


that he, Venetian by birth

tiie

region around Venice, the city

go and work
,

in.

It

was an obvious

seems only one of Crivelli's idiosyncracies

should have chosen

to

work away from

Venice. Yet he

would

not have received the commission for this particular painting had he not been living in
the

town of Ascoli

Annunciation

in

Piceno, in the Marches of Italy.

It

was on

the Feast of the

1482 that Ascoli learnt that Pope Sixtus IV had granted certain rights of

.self-government to

its

citizens.

To

commemorate

the occasion,

{\\\$

Annunciation was

painted four years later The bishop-saint who, unusually, accompanies the angel,
Saint Emidius, patron of Ascoli, itself depicted in the

remarkable

is

the

full

urban realisation of the scene, with

and accessories (including scattered

fruit,

concentration he manages

to retain

its

sumptuous

each object and

- amid such

diversity

is

holds. Hardly less

pots of flowers and a peacock).

risk of excess, but Crivelli s taut line controls

54

model he

architecture
It all

runs the

figure,

and by

coherence.

total

fierce

Italian Painting

Supreme sixteenth-centun' Italian


their fame,

and from

1500-1600

painters like Titian

had or

earliest years the Galler)"

its

examples of their \vori(.

Titian's superbly confident.

Ariadne (p.^5) was bought

and Raphael never lost

as early as 1826. In the

rapidly acquired fine

coIoutM Bacchus and


same year Veronese's

Consecration ofSaint Mchokis (p.S-i) and Parmigianino's altarpiece (p.6"'). a rare


item, were presented to the Collection. Correggio was another esteemed name, and
his art

was soon represented by paintings of ven.-

different scale

and theme, from a

small religious work, ih^ Madonna of the Basket, to alluring mythology', the
'School ofLove'

[^.(id).

not necessary- to

A more

difficult painter to represent

wait for Ruskin

was

Tintoretto, but

Bequest of 1831. came the small yet

t}'pically energetic

Saint George and the Dragon


\et the sixteenth centun." in Italy

was not solely

and brilliantly

was

original

(p. 80).

a period of the established.

traditionally great artistic figures. Later painters of the centun."

being overshadowed or

it

to discover' him; already, with the Holwell Carr

treated as inevitably lesser.

And it is

had suffered from

remarkable that the

was able by the 1860s to demonstrate some of these painters' achievements.


A painting by Lotto was first bought in 1862 as was The Tailor' (p.82). the most

Gallen.-

famous painting by Moroni outside Italy. Moretto's highly wroughx Portrait of a

Young Man

(p.82). like a soulfijl Holbein,

additions of later purchases and

gifts,

had been acquired even


the School of Brescia

is

earlier

With the

now strongly

represented in the CoUeaion.

Two ven.' great artists presented great problems,

not least through sheer

raritv":

Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. In 1868 the opportunity was wisely taken

buy ihe Entombment (p. 58).


ascribed to Michelangelo.

a panel of masterly authorit>"

to

which can reasonably be

The School of Milan was popular in Victorian

times,

and

works by pupils of Leonardo entered the Colleaion well before our version of the

many people the heart of Leonardo's art is


summed up by the large cartoon of the Virgin and Child with Saints Anne and
'Virgin of the Rocks'

fohn
In

(p. 5"). Yet

for

the Baptist {p.56). presented by the National Art-Collections

more recent times

the Gallen.- has strengthened

notably of Parmigianino and Pontormo.

and Ariadne was first bought,


has been

illustrated

its

Fund in 1962.

representation of this period,

And over the years since Titian's Bacchus

the range of his art. ever-evolving in a long career,

by major acquisitions. In 1929 the unique group portrait of the

Vendramin /77w/7)' (p. 76), a masterpiece of the artist's


Colleaion. In 19"2 after
.

much striving under threat of export, and a public appeal.

Titian's ven." late mytholog}-. ihe

no sixteenth-centun.-

maturity, entered the

Death ofActaeon

Italian painter

(p."~).

is shown better at

was purchased. Perhaps

the Gallen.- than Titian.

the master oil-painter of all time, so the distinction

is

He

is

desen-ed.

55

C
.2

73

LEONARDO da Vinci (1452-1519)


The Virgin and Child with Saints Anne andJohn the Baptist
made up of several

This large-scale drawing,

sheets of paper,

is

presumably the

preparatory drawingor cartoon' for a painting never executed by Leonardo.

It is

not

pricked for transfer, as such cartoons normally were. Older than Michelangelo and

Raphael, Leonardo takes chronological priority in the formation of a

new High

Renaissance' style of tremendous accomplishment, exciting contemporaries to

recognLse the artist as no mere craftsman but a creative genius. Leonardo's art
intensely mysterious

merging

and bewitching Thetwosmilingmaternal women, almost


seem moulded out of more than human

into a single figure,

stranger than people in ordinary

Something divine,
Saint

56

is

it

seems,

Anne

life,

is

uncanny

here,

testifies to

in their grace

and

their apartness.

and the upraised, pointing

the solemnitv of the .scene.

clay, lifelike yet

finger of

vJr

c
.2
"3

LEONARDO da Vinci (1452-1519)


'The

'irgin

of the Rocks

With his myriad gifts, as musician, mathematician and scientist as well as

painter.

not surprising that Leonardo tended to leave his paintings unfinished.

What is

it is

surprising

is

that

he should have been responsible for two paintings as similar

in

this one and the version in the Louvre. The Louvre version is entirely by
more than can be said with certainty about the London painting, where

composition as

him. which
pupils

is

may have assisted him

Vet

it

remains a haunting work. In a grotto more fantastic

than any devised by Tura (compare

earth

p.-i3

).

and

yet

made

to

look naturalistic, the Virgin

some secret place of the


and isolated by the sunken river that winds among the jagged cones of rocks. The

and the other

figures are pale but fitting inhabitants,

whole universe seems

to

hidden

in

have been re-ordered by Leonardo, made more wonderful

but also more alien, and

it is

easy to forget that this composition

is

intended

as a Christian religious one.

57

o
o
I

.S

MICHELANGELO (1475-1564)
The Entombment
Few

easel paintings exist by. or convincingly attributed

Although unfinished and not documented,

and it

is

this

deep into the picture area

in at the top right,

like a

naked, defeated

- and up steps

has great originality. The sculptural

notably in the pose and muscular energy of the red-clad


painter evinces

little

concern

the form of bodies in action


state,

58

for

and

Michelangelo.

panel has long been attributed to him

easy to see why. The concept of Christ,

borne backwards

to.

feel

to a

athlete,

of the figures

man at

the

left

The result

is

powerful, even in

and certainly breathes the ethos of Michelangelo.

is

strong.

of Christ.

landscape or for the setting; his interest

in repose.

being

tomb, barely blocked

is

its

The

patently in

unfinished

o
o
I

o
o
c
.2

RAPHAEL (1483-1520)

An Allegory
Youngest of the traditional

was

for

trio of creators of the

High Renaissance

style,

Raphael

long the most esteemed, as he was also the most directly influential. His

accomplishment

tremendous and

is

so suave that

it

verges

at

times on the bland, but his invention was

his art has a surprising variety of mood. This Allegory

already highly accomplished, and with distinct freshness and charm

is

an early work,

The sleeping

knight will presumably have to choose between the two ladies, one soberly clothed,

with covered head, bearing a book and sword, and the other more
frivolously dressed, holding out a flower. Duty

and

Pleasure,

it

may be,

lightly

are each offering

their attractions, but Raphael balances the choice, like the composition,

the hero

- and the spectator -

and

and leaves

undecided.

59

o
o
13

R.\PHAEL (1483-1520)
'The Ansidei Madofuia
Some

five years

perhaps -

at

most - separate Raphael's .-l/Z^'oorr from

scale altarpiece, painted for the chapel of the Ansidei family in a

the Madonna's robe

is

church

in Perugia.

a date, probably to be read as 1505. Anything that

tentative in the earlier

On

was slightly

composition has here been rounded out. smoothedout and

become mature. Raphael

retains a fondness for balance

simplified though strongly realised forms

like

and now develops

in the slim glass tube of the

tall

his gift for

the solid geometry of the steps of the

.Madonna's throne. The visual clarity seems a reflection of intellectual

symbolised

this large-

clarity, well

tross lightly clasped by the Baptist. All

is

serene and day lit. in an atmosphere very different from Leonardo's Virgin of the Rocks'
(p. 5").

60

Here no doubts or problems exist

- only solutions.

d
.S

RAPHAEL (1483-1520)
PopeJulius II
The rising tide of Raphael's
patronage. For Pope Julius

II

successful career carried

he frescoed a series of rooms

him

to

Rome and papal

in the Vatican, including, in

{\\q School ofAthens, the quintessence of High Renaissance


Pope
was
The
a thoroughly Renaissance figure, a successor to Saint Peter whose

the Stanza dellaSegnatura,


ideals.

kingdom appeared
still

ambitious

if

surprisingly

much

of this world. Julius

temporarily rather subdued,

when

II

was old but

intimate.

portraitist, able to present his sitters in

all

his other gifts,

ways both

dignified

The type of portrait he created here of Julius II was long to serve


pattern for

all

masterful,

Raphael painted him wearing a

beard in mourning for losing control of the city of Bologna. With

Raphael was a great

still

and

as the

papal portraiture.

61

o
o
c

SEBASTIANO

Piombo (r.1485-1547)
The Raising of Lazarus
del

who settled in Rome. He painted this huge


who was painting for the same
the future Pope Clement VII, the Transfiguration now in the Vatican

Sebaslianu was a \enetian painter

picture in virtual competition with Raphael,

commissioner,

- no lover of Raphael - is traditionally said to have helped


Sebastiano with drawings for some of the figures, probably those involved in the central
Gallery. Michelangelo

incident. \X'hatever

its

genesis, the painting

bodies and glittering colour,

background

full

is

a tour de force of massed, gesticulating

of obvious portrait heads

and with

that recalls Sebastiano's Venetian origins. Perhaps

all

a poetic

been quite successfully fused, but the grand manner of the composition

and

62

in

its

conscious rhetoric the painting looks forward

landscape

the elements have not

to the

is

impressive,

Baroque.

Andrea del SARTO (1486-1530)


Portrait of a Young Man
'A

common greyness silvers everything', observes Andrea del Sarto in Browning's


common blue-greyness gives harmony to this

monologic poem about the painter A


portrait

which seems

to

be painted in a dusky twilight from which the

sitter

turning in his chair to gaze out with a moody, pensive air The concept

is

emerges,

typical of a

style of portrait in sixteenth-century Florence, very different in aspiration

from the

Early Renaissance certainty conveyed in, for example, Botticelli's male portrait
his best Sarto

with his

is

sitter,

a subtle and highly sensitive

probing behind the face

delicately exploring the contours

voluminous sleeve

artist.

to express

(p.

30). At

Here he seems in strongest rapport

something of the mind, and no

and texture of the choice costume,

less

especially the

that partly projects towards the spectactor

63

o
o
C
.2

Jacopo

PONTORMO (1494-1557)
Joseph in Egypt

Pontormo was the pupil of Sarto and the master of Bronzino, and
painters, each with his

own distinct individuality, by

fashioned ideas about a 'decline of painting


in Florence.

More openly

in

this trio of

themselves rebut any old-

mid-sixteenth-century

Italy, least

of all

and personally, Pontormo

eccentric than Sarto, artistically

fashioned a style of extreme refinement, with recherche colour and exuberant fantasy
elements,

all

well displayed in this painting.

It is

one of a

series, to

which various

Florentine painters contributed, executed as decoration for the marriage-chamber of

Pierfrancesco Borgherini. Pontormo's inventiveness hardly needs stressing.

extraordinary triumphal car in the foreground to the dizzily curving


creates a

world

on the

64

totally

steps

at

and proudly

his

own. And

flight

in a final personal touch,

the front of the composition his

own

From the

of stairs, he

he has seated

youthful pupil, Bronzino.

o
o
I

o
o
c
.S

BRON7IXO(1503-15'^2)
An Allegory with Venus and Cupid
However abstruse and puzzling
clear,

this allegory

arrow - symbol of love's power.

illustrate the

affection, she

Apart from Time

figures predictably symbolise the pleasures

all

to be,

much

about

it

is

beginning with the main figures of Venus and her son Cupid kissing. As he

embraces her with rather more than innocent

puts

may seem

at

his art into celebrating visual beauty as he


pearls,

with

gilt

artefact against brilliant blue hangings,

the upper right

his quiver

an

most of the other

and pains of love, and the allegory may well

conquest of Love by Beauty, enshrined

entwining bodies pale as

removes from

in Venus. In

works

wire for

any event. Bronzmo

like a jeweller

hair,

on a large scale,

and setting the completed

themselves as cold and hard as though

carved from some rare mineral.

65

o
o
a
.S
'13

Antonio

Correggio had a
gift

da CORREGGIO (active 1514, died 1534)


The Madonna of the Basket

Allegri

gift

of melody. Both

of instinctive

men were careful

this small religious picture,

infanq'.

it

in painting equivalent to

not to rely solely on such

more than

is

The Child whose arms

to the Cross,

charm

lie

Charming as

is

one day be stretched out and nailed

having been stripped of His garments. And even

may

gifts.

a playful, domestic interpretation of Christ's

are outstretched will

absorption in carpentry

Tchaikovsky's

a hint of that Cross

in Saint Joseph's

composed of wood.

da CORREGGIO (active 1514, died 1534)


Mercury instructing Cupid before Venus

Antonio

Art history has

Allegri

some

difficulty in explaining Correggio, so

unforeseen

is

he

in his

own century and so thoroughly dix-huitieme can he be, as in this mythology


wonder

that the eighteenth century loved his

work. The surface of this painting

that of porcelain, soft-paste porcelain, /)fl/?/6'^r?,

been caressed into existence,

cell

by

cell,

and the

no

It is

is

like

flesh of all three figures

under Correggio's brush. The vision

is

has

that of

some secular Garden of Eden, with no lurking serpent, and the very foliage has a
rustling allure. An old title for the picture was The School of Love', but in such a
deliciously hedonistic climate any attempt to instruct Cupid

66

must

inevitably

fail.

I
"3

PARMIGIANINO (1503-1540)
The Madonna and Child with SaintsJohn the Baptist andJerome
Parmigianino, so called after his birthplace of Parma, was only twenty-four

he painted
it

this altarpiece in

Rome,

at

the time of the Sack of the city in 1527. Inevitably,

includes detectable influences from other, older artists, like Raphael, but

striking
itself

Virgin

is its

even

originality

in the

and

its

is

what

is

most

elegance. Parmigianino's natural stylishness declares

unusually slim format, which emphasises the proportions of the

and those of the Child who seems

of the Baptist

when

almost dislocated in

its

to

dance

at

tall

her knee. The long, pointing finger

fluid expressiveness as

above, bathed in shimmering radiance.

he indicates the vision

67

o
o
C
.2

"3

PARMIGIANINO (1503-1540)
Portrait of a Man
Portraiture

Correggio.

is

an important aspect of Parmigianino's

And each

presentation. In this
setting.

portrait

one there

seems

is

to

art

in contrast to that of

have stimulated him

to fresh ideas for

a strange, slightly oppressive air to both sitter

The sitter, prosperously though not ostentatiously

dressed,

is

and

unsmiling and

elusive in terms of personality, almost suspicious, his gaze turned from the spectator.

Choice though the setting

ominous

in the

is.

suggesting the tastes of a connoisseur, there

segment of landscape revealed at the

right.

is

something

Even the enchanting

fragment of bas-relief, surely chiselled out of Parmigianino's imagination,

seems glimpsed by stormy

light.

Giovanni AmbrogioPREDA(c.l455-

Francesco
On

the scroll d Archinto holds

had been

is

d Arch in to

the date U^-i.

living for .some time in Milan. Preda

associated with Leonardo in the contract for the

talent

and by
and

London

Virgin of the

at

work here, with

on

to

what seems a competent, thoroughly

sitter's pallid face

the texture of his hair,

down

and glassy

to its last

Rocks

were
'

(p.

57).

rather peculiar results. Less suave than


fifteenth-century

Slight suggestions of

waxwork

eyes, while the determined effort to render

blond filament, has given

the artificial vitality of a nylon wig.

68

Leonardo da Vinci

his brother Evangelista

some of Leonardo's novel and near-surreal effects.

hover about the

that year

is

and Leonardo's influence


Luini, Preda has grafted

after 1508)

it

something of

Bernardo LUINI

(active 1512, died 1532)

Christ among the Doctors


This once very famous painting was for long thought to be by Leonardo da Vinci.

Leonardo's influence on Luini and other painters in Milan was almost too potent, in
some instances robbing them of individuality. Luini did not entirely succumb - though
he came close - being sweeter and softer in both sentiment and handling than

Leonardo. In this painting he shares Leonardo's interest in expressive, almost


caricatured physiognomy, contrasting the wrinkled faces of the mature

and supposedly

wise Doctors with the youthful countenance of Christ Himself perfect wisdom Luini
,

is

also indebted to Leonardo for the type of Christ, faintly androgynous, faintly smiling,

with hair that curls and ripples in countless

tendrils.

69

Giovanni Antonio BOLTR-\FFIO [cUo^:^

A Man
rms

'

pr :....:

..-.

Boltraffio s sober,

iv

"[

-]

-l^^lb)

in Profile

have betn Lcunanio s pnnapa: pupii in Mian. Inert iht

enjoyed some popularin

ai

the turn of the fifteenth centun

and

sombre and tonally restriaed use of it here is extremely effective as a

piece of painting. Admittedly, there appears

some danger of the sitter being extinguished

as a lining person between the darkness of the cap he wears pulled low over his
e>ebro\k's

and the se\ere line of his stiff collar.

Francesco d'Arcbinlo (p.68) looks shoNH7


figure,

70

in

\ei the

image works ver>

comparison with

well.

Predas

this austerely clad

and Boltraffio s is the more subtle work (tf art.

o
o
e
.S

NICCOLO

dellAbate (c.1509/12-1571)

The Story ofAristaeus


The
is

story

depicted

is

is

more properly, more familiarly,

that of Orpheus

Eurydice's flight from the shepherd Aristaeus,

and subsequently died from

its bite.

Her corpse

is

and Eurydice. What

when she trod on a snake

seen right of centre of the

is somewhat dwarfed by the painter's interest in showing


a vast landscape panorama, of woods and hills and buildings, fretted by an exciting

composition, but the narrative

coastline. Fantasy elements

mingle with natural observation

to

make a deliberately

inventive and decorative painting. Niccolo dellAbate probably executed

where he spent approximately the

last

crown and decorating

twenty years of his

life,

it

in France,

working for the French

the royal palace at Fontainebleau.

71

Ascribed to Lelio ORSI (cl511-158")

The Walk
According

to Saint Luke's gospel,

be

them

shown

Etnmaus

two of Christs

death, to a village called Emmaus'.

revealed to

to

On

Disciples set off to walk, after His

the road they were joined by a stranger, later

as Christ (see Caravaggio. p88).

It is

traditional for the three figures to

much as they appear here. Orsi is by no means a


known as a draughtsman. One of his drawings treats the

in paintings as pilgrims,

famous painter and

is

chiefly

subject very similarly to this distinctive painting, reasonably associated therefore with

him. Against a hectic sky. the three

tall,

apparent pilgrims stride forward in almost

hallucinatory manner, and Orsi subtly conveys the dominance of Christ as the central
figure

72

and

His uneasy effect

on

His companions,

still

unaware of His

identity

o
o
.S
'c3

GIORGIONE (active

1506, died 1510)

The Adoration of the Magi


The brevity of Giorgiones career
which

still

is

implied by the dates above. Part of the

surrounds him and his work comes from that

and the paucity of authentic paintings by him.


gifted
is

and exercised

Yet

it

a significant influence in Venice

is

brief career, his early death

clear that

beyond

of the Holy Family recalls Giovanni Bellinis art, the Magi

enough, a new

talent

Adoration

him

the group

summed up by

costumed fashionably and painted with


the

to

and

with them: one of fresh colour

negligent forms. All the novelty seems

he was extraordinarily

his lifetime. This

not certainly by Giorgione but seems convincingly attributed

suitably

myth

Mi^'hile

their retinue bring,

effects

and graceful,

half-

the attendant at the extreme right,

delicate precision,

somewhat detached from

main scene and wrapped in a private dream.

73

TITIAN

(active before 1511. died 1576)

Portrait of a

Man

Vihen Giorgione died Titian had another sixty-six years of artistic

him during which time


,

in

his style

would constantly

Western painting. And no previous

for

conveying

early

work but

in strongly physical
in

not merely the

sweep of silken

it

artist

had shown such an

terms perceived physical

way

not previously seen

appetite

reality.

Titian displays his confident mastery of oil-paint

sitter's features

but

- almost eclipsing the head as

- such

gusto

This portrait
,

is

Only when one looks closely does the


pigment, each

laid

on

if

an

making it convey

focus

also the

quilted costume, ballooning out so convincingly along the parapet.

eye passes over this expanse of paint as

74

evolve, in a

activity before

The

negotiating a fully three-dimensional object.

illusion dissolve into flecks

and touches of blue

to play its part in this portrait of a sleeve'.

o
o
c
.2
^3

TITIAN

(active before 1511, died 1576)

Bacchus and Ariadne


It

was

for a great

Renaissance prince and patron, Alfonso d'Este, Duke of Ferrara,

that Titian painted this thrilling mythology, with

encountering and startling


painting

was

its

forever leaping wine-god Bacchus

the abandoned mortal Ariadne on the island of Naxos. The

the last of three great bacchanalian pictures Titian painted for a

room

Duke's castle in Ferrara, and few subjects could better have suited the painter
force of uninhibited love that sends
life

Bacchus

leaping.

And

It is

of the
the

exuberant, uninhibited love of

infuses every particle of the painting, from the reeling intoxicated rout of the god's

followers to the magically lush landscape of Naxos.

where

deep, green,

wooded cliffs,

set

against mountains blue and sharp as copper-sulphate crystals, plunge steeply towards

the turquoise sea. Behind, and barely covering the excited god, there streams his

wine-red mantle,

like a

banner proclaiming the

on the

arrival not so

much of Bacchus

island as of Titian in Venice.

75

c
.2
13

TITIAN

(active before 1511, died 1576)

The Vendramin Family


Titian's fierce

attachment

to physical reality

made him

a great portrait-painter.

the time he painted this unique group portrait, in the IS^Os, he

beyond

Venice. His style

portrait

(p.

74).

it

was acknowledged

far

had altered and evolved from the period of the half-length male

He now handles the paint with

seems, brushing
that

By

in the spotted fur-lining of the

far greater

freedom almost roughly


,

heavy robes with such

vibrates against their smoother, velvety textures.

He

it

tactile vivacity

depicts his sitters full length,

presenting here a gamut of the ages, running from the venerable, white-bearded
Gabriele Vendramin to the

where more

adult

something oriental

boy, nursing his dog. propped

to

be alive

on the steps of the altar

family worship a relic of the True Cross. There

in this exclusively

happened

76

little

members of the

at

male view of the

is

family, especially as there

the time six \endramin daughters.

o
o
c

TITIAN

(active before 1511. died 15:^6)

The Death ofActaeon


Twenty years or so separate
handling of paint has entered

its

this painting
final

that seizes the essence of forms

to a

depicted.

for

time,

has deepened, exuberance giving way

more thoughtful and poignant response,

Punished by Diana

Titian's

and perhaps most masterly phase, with

and then moves rapidly on. At the same

restricted his palette. His vision too

here

from the Vendratyiin Family.

freedom

he has

at least

suitable to the horrific story

stumbling accidentally on her while bathing, the

hunter Actaeon was transformed by her into a stag and devoured by his

own hounds.

Here the towering, baleful goddess urges on the dreadful deed, under a lowering sky.
in

an autumnal woodland where the


of what

is

trees

seem almost shaken by the

happening in

ferocity

their midst.

77

o
o
.2

"3

PALMA Vecchio (active

1510. died 1528)

Portrait of a Poet
Palma

is

a Venetian painter

whose pictures seem

to celebrate the

importance of

doing nothing. Their

mood is always verging on that of siesta, of a pleasantly luxurious

The

- assuming that he is i poet and not some other category of

kind.

poet' here

literary figure

is

resting almost literally

on

his laurels, a fan of leaves of

which

provides the background for his contemplative pose, with a book under his hand and a

sumptuous costume
often been suggested.
celebrated

to clothe
If so,

him. That the great Italian poet Ariosto

Palma certainly seems

him posthumously

to agree

as amiable in character

Gian Girolamo SAVOLDO (active 1508.


Sai?it Mary Magdalen

and noble

still

light effects

who

in appearance.

living 1548)

it is

in Venice that

Mary Magdalen approaching the sepulchre where

Savoldo was fond of subtle

the sitter has

approaching the Sepulchre

Savoldo came from Brescia but settled in Venice. And


places this scene of

is

with the poet's brother,

and beautifully captures the

dawn over the water-girt city. He had great

feeling too for textures

he boldly

Christ

first

is laid.

glimmer of

and materials. He

muffles the saint in thin silvery fabric, of suitably nocturnal associations, and carefully
records the

78

seam along her shoulder where two widths of it

are

sewn

together.

C
.S

73

Vincenzo CATENA (active 1506. died 1531)


Warrior adoring the bifatit Christ and the Virgin

This painting has such an unusual subject that


discovered to explain
picture suggest

Virgin

it is

it.

seeems odd no

a typical votive-piece of the period.

to

facts

have been

Catena was a Venetian, and the large size and shape of the

and Child would be no

composition seems

it

novelty, but the warrior

A Doge kneeling before the

who prostrates himself in this

be Eastern, or Middle Eastern. The church in the background

would certainly seem

to

have some relevance, while the

probably more than a charming genre

DOSSO

detail

slightly

overawed dog is

and symbolises

faith.

Dossi (active 1512. died 1542)

The Adoration of the Kings


Dosso Dossi

is

himself proof that Ferrara in the sixteenth century continued to

produce fascinating and idiosyncratic painters. Dispensing with any conventional ideas
of the stable

at

countryside.

Bethlehem, Dosso takes the scene here deep into the wilds of a wooded

The magus-like,

trees, close to a

dignified Kings discover the Holy Family in a grove of

rushing torrent, while a vast moon,


softly

like a portent,

glows

amid the clouds.

79

o
o
.2

Jacopo TINTORETTO (1518-1594)


Saint George and the Dragon
^ here Palma celebrates indolence. Tintoretto constantly celebrates action.
paintings something

is

and

in

heaven

in itself suitably energetic,

and Tintoretto adds

accompany those on earth. So daring and dynamic is his style.


the Princess in the foreground, who is actually depicted on her

to

his approach, that

knees, appears to be flying out of the picture as her cloak swirls around her.

foams and

The

final

trees toss. Saint

excitement

- comes from

George charges

ver>- typical

the sky overhead

at the

its

thought as well a5

where the clouds are riven


is

The sea

dragon, forcing it towards the waves.

of Tintor#o in

centre

80

hb

always and very definitely happening. The subject of Saint

George fighting the dragon wai

happenings

In

manifested God.

in its

execution

in a blaze of light, at

whose

O
o
e

Lorenzo LOTTO (born c.1480,

still

living 1556)

A Lady as Lucretia
The confusing title misses

the point:

portrayed by Lotto, with allusion to the

it

seems

that a lady called Lucrezia

Roman heroine Lucretia who,

by Sextus Tarquinius, stabbed herself (as shown

in the

drawing the

after

is

here

being raped

sitter holds). Lotto is

known to have painted a certain Lucrezia Valier, and this portrait may well be of her.
Lotto has a keen feel for personality

and costume and enjoys designing unusual

compositions. He creates a formidable, arresting

air

about

danger of suffering her namesakes ordeal and more

this sitter,

likely to

who seems in little

prove a future matriarch.

81

o
ITS

Giovan

Battista

MORONI (active

Portrait of a

1546/". died 15"8)

Man ('The

Tailor)

Moroni trained under Moreno, as might be surmised, and concentrated even more
exclusively

on

and

portraiture. His ethos tends to be a bourgeois one. with lawyers

among his sitters, and his people are often painted with head tilted, as though in
direct conversation with the spectator The present painting is among his masterpieces.

clerics

typical in

its

restrained realism yet unusual in apparently showing,

merchant

work professionally.

in cloth, at
sitter

seem

MORETTO

In

Today Brescia
it

is

one of the

more ways than one does

least

Ma

charming of North

the

Italian cuies but in the

is

of Brescian painters, a ver\' close contemporary" of Holbein,

fur. fur

who might not have

cascading down from the

In the sitters cap

is

fostered a

among the most gifted

disdained responsibility for Moretto's virtuoso array of materials

paw-marked snow.

?i

became the home of a number of talented painters and

brocade and leather, as well as

tailor,

da Brescia (ck98-1554)

style of solid, sober realism especially in portraiture. .Moretto

lightly

not a

to take the spectators measure.

Portrait of a You fig

sixteenth century

if

marble, velvet.

sitter s

shoulders

a badge inscribed in Greek. Alas.

like

desire

some emotional need, for in terms of worldly goods


there seems little more for the man to desire.

too much". Perhaps

82

it

refers to

o
o
a
.S

Jacopo BASSANO (active 1535, died 1592)


The Good Samaritan
He

lived,

and royal

an early biographer writes of Bassano, 'away from the noise of courts

palaces', beside the bridge in his small native

Rusticity

is

town of Bassano, north of Venice.

a strong element in his art, though that does not

naive or clumsy about

it.

Almost

religious subjects. His Adoration

effortlessly,

it

mean

there

is

anything

seems, Bassano re-thought traditional

of the Shepherds, for example,

is full

of convincing,

countrified people. In this depiction of a familiar parable he suggests not only caring

humanity but

all

the actual circumstances of the incident as

it

might have occurred

in a

countryside setting, giving visual force to Saint Luke's words about the compassionate

Samaritan placing the robbed and wounded

man

'on his

own beast'.

83

o
o
ir\

c
.S

Paolo

VERONESE (1528[ ?] -1588)

So precociously pious was Saint Nicholas, according to legend,


his birth

he stood up

to

Consecration of Saint Sicholas

77?^^

that

on the day of

pray while being bathed. After that, consecration as bishop of

Myra might well come as something of an anti-climax, though an angel drops from
heaven here with the future

saint's mitre

and crozier Veronese

lavishes

on the

subject

all

the resources of his rich imagination. Too often praised and treated as merely a great
decorator'. Veronese

composition shows.

makes the

Yet

is

indeed a decorator

of genius, as this

he never neglects significance for ostentation. Splendid as he

scene, he puts at

its

centre Saint Nicholas, a crouched

whose unexpected singling out


84

- and designer -

is

and humble

figure.

emphasised by the surrounding pageantry.

ITS

C
.S

Paolo

VERONESE (1528[ ?] -1588)


Allegory ofLove

This

is

one of a

aspects of love,
significance

is

between two

set of four

canvases by Veronese,

and was intended probably


not established,

men

it

is at

is

Though

the precise

woman finds herself

- perhaps as courtier and soldier More

the skilful composition Veronese has created, with the

the tree-trunks arching above the figures,

how

apparent that here a

least

woman's outstretched arms arching across


Veronese

the Gallery, that deals with

as a ceiling decoration.

contrasted in costume

absorbing than the story'

all in

the centre of the painting, lightly echoed by

^o painter has ever understood better than

to construct a perfectly serious,

coherent world, alternative

and at every point more harmoniously

to

ours

beautiful.

85

o
o
a
.S

Paolo

VERONESE (1528[ ?] -1588)

The Family ofDarius before Alexander


Venetian by adoption, Veronese seems

at

times to

sum up Venice more

quintessentially even than Titian. For the great Venetian patrician family of Pisani. he

painted this tremendous pageant-picture, long famous and influential.

courtesy and magnanimity

shown by Alexander

defeated foe. Darius of Persia,

the conqueror.

his

own day.

stage, as East

implying that

it is

fine

behaviour

meets West. Veronese

thus

- with noble

that the best people

86

theme

is

the

who mistook Alexander's friend Hephaestion (in gold) for

A moment of high drama and

personages on a public

Its

the Great (in red) to the family of his

sets

is
it

played out by great

largely in the Venice of

hearts under noble costumes

always

act.

I6OO

Italian Painting after

As one surveys the Gallen-'s representation of the halian Schools from I6OO

onwards up

to the

end of the eighteenth century, there

is

a sense of some fahering in

the sweep and depth of the Collection. Yet from Caravaggio to Canaletto,

areas, while apart

of the

and represented by outstanding works.

greatest painters are included,

When the Gallery was founded.

many

British taste for the Seicento

from Canaletto the Settecento was

little

was strong in

certain

collected or esteemed.

During the nineteenth century the Seicento was virtually eclipsed and the Settecento

remained

little

regarded.

Those facts

for long

surprisingly long

coloured the

Galler\''s

own Collection. The seventeenth-century Bolognese School, especially the

Carracci.

Domenichino and Reni, were included from

religious works, like altarpieces,

with the

1913,

had

appeal in a Protestant country. Not until

little

of Annibale Carracci 'sZ?6'(7(7' Christ Mourned {p.89).

gift

anything on a larger scale

to hint at the vein of

Yard

'

was

reason,

was not sought

after

The decorative Baroque of Pietro da Cortona is entirely

On the other hand.


collections,

much
by the

Salvator Rosa

was

absent.

firmly established in British private

and a very fine landscape by him (p.92) was an early purchase.

George Beaumont's

Gallen.'.

there

when taste for the Seicento was still pronounced, and he remains strikingly

under-represented.

Sir

was

Baroque piety running through

some

Italian painting of the period. Guercino, for


Gallery-

early days, though large-scale

gift to

which stimulated the founding of the

the nation,

had included an early masterpiece by Canaletto. the so-called Stonemason 's

(p. 96).

and other

less popular,

and

fine paintings
it

was only

at

by the

artist

were added over the

years. Guardi

the beginning of the twentieth century that a

group of works came, with the Salting Bequest,

to

convey the nature of his

ver\-

The history and decorative painters of the eighteenth century were


ignored by the Gallery, though two small sketches by Tiepolo were purchased

different talent.

largely

late in the

them
Only

some paintings by Pietro Longhi, among


popuhv Exhibition ofa Rhinoceros in Venice (p. 98).

nineteenth centur}', as were also


his

in comparatively recent years has the Gallery

responded

to the revaluation

An important series of frescoes by


1958. A splendidly vigorous work by Luca

of both Seicento and Settecento painting.

Domenichino (p.90) was purchased in

Giordano, on an impressive scale (p.94), was bought as recently as 1983. More


difficult in

some ways

to represent adequately

beyond Venice. Batoni, so popular as

today

is

the Settecento, especially

a portraitist of the British in

eighteenth century, did not enter the Collection until I960.

represented
Yet

is

the

And still only

famous view-painter of the period in Rome.

shrewd buying brought the Gallery

Pittoni"sA'fl///7(v (p. 99).

Rome during the

in 1958

its first

feebly

Panini.

eighteenth-century altarpiece.

and a combination of unexpected circumstances, not

generous Government assistance, resulted


ceiling-painting by Tiepolo (p.lOl).

which

English indifference to the

in 1969 in the

purchase of a great

in itself compensates for

last great

Venetian decorative

many

least

rarity, a

years of

artist.

87

15

CAMAGGIO (1573-1610)
77?^ Supper at Em ma us

Michelangelo Merisi da

Painted in

Rome

probably around 1600. this composition dramatically declares

new aims in art. with


table

object

on

realism', well

conveyed by the still

life

on the

and the strongplay of light and shade. Caravaggios technique, in which ever>"
seems flawlessly realised, with more than ordinan,' clarity, creates an illusion

which has

The

a fresh emphasis

its

spectator

them

own excitement is

virtually

suitably

enough

for the

miraculous

moment depiaed.

commanded to share the experience of the Disciples, and join

at table, as Christ

manifests Himself after the Resurreaion. Their eyes were

opened'. Saint Lukes gospel says, and the words might be extended to cover

the effea generally of Caravaggios art

88

on his contemporaries.

Annibale CARRACCI (1560-l609)

The Dead Christ Mourned


Carracci's painting

Caravaggio's
exciting not

must have been done

Supper at Emmaus, and

awe but

with his roots very

it

in

Rome, not very many years

too aims to be an intense, affecting drama,

pity Like Caravaggio, Annibale Carracci

much

in that tradition. His art

is full

was

a North Italian painter,

of conscious echoes, here of

Correggio as well as Tintoretto, but highly personal. In this painting he

than Caravaggio with

'realism', either in

from the painting's

effect.

is

concept or technique. There

rhetoric in the grief expressed, notably by the


detract

after

Magdalen on the

And it was

this elevated

right,

less

is

concerned

dignity

and

which does not

manner, rather than

Caravaggio's, that ultimately exercised the greater influence.

89

a
"3

DOMENICHINO (1581-1641)
Apo/h pursuing Daphne
Domenichino was a Bolognese painter

attracted to

Rome, where he worked

for a

time under Annibale Carracci. He showed a particularly keen response to landscape,

and was
this

is

able to give full rein to

it

one) dealing with Apollo's

in the
life.

the \illa Aldobrandini at Frascati.

consciously composed, to

Domenichino pays
the

left

commission

These were

to

for a series of frescoes (of

be placed in a garden-pavilion of

The countryside here

make a noble prospect. Even

tribute to

its

is

frankly re-arranged

in re-ordering nature,

profound appeal; and the pair of interlinked

are not only a poetic invention but instinct with

life

and

perhaps, than anything in the pair of figures.

90

which

interest

and

however,

tall

trees at

greater,

c
.2

GUERCIXO (1591-1666)
Angels weeping over the Dead Christ
In Guercino's long career this small and early painting by

him cannot rank as

makes it worth pausing over There is none of the high


emotional drama of Annibale Carraccis treatment of mourning over Christ's body
(p.89). The angels grieve intimately - as it were, humanly - over their Creator The
important. Yet

subject

is

its

quality

essentially devotional, suitable for private meditation,

and Guercino's

and subdued tones make a perfect nocturne.

delicate touch

GuidoREM(15''5-l642)
Lot and his Daughters leai ing Sodom
was

Like Domenichino. Reni


Carracci.

He rose

to great

a Bolognese

fame, had

England, high posthumous respect.

who came under the influence of the

many pupils and was

to enjoy, especially in

No great haste is suggested in

this flight of Lot

his daughters, although they are leaving a city about to be destroyed by divine

creates a dignified frieze, suggesting by glance


figures.

The elegant, well-wrought

ornamental accessor}' but

is

fire.

and
Reni

and gesture the colloquy of the three

pitcher held by the daughter

probably intended

to allude to the

on

the

left is

no mere

subsequent incident.

when the two women make Lot drunk with wine.

91

:1
SX

Bernardo STROZZI (1S81-1644)

Fame
There

is

a Venetian richness of colour about this painting,

painted in Venice after Strozzi


that

moved there from

Fame should be a rather countrified girl

his native

which must have been

Genoa.

It is

typical of him

certainly not idealised, seated solidly

on

the ground and dressed in thickly painted garments. Only the pair of wings provides an
allegorical touch. This figure of

Fame clasps two musical instruments, symbolising the

good and bad aspects she disseminates: a gilded metal trumpet and a plain wooden
recorder.

And perhaps

it is

the

latter,

held in her right hand, that would best

represent the good aspect of this Fame.

SalvatorROSA(1615-16"3)

Landscape with Mercury and the Dishonest Woodman


1

n .Aesop

Fables

with a golden

golden
the

axe.

a.xe

is

by the god .Mercury,

is

it

was only a piece of iron. For Rosa

of greater importance than any

tale is characteristic of the

woodman - though

the moral

seventeenth centuf)'. Nature here, in the shape of mighty

some with trunks broken and

fallen picturesquely into the water,

mankind, and even a god. and

92

an honest

Mercury recovered the axe and showed

woody landscape
trees,

woodman was rewarded


a dishonest woodman claimed to have lost a

told the story of how, after

takes

on

a wild

majesty

dwarfs

u
C
.2

"3

Salvator

ROSA (1615-1673)

SelfPortrait
'Either be silent',

admonishes the Latin wording on the

lipped, as well as tense, as

he stands wrapped

the stoic virtue of Silence. As a portrait of the

sky

- has a proudly brooding,


all its

lonely

air,

tablet

grasped by the

Rosa shows himself understandably

painter, or speak things better than silence.'

in a

tight-

brown cloak,

possibly personifying

the image -

silhouetted against the

artist,

anticipating later Romantic concepts. For

injunction about being silent, the painting

is

eloquent in

its

assertion

of the painter's individuality.

93

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-111 ini

Luca GIORDANO (l634-r05)

Phineas and his Followers turned to Stone


Giordano, a Neapolitan master famed for speed and sweep of execution,
a huge scale a rather difficult narrative

The hero Perseus was attacked

- and

at his

tells

it

with great

wedding hanquet by

clarity

tells

on

and excitement.

his disappointed rival

Phineas. with his followers. To defeat them he held up the head of the Gorgon. .Medusa.

which turned
his

all

who

looked on

it

to stone.

own gaze as he holds up the head,

opponents. The scene

and the

fighting

is

and

more

Giordano carefully shows Perseus averting

while petrification begins

thrilling

fleeing figures

on

his

than horrible, with the overturned tables

all

making up

enjoyed by the

94

to take effect

artist.

a feast of effects patently

CANALETTO (1697-1768)
The Basin of San Marco on Ascension Day

Giovanni Antonio Canal, called


Venice:

This panoramic view of Venice shows the public and


as a city but as the Most Serene Republic.

of government,

is

Moored not

far

official side

of it, not solely

from the Doges'

Palace, the seat

the scarlet and gold bucintoro. the state barge, ready to take the Doge

out across the Lagoon for the great annual celebration in which Venice symbolically

wedded the Adriatic -

a sign of its

presumed perpetual domination over the

marvellous precision Canaletto records

it all.

down

to the tiny

crowd on

board the bucintoro. But he captures also the general sparkle of light and

shares with the onlooker unending wonder

at

With

blob of yellow paint that

represents the umbrella held over the Doge as he passes through the
to

sea.

the spectacle of the city

his

air.

way

and

magnificent

buildings rising from the water.

95

u
e
"3

Giovanni Antonio Canal, called

CAXALETTO (l69''-r68)
'

Venice: 'The
The scene

is

no

familiar tourist

near the church of S. Vidal

Stonemason

one but

(S. Vitale).

eighteenth century. The stone littering the


operations, and the

whole composition

weathered brick and stone and

and

astir

with the private daily

fairly early in

for

its

life

This

of

Canalettos career and

its

is

campo

and obscure square, or campo.

partly rebuilt at the beginning of the


is

probably connected with building

is

a celebration of buildings, walls

Canalettos

and

roofs.

own city, seen by morning light

ordinary inhabitants. The painting comes from

outstanding, even

detail that across the water, just


is

Yard

is

powerful organisation and atmospheric

minute

96

tile.

a small

which was

's

feel,

among his many

fine pictures,

combined with such attention

beyond the shadow of the church.

visible a line of

washing.

to

a
.S
'c3

Francesco GUARDI (1712-1794)

A View on the

Venetian Lagoon

What Canaletto had done for Venice was hardly


painter of different

to

be duplicated, least of all by a

temperament and technique. Whether or not Guardi understood

he increasingly diverged from

that Canaletto stood

for.

In his finest paintings

people and buildings tend to be subordinated to atmosphere.

It is

as

that,

subtly eaten

merge

away

here in a

all

objects until there

harmony

of blue

is little left

if

air

and water have

but the elements themselves, as they

and grey Only the mast of a fishing boat and the ruined

tower of the old Venetian fortifications break the long low

line of the

horizon with

its

almost disturbing suggestion of infinity.

97

u
c
13

PietroLONGHI(r02[:^]-r85)
Exhibition of a Rhinoceros in Venice
FSl was this unfortunate creature, paraded
across Europe from Nuremberg, and it was painted more than once by Longhi. A group
ofmasked Venetians are shown slaringsomewhat vapidly at it - and out of that
A novelty

at

the Venetian carnival of

encounter Longhi makes his painting.

It is

typical of his small scenes of life in Venice in

the eighteenth century, scenes that were collected by

anyone else, and which,

for all their

local patricians but rarely

charm, have a bland,

faintly

enclosed

unsalted by satire or by any \ery pointed obsenation.

98

air to

by

them.

Giovanni Battista PITTONI (1687-1767)

the Nativity
Pittoni

was one of the leading figure-painters of his day

subjects like this continued to be in

demand. He

in Venice,

treated the

where

theme of the

religious

Nativity

frequently but only in this large-scale composition, an altarpiece presumably, did he

enhance the scene with a vision of God the Father and the Holy Ghost appearing in the
Bethlehem

stable.

manger, and was

It

to

of the painting
picture

adds a note of decorative rococo grace


be painted out by
less,

it

to the

simpler elements of the

some nineteenth-century, probably

British

owner

seems, for aesthetic than doctrinal reasons. Only after the

had been acquired for the Gallery was the upper portion

revealed.

99

u
c
13

Giovanni Battista TIEPOLO (l696-r''0)

The Vision of the Trinity to Pope Saint Clement


This

brilliant,

unusually highly finished painting

Tiepolo's large aitarpiece

(now

in

is

the preliminary modello for

Munich), painted for a German patron, the

Archbishop-Elector of Cologne. Clemens .\ugust. The patron

name sufficiently

explains the choice of an otherwise rather obscure sainted Pope, the


as the subject. Indeed, the Popes

known, and Tiepolo seems

to

richly clad, in a magnificent

and

triple cross.

No

life

have had

to devise the vision

painter of the eighteenth century could conjure

his large tiara

up more

sumptuous settings,

of unfailing optimism.

is

he here enjoys as he kneels.

church attended by a baby angel guarding

spirit

of that name,

appears largely devoid of incident as far as

successfully than Tiepolo heavenly visions in

100

first

in a

c
15

Giovanni Battista TIEPOLO (1696-1770)

An Allegory with
Tiepolo

is

Venus and Time

the last great exponent of the Venetian tradition of colour

sensuousness

in painting, certainly the heir to

Tintoretto. This painting

was once on

in Venice

and was possibly executed

allegory.

Venus seems here

to

Veronese but also

to celebrate the birth of

confide to Time a boy to

trappings, the artist seems to be saying

on

is

and

the ceiling of one of the Contarini family palaces

an heir Whatever the exact

whom she has given birth

above the Graces scatter flowers in celebration. And under

him Time

and

to Titian

all

while

the delightful, decorative

something serious and personal, as though

for

always the servant of Beauty (unlike the message' of Batoni's picture

p.l02)

and Beauty herself confident, triumphant and immortal.


101

e
.2
"3

Pompeo Girolamo BATONI (1708-1787)


Time orders Old Age to destroy Beauty
Batoni

is

most

familiar as the portraitist of British visitors to

Tour but he was also a painter of history'

pictures.

Rome on

The present one was

companion-piece, in 1746-7 for a patron in his native Lucca.

Its

strange

the

Grand

painted, with a

and somewhat

displeasing subject perhaps possesses a moralistic base, but in style the painting
elegant, firmly

drawn and

attractively coloured.

and the pose of Beauty derives from

There

is

is

coolly

a distinct sculptural feel to

famous seventeenth-century

statue in

Duquesnoy's>SV/////>VwiY///;w/). Altogether, the picture represents decorative ideals

rather different from the less 'learned',

more

painterly ones associated

with Venice in the eighteenth century.

102

it,

Rome.

Early Netherlandish Painting


Although the name of Jan van Eyck was always a famous one
art

in the history of

(and he was traditionally credited with the invention of oil painting), he and

other fifteenth-century Netherlandish painters were not keenly sought after by great
collector-connoisseurs in the period leading up to the foundation of the Gallery.
Primitives' might interest antiquarians but

found no natural place

and that was particularly

Collection,

hard

to realise this

Although not
period from
artists,

such a public

true of the Netherlandish

other Northern
It is

in

The

and

artists.

when one contemplates the Galler\-'s holdings today.

they are of great choiceness, rarity and quality. They cover the

large,

Campin

to Pieter Bruegel the Elder

and include works by

all

the leading

with the exception of one of the most strikingly original. Hugo van der Goes.

whose paintings
At a time

England,

it is

early as 18-i2
\\'ithin a

when

are

now seldom

the Netherlandish School

was

available.

still

not

much esteemed in

remarkable that the Trustees should have made their

first

purchase as

with a unique masterpiece. Jan van Eycks Arnolfini portrait

(p. 10-4).

few years, two other paintings by van Eyck were purchased, one of them

IheMan in a Turban (p. 106). Few galleries can claim ownership of three paintings
by Jan van Eyck. During Eastlakes directorship the School was considerably
strengthened. He bought the

Reading (p.lO^),
artists.

first

Two large-scale bequests,

1910.

Rogier van der W'eyden, the beautiful Magdalen

as well as paintings by Dieric Bouts

those of \Xynn

and other fifteenth-century

Ellis in

18^6 and George Salting in

brought several further fine Early Netherlandish paintings. The Salting

Bequest included Campin's

'irgin

and Child before a Fire-screen (p.lO^) and

Memlincs YoiingMan at Prayer {p.WO).


portrait, of great intimaa'

In

W'ynn

Ellis's

and charm, by Bouts (p.l09). A complete

Memlinc. one commissioned by an English patron, the

came to the Gallen.The sixteenth century

is

bequest was another male

Donne

as late as 1957.

represented in the Collection chiefly by David and Gossaert

and by paintings associated with Quinten Massys. Bosch was not


to Victorian tastes,

triptych by

Triptych' (p.lW),

though the Gallery's sole example of this

already in England in the nineteenth century.

It

a painter to appeal

rare artist (p.ll4)

was acquired by

was

the Gallery in 1934.

Acquisitions to supplement the Early Netherlandish holdings are

bound to be few,

come on the market and the


concomitant fierce competition that would arise. What the Gallery possesses is
given the rarity of fine items that could ever

nucleus, revealing that Northern Europe had its own Renaissance in painting, with
achievements - crystallised in the Arnolfini portrait - to match those of Italy.

W3

X
_2

a>

104

Jan van EYCK (active 1422 died 1441)


The Marriage of Giovanni Arnolfini
,

Solemnly signed
this painting

from Lucca
Italian the
,

is

in Latin, in a witness-like

a double portrait

unique

who lived a great deal in

for

its

C/5

way ('Jan van Eyck was here/1434'),

date.

Giovanni Arnolfini was a merchant

Bruges, where he died in 1472; his wife was also

daughter of another merchant from Lucca,

more than portraiture. The couple are seen

in a

who

lived in Paris. But

room presumably
,

it is

also

in Bruges, realised

so completely that minute figures can be seen reflected in the central mirror, entering
the interior from where the spectator stands, to witness the ceremony

for

man and woman

seems clear from the gestures particularly of Arnolfini.


composition

add

to the

like for

sense of a

example the single candle burning

more than ordinary

f^
1>

^
>^

ofwedding or betrothal.
That some sort of ceremony or special occasion

u
^

Also,

is

depicted

some features of the

in the chandelier

by daylight,

scene. Yet the painting can be appreciated in

Among its most remarkable qualities is its precise realisation of all the
down to the pattern of the bedside rug
and the pair of wooden, outdoor shoes. Solemn though the scene may be, the effect is
several ways.

minutiae of the Arnolfini couple's environment,

strongly secular. Jan van Eyck

is

thoroughly 'Renaissance'

in stressing the

importance

of human beings, while his depiction of the environment here, wonderfully detailed

and glowing with

light,

announces the theme of pure genre

in Holland above

all,

several centuries

painting, to be developed,
later.

105

-2

Jan van EYCK (active 1422. died I44I]

A
The wintn-

precision

Man in a

Turb(Ui

which breathes from

this small but intense painting

emphasised by the precision with which Jan van Eyck has dated
slightly

pinched

features, the border of the fur at the

bulky red turban surmounting the shrewd face are


it

seems) puritan

clarity.

If.

as has

all

it:

neck and the

21

this

October 1433 The

intricate folds of the

mapped with

sometimes been thought,

is

rigorous, almost (as


is

a self portrait of

the painter, he scrutinised himself with the ^frne intellectual severity as his other sitters.
In

any event, he made out of the cloth head-dress something transcending reality.

of abstract beauty, with

106

all

the formal coherence of a complex geometrical object.

CAMPIN (1378/9-1444)
The Virgin and Child before a Fire-screen
Robert

Campin was active in Tournai and is one of the earliest exponents of new
in Netherlandish painting,

perhaps and

more relaxed in

less intellectual.

the tiled floor here

fails to

his naturalism than

He cannot organise space

recede illusionistically

'realism'

van Eyck, more homely

as successfully as

van Eyck -

but he too surveys the world with

life of a town glimpsed through the window and


room where the Virgin nurses her naked Child. The
circular fire-screen makes an apt yet entirely naturalistic halo for her head, and

great precision.

He captures the busy

also the snug, retired feel of the


plaited,

in a half-witty additional touch the circumference

of flame

natural

is

broken by one flickering tongue

enough but hintingat divine

Rogier van der

illumination.

WEYDEN (c.l399-l464)

The Magdalen Reading


Campin and became the city painter of Brussels. Unlike Jan
van Eyck, he seems never to have signed his work, but his style is highly personal and
emotional and was to be extremely influential. A heart beats more obviously in his
Rogier trained under

paintings than in Jan van Eyck's, and he

The reading Magdalen


at its

is

is

its

cartographer of people.

only a fragment from a larger altarpiece, which must have had

centre the Virgin

and Child.

Yet the figure, itself mentally

absorbed, detaches very well from the


colourist,

less of a dispassionate

rest.

choosing a beautifully fresh green

With his other


for the

detached and

gifts,

Rogier

is

self-

a subtle

Magdalen's dress, and setting off

freshness by the pure porcelain-white of the slim jar standing beside her.

107

Rogier van der

WEYDEX (c.l399-l464)
Pieta

In certain ways. Rogier

Giovanni

Bellini.

Both painters seem

that for the greatest impact

the Pieta gains

van der Weyden

it

is

the Netherlandish counterpart to

to experience

emotion but understand ver\" well

must be controlled and channelled

from such restrained tenderness, as

is

her dead Sons head and clasps His rigid body. With unobtrusive
out one hand

to

tact.

Saint Jerome puts

human,

donor onto the scene. Two worlds meet without shock, and the

vividly characterised
corp.se

108

The subjea of

touch the back of Christ's head, while with the other he ushers the

respectfully praying
ver}'

in art.

seen here, as the Virgin caresses

which

is

donor

is

privileged to kneel close to a

that of his Saviour.

Dieric

BOUTS (living

1448, died 1475)

Portrait of a
Conscious of the

window

Man

room

aperture of a

as the source of light in

wooden-framed glazed

intrigued perhaps by the shape of its folding

it,

and

shutters, Bouts has

new type of portrait with this composition. The sitter may not be
quite gazing out of the window but he is juxtaposed to the view beyond the opening,
whereas earlier Netherlandish portraits had shown faces against a plain background.
virtually created a

Bouts paints the play of light convincingly, letting


the wall behind.

Mood matches execution,

oddly tender.

was probably planned as

It

diptych),

and

Dieric

in that too

it

it is

not so

much

work of art in

window,

its

is

sitter's

head and

gentle, unidealised

and

own right (not part of a

seems quietly revolutionary

BOUTS (living

the

gendy bathe the

for this portrayal

The Virgin
Here

it

1448, died 1475)

and Child

in the

background, that

is

remarkable as the

stone embrasure Bouts has conceived to frame his central group, increasing the sense of

looking in to the intimate scene and also serving as a ledge on which


Child. As well as the exquisite strip of brocade

and painted with


admittedly a rather

stone

sill.

the

prop the

lively

Virgin,

great feeling for texture, Bouts provides a brocaded cushion,

unplump one,

The cushion
sill.

to

hanging conveniently behind the

to

prevent the Child's flesh from contact with the

also serves, in terms of composition, to break the straight line of

Altogether, in a small devotional painting that might at

unremarkable, subtle artistry

is

everywhere

at

first

appear

work.

109

0^

Hans MEMLINC (active 1465. died 1^94)


Young Man at Prayer
.-1

Netherlandish painting evolved a highly personal form of the folding diptych.

where two panels open


often the Virgin

and

to face

Child,

each other. One half showed a devotional image, most

and the other a portrait, usually bust length of the diptych's


.

commissioner. An e.xample from a different School


(

is

the U'///o;/Z?;/)/)r;b onp.210.)

Two strands of Netherlandish painting were thus brought together. .Memlinc s young
man was probably painted as the left half of such a diptych, yet he may actually gain, in
artistic terms,

by having become separated

at

some date from

the

companion

panel.

Certainly the spectator can savour the sitter s care in appearing before the Virgin

Child in tasteful costume, with well-brushedTiair and discreet jewellery.


that

he should sit thus

for posterity,

and

that the painter

was proper

should convey a firm sense

not merely of his piety but of his whole personality.

110

It

and

'

0^

Hans MEMLINC

(active 1465, died 1494)

The Donne

Triptych

Grander than the average diptych was the triple-panel painting, the triptych,

where two

side

wings opened

to reveal a central scene.

Some of these were large-scale

works, fixed as altarpieces. Others were smaller and portable, as

commissioned from Memlinc by

Sir John

who is known to have more than once visited Flanders.


John the Evangelist
family, kneels

Memlinc's

is

amid

shown on

are suitiibly

the saints

a cool and always competent


,

placidly at ease,

is

and the world,

this one,

Saint John the Baptist

and Saint

the wings, and Sir John himself, with his

and angels worshipping

earth or in heaven the setting

is

Donne, an Englishman and Yorkist adherent,

art.

the enthroned Virgin

Whether the scene here

is

and

meant

Child.

to

be on

a spacious, light-filled loggia. Everyone present

in all

its

is

agreeable aspects, seems not too far away.

///

C/5

Gerard DAVID (active 1484, died 1523)


The Adoration of the Kings
By the time David was

active, the first great

Netherlandish painters were dead.

New ideals were arising but David seems happy


suited

him

artistic

to stay in the

backwater.

to cling to old ones,

conservative atmosphere of Bruges, as

When one looks at David's paintings,

outlived Raphael. Yet there

is

great

charm

in the tranquillity of

his delight in clear, bright colour. Half-exotic

and

it

it

slipped into being an

hard

it is

and no doubt

to realise that

he

mood he depicts and in

yet half-homely, his three Kings are

undisturbing arrivals in a delightful Northern Bethlehem, where the stable

is

a noble

ruin and the Virgin and Child demurely receive their homage.

MASTER of SAINT GILES (active c.1500)


Saint Giles and the Hind
It is

from

anonymous

this painting

Master

is

and

its

companion-piece

named. He worked

in Paris but

in the Collection that the

seems

to

have been trained

Netherlands. Fond of fine, decorative detail, he achieves here an effect that


like in its proliferating leaves

The King of France kneels


has been shot

at

and

flowers,

amid which courtly

whose pet hind

by a royal huntsman. The saint puts one hand consolingly about the

show

arrow

is still

embedded. Many

hunting-scenes, but the 'message' of this painting


against blood-sports.

112

in the

tapestry-

figures take their places.

in respectful apology to the hermit Saint Giles,

deer's neck while in his other the offending

the period

is

is

tapestries of

resolutely

c
J"
a3

NETHERL.\NDISH School (16th centun-)


A Landscape
This fascinating composition
in

any event

it

pays tribute

to the

may possibly be a fragment of a larger painting, but


steady Northern concern with landscape, beginning by

the sixteenth century to develop as a subject in


lulling

its

own right in art.

There

is

something

about the sinuous line of the wide glassy river flowing past the high and faintly

fantastic

mountain peaks. The effect

is

almost that of a landscape in a dream so vivid

every thing (down to the snaking shape of a


normality. Most fascinating of all
of the

tall

tree at the left

is

raft in the river)

the tiny figure of an

and heightened beyond

artist,

sketching

a hint of new attitudes to nature, with

out to scrutinise

is

at

the base

men going

and record the world around them.

113

Hieronymus BOSCH

(living 1474, died 1516)

Christ Mocked
Bosch

is

a master of weird, often pungent

and disturbing effects, always painted

with a precise delicacy that increases their haunting quality. This painting
typical of

him but

it

is

not entirely

has an authentic, nightmare element. Bosch does not intend the

spectator to avoid the horror of Christ's ordeal. There

is

a claustrophobic air to the

composition as from the four corners of the picture grotesque faces close
fragile figure of Christ.

He gazes out, as

yet scarcely

in

on

the

aware of the impending brutal

impact of that crown of thorns that the spectator sees clutched

in a

mailed

fist

behind

Christ's head, fearful in the unnaturally long spikes of every thorn.

MARINUS van Reymerswaele (active c.1509


Tivo

[ ? ]

died after 1567

[ ? ]

Tax Gatherers

The tiixman has seldom been other than an unpopular

figure in folklore,

and the

extraordinary pair thought up by Marinus are quintessential bogeymen, fantastically


attired,

money.

grown withered and half-demented

Yet there

is

more

to the painting

than

in their feverish

satire.

An

grasp on other people's

interest in grotesque faces

can be

traced back to Leonardo da Vinci (and beyond, to medieval carving of gargoyles), while
to

accompany

the

human study,

the painter has created a

modelled forms, assembled from boxes, papers,


that

114

is

a remarkable

achievement

in itself and

book and

still life

of powerfully

a thickly dripping candle,

an indication of serious

artistic

purpose.

cl5

Jan GOSSAERT (active 1503. died 1532)


An Elderly Couple
Gossaert was a fully Renaissance figure, aware of developments in Italian art (he
visitedltaly)

and a painter of mythologies,

The present work seems

altarpieces

and portraits of the "warts and all"

somewhat devastating
in its depiction of a couple whose life together has certainly not left on their features any
trace of amenity. They seem to have asked of the artist only that he should portray them

kind.

as they

to

be his sole double portrait and

is

were - prosperous bourgeois, verging on old age. neither

enjoying any worldly relaxation. And there

is

at

prayer nor

poignano.' in the resulting double

image of bleak truth.

115

CD

JOOS van Wassenhove (active 1460- c. 1480/5 [?])

There are paintings which seem, perhaps unfairly, more interesting than their
authors. This panel of A/;^.s7r

is

intriguing as a composition

painter seems to be identifiable with Justus of Ghent,

Gubbio

room

and an

intrepid soldier.

that this highly Italianate painting

(the Gallery

was done,

owns another panel from

also for

who went

the court of Federico da Montefeltro in IJrbino. Federico


well as an enlightened ruler

and

It

was

to lt;ily

its

history.

and worked

is

belief in the reality

and

is

was probably

for his palace at

as part of a decorative series for a

the series).

The

inscription along the top of

a climate of courtly civilisation,

virtue of the art of Music, to

implication, should do homage.

//5

at

a great artistic patron as

What the
where there

the picture refers to Federico's position as Standard bearer of the Ghurch'.

painting evokes so convincingly

The

whom everyone, by

German Painting
Outside the Germanic countries, the

European

galleries. In

of Holbein,

England

it

German School is rarely well

represented in

has never enjoyed great esteem with the exception


.

who (in this somewhat comparable to Handel) may be accounted almost

English, having settled

and died here.

Yet the Galler\"s

are numerically, are surprisingly effective:

holdings, modest though they

and they

earn.-

one from the

'International Gothic" of the beautiful Austrian 7r/>7/()(p.ll8) into the seventeenth


centurv-.
Little

or

paintings.

with several fine paintings by Elsheimer

no effort was made in

the Gallery's earliest years to acquire

The first significant group of early works came in

German

1854. as the result of a

Germany and purchasing a collection of mainly


\Xestphalian pictures. Also in 1854 a striking portrait by Baldung was purchased
(p.l23). though in the belief that it was by Diirer Less admirable was the decision to
sensible initiative in going to

sell off a

derisorily

number of the paintings acquired en bloc in Germany. They fetched


prices. Today, most of them would be welcome in the Colleaion. No

low

subsequent sale of paintings from the Colleaion has ever taken

place.

Following the death of the Prince Consort in 1861. Queen Victoria presented several
paintings in his memon". Thanks to this enlightened gift, the Gallen." contains a rare
work by Lochner (p. 119) and an attractive panel by the Master of the Life of the Virgin

anonymous but enchanting Zrt^)' oftbeHofer Family (p.ll9).


The gift also included a large-scale work by a leading painter from the end of the

(p.l21). as

well as the

fifteenth centun.". the Master of the Saint


Gallen,-

Bartholomew Altarpiece. by

has more recently added other paintings, including the


Virgin

and

Child uitb Angels (p.l22

delightfijl small-scale

).

Representing Durer as a painter would never have been easy. The sole
associated with

him

in the Collection

is

19O4. sometimes doubted as an original.

the portrait of his father


It

has historical

whom the

interest,

(p.

work to be

123).

bought

in

however, in being

almost certainly the painting presented by the city of Nuremburg to Charles

1.

Holbein was not represented until 1890 with the purchase of his unique and superb

double portrait of The Ambassadors


are not English.

(p.l26). painted in

The only other Holbein

even greater heritage"

Denmark (p.l2~).

'

in the Colleaion

interest, his sole ftjll-length

painted for Henn.'

London, though the


is

of equal rarity

sitters

and of

female portrait, of Christina of

MIL This was dramatically saved for

the Galler\"

in 1909 with the aid of a large last-minute donation and presented by


.

the National Art-Collections Fund.


In recent years efforts have been
for instance Cranach.
/rtyfe/w^

made to strengthen representation of other artists.

A major acquisition in

1980 was the large panel of Christ

Zf'^re o///w .Vo/i7pr (p.l2 5) by Altdorfer. a pioneer in atmospheric landscape

painting and an artist of European stature. This

is

a rare example of a fine

German

painting that had entered a mid-nineteenth-centun.- English private collection.


heritage status

was recognised, and its

acquisition

Its

made possible by a ver>" generous

grant towards purchase by the National Heritage .Memorial Fund.

117

c
s
u

AUSTRIAN School (15th century)


The Trinity with Christ Crucified
This

is

the central panel of an altarpiece and

shows

the Trinity as a Tiirone of

Mercy - a type of devotional image popular particularly

in

Northern Europe. The

unknown artist ohviously delights in the opportunity he has to create a highly complex
architectural throne, partly Gothic

and linear, and partly more solidly modelled with

awareness of perspective. The whole painting exhibits an international


characteristic of the years

the gold background the


angels'

around

tall

1400.

iscourtly, sophisticated andcolourful. Against

pinnacles of the throne and the exciting, jagged shapes of the

wings make for slrongdecorative patterns, and pattern-makingextends

reverse of the panel, painted

118

It

style,

all

over with green leaves on a white ground.

to the

SWABIAX School (15th centun^


A Lady oftheHofer Family
While the lady

is at

least identified,

by an inscription

the top of the picture, as

at

born a Hofer, the painter remains unknown. Clean, keen draughtsmanship gives
sitter,

to the

her costume and the composition generally memorable candour and charm The
.

sprig of forget-me-nots she holds has

worked

its

spell

remarkably

effectively.

slim hands to her elegantly goffered head-dress, the sitter survives

The painter further shows


of the head-dress

off his

artistic

Stephan

down the centuries.

own art by putting a trompe-l'oeil fly on

- symbol of mortality,

From her

the crisp linen

perhaps, or just part of the painting's

high

spirits.

LOCHXER (active

1442. died 1451)

Saints Matthew. Catherine ofAlexandria


John the Evangelist

and

Very few paintings by Lochner survive (those that do remain chiefly in Germany).
'Master Stefan"

was

gave two pfennigs

to

in Cologne,

have Lochner

great altarpiece

him. The present painting

Lochner

for a

church

and when

famous painter

is

the left-hand

in Cologne.

his gentle, pious sentiment,

It

is

was there in 1520 he

in the cathedral)

wing of another, smaller

shows

which

(now

Diirer

opened

for

altarpiece. painted

his almost flower-like delicaq.' of colour

by

and

much closer to Germanic artistic ideals

than conventional suppositions about gruesome scenes of martyrdom or


ubiquitous expressionism".

119

c
B
u

PACHER (active 1465[?], died 1498)


The Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints and Angels
Circle of Michael

Pacher was active in Salzburg and the Tyrol as

some

botli painter

and

sculptor,

and

flavour of his distinctive style can be experienced in this admittedly small-scale

painting, of uncertain authorship.

The highly elaborate sculptural canopy over the

figures and the types of those, each as

echoes of his work. The tonality

is

if

carved and placed in a niche, seem conscious

unusual and individual. No lack-lustre follower'

devised the deep plum-coloured chasuble and matching mitre of the bishop-saint, both
richly sewn with gleaming pearls, as is the Virgin's dress. Quality is allied to rarity here.
The actual panel provides some clue to location - if not to the artist. It is made of silver
fir,

120

suggesting that this unusual work originated in the area of the South Tyrol.

MASTER of the LIFE of the MRGIN


(active

2nd

half of the 15th centun^)

The Presentation in the Temple


The Master
Virgin's

life (all

is

named after a series of eight panels depicting scenes from

except the present one in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich).

The

the

was

series

painted for the church of St Ursula in Cologne and commissioned by a local councillor.

Dr Johann von Schwartz-Hirtz. possibly around 1460. The scene represents the
Purification of the'Virgin, as well as the Presentation of Christ,

by

and hence the doves held

women on each side of the central incident. The painter was presumably German but

deeply

- and agreeably - under Netherlandish

influence, especially that of Rogier

van

der Weyden. From that source derive the choice colours of the costumes and the
strongly characterised heads. Notable in both these
to the right of the altar,

ways

is

the bearded

man

who seems to be a significant yet perhaps pagan

witness of the Christian

rites.

121

MASTER of the S.\INT BARTHOLOMEW ALTARPIECE


(active late ISth/early 16th centun')

The Virgin
Anonymous though

the Master

and Child with Angels


is

(named after an

altarpiece

now

in

Munich but

is one of the most lively and original of early German painters.


He is capable too of conveying a variety of moods, depending on the purpose and scale

painted for Cologne), he

of the work, in this small panel the


.

mood is one of undiluted joyousness. Almost

mischievously, lively airborne young angels serenade the Virgin and Child, while the
smallest one.

who is perhaps too young to join

the orchestra, scatters flower-petals as

his contribution to the celebrations. Every tfiing contributes to a sense of delight,

message of the composition

is

\ irgin s

122

reiterated

by the words written on the scroll

head. "Queen of Heaven,

rejoice'.

and the

above the

^^^^B^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^P^^^^^^:

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1
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^^^^^M ^M

MP

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't'^r^

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yi'^K

^^^^^^H

PMj l^^^^_^^^^^
Ascribed to Albrecht

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JL^1^^

DURER (1471-1528)

The Painter Fatter


's

Diirer painted
in

and drew

what remains of his

life

and

who was

his fatlier

several occasions.

'family chronicle', describing

unsocial, taciturn

with those words. According

was aged seventy,

on

him

along the top

in 1497. 'Whether or not the portrait

surviving replica of the design and shows


,

as a

is

it

man who had had a hard

he was a goldsmith

accord well

to

was done when the

Diirer's original,

his father as very

him

also wrote about

and god-fearing. This image seems

to the inscription

unostentatious craftsman

He

much

it is

sitter

the best

a plain old-style
,

very different from Diirer's

presentation of himself, graceful and often smartly dressed, in his self portraits.

Hans BALDUNG Grien (1484/5-1545)


Portrait of a Man
Baldung may have studied with

Diirer,

and

it

was perhaps

Diirer's

example

that

own almost obsessive vision, which was to produce a fascinating range


as well as superb graphic work. Baldung is too little known outside the

encouraged his
of paintings,

Germanic countries. Portraiture was only one aspect of his


sitter

as here

- with an

more nervous and

intensity of gaze that

is

almost

art,

but he could fasten on a

sinister.

The

results are far

idiosyncratic than in contemporary Netherlandish portraits.

textures of the sitter's hair,

beard and heavy fur collar seem invested with

life

The

of their

own, springing and curling like so many tiny coiled wires, as vibrant and tense as are his
steep eyebrows and pale, staring eyes. A final near-surreal touch is provided by the capbadge swinging

at

the side of the face, like a detached, jewelled, third eye.

125

e
B

Lucas

CRANACH

the Elder (1472-1553)

Cupid complaining to Venus


Cranach

is

the perfect court-artist of Germany. In his highly enamelled

mythological paintings he fondly includes the mountains, lakes and forests of the
North, making the mountains steeper and the forests even darker and deeper than in
Provocatively naked, wearing only a necklace and a fashionable hat. his Venus

reality.

adapts herself very well to a Northern climate and seems to be as

amid the

at

home as the deer

thick undergrowth. She barely listens to Cupid's complaint that the bees

whose

honeycomb he stole are stinging him appearing more concerned to allure the spectator.
The subject derives from the Greek classical poet Theocritus. Here a moral admonition is
written on the painting, stating that thus arwe stung when seeking pleasure. Like a
,

more reckless

Eve,

Cranachs Venus seems determined

restrictive attitude, offering at

to give the lie to

any such

once herself and apples of pleasure galore.

124

c
a
u

Albrecht

ALTDORFER (before

1480. died 1538)

Christ taking Leave ofHis Mother


The Gospels do not speak of Christ taking leave of His Mother before going out
begin His ministry, but medieval and

later texts refer to

it

and

it

became

to

a subject for

Passion plays. Altdorfer was possibly influenced by the drama and pathos of such

own treatment, where the Virgin sinks in a swoon at the moment of


The scene is set outside a Northern city-gate, with some of the Holy Women

spectacles in his
parting.

wearing head-dresses similar

to that of the lady

born a Hofer (see p.ll9)- Above

all.

Altdorfer seizes the opportunity to create a Northern positively Danubian landscape of


.

soaring tree-trunks and bright foliage against a radiant sky of alpine blue. Emotion has

heightened everything, including the


contrast there
his wife

and

is

tall

figure of the scarlet-clad Saint John,

something solemn and affecting

in the

and by

minute figures of the donor and

their children, kneeling to witness this highly

charged sacred incident

taking place in the familiar surroundings of their native land.

125

c
B
u

Hans HOLBEIN the Younger (1497/8-1543)


The Ambassadors'
Apt and well-established as
correct.

is

the popular

The two men shown - Jean

title

of this painting,

it

is

de Dinteville and Georges de Selve

not strictly

- never served

was the French ambassador at the court of


when this complex double portrait was painted, in London, in 1533.

as ambassadors together, though Dinteville

Henry

Vlll

Together they admirably stand for state and church: Dinteville resplendent

and

at

the right the

more sober

his friend, the ambassador.

Selve, a bishop,

Between them Holbein assembles

instruments and other objects expressive doubtless of their


is

like a

(p.KM).
in life

the

left

to visit

a host of musical

tastes.

The composition

High Renaissance re-working on a bold scale of Jan van Eyck's Arnolfini portrait

commemorating not a marriage but a meeting and friendship.

might seem

to breathe

Pride

and pleasure

from the painting, but Holbein adds a presage of mortality.

\Xhen seen from an angle close

to,

the distorted foreground object takes shape as

a skull, putting into perspective, as

126

at

who had come over to London

it

were,

human existence.

B
u

Hans HOLBEIN the Younger (1497/8-1543)


Christina ofDenmark. Duchess ofMilan
In 1S38, at the age of only sixteen, already married

and widowed. Christina of

Denmark, dressed
painter. Holbein.

Charles

V.

in mourning, posed in Brussels for thre owers space' to Henry VIII's


The King was seeking a fourth wife, and the sitter, niece of the Emperor

appeared a desirable candidate. She escaped that

have parted with

this subtle full-length portrait

fate,

and Henry

VIII

seems

which Holbein must have painted on

to

his

return to London, based on a study done on the spot. The very fact of Christina posing
in

mourning aided

Holbein's effect, conveying her height by the dark silhouette against

the blue-green background,

much praised,
is

and setting off her ivory-pale hands, whose beauty was

against the varying textures of her black robes.

If

The Ambassadors'

almost too rich in display of virtuosity, here Holbein succeeds by simplicity

though

it is

a simplicity achieved by equal artistic cunning.

127

Adam ELSHEIMER (1578-1610)


Saint Paul on Malta
It is

typical of Elsheimer. sensitive

light, that

he should

Apostles, in a dark
In

set this scene,

and stormy

some ways, Elsheimer

often

on a small

was

is

Altdorfer's heir:

creating paintings

which

Elsheimer

unusual

is

effects of

and glowing fires.

certainly a poetic interpreter,

life

left

most

Germany and by 1600

he developed his

own

and mythological themes, usually with landscape elements,


are

among the most original and attractive of all

splendours of .seventeenth-century

128

he

nature and atmosphere. He

Rome. For the remaining decade of his

interpretation of religious

to

day. according to Ihe Acts of the

night, illuminated by lightning flashes

scale, as here, of

settled in

and keenly responsive

which occurred by

art.

They had

premature death was

to

their influence

the

on Claude, and

be lamented by Rubens.

Flemish Painting
The two

greatest

Rubens and van

exponents of seventeenth-century Flemish painting were

Dycic.

Both were bound

in this countn,- since both

an

particular, as

had been

to

be familiar to collectors and connoisseurs

directly patronised

by Charles

I.

Van Dyck,

and dying here, and as the portraitist not only of the

artist living

King and his family but of English society in general, might have been expected
strongly present in the Gallery Collection from the
Yet the position

included

in

proved much

less straightforward,

to

be

first.

though both painters were

among the Angerstein pictures purchased at the Caller}-

foundation in

1824. Van Dyck's finest British portraits tended to remain in the families of the
sitters,

while certain characteristic aspects of Rubens'

religious paintings

art

like his large-scale

- were little to the taste of Protestant collectors.

It

was. rather.

Rubens the landscape painter who was esteemed here; and a superb and personal
example, a great atmospheric panorama, the
Sir

George Beaumont in his

the
(p.132

Duke of Sutherland made


).

painted for Charles

aesthetic quality. Unafraid,


free

gift that

from

1.

was purchased

no

less

Pail/e' {'p.\55

was given by

instigated the founding of the Gallen,'. In 1828

significant for

and War

heritage' aspect, in addition to

its

its

bought Rubens' sensuousjudgement of Paris {p.lH)

than 4. 000 guineas for

including Rubens"

(p.l34).

seems, of conventional Victorian values and admirably

it

in 18"1. great

ofHet Steen

ieiv

a munificent gesture by presenting Peace

and

pruder}'. the Trustees

in 1844. paying

it.

When Sir Robert Peel's collection

Flemish as well as Dutch paintings came

Susanna Lunden.

better

which had inspired several

known

as

later painters,

Lawrence's portrait of Lady

to the Gallery,

le Chapeau de
culminating in

Peel.

Not until 1881 was a truly maior portrait by van Dyck acquired. In that year, with the

Blenheim

sale,

the Trustees were able to buy the great equestrian portrait of Charles

(p.l3"). painted for the

King but sold abroad

returning to this countn." as a

Flemish painters,

gift to John. 1st

like Jordaens

at

the time of the

Commonwealth.

Duke of Marlborough. Other leading

and Tenters, were represented at

first

only

fitfully.

Jordaens" Holy Family (p.l3 5) was presented by the Duke of Northumberland in


1838.

and

Teniers" fine

view of Het Sterckshof (p.kO) was bought

seems, largely on aesthetic grounds, the Gallery


1883 of the fbr/ra/'/o/^^^qr

(p.

then supposed

During the twentieth

138) by Jacques

to

made a quietly

be Dutch and by Isack van Ostade).

centur\-. opportunities

as a figure painter

CoUeaion still lacks an


masterpiece.

on

have been taken

a large scale

altarpiece by

to build

some generous gifts.

him) and acquisition

in 1980 of his fairly early

particularly welcome. In the last few years several paintings by


latest,

up

remained not well represented (the

Samson and Delilah, done in Antwerp on his return from

purchased, the

it

inspired purchase in

van Oost( though the painting was

representation notably of both van Dyck and Rubens, aided by

Rubens

in 18""1. Acting,

Italy,

was

van Dyck have been

the Balbi Children (p.l36). bringing a maior example of van

Dyck's brilliant Genoese period, which was previously unrepresented


in the Collection.

129

Pieter

BRUEGEL

the Elder (active 1551, died 1569)

The Adoration of the Kings


There could be few more radical re-thinkings than

enough and normally


and exotic

display. Bruegel surely

means

awareness of the implications of the

born

in a harsh peasant
,

gawped at by

this of a subject familiar

the occasion for placid depiction, with a certain


to shake,

if

amount of luxury

not shock, the spectator into fresh

subject. His semi-foetus-like Christ Child has

environment

in a crude, bare

barn of a stable and

is

been

being

the round-eyed, not unthreatening .soldiery. Apart from the standing

negro King, holding his beautifully crafted gift of a shell shaped ucf. the Kings seem

doddering
asserts,

figures, blindly

is

how

it

worshipping without

might be

if

fully

comprehending. Thus, Bruegel

Christ were to be born again, in the Netherlands of the


painter's

own day.

CAThMvJNA

OS-

HtJvLS>E.N

rvH
^^H

i'iw
'*^*

li^
IT
^^^^^^_*.

^k
^^^^^"^i^^^H

'^^^^^^

/^^

^^^^*'

^/
^^_^,^in^
Katharina de

It

PA

HEMESSEN (1527/8- after


Portrait of a Lady

1566[?])

may be true that women artists have tended to be undervalued or even ignored
name is certainly not a familiar

in conventional art history. Katharina de Hemessen's

one, though she

Antwerp

painter,

was by no means an obscure

figure in her day.

The daughter of an

she specialised in small portraits, usually of w-omen. in a style very

similar to this one. Her lively grasp of character


portraits. For all the sitter's finery,

is

revealed here and confirmed in other

she and her pet dog are seized with quite unflattering

honesty, and the miniature scale has not prevented the painter from portraying
features marked,

it

seems, not only by

life

but by thought.

0^

RUBENS (15''"-l640)
TheJudgement ofParis

Sir Peter Paul

For

all

the earlier achievements of Flemish painting, there had been

preparation for the arrival

no adequate
on the scene of a genius of the stature of Rubens. He is a

painter of all-round accomplishment. Not since Titian


in dealing with the

theme of the female nude.

extends from the bodies of the contending goddesses


proffers the apple to the blond central

have chosen -

Venus

had

a painter

shown such

gusto

In this quite late work. Rubens' mastersto the

lush country setting. Paris

- whom Rubens himself would probably

but the sensuous shape of Junos bare back, set off by a sweep of furlined, rich robe,

is itself

Sir Peter Paul

worthv of an award.

Rl'BEXS (15""-l640)

Peace and War


It

was

in 1629.

his

involvement

and he was

to

in

European diplomacy

be knighted b\ Charles

1.

that brought

Rubens

to

England

Passionately concerned with the cause

of peace between nations. Rubens here creates in paint the vision for which he strove in
his diplomatic activity. Suitably

war.

is

it

to

Charles

I.

.Mars, the

god of

being led away by Minerva, leaving Peace free to nourish the infant Plutus. god of

wealth while the


,

sumptuous

fruits of the earth

shape, in his

peace (see

132

enough, he presented

p.

32),

own

and the blessings of prosperity

take

on

solid.

idiom. Botticelli had once painted /'W vision of cosmic

and Rubens

restates the

concept for a

new Baroque age.

RUBENS (1577-1640)
Susanna Lunden (le Chapeau de Paille)
Sir Peter Paul

'Spectator,

married

her',

might seem what the creator of this wonderfully

vivacious and enchanting portrait


sister

proclaiming here.

is

It

was

in fact the sitter's

younger

whom Rubens was to marry, some years after this painting was done, when his

first

wife had died. All the same,

possibly executed around 1633

it

when

may have been painted as a wedding portrait,

the sitter married Arnold Lunden.

The paint

onto the panel with a freshness and energy which leave the whole surface

Managing pigment with almost musical

making

it

laid

Rubens modulates the tempo of it,

writhe in the curling feathers on the hat and the flying tendrils of hair

escaping from under

it

and then move more slowly,

skin and the bewitching, faintly


of a

effect.

is

tingling.

demure

smile,

shadowed

face.

Susanna Lunden comes

clotting to conjure

up the creamy

Wide-eyed and forever on the brink

alive

under Rubens" brush with a

force that remains astonishing.

133

RUBENS (15"'-1640)
An Autumn Landscape with a lew ofMet Steen
Sir Peter

Paul

in ii\v

Rubens bought the lordship and manor of Het Steen. some way from

Antwerp, and increasingly he passed his time


itself

there.

the instigation for his painting landscapes

wide-ranging art

but

it

must have deepened his

Purchase of the house was not in

they had long been an aspea of his

feelings for the land. In this

of an autumn morning, he lets his gaze rove over the gently

countryside as

it

stirs into

aaivity at sunrise

rolling,

panorama

well-wooded

and the first rays of distant sun

strike across

windows of his own house. The painter s never-failing


in the medium of paint he robustly
echoes Milton's lines in LAIlegro. written only a few years earlier: Straight mine eye

the composition to glint in the


delight in the physical

hath caught

154

world is movingly conveyed:

new pleasures/^Tiilst the landskip round it measures.

JacobJORDAENS (1593-1678)
The Holy Family
In terms of age alone, Jordaens

Rubens. A painter of hardly


partly

was the next senior painter

less boldness,

he perhaps suffers

in

in

Antwerp

after

esteem today and

is

overshadowed by Rubens. Although he came from the Catholic Southern

Netherlands, he developed Protestant sympathies and

was

to be buried across the

border, in the Northern Netherlands. In this painting his imagery

is

strongly

Roman
much

Catholic (the Christ Child holds a rosary), but he depicts the Holy Family as very

an ordinary, almost homely

family.

and the sense of confrontation

is

The

figures positively confront the spectator,

emphasised by strong, Caravaggesque contrasts

of light

and shade.

135

V3

Sir

Anthony van DYCK (1599-1641)


The Balbi Children

Destined to a hectic

life

and an early death van Dyck was an independent painter


,

by the age of seventeen. He arrived


virtual base in

in Italy

Genoa. There he found

from his native Antwerp

in the local patricians, their

in \bl\.

making a

wives and especially

their children material for his highly sensitive, half-romantic portrait ability. Partly

inspired by Titian,

whose

Vetuiraniin Family {p.''b) he later owned, he created a series

- and occasionally, as here, a mixture


of this group portrait - which extends to the

of marvellous images, grand and intimate by turn


of both.

The

rich red

and black

pair of tame choughs - seems

tonality

to follow Titian's

white, are sufficient for a painter.

importance given

What

strikingly novel in

that those colours, with

van Dycks

art

is

the

and shown as poised between


home and the outside world.

to children, painted full length

the shelter of their palatial

136

is

famous dictum

Sir

Anthony van DYCK (1599-1641)

Equestrian Portrait of Charles I


The

tablet

prominently hooked on a tree-trunk

at

the right declares that this

is

Around his bare-headed, armoured sitter, mounted on a


fine bay horse and riding out proudly in the countryside, van Dyck has woven
impressive associations of chivalry, personal glamour and royal status that scarcely
need words to confirm. Charles took van Dyck into his service in 1632 and gave him a
knighthood. Van Dyck gave the King something much greater - immortality. The
Charles. King of Great Britain.

physically slight,

if

dignified,

monarch,

a notable patron of the arts but

no

adroit ruler,

becomes the perfect image of kingship. No premonition of Civil War or of the execution
of the King

mars the painting's

artistic

confidence and triumph.


/j;

Jacques van

OOST

the Elder (1601-1671)

Portrait of a Bo]
The boy's age

is

'

aged Elei 'en

given on the painting, along with the painter's

initials

and the

is unknown. This scarcely matters. He and his winter


made sufficient impression on a fairly obscure artist, active

date ICiSO, but his identity

costume, inclusive of muff,


in Bruges, for this

(recalling by

chance

characterisation. A

perhaps a

little

memorable portrait
Boltraffio's

little

male

pensive, a

to result. Its tonal subtlety

portrait

little

on

p.70) are

and

restriction

accompanied by subtlety of

conscious of posing for his portrait and even

proud of his fur hat and muff, the boy was

to

be seen by Walter Pater as

the youthful incarnation of his philosopher-figure. Sebastian van Storck.


in

an imaginary

portrait'

published in 1886. three years after the Gallery


acquired the picture.

158

Gonzalez

COQUES (Ibk
.4

Although

or 1618-1684)

Family Group

now little regarded. Coques was a leading portrait-painter in Antwerp.

specialising in small-scale compositions, like this one. with figures full length. This

prosperous family takes the

air in

presumably

mingling of dignity in the father and

its

own handsome garden,

liveliness in the

younger children. Coques'

touch captures convincing likenesses and all the details of costume profusion of fine lace displayed. Such art

is

little

deft

not least the

more than mere record-making. For this

family Coques was at his most spirited and responsive, and he signs
speaking, with the

with a nice

flourish of the

two foreground

off. artistically

frisking dogs.

139

C/5

David TENIERS the Younger (I6IO-I69O)

A View ofMet Sterckshof near Antwerp


This painting was traditionally supposed

house, whence

it

daily

Teniers

life,

was

is

not greatly affected.

set in
far

own country

followed that he and his family appeared as the figures receiving the

tribute of a fish offered by a peasant.

the painting

to represent Teniers'

Although

an atmospheric landscape -

more esteemed

that

cannot be quite correct, the

all

in the eighteenth

but his art deserves fresh appreciation. In one

painted with the greatest delicacy.

and nineteenth centuries than

way he marks

descending from Bruegel. whose granddaughter he married.

today.

the end of an artistic line


Vet

it

seems symbolically

apt that within his lifetime occurred the birth of W'atteau.

140

mood of

The scene combines portrait-like people and rustic

Dutch Painting
The artistic links between England and Holland are very long standing and
one back at least to the time of Anne of Denmark, the mother of Charles who
died in I6l7 and whose own collection of paintings included some Dutch Kitchens'.
take

By the mid-seventeenth century English

collectors

and connoisseurs were well

aware of the achievements of the flourishing contemporary Dutch School, and

later

generations of collectors were to confirm a national predilection for Dutch painting

which could be said to


As a result, the Gallery's Collection
its
it

is

rival that for Italian art.

both extensive and of superb quality, though

character derives so strongly from British private taste and connoisseurship that

tends to lack examples of history or large-scale figure compositions (an aspect of

Dutch

art that did

not appeal to collectors here). Thus although paintings by

Rembrandt were in the Collection from the time of its foundation, no


subject-painting by

large,

major

him was acquired until 1964, when Belshazzar's Feast {[>A7 5)


was purchased.

In the early rather haphazard days of the Gallery's existence there seems to have

been no particular policy or activity pursued with regard

to representing the

Dutch

School. Even under Eastlake, this aspect of things did not greatly change, though

with his successor.

Sir

William Boxall the


,

purchased, in Paris in 1869, the

first

painting by Pieter de

Woman and her Maid in a Courtyard {^.W)).

Hooch's was not then a widely familiar name, and even

whose Young Woman standing at a


his nineteenth-century
It

was the purchase in

K/r^/>/^/(p.l71)

less

had been

1871 of the larger part of Sir Robert Peel's

of a fastidious kind, supported by


taste,

art. Peel

De

known was Vermeer,


in the collection of

champion, Thore, and was bought

dramatically improved the holdings of Dutch

major aspect of his

Hooch was

in 1892.

own collection that

had exercised discrimination

enormous wealth Landscape was obviously one


.

and the Gallery thus acquired Hobbema's.4r^//' (p.151)

and Ruisdael's Pool surrounded by


scene by Berchem

(p. 148)

Trees

(p.

146), as well as the

glowing Italianate

and Cuyp's Ubbergen Castle (p. 149).

Five years after purchase of the Peel collection the Gallery benefited substantially

from the generous bequest of Wynn

Ellis,

among whose many Dutch

pictures

were

thejan van de Cappelle/?'^r6'ce^(p.l55) and the (\e\\^\{w\ Architectural Fantasy


(p.l65)

by Dirk van Delen. In 1910 there was an even more substantial bequest, by

George Salting, whose

fine

Dutch pictures included an exceptionally evocative and

poetic Steen (p.l64) as well as the calmly

luminous church

interior by

Saenredam(p.l68).
At most subsequent periods the opportunity has been taken to buy judiciously and

strengthen the already notable collection. A very rare Fabritius portrait (p.n3),
possibly of the painter,

was bought

in 1924. In recent years the

have ranged from a tranquil masterpiece by


Hals' brilliant5oj' with

a Skull {pA()2).

ter

Dutch acquisitions

Brugghen, The Concert {pA51),

Still life is

to

an area where representation has

been unexpectedly weak, and the Gallery therefore was the more grateful
bequest in 1978 by R.S. Newall of a splendid

still life

for the

by Kalf (p.l67).

141

Hendrick

AVERCAMP (1585-1634)

Winter Scene with Skaters near a Castle


Knowing that Avercamp was

compensating expressive eloquence


animate his typical winter scenes.

may make one

a deaf-mute

Vet

in the action
it is

and gestures of the people

true that his figures

convincing vivacity, as on skates they dash and dance,


Winter has had a carnival
a

effect,

whole society comes out

enjoy

it.

The

encourages ones sense of peering into a


generations are

shown having fun

142

who

their parts

with

tumble over the

on the frozen

ice.

water,

and

circular shape of this composition

lively

in different

peep-show, where the different

ways, and where atmosphere also

on whose cold branches a few


receding amid delicate veils of chill mist.

subtly perceived, from the bare foreground tree,


birds perch to the distant roofs

mime

slide or

creating an open-air ballroom


to

too glibly detect a

is

Bartholomeus BREENBERGH (1599/l600[?] -1657)


The Finding ofMoses
Breenbergh

Dutch painters

is

only one of numerous examples of the beneficial

who went there. The present painting is dated

his return to Holland after a stay in


Italian landscape, partly

blends
result

delightful

In

it

and none too

to give a

serious.

vaguely 'Egyptian'

A grain of humour seems

foreground figure-group, where Pharaoh's daughter gesticulates

woman clasping the infant Moses,

and the

little

on

the painter recalls the

under the influence of artists he must have met

with elements of pure fantasy,

it

is

Rome of some years.

effect of Italy

1636 and was executed on

to

at

in

Rome, but

air to the scene.

The

have crept into the

the cheerful, rustic

negro train-bearer stares

stupefied at the incident.

143

GOYEX (1596-1656)
A Wmd?nill bra Rii 'er

Jan van

Goyen

is

one of the early leading interpreters of the Dutch landscape at

undramatic, drawing as well as painting


the less obvious the subject, the

be

felt to

more

underlie this painting, with

tendency towards

monochrome

it

with obsessive concern

effectively
its

in a

does Goyen respond

its

busy

to

it.

most

career.

rapid, scribbled pencilling of pigment

tonality.

And

Drawing can

and

its

A rather frail-seeming windmill on an

expanse of low-lying land, unobtrusively peopled by a few blobs of tiny, hunched


figures (mainly seen in silhouette

from the back) and almost merging

rivers edge, constitutes the composition.

space to the sky, where

and

light

Goyen

allots

by

proportion of

breaks from muffled cloud and passes in gleams over land

water, giving a wonderful sense of atmospheric

mood and movement that

ConsLable might have envied.

144

into water at the

far the larger

Salomon van RUYSDAEL (l600/l603[

5*]

-l6"0)

RirerSce??e
The uncle of the famous landscape painter, Jacob van
Ruysdael

is

a distinguished painter in his

well aware of Goyen's art.

and

in fact

own right.

Goyen

is

Ruisdael.

Salomon van

Uncle and nephew must have been

recorded in 1634

- two years before this

was painted - working in the house of Salomons brother in Haarlem where the
family had settled. The long shape of the painting here is typical of Salomon's earlier
output, when arguably he was at his most sensitive. He is fond of echoing the long

picture

shape with the motif of a long, receding rim of tree-lined banks by the edge of a wide
river, fixing

painting

is

the strip of land between expanses of water

darker and

more dramatic than


verv

is

and sky. The

tonality of this

Goyen's. and the painter declares himself

much his own master.

l-i5

Jacob van RUISDAEL (c.l628-l682)

A Pool surroimded by
This

is

Trees

one of Ruisdaels most majestic compositions, diminished only by not

being in perfect

state. It

comes from

Sir

Robert Peel's collection and appears to be the

very Ruisdael he indicated to a visitor as giving him

in

an interval of harrassing official

business', feelings of tranquillity. At the centre of the

incident of a hare

swimming for

as always with the artist,

its life,

scene

is

a less than tranquil

pursued by hounds urged on by hunters. Nature,

seems superior

to

mankind. Even the stricken and

have a sort of majesty, though they contrast with the healthy,


fringe the pool, itself enlivened by the crop of water-lilies.

full-foliaged

fallen trees

ones that

The seventeenth century was

the great age of landscape, and this painting has affinities, unexpectedly perhaps, with a
closely

contemporary painting from Southern Europe. Ros'Xs Landscape


with Mercury ami the Dishonest

146

Wbudman (p.92).

Philips

KOXIXCK (1619-1688)

An Extensive Landscape
Koninck provides the antidote
Ruisdael's deep

to

any

feelings of claustrophobia induced by

woods and overgrown pools.

His typical panoramas, of which this

is

an

outstanding example, send the eye on an exhilarating journey through space, skimming
over alternations of light and shade as they streak the
the glinting line of distant water

flat

countryside, to encounter here

on the low horizon, dividing the land from

cloudscape above. Prized today as the master of such

effects.

the great

Koninck was

known in his own period chiefly as a genre and portrait-painter.

Jacob van RUISDAEL (c.l628-l682)

The Shore at Egmond-aan-Zee


This deceptively simple-lookingpaintingis not the most typical work by Ruisdael.

being more seascape than landscape, but

it is

powerfully stamped as his work through

the intense response to the elements which breathes from

waves

rolling in along the beach,

mood that is at once stirring and melancholy.


will

wear away the

land,

it.

The

restless,

under an unsettled, ominously


It

seems

foam -crested

livid sky, create a

inevitable that these forces

and indeed before the middle of the eighteenth century the

sea had engulfed the dunes and the church Ruisdael depicts

at

the right.

147

BERCHEM (1620-1683)
Peasants with Cattle by an Aqueduct
Nicolaes

Perhaps

Italy

part of the

could never be quite as enchanted as

it

appears here, where a lonely

Roman campagna is flooded with Southern sunlight

over the ruins of an aqueduct and washes


off in the stream at

its

base. This

recollected in a Northern climate

the South. Berchem

Holland settled

is

its

flanks, as well as those of the cattle cooling

Berchems dream

of the Italy he

when he probably realised that he would never revisit


to Rome in his early thirties, and after returning to

down to become the leading Dutch

to the rococo,

painter of Italianate pastoral subjects,

them he seems
.

to

look

whereas here the motif of the creeper-covered antique ruin,

rising against the

148

had known,

may have gone

as well as producing enchanting, fanciful haifcour scenes. In

forward

wine

that pours like

glowing sky. presages Romanticism.

AelbertCUYP(l620-l691)

Ubbergen Castle
Cuyp has
he

is

for

long been popular with British collectors. In the Gallery Collection

represented by a good group of paintings, though none

shows him

a large scale. In quality alone, however, this small example takes

work (and

it

too, unsurprisingly,

Holland and remained active


Castle, just outside

belonged

its

at his finest

on

place with his best

Cuyp was no great traveller outside


of Dordrecht. The ruins of Ubbergen

to Peel).

in his native city

Xijmegen, provide him here with sufficient pretext for a

lyrical

interpretation of light effects: from the radiant cloud-flecked sky to the flawless mirror

of the

river.

Light clusters like lichen

on the castle walls, and

in the liquid

prism

Cuyp has devised everything floats with magic luminosity.

Jan BOTH (c.l6l8[?] -1652)


Peasants with Mules and Oxen near a River
Both preceded Berchem

from

Italian light

activity before

landscape,

to

Rome and must have received rather similar inspiration

and scenery. He too returned

him

is

Holland but had barely a decade of

In that period, however, he created his

where misty distances

painting

to

one of his most

delicate,

suggesting a tremulousness in nature as

work uncannily anticipates, not least in


some of Gainsborough's later landscapes.

the day gradually unfolds. Such


poetic approach,

own vision of the Italian

are interspersed with bursts of glittering foliage. This

its

149

Jan van der HEYDEN (1637-1712)


The Huis ten Bosch
The 'house

in the

wood'

is

the small palace

when van der Heyden was a boy,


view
the

is

of the garden side of the original building and captures

charm of leisured

life in

each shape, not

made him

least the

built,

Hendrik of Orange. This

- among other

a sunny, well-tended garden setting,

grand or awe-inspiring. Van der Heyden

likes bright sunlight, in

things

where nothing is too


which he can define

undulating line of the foreground hedge. His eye for buildings

a great painter of city-scapes,

and he

urban scene as Ruisdael

150

on the outskirts of The Hague,

for the wife of Prince Frederik

is

is

as

much

the inspired interpreter of the

of the countrvside.

iMeyndert

The Ai
So

HOBBEMA (1638-1709)
euiie.

many truly great and original

seventeenth-century Holland that

Hobbema enjoys

it

is

Middelhmnis
landscape painters were produced in

why a merely competent artist like


may be a partial explanation, for is a

not easy to see

the repute he does. The Avenue

highly memorable composition, as result of which

somewhat equivalent

to that in

island of Over Flakee.


1664.

it

many

occupies a position in painting

poetry oiQxix'sElegv. Middelharnis

and the avenue of trees shown

Hobbema apparently

have looked a good

it

is

in the painting

a village

records the scene with great accurac}\ though as

years after the trees

of the central, receding perspective,

it

on the

was planted
it

in

must

had grown. Obvious though the device

remains extremely

effective,

is

and the suggestion of

a faint breeze blowing on a day of unsettled weather enlivens the composition.

151

POTTER (162 5-1654)


Cattle and Sheep in a Stormy Landscape
Paulus

Potter

was

a painter of marked originality

and well

into the nineteenth centur

enjoyed considerable fame for his piaures. usually on a small

scale, of animals in

landscapes. For most painters, cattle and sheep might not offer obvious inspiration but

makes skilful use of the pawing, dangerously alert bull, outlined against a
sweep of livid cloud in a landscape bare except for two savagely storm-tossed trees. The
Potter here

sky

is

really the

main

protagonist,

and

Potter wonderfully succeeds in giving the

spectator the vicarious sensation of a gust of rain-spattered

wind full in the

face.

OSTADE (1621-1649)

Isack van

A Winter Scene
The sad brevity
by

of Ostades career

his elder brother. Adriaen.

is

not always remarked on. He was long outlived

whose pupil he was and whose peasant

by imitating. He became more interesting when he turned


winter ones
to

it. It is

of which this

is

only

in

interiors

he began

outdoor scenes, often

a notably fine example, with a tang of atmospheric chill

thoroughly naturalistic

(p.l42). not

to

when compared with .-^vercamp's scene on

technique but in

its

the ice

emphasis on winter conditions as experienced

by the poor Even the figures tying on their skates seem preparing less for diversion than
for the best

means of getting about at a harsh time of the year. Ostades sympathy


is more than picturesque. How he

appears more than sentimentality, just as his art

would have developed, had he

152

lived

beyond his twenties, cannot be gauged.

NEER (l603 or l604-l677)


A Moonlit View

Aert van der

Winter seems

to

have been the season preferred

for depiction by

and evening the preferred time of day. Unfortunately


posterity,

he painted rather too

van der Neer,

for his reputation, at least

many such scenes, with

too

little

with

variation.

Nevertheless, he had a vein of authentic sensitivity and response before the spectacle of
twilight
air

and moonlight, and

this small painting possesses a half-desolate

which plays on the nerves. Van der Neer seems


and

rarely to

that perhaps indicates the inner vision haunting

sought

atmospheric

have painted an actual

him

to

which he

place,

steadily

to give expression.

153

Hendrick DUBBELS (1621 [?] -1676[ ?]

Shipping Becalmed Offshore


a shopkeeper in Amsterdam and shortly after as
was
never
very
famous - never perhaps a very successful bankrupt, Dubbels
a

Recorded

at

one point as

artist.

The present painting for long passed as by jan van de Cappelle. though in certain ways
is more simplistic than his work and more naive-seeming in its technique. In its
simplicity

brown

lies

sails

part of its appeal, deepened by Dubbels' feel for tonal beauty.

and the

drifting cobalt cloud, like a cloud

on

154

The moth-

a piece of blue-and-white

china, have a placid rightness, regardless of all naturalism.

it

Jan van de CAPPELLE [c. 1623/5-16^9)


ARirerScefie
Cappelle was part or an established tradition of marine painting in Holland

Conscious of this, he included examples of his predecessors' work


collection of. for example, drawings by Goyen.

wealthy and not

which seems

prolific,

among his very

large

Avercamp and Rembrandt. He was

but he developed a type of calm naturalistic marine picture

to express,

without bombast, a sense of Holland ruling the waves.

Somewhere or other, in most of his paintings, the Dutch colours are being flown (here
on a States yacht in the middle distance). Yet the final effect of his art suggests a concern
less

with shipping or navies as such than with serene water and vast, cloudy.

though unthreatening skies.

135

Jan BEERSTRAATEN (1622 - 1666)


77?^ Castle ofMuiden in Winter
The

castle

ofMuiden. which survives today,

had been begun

was

largely

a few miles

from Amsterdam.

famous

as the peaceful meeting-place for a circle of Dutch poets


it

and

has obvious appeal as a darkly looming feature. In this icy

landscape he does not bother

to

be topographically accurate yet manages to convey

winter weather, with the frost-gripped branches of the trees almost sinister

against a purplish, metallic sky, heavy with the threat of more


typical

snow

to

come. By a

paradox of art, such well-conveyed atmospheric bleakness gives the


spectator a feeling of pleasurable

156

It

as a fortification in the thirteenth century but by Beerstraaten's period

scholars. For the painter

bitter

lies

warmth.

Hendrick

ter

BRUGGHEN (1588[ ?] -1629)


The Concert

Ter

Brugghen

is

yet

one more example of a Dutch painter attracted

to Italy,

though

was not the landscape or the light that drew him it seems, as much as the
work of Caravaggio and his followers. He spent some time as a young man in Rome and
then returned to Utrecht, where the rest of his life was spent. He painted figure-pictures
in his case

it

in a style

which -

for all

its

Italian inspiration

is

thoroughly personal, intimate

rather than dramatic. This composition of half-length figures

and

is

is

possibly ter Brugghen's masterpiece of secular painting.

reflective.

soft light

and the

is

single candle

is

sufficient illumination for the

typical of his best


Its

mood is

work

tender and

music-making trio, and

its

beautifully caught by the painter as he lingers over folds of glowing drapery

features of the faces, creating a paint surface that

blooms under

his

brush and

accords perfectly with the picture's mood.

157

Gerard terBORCH(l6r-l681)

A Woman making Music with Two Men


Dutch
that

interiors of the kind painted here are so familiar

one can overlook the quite novel category of picture

an aspect of European

that they represent.

art

They speak

much concerned with seeing its diversions, its costumes, and its homes
reflected in painting with great fidelity. That is very much part of the natural" revolution
for a society

of seventeenth-century painting. Ter Borch

one of the most


And,

textures.

is

a leading creator of genre subjects like this,

sensitive painters in his feeling for


for all

its

apparent truth

to natural

nuances of atmosphere as well as


appearance, this

is

for

highly conscious

Not only is the composition skilfully devised but its theme of prosperous people
making music - people less timeless and gipsy-like than ter Brugghens (p.l57)
- has a hint of gallantry. .Music, it seems, is still the food of love.

art.

Gerard

ter

BORCH (16r-1681)

Portrait of a Young Man


Despite his preference for
range.

It is

painting
materials

is

fails to

158

a small scale, ter Burch

\va.s

an

artist of

wide

the full-length portrait, as here, in miniature. His sensitive response to

given

expression
dress or

workingon

another aspect of his originality that he should virtually create a fresh type of

is.

full

life itself

note

it

play in the elaborate, fashionable costume

worn by

a sitter

whose

almost cruelly, seized as one of some uncertainty Either his dandified


has caused him an understandable tremor, and the painter no more

than he

fails to

record the play of light

on

the fringe of the tablecloth.

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a^BB5ss V? t-w

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Willem DUYSTER(c.l599-l635)
Tlvo

Men playing Tric-trac

After ter Borch's subtle art, Duyster's might

accomplished though
Caravaggist

on

it is.

Yet

he

a small scale, with a

smokers here are

is

seems a

little

too glossy and hard,

of an earlier generation

shrewd eye

for

- almost a Dutch

physiognomy and

adroit, contrasting studies of action

and

gesture. His

meditative smoker in the background, so patently detached from the players

Duyster seems

two

repose. Indeed, in the isolated,


at

the table,

to verge on making some critical comment on the game of life.

159

Thomas de KEVSER (1596 or 159^-1667)


Constant ijH Huygens and bis Clerk or Page
The sitter would make
composition held
it

this

an intnguini; painting even

less fascination

than

it

if

the highly detailed

does. Not since Holbein s Tbe Ambassadors',

may be. had tastes been so strongly conveyed in a portrait, and de Keyser also sets

Huygens

in a personal

environment. Huygens was a figure of impressively diverse

talents - diplomat and royal councillor, and a scholar concerned with the sciences, as
well as the fine arts. On the comparatively small scale of the composition, the painter

manages to convey the variety and also me activity involved, as Huygens turns from
what appear to be architectural plans to receive a letter from a respectful messenger thus nicely suggesting the student

160

who is equally a man of the world.

Jan

MOLENAER (l609 or

I6l0[

?]

- 1668)

Children fnaking Music


Children are something of a discovery as a subject for painters

all

over Europe in

the seventeenth century. Princely, as with van Dyck (p.l36), or peasant-like and
poor, as with the Le Nain brothers in France

and with Molenaer here (in

supposed

new

to

Molenaer

be by the Le Nain), they bring a


s

cheerful trio

with two spoons

make

aspect of nature

rather improvised music

the

a painting

and the natural

girl

beats

on

once

to art.

a helmet

but seem content enough in their humble, scullery-like environ-

ment. They might almost be youthful wandering players


journey. Poor they definitely are, though Molenaer does

concerned rather

to

show

who had paused on their

no more than record the

their grinning countenances, expressive

fact,

perhaps of

their carefree attitude to the harsh facts of existence.

161

HALS (c.l580[>]- 1666)


A Boy with a Skull

Frans

Hals

is

master of several moods, though

in

only one style - a style of vigorous

slashing brushstrokes and rapid-seeming application of pigment which


.

is

well

exemplified in this brilliant study. He can be an intensely sober and dignified portraitist
(notably in group portraits) and he can also

of oil-paint.

If

show off his abilities as a sheer manipulator

the message intended by this composition

counteracted by the vitality

it

exudes. Grim as

it

is

may be.

one of mortality, the

the skull

is

effect is

almost eclipsed as

an image by the long flaunting plume of feather stuck with such bravura in the boy

s cap.

LEYSTER (1609-1660)
A Boy and a Girl

Judith

Children are again the theme here for a painter who marriedjan .Molenaer. The

boy clasps a cat and seems to be holding up an eel, conceivably an


Dutch proverb but perhaps
carefree time,

just part of the general

which the animation ofthe two children seems to emphasise. The

daughter of a brewer living in Haarlem .Judith


punningstiir)

was precociously

talented.

l.eyster (

who often signs, as here, with a

She may have become a pupil of Frans Hals,

and certainly paintings like this one show

162

illustration of some

message of childhood as a lively.

his influence.

MAES (1634-1693)
Interior with a Sleeping Maid and her Mistress
Nicolaes

Maes established
Delft

a distinct type of domestic genre painting vaguely related to the

School and the work of Pieter de Hooch (p.l69), with some echoes in

Rembrandt's

style.

Unlike de

Hooch he
,

later

it

of

stopped painting genre and concentrated

The shadowy atmospheric interior here - made more intriguing by the


view of the upper room in the background - has its own effective mystery. The subject

on

portraiture.

may have intended. The


sleepy maid could simply be exhausted by the labour required of her - a not
inconsiderable pile of washing-up faces her on the floor - rather than naturally idle.
Certainly it is hard to warm to Maes's smug housewife as she invites the spectator's
itself,

however,

is

little

more

disturbing today than Maes

complicity in sighing over the Dutch seventeenth-century servant problem.

METSU (1629-1667)
A Woman Drawing

Gabriel

Metsu

is

one of the most

attractive of

Dutch genre

painters. If

he lacks the stature

Hooch and Vermeer, he largely manages to avoid the over-finished, somewhat


manner of his presumed master, Dou. The subject here has its own attraction
- not least in showing pursuit of artistic studies, in a learned-looking environment and
by a woman (which is not common in Dutch art). The pleasure of being absorbed in
of de

finicking

such work, on one's own,

comes from the

is

clearly conveyed.

And a final touch

resolutely unpretty features of the

of serious intent

woman herself.

165

Jan STEEN (1625 or 1626-1679)


Skittle Players outside an Inn
Steen was the son of a brewer and

have
life

much

relevance to this enchanted scene, with

passing agreeably,
little

late in life kept

house

at

half-lost

a slow tempo, on a

among tall

trees.

an inn, but neither


its

fact

seems

to

hint o{ dejeuner surlberbe

and

summers day outside The White Swan, a

Steen

is

a painter of the greatest delicacy,

regardless of his often uproarious subiect-matter, yet even he rarely equalled the

atmospheric sensitivity of this open-air scene, where

through the glistening foliage and lending


fence

at

the verge. Action

is

suspended. The

silhouette of the girl in the lane

is

fixed

blob of luminosity, seized before

it

its

glamour

to a jug, a

skittle player poises

patch of linen or the

about

to

bowl, and the

ashe goes towards the inn her cap a bright


,

and she

penumbra formed by
164

light .seems forever filtering

pa.ss

out of sight into the shady

the trees.

Dirk van

DELEN (1604/5-1671)

An Architectural Fantasy
Amid the strong bias towards naturalism
painting at

its

most

displayed by Dutch seventeenth-century

typical, there stands out the

work of such

a painter as van Delen.

He

painted architectural scenes in a style very different from that of van der Heyden (p.l50)

or Saenredam

(p.

168), relishing the piling of fantasy

upon

delightfully improbable, glossy assemblage of buildings here.

It

fantasy to create the

could never be mistaken

What the artist displays is the power of his invention, in a


deliberately capricious way that is really an inheritance from the Renaissance.

for real architecture.

165

Harmen STEEXWTCK (1612- after


Still Life:

Steenwyck seems

An Allegory of the
to

Vanities of

have made a speciality of the

1665)

Human Life

N'anitas still

life,

a category of

painting that hecame popular in Holland quite early in the seventeenth century.

It

offers

the painter the opportunity for exploring a variety of shapes, and in Steenwyck's

assemblage there

is

the unexpected novelty of a Japanese sword, in a scabbard richly

inlaid with mother-of-pearl.

perhaps, as
is

166

is

It

may represent wealth or rank -

a collector's rarity too,

the fine sea-shell. Although the artist dutifully conveys the moral that

vanity, he paints with a respect for each object that turns a truism into art.

all

Willem KALF (I6l9-l693)


Still Life

with the Drinking Horn of the Saint Sebastian


Archers' Guild

Not every Dutch

still life

harps on worldly vanity. Some,

rather different lesson, urging in a frankly opulent

way

like this

one, preach a

the pleasures of good food and

wine. Kalfs art seems to have suited an opulent clientele in Amsterdam one that could
,

afford lobsters

and Turkey

carpets,

horn (which survives today),

if

not actually

own

the highly-wrought drinking

a sixteenth-century treasure

carving that includes a lion holding the shield of the

purveyor of rich food and objects

in paint.

mounted in elaborate silver


Kalf is more than a mere

city.

Some of the richness

here arises from his

strong sense of texture and colour, and perhaps the virtuoso highlight of the

composition

is

the half-peeled lemon.

167

SAENREDAM (1597-1665)
The Grote Kerk, Haarlem

Pieter

Concentratingon church
to a

interiors, faithful as a

draughtsman of them and precise


,

degree (often dating his drawings by the day and the month, as well as the year),

Saenredam might seem the pattern of the good architectural


more. In

fact,

he can be

for artistic purposes,

perspective.

on forms, so

What

is

shown

and from

to

have taken frequent

his library

striking about

we know

this painting

and more

May

he was interested

in optics

austere tonal beauty and

on an

ideal aspect, purer,

its

and

grasp

more

airy

than

Haarlem was where he early

168

and not much

in realit}'. For it. Saenredam executed a


on
the spot - no great problem for him
1636)

intellectually satisfying

preliminary drawing (dated 29

that

is its

that the interior of the Grote Kerk takes

recorder,

liberties in his paintings, entirely

settled

and

largely

worked.

as

HOOCH (1629-1684)
A Womaji and her Maid in a Courtyard
Pieter de

De Hooch's open-air scenes are arguably


be

little

or no

posthumous

his

most

rivalry with Vermeer.

It

original,

was

and

in

them there can

where he

in Delft,

lived for

about seven years from 16S3. that he produced his finest work. The architecture of the
city exercised its

appeal on him. as

is

apparent

in this view,

rearranged of the old city wall and other motifs,


Delft.

open

The

like the

painter's eye lingers over every detail of the

shutters,

which contains elements

summerhouse. which

even the discoloured brickwork, and yet fuses them

whole of uncanny conviction. Against


the figure of the standing

woman

the

warm

recall

pump, the bare garden, the

red of the fence

all

half-

into a single tonal

and gateway, he sets

suppressing individualitv by showing her entirely

from the back. Indeed, her function

is

chiefly that of

white cap and black and white jacket providing the

beinga

foil in

terms of tone, her

final note of restricted richness.

169

Attributed to Michiel

NOUTS (active

l656)

A Family Group
Although

this large-scale painting

and partly repainted, and

at

has undergone vicissitudes, being damaged

one point cut

easily paralleled in the Gallery's varied


Delft, possibly

in half,

it

retains a distinctive air

Dutch collection.

It

and

is

not

was probably painted

in

by the somewhat mysterious Nouts. As a family group of sober, even

stern, appearance, truthfully portrayed,

and perhaps embodying Dutch

be contrasted with Coques' elegant Flemish family (p.l39)


wilfully hedonistic

preoccupied father

air.

Here

thrift is

who barely

suggested by the plain

interrupts his

own work

to

virtues,

it

may

who take on an almost

interior,

and industry by the

supervise his son's learning

No comfortably ageing matron as envisaged by. say. Maes, the mother


if somewhat grimly, tends children as solemn-seeming as herself. The

of a lesson.
dutifully,

presence of a doll adds a mitigating touch amid such resolute high seriousness.

though

170

it

- one suspects - might yet be confiscated before bedtime.

Johannes VERMEER (1632-1675)


A Young Woman standing at a Virginal
There are comparatively few

men

in Vermeer's paintings.

inhahitants he normally chooses for his interiors, and music

The

solitary

a favourite occupation.

woman here may he thought to he just touching the instrument,

disturbing the silence of the


straight figure.

his style

is

Women are the

room which forms

By the time he painted

this picture,

and his approach The composition


.

raised above the level of ordinary genre

present but to what light defines.

a perfect

is

around

environment
16'^0,

hardly

for her

still,

Vermeer had purified

a masterpiece of subtle contrivance,

and painted with obedience not

Thus the woman's curls, her

to

what

pearl necklace

is

and the

ribbons of her wonderful blue and white sleeve are aglow with almost liquid
luminosity, absorbing detail

and transcending

it.

Every shape

is

clear

and concentrated,

with firmly defined horizontals and verticals, framing, for example, the woman's face
as well as the painting of Cupid, In

blond

light, this

is

Vermeer

its

geometry as much as

to take its place beside the

in

its

cool colour and

its

work of Piero della Francesca.


171

POEL (1621-1684)
A View ofDelft after the Explosion of 1654
Egbert van der

The explosion of a powder magazine on the morning of Monday.

12

October 165^

destroyed a large part of Delft and killed numberless people - among them Care!
Fabritius (see p.l73). Van der Poel was a native of Delft and may have witnessed the

scene (he dates this picture to the day of the catastrophe).


speciality in his
at least a

work, previously

dozen versions

moment. Such

exist

It

became something of a

restricted largely to peaceful rustic compositions,

by him of the aftermath of the explosion or

a scene of desolation

comes

its

and

actual

as a shock in the fairly even tenor of Dutch

seventeenth-century

art.

BERCKHEYDE (1638-1698)
The Market Place at Haarlem

Gerrit

The prominent church

is

the Grote Kerk (St Bavo),

which looks very similar

in

appearance today. Like Saenredam Berckheyde was a native of Haarlem and views of
.

the city represent a considerable portion of his work. Here, calm activity and civic

prosperity are
portico

at

enhanced by the long shadows and the

the right

- which

bright, early

serves Berckheyde so well as

and had been put up only a few years before


172

a motif -

evening
is

of the

the painter's birth.

light.

The

town

hall

Card FABRITIUS (1622-1654)


SelfPortrait (?)
In this impressive portrait, dated in the year of Fabritius' accidental death, at the

age of thirty-two,

prove

it

is

had spent

that, Fabritius

up costume, the
suggest

some

tempting

sitter's

to see a self portrait

it

a period in Rembrandt's studio,

influence of Rembrandt.

result

though probably

is.
it

The

Yet. at

and

sets the figure against a

with masterly directness which in

though the

is

its

thick highlight

was carefully

fortunate

is

no firm evidence

and the

enough

the

same

time,

what

is

to

slightly dressed-

remarkable

is

all

the

presentation. Nearer to Rosa (p.93) than to

cloudy sky. He

lights

it

very

fully,

and he paints

vigour recalls Frans Hals (p.l62), different

on the breastplate looks almost dashed-in,

calculated, as doubtless

conveys the texture of the woolly fur


Gallery

though there

searching gaze, and especially the bold handling of paint,

painter's individuality of manner

Rembrandt, he

cap.

was

Few paintings by

to

own

is

profoundly evident.

the rough paint that

Fabritius survive (the

two), but in the best of them his originality

175

EECKHOUT (1621-1674)
Four Officers of the Amsterdam Coopers^ and
Gerbrand van den

Wine-rackers Guild
'

This

is

a type of professional group portrait fostered in seventeenth-century

Holland, and Eeckhout seems admirably equipped to give the


required: convincing likenesses

and a solid rather than

presentation of themselves (the solid calves of the

plump

sitters exactly

dramatic

brilliant or

seated

man

at

what was

the far right are

recorded with disarming honesty). Details of the seals and books of their trade

framed picture

in the

background of their patron

saint Saint
,

Matthias -

all

- with

add

to the

location of these four plainly dressed, business-like officials in the society of


their

174

own city and period.

REMBRANDT (1606-1669)
Belsbazzars Feast
Rembrandt

is

very

much

of his period in tackling the large-scale historical or

mythological subject-picture; and about the time Rubens was painting \\\s,Judgement of
Paris{\).\ll), in the
tells

much

about

its

in art, offering

Babylon's 'great

mid

l630s.

creator.

Rembrandt ^2i\n\e(\Belsbazzar's Feast Each painting


.

The Old Testament

subject of Belshazzar

was

a popular

one

effects. The King of


hand writing on the wall the words

obvious opportunities for exotic and dramatic

feast' is

interrupted by a mysterious

'Mene, mene. tekel upharsin' (words which,

when

interpreted,

prophesy the King's

death and the destruction of his kingdom). Rembrandt gives the message in precise

Hebrew form and makes the occasion one of serious, fearful import. For all Belshazzar's
splendour, his feast is depicted on a small, semi-intimate scale. Significance comes from
the clash between a figure of almost gross physical and oriental magnificence and the
gleaming, ethereal vision, in which he

- and we - can already

read his

doom.

175

REMBRANDT (1606-1669)
A Woman bathing in a Stream
Intimate study though this painting might seem,

may well be of a definite,

it

is

possibly Old Testament subject

signed and dated IbSS and

and executed as a commission.

The features of the woman are very similar to those of Rembrandt's mistress, Hendrickje
Stoffels,

condemned by

the Reformed Church after admitting she had stained herself by

fornication with Rembrandt


picture
its

was

painted.

pensive charm.

robes

on

It is

whose child she had given


is

very

much

birth to in the year before this

part of

its

intimacy and indeed

- no lingering over the gold


folds of the woman's white shift - and every stroke of paint

painted with the greatest freedom

the bank or the

seems

176

The pictures technique

to

enhance the mood of privacy and reflection.

REMBRANDT (I6O6-I669)
Margaretha de Geer
Margaretha de Geer must have been not

Rembrandt

for this portrait in

which

far

fragility

from eighty

and indomitability

combined. She had married Jacob Trip (whose portrait


the Collection) before the painter

husband. She occupies her chair


feels, as in

to outlive

him

an almost regal way. as unchanging

resolute adherence to the fashions of ruff and

more than forty

are

years earlier. Yet old age has deeply

movingly

by Rembrandt

in old age

was born, and she was

in

when she sat to

gown

that

is

also in

as well as her

in attitude,

one

had been current

marked her, and part of the power

of the image resides in the sympathetic touches of pigment that catch the rusty

complexion the puckered mouth and sunken eye-sockets. The

living

severed by the great plate of ruff, crisply starched and as


personality

still

crisp

it

head

is

almost

were e.xpressive of a

even though physically needing

to grasp

with

one bony hand the support of her chair- arm

177

REMBLWDT (1606-1669)
Self Portrait aged Sixty-three
The

date of 1669. the final year of Rembrandt's

which

is

thus one of his

last

life,

can be read on

works, as well as one of his very

this painting.

last self portraits.

image could scarcely be more simple or the self-scrutiny more

intense.

The

As a young

painter Rembrandt had delighted in painting himself in flamboyant costumes. At a later


date he

had painted himself as a painter, and as someone confronting the world,

or resigned. In this portrait, the world

confront a plainly-dressed, elderly

any particular avocation. Restraint

itself

seems

to

have receded, leaving the

defiant

artist to

man. of undistinguished appearance and without

is its

keynote.

The

paint too

way. rubbed onto the canvas with an inspired economy that

is

handled

in a restrained

recalls Titian's late style.

And everything is concentrated on the heyl and the e.xpression as Rembrandt


seeks - it might be felt - to go against the Shakespearian adage and show
.

the mind's construction in the face.

178

Emanuel de WITTE (I6l5/17-l691 or 1692)


Adriana van Heusden and her Daughter at the New Fishmarket
in Amsterdam (?)
Behind the lengthy

title

of this painting

lies

the considerable interest of the composition


the painter's landlord in
to

belong

to the

these paintings

surrender
painter

it,

is

at a

period

Adriana van Heusden was the wife of

when everything de Witte painted was


sum One of

landlord in exchange for board and lodging, plus a cash

and

it

for a novel.

The

substitutions,

which would

painting's combination of portraiture

and open-air

more so than de Witte's behaviour over it. At the same time,


in Adriana van Heusden's demeanour of someone who
might be difficult - if only over the price and quality offish.

attractive
is

failed to

subsequently became part of a complicated legal dispute between the

and Adriana van Heusden, involvingcopies and

there

was almost certainly the present one. For some reason de Witte

make a good plot


genre

Amsterdam

an interesting story, quite apart from

itself.

rather

perhaps a hint

179

<

Philips

WOUWERMANS (1619-1666)

Cavalrymen baited at a Sutler s Booth


i

Wouwermans was one of the seventeenth-century Dutch painters most


appreciated in the subsequent century, especially in France and England. He
prolific

and also -

takes as

its

theme

unlike, say,

Rembrandt -

soldiers, horses,

camps,

a success in his lifetime.

battles

and such

One

was highly

vein of his art

light-hearted semi-military

scenes as the present one. About his always accomplished work there hovers a
graceful, decorative

air.

not to be despised in

itself

and markedly anticipating

aspects of the rococo style.

180

Spanish Painting
Spanish paintings were to enter

though

this aspect of the Collection

no

for example,

parallel outside Spain;

is

by

as 183".

is

a range of paintings that

and even within Spain there

\{\s

purchased

in

is

hard

to

to the

of Yen us (p.lSb).

Peasant Boy wds already

The first Velazquez

is,

remarkably

nothing comparable

is

the Trustees bought the splendid large-scale

Zachar}-.

(p,185),

works

was

generally popular Spanish painter in the nineteenth century-

whom

M.M.

not sufficiently representative (there

shown with

Toilet

and

Gallery from a quite early date,

full-length portrait by Goya), the quality of the

high. Velazquez, in particular,

The most

tiie

is still

in the

Ttw

Murillo,

Trinities (p.l91) as early

CoUeaion. having been presented by

to be acquired

was Philip I\ 'hunting Wild Boar

I846 a painting sometimes assigned to a pupil or assistant but


.

A painting by Zurbaran was added in

clearly in large part by \elazquez himself.

1853 being purchased from the King Louis-Philippe


.

sale.

Eastlakes directorship did not result in any notable Spanish acquisitions, but in the
later years of the

The ven."

nineteenth century a

number of significant

fine full-length portrait of Philip IV

outside Spain

and Mary (p.

by Velazquez (p.l84). a rare item indeed

was purchased for 6,000 guineas

Gregon.- bequeathed the early Velazquez


183). SirJ.C.

additions were made.

in 1882

and

in 1892 Sir William

bodegon of Christ in the House ofMartha

Robinson presented the

example of El Grecos work

first

{Christ driving the Tradersfrom the Temple) in 1895 In the following year the
.

Gallen,'

purchased,

at a sale in

Madrid,

its first

portrait of Dona Isabel de Porcel (p.l93 )

since the painter

The

Toilet

It

little

known or esteemed in England.

War and had been bought

was

brilliant

These were somewhat daring purchases.

ofVenusf The Rokeby Venus

the Peninsular
Yorkshire.

was still

Goya, and also added Goyas

')

had entered England

at

the time of

for the Morritt colleaion at

sold by the family in 1905

Rokeby

in

and subsequently purchased by the

newly formed National Art-Collections Fund, who presented it

to the

Caller)- in 1906.

Spanish religious

art represented a

more difficult

area,

and it

is

remarkable that

haunting but hardly popular Vision ofBather Simon (p.l88)


should have been purchased in 1913. Zurbaran s delightful Saint Margaret

Ribalta's strangely

(p. 187),

bought

in 1903.

is

a less obviously pious work, though artistically


of superior quality.

During the

though
necessar\'

last thirt\-

or so years several outstanding purchases have been made,

in 19"0 the Gallery failed

sum

to raise the

to retain in this countrs' Velazquez's magnificent portrait of Juan de

Pareja. Murillo's

having been

- through no fault of its own -

moving and dignified self portrait (p.

in this

190)

was bought

in 1953.

country for over two hundred years. In 196I, with generous aid

from the Wolfson Foundation and an Exchequer Grant, Goya's portrait of the Duke of
Wellington

(p.l9'i)

was purchased. More

recently, the Galler}- has

of fine eighteenth-centur}- Spanish paintings,


life (p.

among them

192) by .Melendez, the great painter of the day


this category- of

bought a number
a superb

still

who specialised in

work.

181

a.
C/5

GRECO (1541-1614)
The Agony in the Garden

Studio ofEL

Although a slight hardness in the actual painting of this picture indicates its studio
status, the

composition

is

surprisingly, he repeated

it

one of the most


several times.

settling in Spain, in Toledo (by 157^), El

original ever conceived by El Greco. Not

Coming from

Crete, training in Venice

influences, out of which he fused an intensely personal

and visionary

style.

subject gains from the painter's sense of heightened reality, so that the

Gethsemane becomes

made ominous by

Christ's ordeal

182

is

and more

and clouds assume threatening shapes

the floating, half-veiled orb of

fiercely

Here the

Garden of

a blanched, lunar landscape, far stranger, far less stable

alien than, for example, Mantegna's (p.4^)). Rocks


in a dark night

and

Greco was the product of varied traditions and

conveyed, but so also

is

moon. The

loneliness of

His acceptance of it.

VELAZQUEZ (1599-1660)
Kitchen Scene with Christ in the House ofMartha and Mary
Diego

Velazquez

is

seldom thought of as precocious, yet he seems

as a painter in his native Seville by about the age of thirteen

the age of nineteen.

It is

to

have been studying

and painted

this picture at

typical of his early kitchen' compositions in both shape

and

handling, though unusual in combining the homely genre elements in the foreground

with the scene of Christ preaching

have a moral basis not yet

fully

to

Martha and Mary. Velazquez's intentions here may

comprehended, but

Biblical subject illustrates the contrast

between

.Mary,

it

can hardly be chance that the

who sits listening at Christ's feet,

and Martha, cumbered with domestic chores and expostulating about her sister "s
apparent selfishness. The achievement of the picture
in the austere, vigorously painted

cloves of garlic, the fish

still life

and the two

on the

eggs,

all

lies,

table

however, not in that scene but


the earthenware plates, the

of which have an artistic

and almost

sacramental solemnitv.

185

VELAZQUEZ (1599-1660)
Philip IV of Spain in Brown and Silver
Diego

In 1623 Velazquez

still

quite

young - entered royal service

in Madrid,

and was

promised that he alone should paint the King, himself then aged only seventeen. For
the rest of their lives, painter

and monarch were bound together No painter has ever

served one patron so faithfully, and Velazquez died in the King's


of the

mid lb3Us

.service.

In this portrait

the King wears an unusually splendid costume, perhaps for a state

occasion, and holds a paper on which the

artist

has signed the picture as painter

to

Your Majesty'. Philip IV sought no flattering image from his portraitist - and received
none. Velazquez records the royal features as they were, painting them with great care,

and then allows

his

brush the freedom of creating the costume with a fluency and

boldness that remain astonishing. In the hat alone

184

is

foreshadowed .Manet.

C/2

V5

VELAZQUEZ (1599-1660)
Philip IV hunting Wild Boar

Diego

In Velazquez's pictures royalty


this

absorbing composition

is

normally shown

unique

downwards and outwards from


peculiarly unsporting kind, as

is

is

in

showing

all

in a strictly court context,

levels of

from the

details of the

canvas enclosure within which the boars are hunted. Philip


spearing a boar, but more remarkable

some engaged
spectacle.

Spanish society extending

the King, in an open-air panorama.


clear

in con\-ersation or

is

the \'aried

quenching

and

The

'sport' is

of a

composition, not least the

1\' is

identifiable at the right

crowd of larger foreground

their thirst, indifferent,

it

figures,

seems, to the

While duly executing what must have been a royal commission, Velazquez

puts the ostensible subject into the widest possible perspective, with the result that the

Spanish landscape and ordinary Spanish people dwarf the ruler of

it

and them.

185

c
Qu
;/2

VELAZQUEZ (1599-1660)

Diego

The

Toilet

of Venus ('The Rokeby Venus')

Only the presence of the winged Cupid gives any mythological nuance

would otherwise be an almost

timeless,

curtains

on

is

exudes from what

is

is

once chaste and sensuous.

nude by the painter and

a profoundly self-absorbed figure,

and rumpled drapery increases the

Venus's body there

a bed. At

the sole surviving female

altogether in Spanish art

a rare subject

and the

seen of that body, whose pale colouring

with the unexpected blue-grey of the sheet on which


it

is

setting of

feeling of claustrophobia. In the pose of

a sort of implied modesty, yet a strong sense of flesh

luxuriously As always,

what

"modern-seeming study of a woman gazing at

herself in a mirror as she reclines naked

Velazquez's Venus

to

it

is

and blood

excitingly contrasted

presses so positively

Velazquez's handling of oil-paint,

and

combined with

his

unflinching observation of what he sees, that creates the overwhelming effect. By the

time he painted the Toilet of Vetius


earlier

186

his

- no later than

1651

and possibly a year or two

masterv of the medium was

total.

On
;/5

Francisco de

ZURBARAN (1598-1664)

Saint Margaret
The saint

is

shown as a shepherdess -

accompanied by the dragon which


to

is

convey the physical actuality of the

without a halo and with conceivably

a Spanish

one - but

part of her legend. Zurbaran

is

discreetly

chiefly

typical of Spanish seventeenth-century painting generally, but Zurbaran

almost sculpted

stillness

and gravity,

creates supra-realistic effects

concerned

who is very much there as a person.


the features of a real woman. In all that he may be
saint herself,

in

which shapes

aims

at

an

are painted with a clarity that

as here, for example, in the ruffles of white linen at

the saint's wrists and neck.

187

c
a.

Francisco RIBALTA (1565-1628)

The Vision of Father Simon


There

is

much

seems quintessentially Spanish about

that

depicts the vision of a

once famous

this strange painting,

ascetic, a parish priest in \alencia.

whose

meditations in the city by night on the theme of the Road to Calvary culminated in the
vision of Christ carrying the Cross, surrounded by His executioners and followed by the
Virgin

and Saint John

the year this painting

Attempts

to

just
is

down,

at

the extreme right

).

Father

have him beatified were strongly


altars. Ribalta

resisted,

and images

own church

convincing of all perhaps

high houses in which there

is

of him were

is

soon

now sadly

in Valencia. For Christ's

he borrowed from Sebastiano del Piombo. but the kneeling

188

in 1612

probably painted this composition,

as an altarpiece in Father Simon's

portrait. .Most

Simon died

dated - and became a cult figure, though a controversial one.

ordered to be removed from


cut

glimpsed

priest s face

the shadowy, nocturnal,

is

an accurate

empty

suddenly manifested the vision

pose

street of

itself.

a.

Juan Bautista

del

MAZO (c.l6l 2/16-166 7)

Queen Mariana of Spain in Mourning


The Queen, widow of her
in pious retreat but as Regent,
later

destroyed by

fire.

uncle, Philip

IV,

wears a nun's habit but

occupying a room

quite literally

is full

- on

depicted not

in the Alcazar, a royal palace in

Madrid

In the background can be seen dwarves and female attendants

surrounding her five-year-old son, King Charles


composition

is

of echoes of Velazquez.

It is

II.

Like the style of painting, the

intriguing because

the Spanish court after his death

and

it

lifts

a curtain

that of his great patron.

Mazo

entered Velazquez's studio and married his daughter. His certain paintings are few, and
this

one has additional

interest in being signed by

him

as well as dated (1666).

189

Bartolome Esteban MURILLO (16r-1682)


SelfPortrait
Murillo must have been in his
direct image, set in

fifties

when he painted this dignified yet frani\ and

an elaborate frame of a kind appearing in engravings, with a

compass and a red chalk drawing on the ledge


solemn

air of the

composition

is

at

the

left

and

a palette

on

the right.

The

increased by the prominent Latin inscription which

declares that Murillo portrays himself to


sons). Pride in the profession of artist

is

fulfil

no

the wishes and prayers of his children {or

less earnestly declared,

and altogether the

on something of a testament and even monument. .Murillo is a great


and forceful on occasion, as here. His actual works belie his one-lime
reputation as sentimental and over-pious - as the group of them in the Gallery

portrait takes

painter, sober

rapidly establishes.

190

C/5

C
On
CZ5

Bartolome Esteban MURILLO (I6l7-l682)

The Tluo

Trinities (7he Pedroso Murillo)

handsome painting by Murillo would seem destined for an altar but its
is unknown. It comes from the Pedroso family collection in Cadiz, a
city for which Murillo painted a good deal. The subject combines the trinity on earth
made up of the Virgin and Saint Joseph and the Christ Child, whose hands they here
This

original location

hold, with the heavenly Trinity. Murillo blends the two spheres in a characteristically
graceful, decorative way,

making heaven

softer

and more vaporous than earth where

vigorous painting, especially of the Virgin, shows

continued

to take his

how seriously

the artist

own art.
191

a.
c/5

LuisMELENDEZ(ri6-1780)
Still Life with Oranges and Walnuts
work of Melendez come to public attention. He began
him is in the Louvre) but later turned to still
- the category of picture by which he is now best known. He painted a large number

Only

in recent years has the

as a portrait-painter (a fine self portrait by


life

of such pictures for the royal palace

1772
its

is

at

Aranjuez. The present painting, signed and dated

imposing in composition - almost majestic - and made the more effective by

restricted,

warm

tonality.

The swelling shapes of the oranges and the gourd of melon

are echoed by those of the earthenware pitchers


plotting, every object has taken

its

and the barrel. Without too obvious

place in an arrangement

which exudes a solemn,

satisfying sense of rightness. while Melendez does full justice to the range of texture.

including that of the

Melendez

work

exists in

wooden

boxes,

which probably contain a form of preserve.

there seems something residually Spanish

such a

still life

and a germ of it already

as that created by Velazquez in his Kitchen

Christ in the House of Martha

192

In

and Mary (p. 183).

Scene with

Francisco de

GOYA (1746-1828)

Dona Isabel de Porcel


Goya exhibited

this

composition has a bold


being on show. The

bravura and beautiful portrait


air to

sitter is

it

as

if

both painter and

dressed in the costume

in

Madrid

in 1805

sitter quite

oizmaja

and the

enjoyed the idea of

a popular costume often

adopted by fashionable Spaniards in the early years of the nineteenth century She

wears
fall

it

with great aplomb, and

it

gives

Goya the opportunity

of black lace with brilliant freedom. At the

characterises Dofia Isabel as

lustrous eyes

no merely

and thoughts: and

it is

handle the folds and

time, subtle portraitist as

he

is,

he

flaunting, proto-Carmen figure, despite her

and full mouth Very much an


.

same

to

individual, she

seems

part of the paintings spell that under

to

all its

have her

own life

surface vivacity

there lurks a hint of pensiveness.

193

V5

GOYA (1746-1828)
The Duke of Wellington

Francisco de

Into the

great

lite

and career of Goya -

as into the

European events erupted. Goya

life

and career of jacques-Louis David

lived to see his

country torn by war

decades of peace, and the future Duke of Wellington enter Madrid on

having defeated the Napoleonic forces


for that victory Wellington

at

12

after

August 1812

the Battle of Salamanca. As one of his rewards

was awarded the Order of the Golden

Fleece,

which Goya

shows him wearing among other orders and decorations. Although Goya probably
made some changes to the painting in 1814 he basically portrays the man he saw in the
summer of 1812 - a still youngish sunburnt and somewhat tense-looking, perhaps
.

battle- weary, soldier.

commander. Goya's

There

is

no

allegorising

artistic directness

and no

lofty

pose for the victorious

and penetration should have suited Wellington.

but though Goya was to paint other portraits of him no record seems to exist of the
.

relations

194

between the two men.

British Painting
In the nucleus of the Angerstein collection, purchased to found the Gallery,
British painting

was

chiefly represented by

a la mode (see

pictures, Hogarth's six scenes of Marriage

was

also represented

an important and famous series of


p.

among the first Trustees by Sir Thomas

As with other aspects of the Gallery's

Lawrence.

activities in its earliest years, there

have been no clear policy about acquiring good works by the


present.

196). British painting

seems

to

British School past or


,

An outstanding late landscape by Gainsborough (77?^ Watering Place) was

presented by Lord Farnborough in 1827. A Reynolds portrait {Lord Heathfield) had

been among the Angerstein

pictures. After Constable's death in 1837, a

subscribers presented an example of his work, The Cornfield

which had several times been exhibited by the artist. A

painting,

a highly finished
large collection of

mainly nineteenth-century British pictures was given by Robert Vernon

though there was by then no space

The settlement

to display

them

at

body of

in 1847,

Trafalgar Square.

in 1856 of Turner's will resulted in the nation gaining the bulk of his

Among the paintings wqk Ulysses


Steam and Speed {^2^1) -mi - perhaps

work, inclusive of drawings and watercolours.


deriding Polyphemus {^.2%), Rain.
Turner's most famous painting

- The

'Fighting Temeraire'

(p.

205).

Eastlake's directorship Reynolds" fine full-length portrait of Captain

was purchased,
With the foundation of the
art

as well as

at

some portraits by Gainsborough.

art),

only a selection of first-rate British paintings

the National Gallery, and that has continued to be the position. Henry

Vaughan had presented Constable's popular //^nvr^/;/


bequeathed
Butterfly

Orme (p.200)

Tate Gallery in 1897 as the national collection of British

(and of modern foreign

remained

During

at his

death in

(p. 198).

(p.

204) in 1886 and

1900 Gainsborough's The Painter 's Daughters chasing a

Gainsborough, Reynolds, Constable and Turner have been the

chief stars at Trafalgar Square, Representation of Gainsborough's stylistic range


greatly strengthened
(p.

199)

when purchase in

was followed six years

later

1954 of his

late

and

airy

was

Morning Walk

by purchase of his early and as

it

were earthy

portrait of another married couple, Mr and Mrs Andrews (p.l97).

Lawrence's death had precipitated no move, sadly, to represent his brilliant


until 1927

portrait

art.

Not

was a purchase made, of his youthful but highly accomplished full-length


of Queen Charlotte (p. 203). Older British painters like Stubbs andjoseph

now recognised as great figures, were even more fitfully treated. Stubbs'
impressive and characteristic Melbourne and Milbanke Families (p.202) was

Wright,

bought as recently as 1975 while Wright's no


,

interpretation of portrait

difficult.

'British'

1984.

and representation among later British

One other great portrait-painter is

today by a masterpiece which the


Sargent's full-length

impressive and

and landscape combined, Mr and Mrs Coltman,

was acquired in
Selection

less

sitter

again represented

present

it

at

Trafalgar Square

himself, a Trustee of the Gallery, presented:

Lord Ribblesdale (p. 208).

Trustee will inspire a great portrait

painters will doubtless always be

It

cannot be expected that every

and subsequently be generous enough to


to the Collection.

195

C/3

U
PQ

William

HOGARTH (1697-1764)

The Marriage Contract


This

the

is

first

of the six paintings in the series o{ Marriage a la mode, painted

by Hogarth around April 1743 and the picture


,

sophisticated, allusive

nobleman and
have

settled

left,

The couple

all

to

satiric set.

A poor but proud

respectively

for

reasons solely

be yoked in unholy and unhappy matrimony appear

as the series discloses

illustrate a

He paints with delicacy as well

as

to the

moral

husband's murder and the wife's


tale (one, incidentally, of his

mordant humour. And

in this

own

composition

the pointed allusions and the sharp observation of contemporary costume and

furnishings seem shot through with an angry regret

at

how human behaviour selfishly

conspires to turn what should be happiness into pervasive misery.

196

at

already emotionally divorced, sharing only proximity Such a cynically

But Hogarth does more than

devising).

arguably the most subtle of the

than

on the marriage of their son and daughter

arranged match leads


suicide.

is

tragic

a rich, ambitious City of London merchant, seen together at the right,

of cash and status.

the

and ultimately more

Thomas GAINSBOROUGH (1727-1788)


Mr and Mrs Andrews
Gainsborough was only about twenty when he returned,

London,

to his native

after training in

Sudbury. There he began to work chiefly as a portrait-painter, on a

small scale, exploiting his wonderful

gift for

a likeness but never failing to respond also

Mr and Mrs Robert Andrews, who had


married in Sudbury in November r48. sat to him a year or two later for a portrait which
turned into one of the masterpieces of British painting. The freshness of the approach is
combined with a lyrical freshness of paint as such - the artist revealing an instinctive
to nature' in the

feel for

the

sense of the countryside.

medium -

that time has not impaired.

Gainsborough precisely depicts Mr and


lady

- and also portrays

.Mrs

the land that

the sheep in a well-fenced

field,

is

and

.Andrews

With

typical, total candour.

very

much

the squire

and

partly theirs, with the corn stooked

rolling countryside

beyond,

all

his

and

under

a cloudy, atmospheric sky.

197

C/5

fiQ

Thomas GAINSBOROUGH (1727-1788)


The Painter s Daughters chasing a Butterfly
Gainsborough, a close friend recorded of his performance on the viola da gamba,

And so, one might

"always played to the feelings'.

people

is

that

partly

he should have found

portraits. Like

add, he painted. His lively feeling for

communicated through the application of paint, and

babes in

in his

two daughters inspiration

the wood, hand

pursue the butterfly poised on a

in

enchanting
here solemnly

stir

the father as well as the

Mary and Margaret Gainsborough grew up talented but somewhat unstable, both

suffering unsatisfactory emotional experiences.

not dying until 1826), together

at

the

They were

end of their

to live

lives as

Gainsborough depicted them half buttertly-like themselves,


,

absorbed

198

girls

not surprising

Youthful hopes and also, perhaps, the

elusiveness of happiness are suggested by the theme, one to


artist.

for several

hand, the two dark-eyed

thistle.

it is

in

an uncontrived,

perfect

long (Mary, the elder,

they had been


vivid,

when

spontaneous and

image of childhood.

^
QQ

Thomas GAINSBOROUGH (1727-1788)


The Morning Walk
The given elements of this painting are very much

the

same as those

of Mr and

Mrs Andrews, even down to the presence of a pet dog. The sitters were a newly married
young couple, Mr and Mrs William Hallett. and again they are seen in an open-air.

now large, to the


a modern title - is
painter's style, with its fine feathery handling. The Morning Walk
London.
He
has now learnt
one of Gainsborough's late works, done about rSS and m
how to set people in motion, and this contented couple stroll gracefully through no
country

setting. Yet everything,

it

seems, has changed: from the

Suffolk landscape but a hazy, enchanted


Hallett's millinery,

accompanied

her hat. Gainsborough's range and bold


painting

are

summed up

woodland almost

by a silky-coated dog,

in these

two double

Mrs Andrews. The Morning Walk

as silken

its tail

development

stylistic

portraits-,

is

scale,

and

and

plume

fluid as

to rival

Mrs

those in

unparalleled in British

to the

alpha of i/r^

the unexpected omega.

199

C/5

03

REYNOLDS (1723-1792)
Captain Robert Orme

Sir Joshua

With none of Gainsborough's instinctive gift


facility in

the handling of paint

wrong profession.
all

Reynolds might indeed seem

Yet this fairly early portrait,

dated 1756,

is

to

lacking any real

have chosen the

an impressive assertion of

Reynolds' qualities. He responds with almost romantic fervour to the status and aura

of his

sitter.

He conceives the

his restless horse,

ambushed and
Reynolds seems

gallant

young soldier as ardent

and consciously posed against

stormily receding.

a pale

Orme had served as aide-de-camp

killed in

1755 by the French

to suggest that incident in

had been wounded

in the

at

Fort

for action

mettlesome

takes

General Braddock,

Duquesne (modern

very type of brave,

on

like

sky from which thick clouds are


to

a heroic,

who was

Pittsburgh),

thesketchy background scene.

ambush and here

air as the

200

- and

for a likeness

and

Orme himself

though not exaggerated,

modern warrior

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Sirjoshua

REYNOLDS (r23-r92)

ANfie. Countess ofAlbemarle


Reynolds was wonderfully varied in his response

from a wide range of fashionable and

mother of Admiral Keppel, with

to his sitters,

intellectual society.

whom Reynolds was very friendly and whom he often

portrayed. Blanching of the paint of the

sitter's face

has probably increased the

her age and severity. Lady Albemarle was widowed and in her
this portrait,

with

its

fifties

effect

of

when she sat for

strong emphasis on domestic activity of an elegant kind, quite in

accord with her rich. Frenchified dress. There


in Reynolds' stolid treatment of the lace, silk

firm attempt to fix the

who were to come

Lady Albemarle was the

sitter's features

is

none of Gainsborough's effortless grace

and damask of the costume but there

and clothes

is

- and her environment. The result is

a pattern of quiet, ageing, aristocratic femininity, as

marked

in its

way

as the martial

And if Gainsborough's vivid ethos frequently carries one back


the seductive vitality of Rubens' Cbapeau de Paille'{p.m). Reynolds here

type oi Captain Orme.


to

seems

far closer to

Rembrandt's Margaretba de Geer (p.l77).

201

C/5

George STUBBS (1724-1806)

The Melbourne and Milbanke Families


It

would be wrong to say

that only in fairly recent


his

is

own day he is recorded as discontented at being treated as merely a horse-painter -

though

r^O.
is

modern discovery but it is certainly true


times has the quality of his art become widely appreciated. In
that Stubbs

as a painter of horses he

is

explains better than any words

not particularly inspiriting.

It is

what

he

sort of artist

really was.

the English squirearchy in the

shape of Sir Ralph Milbanke and his daughter Elizabeth


son-in-law Pennington

which Stubbs exhibited

superb. This painting,

Lamb (later Lord Melbourne), shown on

pots

and pans of a Chardin

still life-,

and both

in paint.
artists

sonjohn, and his

horseback. Stubbs
artistic integrity as

They become,

know

itself

somewhat unanimated

at the left, his

marvellously invests these people and their animals with a profound

he scrutinises them and grants them existence

The subject

in

for

him.

like

the

the secret of how to space

objects in a composition. Stubbs s figures possess a stubborn prosaicness without


triviality,

and are able

artfully spreading

202

to inhabit a setting of timeless poetry,

boughs of a noble

tree,

grouped under the

beside the expanse of a misty lake.

^
fiQ

Lawrence was

Queen Charlotte,

Sir

Thomas LAWRENCE (1769-1830)


Queen Charlotte

just

twenty

when he received a summons to Windsor to paint

the wife of George

III.

His career as a fashionable portrait-painter could

hardly have started more auspiciously, or so

it

seemed. The royal family disliked

Reynolds' work, and their favoured painter, Gainsborough, had died the previous year
This

brilliant,

to the

sympathetic and accomplished portrait shows

commission.

It is

at

once

glittering

how Lawrence responded

and dignified. Paint crackles

as

it

captures the

gleaming folds of dress and the sweep of curtain and conjures up Eton College Chapel

among russet, autumn foliage.


tet the portrait failed to please.
sitter.

The Queen was no easy or conventionally handsome

She thought Lawrence rather presuming"

in his efforts to

have her

talk

and look

animated, and the painting remained with Lawrence until his death. By then he was

indeed recognised and established as the most gifted portrait-painter of the period.
Queen Charlotte's son, George IV, had more than compensated for her failure to take up
the young artist, by sustained patronage of a kind not given by a British sovereign to a
painter since the days of Charles and van Dyck. And it is tempting to wonder whether
sight oi\\\sQueen Charlotte ever brought Lawrence's mind back in successful later life
I

to the

circumstances of this

first

roval commission.

203

^
OS

John CONSTABLE (1776-1837)

TheHaywain
Painted in

on

London

in 1821 (both place

the picture), The Haywain has

one of the most famous, perhaps, of all


and shows

at

the

left

of the

most famous of all

British paintings.

the house of Willy Lott,

there in 1849. at the age of eighty-eight.


in nostalgia,

and date accompany Constable's signature

become one

who

Examined

beginning with that of the

The scene

lived there

all

is

momentous than

artist living in a city,

waggon

but

its

bold, painterly technique

after

it

like

Delacroix

had been shown

at

painter a gold medal

which caused the

Yet

and was

to die

seems drenched

summers day,

it

was not

it

with no

vision of England

admired by young

Haywain won
now in the Gallery's possession.
,

is

its

in Paris in 1824, three years

the Royal Academy. At the Salon The


too

life

Mill

looking back on the

picture to be

when Constable showed

- and that

near Flatford

halted in a stream for the horses to cool off,

evoked with an almost aching feeling of affection.

French painters

204

a farm

his

today, the painting

countryside of his boyhood. Peaceful, rural England on a hot


event more

is

his paintings

the

^
OQ

Joseph Mallord William

TURNER (1775-1851)

The 'Fighting Tern era ire'


The full

work underlines what is patently apparent in


the composition and which profoundly colours the painting's mood: The 'Fighting
of this always famous

title

Temeraire tugged to her Last Berth


'

sun and the cool


of Trafalgar,

is

sliver of

newly

risen

to

be broken up. 1838. Between the

moon

the old

conducted by modern steam-tug on

wooden
its last

stated as a fact by a fellow-witness, as

was Turner's

from a heroic and possibly more prosperous period


well be so. but deeper,

more

directly

is

setting

ship, a veteran of the Battle

great blazing sunset'

activity at the time in

myriad kind cluster around the

journey The end of its days

had been witnessed by Turner on 6 September 1838. and the


sketches. Associations of a

warm

subject.

That

making little

Britain's decline

implied in the final painting

human and affecting,

is

was

may

a hovering sense of

inevitable, ubiquitous mortality

205

^
u
0Q

Joseph Mallord W'illiam TURNER (1775-1851)


Ul] 'sses deriding Polyphem us
Turner took his subject from Book IX of the Odyssey, using Pope's translation,

where the hero Ulysses escapes from the clutches of the monstrous Cyclops,
Polyphemus, by blinding his single eye. In the very choice of subject. Turner proclaimed
the painter's freedom to

make pictorial poetry and go beyond the merely

more gorgeous and stirring effects than

are normally provided by nature.

result is like a grand opera of the elements -

a romantic opera akin to Weber's

creating

closely

Wonderful as

is

still

the aerial pageant, with the cloudy figure of the writhing Cyclops
fiery,

triumphantly rising sun, more

are the quieter motifs of the twin blue profiles of the high, arched rocks

the burnished glassy surface of the sea. Turner

devising the phosphorescent Nereids


liberty

And yet

who guide

was

at his

most daring, perhaps,

llysses' ship over the

and

in

waves towards

they too are successfully part of nature enhanced: mere flashing foam,

might be, gathered about the

ship's

prow, or

some mysterious manifestation of the

deep, briefly glimpsed by lonely sailors in southern seas.

206

The

contemporary Obenm.

almost evaporating under the impact of the


magical

it

natural,

TURNER (1775-1851)
Steam and Speed

Joseph Mallord William


Rain,

Amazement and admiration seem


press

when

when Turner

have been the chief emotions aroused

exhibited this painting

the 'railway mania'

full title

to

of the painting

is

was

at its

height.

something of an

the Great Western Railway. Turner was,

more wordy

sum

it

up

titles for

perfectly.

at

the Royal

And

is

in 18^4

in the

at

a time

arouses similar emotions today. The

advertiser's dream: Rain.

and possibly

his pictures, but the three

There

it

Academy

still is,

nouns he chose

tremendous expressive power

Steam and Speed

mocked

in the

for

some

of the

to define this painting

diminishing diagonal

of the bridge which, along with the pulsing, glowing shape of the train, stands firm

under the assault of

storm which seems of truly cosmic dimensions. To an abstract

concept, speed'. Turner has given as

much

visual reality as

elusive facts of steam

and

he has

to the

hardly less

rain.

207

X
u

John Singer SARGENT (1856-1925)


Lord Ribblesdale
Sargent

saw Lord

Ribblesdale at a public dinner,

appearance and asked

to paint

was struck by

his distinguished

him. That was a few years before the present portrait

(signed and dated 1902) was executed, but Sargent was already a successful,
sought-after portrait-painter. That

it

was he who chose the

sitter is

for this brilliantly effective, yet unforced result. Lord Ribblesdale

clothes

and exudes an

air

costume films of the

misrepresent a masterpiece by Sargent and almost certainly the

He was a Trustee of the National Gallery and gave the Gallery


First

may now seem

1940s. That
sitter s

would

own charader.

this portrait

during the

in

Trafalgar Square,

is

desened

tribute to his generosity

rehabilitation of the painter

208

dressed in hunting

memory of his wife and two of his sons who had been killed in
That today, after many years absepce. it again hangs on public display at

World V(ar.

action.

is

of forbidding, aristocratic hauteur which

perilously close to the idiom of British

much

probably one rea5on

- and a sign also of the

French Painting
The

history of the representation of French painting at the National Gallery

is

probably the most fascinating of all such histories of taste within the context of the
Collection. French painting was. of course, evolving dramatically during the very

century that the Gallery's


British prejudice,

was taken

own Collection was being built up.

Unfortunately, strong

combined with equally strong ignorance, meant

of that

fact.

The broad position up

interpret French painting as a matter largely of Claude

was somewhat suspect

no advantage

and indeed beyond 1900 was

to

- an attitude which

that

to

and Poussin. Anything later

took long to disappear entirely

from the Gallery's thinking.


Because of sustained English feeling

examples of his work

in the Collection

Embarkation of the Queen ofSbeba


Angerstein paintings bought
days,

by

(p.

for

Claude especially, there were superb

from the
214)

first.

The grand Seaport with the

was only one of the Claudes among the

in 1824 Poussin
.

was

less well

though the profoundly poetic Cephalus and Aurora

G.J.

Cholmondeley

in 1831.

And it was by bequest -

Watteau

Wernher

in 1846-7

la Gamme d Amour

'

(p.

in 1912. In 1914 Sir John

(p.

215)

was bequeathed

not purchase

eighteenth-century paintings trickled into the Collection,

Sbore (p.227), bequeathed

represented in the early

that a

few

among them ^QxmisSea-

by Richard Simmons. The Gallery's sole

219),

was

Murray

a generous bequest by Sir Julius

Scott bequeathed Mignard's lightly

personified portrait of the Marquise de Seignelay and two of her children

(p. 218).

Meanwhile, the French nineteenth-century School had been largely neglected,


although through the

Sir

Hugh Lane Bequest

there had

come in

191''

such

masterpieces as Covot'sArignonfrom the West{p.2ii) and Renoir's Umbrellas


(p.242).

Awareness of the Gallery's grave deficiences and of its previous slowness

acknowledge the achievements of French

art in the later

nineteenth century, led to

inspired buying in Paris at the Degas sale in 1918 of, for example,

Uznels Execution of the Emperor Maximilian


After the

Second World War efforts concentrated

century, with purchase of major


(p.

240) and Cezanne's Bathers

(p.

works

249).

Courtauld Fund, works by yet more

like

difficult'

one version of

(p.237).

for several years

on the nineteenth

the very late Water-Lilies by

Thanks

to

Monet

to the existence of the enlightened

or less acknowledged painters

like

van Gogh and Seurat - had already been bought for the nation in the 1920s: thus
van Gogh's Chair and Pipe (p. 24 5) is today at Trafalgar Square, as is the
Bathers at Asnieres by Seurat (p.244).
In

more

recent times a positive effort has been

made to strengthen the eighteenth-

century School, with a number of major purchases such as Fragonard's Psyche


(p.222)andDrouais'sA/^w6'^'Pow/)(?<^or(p.225), culminating in acquisition

ofthe

first

painting by Jacques-Louis

David- hisportraitofJacobusBlauw(p.228)

to enter a British public collection.

Nor has the

later

nineteenth century been

neglected in the Gallery, as Renoir's Seine at Asnieres {p.2'^\) and Monet's GareSt-

Lazare (p.239) testif}'. The limits ofthe Collection have also been extended,
reasonably enough as the twentieth century draws to an end and distinguished early
'modern' artists take on old master status; and a significant step forward was taken
in 1979 with

purchase ofthe portrait of Greta Moll by Matisse (p. 2 50).

209

iPM=^3^tEr-

X
U

FRENCH(?) School (c.l395 or later)


Richard IIpresented to the Virgin and Child fy his
Patron Saints (The Wilton Diptych')
It is

a matter of considerable doubt

origin.

And that is only

if

this exquisite

significance are equally unclear. However,


beautiful artistic clarity

of England, beardless
Baptist,

kings.

remarkable

is

bringing to

the King claims that for every

all

Hart, his

lines

collar

to matter.

and badge,

him

A glorious angel

King Richard

II

to

witness a

broom-cod collar

as

if

they were the

God for his Richard hath

in

.'.
.

could possibly be that the diptych commemorates Richard's deposition and

reigning, being singled out for divine protection.

on both portions of the diptych,

refined detail, he

manages too

among the angels at this

in a blaze of gold

to suggest not

lyrical yet

solemn

is

that

it

shows him

The unknown

alive

and still

painter lavishes

all

his

and blue. Amid the colour and the

only the King's ecstasy, but the excitement

.scene of interaction

ofearth and heaven.

210

realised with a

from Shakespeare's play Richard /I "A'here

subsequent death, but perhaps the greater probability

art

and its

own personal device. What seems

revolting against

heavenly pay
It

date

presence of Saint John the

in the

angels. Richard wears a

wear the same

mind the

man

Its

Edmund and Edward the Confessor,

and Child surrounded by

that the angels

it.

much in it is visually clear,

and looking youthful, kneels

and a prominent badge of the White


King's adherents

of art can be French in

beside which hypotheses hardly seem

and two sainted English

vision of the Virgin

work

the start of the uncertainty surrounding

between the kingdoms

QO

C
u

Louis LE NAIN (1595/l6lO-l648)

The Adoration of the Shepherds


There are several odd features

in this painting

not least the distracted gaze of

both the boy shepherd wearing a hat and the would-be adoring angel

seem

to indicate

rustic

the

crib.

They

something occurring outside the composition, or possibly are merely

acting naturally at an occasion

humbly

at

and partly

which the painter conceives

idealised

as in the figure

three brothers Le Nain, of whom Louis

were rather mysterious

artists.

is

as partly 'realistic'

and costume of the

much

The

Virgin.

usually judged the outstanding personality,

They came from provincial Laon

to

work in

bringing with them a style of their own, with strong emphasis on peasant

theme, painted with as

and

Paris,

life

as a

no
human, winged children, of the
the adoring mortals and indeed the Child Himself.

dignity as delicac\'. At this plain nativity, there are

troops of glorious angels but just two thoroughly

same

flesh

- one feels -

as

Le VALENTIN (1591 [?] -1632)

The Four Ages ofMan


Valentin's allegory of human mortality takes
realisation that

invests

on

additional resonance with the

he himself died comparatively young. An

this composition -

a typical seventeenth-century

air of passive

melancholy

one of figures grouped about a

young musician, symbolising Youth, seems


Valentin went to Rome early and came under the

table- and even the fashionably dressed

more haggard than hedonistic.

influence of several painters, notably Caravaggio. His

is

a delicate, poetic

form of

Caravaggism, recalling Renaissance Venice and Giorgione's ethos.

211

X
u

Philippe de

CHAMPAIGXE (16()2-Kr4)

Cardinal Richelieu
Champaigne was born in Brussels but was chiefly active in Paris, where he
worked for the Queen Mother, the King. Louis XIII. and the powerful chief minister
Cardinal Richelieu, a great patron of the arts. Champaigne was a gifted portraitist as well
as a painter of dignified religious pictures. This grand-scale portrait was probably
intended to hang at Richelieu's Chateau de Rueil - a hint of which seems to appear at the
left

- and it

van Dyck
sitter's

it

is

is

very

much

a state portrait. .More static

refined features with a majestic


stature

212

and sculptural than a comparable

an image as firm as polished mwble. combining sensitive response

moulding of his

to the

robes, literally heightening his

and distancing him from ordinary men.

'

o
X
u

CLAUDE (1600-1682)
The Enchanted Castle
The

title

the palace

more properly Psyche outside the Palace of Cupid, but


indeed an enchanted one and the popular title pays tribute to the evocative

of this painting

is

power of the central

motif,

beside the seashore. In


picture

was

first

is

fact,

which
it

was

called 'The

is

in

less

Psyche than the building rising on the rocks

an engraving by William Woollett

Enchanted Castle', and probably

engraving that Keats became aware of the painting.


friend Reynolds and, less directly but

It

inspired

most memorably, was

it

him

to lie

in 1782 that the

was through

behind the lines of his

Ode to a Nightingale which speak of 'magic casements opening on


Of perilous seas

that

in a verse-letter to his

the foam

in faery lands forlorn'.

Claude himself had been inspired by the love story of Psyche and Cupid told in The

Golden Ass by Apuleius. He shows Psyche seated on the ground,

either banished from

Cupid's palace because she has disobeyed his injunction not to look
visits

at

her by night, or deposited by Zephyr in a strange region and about

palace for the

first

time.

The

Certainly the painting

is,

picture's

him when he
to

discover the

mood seems more tranquil than despairing.

even more than usually with Claude, a landscape so

purely realised that the figures hardly matter 'What forever holds attention
'the

enchanted

is

castle'.

215

X
u
.

CLAUDE (1600-1682)
Seaport with the Embarkation of the Queen ofSheba
The

facts of the

commissioning of this picture are inscribed on

it

by Claude.

It

was

who had recently served as general


of the Papal army Its pendant is ih^ Marriage ofIsaac and Rebekah. also in the

painted in Rome, in I648. for the Due de Bouillon,

Collection, a landscape rather than a

daylight as opposed to the misty early

marine scene

as here,

and depicted in broad

morning luminosity which makes

so magical. Quietly but deliberately, Claude builds a seaport of his

Towers and

trees

lapping sea. Day

huge

flight

It

and

tall

Queen

of Sheba with her retinue descends a

Solomon

in Jerusalem. Popular

was, no painter before Claude had thought

undoubtedly provided Claude with a pretext

more than

that,

it

imagining.

palaces fringe the wonderfully liquid, gleaming, faintly

slow^ly breaking as the

of steps to begin her journey to

Biblical story

out.

is

own

this painting

gave him the freedom

to depict the

though the

Queen's setting

dawn,

for painting a seaport at

to construct a

kingdom of the

past,

blended out

of natural observation and imagination. Like Old Testament Ophir. Sheba

and rich

in associations,

and

to

such an airy concept Claude

precise location

214

and subtle atmosphere.

is

but,

is

exotic

able to give

QO

POUSSIN (1594[ ?] ) -1665)


Cephalus and Aurora

Nicolas

work and not perhaps a very famous Poussin. Nor is the


subject a very familiar one. It shows Cephalus, a mortal, turning away from Aurora,
This

is

a fairly early

goddess of dawn,

From

at

the sight of a picture of his wife, Procris, held up to

this story, told

by Ovid, Poussin has

summed up in

trees,

river

a cupid.

distilled a potent re-creation of the classical

antique world, a world of nature and natural forces mingled with

seems

him by

the

human emotions.

All

the poetic shape of the winged, white Pegasus standing under the

but no less wonderfully realised are the reclining figures of the naked, dozing

god and, beyond, the draped goddess. Earth perhaps,

his chariot

through the sky

to

who watches Apollo driving

begin another day. Poussin treats the scene with the

deepest seriousness yet turns everything into a pagan poetry wilder and

more

sensuous than he would later permit himself.

215

e
i^,.^

>^-^*

^^^TaT^

Nicolas POUSSIX(1594[?]-l665)

The Adoration of the Golden Calf


Poussin here

is

in stern Miltonic

mood, working on

a scale

which

is

big by his

standards and dealing with a theme serious and monitory. Concerned with design
rather than colour, he creates out of the foolishly adoring Israelites
interlinked, dancing figures, frozen in

the right,

which leads the eye

mmement

into the depth of the

and

- conveyed by a gamut of reaction -

the mountains. Moses


sight.

Thus,

it

at

the

might be

left

is filled

shatters the tablets of the

said. Poussin

at

with almost delirious

while coming down

Law

like

thunder from

in his fury at the godless

punishes and represses his

pagan tendencies.

216

massed gesticulating group,

composition where smaller figures

kneel and gesticulate. The grand, rocky landscape

excitement

one chain of

own natural.

X
u

POUSSIN (1594[ ?] -1665)


Landscape with a Snake

Nicolas

As much as Claude, Poussin studied and absorbed nature and then re-created
his

own idiom.

Poussin's natural world becomes, however,

of 'faery lands forlorn' but


austere. This

is

is

in

no melting, agreeable dream

intellectually ordered, solidly constructed

composition

it

skilfully plotted, to lead the eye

and ultimately

from the horrific

foreground incident of a corpse entwined by a snake

to the unruffled surface of the lake

and then on

which

to the distant, strongly geometrical city

it

mirrors.

The subject may

be of Poussin's devising, though given classical dress, and probably shows the effects of
terror, reverberating in

landscape,

degrees through the receding planes of the magnificent

whose sombre serenity

is

on

the point of being broken.

i/;

X
u

e
u

MIGNARD (1612-1695)
The Marquise de Seignelay and 7hv of her Children
Pierre

Itwasin

1691. the first year of her

was portrayed by Mignard,

nymph

widowhood,

that the Marquise de Seignelay

a leading artist of the day in Paris, in the guise of the sea-

Thetis, with her eldest

son as Thetis' famous

child, the

young hero Achilles.

All

this allegorising, like the coasted setting, pays tribute to the fact that the Marquise's

husband had been Secretary


false

to the

French Navy. Such elaborate portraits were

and ridiculous by the mid-eighteenth century,

this style of portraiture

had actually had

its

- such

yet

to

seem

are the shifts of taste

natural' aspect, offering the artist freedom

from contemporary costume and some opportunity

for invention, as well as for

decorative colour. Mignard seizes those opportunities, and

if

he cannot do

much with

the Marquise's insipid features and improbable coiffure of sea-weed and coral, he boldly
devises rainbow draperies and

shows

forms of the shells delicately

218

true painterly response in the varied

littering the

foreground beach.

c
u

WATTEAU (l684-r21)
la Gammed Amour'

Jean-Antoine

^Xatteau probably gave this painting

no

an engraving of it executed after his death.

specific
It

title.

The present one

was part of his originality

usually lack distinct incidents and decline to

tell

any overt

that they lack subject-matter or significance. Yet even

if

'story'.

derives from

that his pictures

That does not

mean

the pair of male musician

and

female singer here are lovers, or on the point of finding themselves in 'the scale of love",
there are other less explicable figures in the
too,

is

not

at

arbitrary,

leaf}'

distance, including a child.

once an obvious object on the scene. Over a composition

and has indeed

its

own capricious

that

The

bust.

might seem

inventiveness. '\Xatteau throws a veil of

enchantment. The very foliage has a silken half-autumnal charm almost as elegant as
.

the figures

it

embowers, clad

in tones of

And that stoutly robust


long and seen so much is perhaps an

autumn

stone head, which seems to have survived so

or sunset.

abiding presence, to remain after the music has ceased and the lovers departed.

219

QO

0^

a
u

Nicolas LAxNCRET (1690-1743)

A Lady and Gentleman taking Coffee with Children in a Garden


After Watteau's poetry, the art of Lancret, his closest disciple of real

seem

- though

light verse

of a

most accomplished kind. Lancret was

mere imitator of Watteau, and


observant for
painting

at

all

work shows him

this

the elegantly artificial setting,

at his

t^ilent,

far

charming best,

experiencing that taste for the

first

little

informal, open-air
is

very

life

much

incident of the younger

girl

title

the

of the family

time provides sufficient 'subject' for what are

probably portraits of a real family. And

new delight in

quietly

and mildly humorous. He exhibited the

the Salon in V-il, the year before his death identifying in the

substance being drunk as coffee. The

nia\

from being a

artificial

though the garden

is, it

and nature generally - even

to

if

expresses a

here nature

advantage dressed'.

220

U4

Frangois

BOLXHER (r03-1770)

Landscape with a Watermill


Within Boucher's

own lifetime a revolution of taste led.

in intellectual circles, to

the dethronement of a painter famous, successful and widely acknowledged to be

wonderfully

gifted.

What was particularly

attacked

was Bouchers

interpretation of

on the grounds that his pastoral scenes and landscapes like this one - were
not true'. The point might seem scarcely worth contesting but the charge has continued
nature,

damage the artist's reputation. Boucher consciously created a rustic world pleasanter
and more picturesque than any actual one. though full of real natural motifs, and he
painted it with a delightful feel for water and foliage and thatched roofs. The result is a

to

- though, it is worth noting, life is shown as not all


least not for women. .As an artist. Boucher claims as much right as. say.

frank dream of country


idleness, at

Claude

to give

life

own vision, and no less intensely does he realise it. The


- assuming defence is still necessary - might begin by citing a

expression to his

defence of such art

remark of Keats: Vihat the imagination

seizes as beauty

must be

truth."

221

s
u

Jean-Honore FRAGONARD (n32-1806)


Psyche showing her Sisters her Giftsfrom Cupid
Brilliantly talented, the

young Fragonard had painted this picture by

was twenty-two. The composition and handling are

full

especially Fragonard's master. Boucher. Infelicities as

Psyche's

anatomy being a good example

with energy and

envious
'toilet

artistic

of the former

much
-

as felicities

god has given

her.

and to

abound -

but the painting

exuberance. As Cupid's mistress. Psyche

sisters the gifts the

the time he

of echoes of various painters,

is

is

charged

showing her

that Fragonard adds hints of a

of Psyche', with an attendant typically vigorously dressing her hair, while flying

cupids rain roses around her. .already there can be detected here
characteristics of Fragonard's art:

its

animation,

its

many of the chief

almost breathless sensuousness and

pie de litre, and its delight in communicating excitement through bravura brushstrokes, in all those ways, the true teacher of Fragonard may seem to be Rubens.

222

1
QO

Jean-Simeon CHARDIN (1699-1779)


Tbe House of Cards
The theme of this composition was obviously one

He painted

it

several times,

and

to the

that

meant much

to

Chardin.

theme may be added paintings by him of a boy

playing with a spinning-top on a table and a boy sharpening a crayon. The formal

elements
table

the single vertical of the half-length figure

are at once calm

and simple. As the boy concentrates, so does Chardin.

the subject into a realm beyond


identified as the

and the strong horizontals of the

that of genre or portrait (though the boy

son of Jean-Jacques Le

gravity of the composition, with


beautifully saturated paint,

its

seems

Noir. a friend of the painter's).

is

lifting

early

The intense

almost stylised, semi-abstract shapes, rendered in

to contrast

with the childish diversion depicted.

Yet

Chardin's contemporaries saw a moral dimension in the subject, asking: are our adult
projects

any

better based than this boy's fragile

declines to be so explicit,

and thereby

house of cards' Chardin himself

gives the scene the greater timelessness

and artistic profundity.

223

Jean-Marc NATTIER (1685-1766)

Manon Balletti
In an age of graceful ideals, portrait-painting

was
his

the

supreme French exponent of graceful,

hands

had

the enchanting appearance of the


actress living in Paris,

and

Nattier

lightly allegorised portraiture

nothing of truthful likeness. He seems

lost

also to be graceful,

to

which

in

have understood very well that

young Marie-Madeleine

Balletti.

daughter of an Italian

needed no allegorical enhancement. She was seventeen and he

when he caught so directly her flower-like charm, which attracted the


attention also of Casanova. Casanova may even have commissioned the painting. After
seventy-two

a liaison with

him .Manon
.

Balletti

married the distinguished architect Jacques-Fran(;ois

Blondel and died

at

the age of thirty-six.

Jean-BaptistePERROXNEAU(1715[^]-1783)

Jacques Cazotte
Perronneau
to

is

a portraitist of great

power and sensitivity. He was not concerned

emphasise grace and charm as such but

presence.

And in

to

convey somethingof a

sitters living

this portrait of a sophisticated literary figure in mid-eighteenth-century

France he succeeds with astonishing force. Not just Gazette's slightly amused features
but the carriage of his head and shoulders, along with his elegant costume,

all

contribute to the impact of a distinct personality. Cazotte hardly appears posed for a
portrait

notably does not look

at

the spectator

but seems engaged in easy,

conversational rapport with an unseen interlocutor.

224

X
u

Frangois-Hubert DROUAIS (1727-1775)

Madame de Pompadour
The painting bears Drouais's signature and an

inscription that the

head was done

May
month after the death of Madame de
on a separate piece of canvas, inserted into the larger
composition. The sitter, born Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson, became the mistress of Louis
XV and was herself a considerable patron of the arts. In health and beauty she was often
in April

1763 the picture finished in


,

Pompadour). In

fact,

the head

1"'64 (a

is

portrayed by Boucher, but Drouais's portrait

is

of her

grown prematurely matronly, no

longer the King's mistress, and almost obsessively surrounded by the evidence of
intellect

skilfully

and industry - books, music and the wools

manages

floral dress,

to

convey a

maximum

of detail,

down

without losing the central focus on the


is at

for her tapestry-work. Drouais


to the pattern of the elaborate,

sitter;

and the

resulting portrait

once grand and homely, and also oddly poignant.

225

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(r24-n80)

i ^/re^/ Show in Paris


This

is

century
for

one of the most


Paris,

and

it

is

and vivid paintings of daily

a pity that the artist

in this

life

in

mid-eighteenth-

not better known. His paintings are

shown

illustrator,

finding

rare,

little official

How much attracted he was to the contemporary scene is well

ingeniously composed depiction of ordinary Parisians of all ages gathered


in a mock-duel on a rough stage under leafy trees.
de rose here - the rose perhaps of the parasol held by the

watch a couple of actors engaged

Life

seems

truly couleur

woman gazing down


others:

from her balcony.

Yet Saint-Aubin.

show the gamut of life. What is fun


lucked away at the right of the composition

is concerned

to

troupe, sprawled with

one

asleep

226

is

he worked chiefly as a draughtsman engraver and

success as a painter.

to

original

leg over his

now

handling paint vigorously,

for the spectators


is

the

is

played.

work for

drummer of the actors'

drum, clumsily

his part

is

yet desperately

o
X
u

a
c

Claude-Joseph

VERNET (1714-1789)

A Sea-Shore
Vernet

was the leading French exponent

- which

the eighteenth century took

in a category of painting

more

seriously than

is

the landscape

perhaps always

recognised. Vernet himself enjoyed international fame and patronage, not least from the
English. His early years in Italy coloured his art. in

which

are blended reminiscences of

Claude and on-the-spot natural observation. This painting


Vernet had returned to France, but the scene
Its

picturesque setting and

warm

is

is

dated 1776, long after

obviously Southern, vaguely Neapolitan.

light are vividly

conveyed, and the scene

is

enlivened

by a group of sightseers, no less keenly observed. Indeed, for the pointing hussar
escorts a party of ladies. Vernet seems to hint at attractions

piquant poses of the bare-legged

beyond

who

nature's in the

fishergirls.

227

X
u

a
c

Jacques-Louis DAVID {r-iS-1825)

Jacobus Blaiiw
The

date

on

this painting

is

the year 4

with the past and the advent of a new

era.

in itself a defiant declaration of a

The year 4

is

French Republic that had replaced the monarchy. Davids

with the past,

at least as

(pp.221-2). His style

ways

associated with the

portraitist

r95 the fourth year of the


may also be seen as a break
.

art

hedonism of Boucher and Fragonard

a sterner one. uncompromising in

is

to Chardin's. but sharper,

break

harder and more

linear,

its
it

visual purity, akin in some


made David a wonderful

when his sympathy was engaged, as it is here in his depiction of the Dutch
who went to Paris to negotiate a peace treaty between the Batavian

patriot Blauw.

and French
David

fixes

concentrates

Blauw

all

in the act of writing

his artistic

power on

the

is

tension and

sitter's face.

what

is

probably an

economy about

in society

as well as his features

and

pose.

some tension in
seems in every way to speak of

and

in art

- from

those expressed by Perronneau s

Jacques Cazotte (p.224).

228

despatch and

the total image, beginning with

Not accidentally perhaps, the portrait

very different ideals

official

precisely recording the metal buttons of Blauw s

and the quill pen

coat, the line of linen at his cuffs

There

republics.

X
u

e
u

Jean-Louis-Andre-Theodore GERICAULT (1791-1824)

A Horsefrightened by Lightning
As much as Stubbs, Gericault was a great painter of horses - and the very subject
here was one treated by both painters, in
'romantic'

and dramatic. He

isolates the

storm, and has lightning play with

some ways,

Gericault's treatment

is

the less

animal against a sky of midnight darkness and


rippling effect over the horse's glistening coat,

livid,

while fright stupefies him in a manner more effective than would be any violent
,

movement. Nothing is known about the


but

it is

exposed

fully

to the

origin of the painting

worthy of Gericault. The

solitary horse,

it is

not even signed

unsaddled and so strangely

elements in desolate countryside, takes on a haunting quality, investing

the picture with something deeper than might be expected from the subject.

229

o
o
QO
u

e
u

Ferdinand-Victor-Eugene

DELACROIX (1798-1863)

Baron Schwiter
Both painter and

when

this

ambitious

sitter

full

were

length

in their early twenties (the sitter just

was

painted. Delacroix

twenty-one)

had visited England

in

182S the
,

year before he began the picture, and had seen and been impressed by the work of

Some of Lawrence's panache, allied to Delacroix's own, has gone to the


concept of Schwiter - a painter and a collector - standing like a melancholy dandy, in
Lawrence.

black,
is

on

a grandly vague terrace.

a tribute perhaps to

its

The

portrait

was

refu.sed at the

Salon of 1827, which

bold handling and accomplishment. The

artist

was already

suspected of being oppo.sed to the classicism of Ingres, but a more positive tribute to
quality

comes from the

fact that later

it

was

to

Ingres, Degas.

230

be owned by a great admirer of

its

Jean-Auguste-Dominique INGRES (1780-1867)

Madame Moitessier
This portrait had a long and unusual histon', suitably enough perhaps, for
stands as a sort

oiMona Lisa

and when asked

to

it

in the career of Ingres. Ingres disliked painting portraits.

consider undertaking one of Madame Moitessier. daughter of the

Then he met her. He withdrew his refusal. He began the


portrait in 1844. and by 1850 it was still unfinished. He then began another portrait of
Madame Moitessier. standing. It was quickly completed, and Ingres returned to this
painting, which was completed only in 1856. By then he had frequently changed the

associate of a friend, he refused.

sitter's

clothes

gem was

and

jewellery,

though he had early

fixed her pose. Eventually, the last

placed and polished to his satisfaction, and the image-cum-idol took

its final

shape, incarnate in a temple of nineteenth-century domestic luxury-, superb and

vacuous, a sphinx without a

secret, but a

concern with realising

monument to Ingres

obsessive

totally his vision.

231

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COROT (r96-18:'5)
Horseman in a Wood

Jean-Baptiste-Camille
.-1

The horseman
artless

- which

is

a ceriain Monsieur Pivot. lor

is

around 1850. Corot


far

s gifts as a painter are

face

whom Corot painted the picture

so natural-seeming that his

as

if

.Monsieur Pivot were turning to

an early photographer. The depth of the wood where Corot seizes rider and horse
not only adds an

effective,

unbroken, background screen but also gives

composition a touch of unforced mystery.

232

work can look

from the case. This small, perhaps somewhat ignored painting has

a memorable air and extraordinary immediaa'

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COROT (1796-1875)
Avignon from the West

Jean-Baptiste-Camille

In Corot's best

and what
hot

his

work

there

seems scarcely a pause between what

his eye

hand conveys, and the atmospheric assurance of this view

summer

sunlight

is

overwhelmingly

direct

'impression' painted before such Impressionists as

Corot puts Avignon into the distance, using the

tall

remarks

of Avignon in

and instantaneous. Here


Monet were even born.

is

an

Typically,

mass of the Popes' palace there

as

merely a convenient buff shape between the harsh green scrub of the foreground and
the pale violet of the distant mountains. As a sheer tonal

exudes a sense of

fierce heat,

Avignon and

its

combined with almost


surroundings

is

coup

d'oeil,

from which there

pitiless light, Corot's

view of

a perfect piece of art.

233

Ignace-Henri-Jean-Theodore FANTIN-LATOUR (1836-1904)

The Rosy Wealth ofJune'


The

title is

apparently the painter's own.

academic overtones
but which

is full

to a painting that

speciality,

is

is

in

mysterious

the Royal
is

Academy
far

(in 1898)

from tame or

simpler bunches than here, with a


in its intensity

feel for texture,

Although tlower-painting was

as

his

he had a surprisingly wide range of subject-matter, painting several subtle

and some possibly

Manet and

is

less successful allegorical pictures. Fantin

one of the

figures identified in Manet's

Gardens (p. lib).

234

at

an extraordinarily sensitive painter of flowers - of roses

- composed often

well as tone, that

portraits

unfortunately gives Victorian

shown

of a heavy, almost scented, floral luxuriance that

conventional. Fantin
particularly

It

indeed was

Music in the

was a friend of
Tuileries

X
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Daubigny
landscapes.

is

city

Jf

DAUBIGXY (18r-18^8)

Paul sfrom the Surrey Side

most often thought

scene

of. rightly, as a

like this is a distinct

impressionist technique. Daubigny

came

to

painter of rather mild, intimate

and welcome change -

London

twice, the

as

is its

second time

sub-

in 18^0-1.

He presumably made some drawing or oil sketch of the view, since the painting itself
is dated 18"3 (and was probably that included in an exhibition held in London the
following year). London's thoroughly polluted,
for the painter. St Paul's

smoky atmosphere

and Southwark Bridge appear

is

part of the appeal

as distant grand motifs,

contrasting with the rows of barges and lines of stakes along the foreground shore,

which

are painted with great directness

manages

to

convey the

active,

and vivacity. Not quite

mercantile use of the

Thames

stating

at

it.

of

Daubigny yet

the heart of

ven' different from the use of the Seine in his native

all

London

Paris.

255

X
u

Edouard

MANET (1832-1883)

Music in the
Manet was

thirty

'painter of modern

Tiiileries

Gardens

when he painted this picture and accepted,


life',

years before but not published until 1863. Manet

in effect, the role of

an essay written a few

as called for by his friend Baudelaire in

and Baudelaire are recorded

as going

regularly to the Tuileries Gardens to study the open-air scene of fashionable people

children and
.

at

among the numerous portraits

the extreme

left,

and Baudelaire,

left-hand area. To the

left

Manet's assemblage of modern


contributes to

its

than records
Baudelaire;

under the thickest of the tree-trunks

of Baudelaire
life

in the

is

open

in the

the head of Fantin-Latour

air

is

painted with a freedom that

sense of vitality. Already, he paints an impression' of the scene, rather

literally

it

in profile

and

those of Manet himself.

in the painting are

- and

the lack of finish in the handling

certainly led to strong criticism

when

may have disconcerted

the picture

was

first

exhibited in

1863. Today, the painting seems a key masterpiece, in the career of Manet and for the

history of Impressionism in
.

Manet's hands,

it

brilliance,

boldness and visual wit. Yet

seems, until a few months before his death


as an

256

its

artist

was

still

it

remained on

when his greatness

imperfectly recognised.

o
o
u

a
u

Edouard MANET (1832-1883)


The Execution of the Emperor Maximilian
These are the sole remaining fragments of a much larger composition of the
subject, the

second of three painted by Manet, which the painter himself abandoned

and partly cut

up. After his death the

fragments were acquired and assembled together

by Degas, a not unambivalent friend of Manet's during his lifetime but someone with an
equally keen eye as an artist and as a connoisseur. Probably Degas savoured the

detached-seeming way

in

which Manet has painted a scene he did not

witness.- the

execution in Mexico on 19 June 1867 of the Emperor Maximilian and two of his generals.

The Emperor was an Austrian archduke, put on the throne at French instigation. He was
overthrown and shot by nationalist forces after French troops had been withdrawn
from Mexico, and his death deeply shocked Manet (along with a good deal of

shown by

the fact

squad wear French uniforms. So nervous was the government

in Paris

enlightened French opinion). Manet's implied criticism of France


that the firing

that

it

is

forbade him to publish his lithograph of the subject.

Whatever his strong private emotions, Manet has made the scene more
impassive depiction, with
survives, there

is

great

its

tragic

by his

powerful sense of inevitability. And, by the chance of what

poignancy

in the

presence of the Emperor conveyed only by his

handclasp with his loyal general

at

the

moment of execution.

237

o
o
X
u

Hilaire-Germain-Edgar

DEGAS (1834-19r)

La La at the Cirque Fernando. Paris


In this painting lies the quintessence of Degas's art.

from

18''9-

The stunning clarit}- of the image,

the spectator,

is

the result of intense study

structure of the composition

is

itself

It is

mature work, dating

so unexpected that

it

almost dizzies

and discipline. Line is the secret. The

in places quite explicit

as in the ribs of the roof

linear

and the

long, slightly tilted vertical of the rope running from top to bottom of the picture-area.

The body

of the acrobat, suspended by her teeth high above the invisible audience,

a study of taut, muscular action,

lit

as unexpectedly as

something revelatory of Degas 's nature

in the

it is

viewed.

way he banishes

And

there

is

is

the audience, so that

La La seems to perform in an empty auditorium for him alone.

Hilaire-Gemiain-Edgar

DEGAS (1834-19r)

Helene Rouart
Helene Rouart was the daughter of a life-long friend of the painter

admired her red hair and probably decided

to paint

in

her father's study that she

leaning
is

on

his chair,

is

feelings for herself

shown, surrounded by

objects he

at a

and her

time

family.

had collected and

which so prominently occupies the foreground. The composition

ambitious and unusual, conveying an environment as well as a person and. perhaps

by chance, exuding some sense of it oppressing, even imprisoning,

258

Degas

her portrait around 188b

when he was ceasing portrait- work - out of personal


It is

s.

her.

X
u

Claude-Oscar

MONET (1840-1926)

The Gave St-Lazare


It

was a daring, novel, unrewarding-seeming subject

that

Monet chose when he

obtained permission in 1877 to paint inside the Gare St-Lazare. Yet the resuh was a series
of seven canvases, each slightly different,
the urban scene, within his

own terms,

which showed Monet no

less appreciative of

than of the countryside with which he had

been, and was to be, chiefly associated. The present composition depicts the main tracks
of the station in a purely 'impressionist' way, with the puffs of steam the dark engines,
,

and the

architecture of the station interesting the painter far

Monet conveys most

vividly

is

the slighdy

more than

chill, shifting, drifting

steamy atmosphere - creating a modern interpretation, as

it

and

What
man-made

people.

partly

were, of Turner's Rain,

Steam and Speed {"^2^1).

239

X
u

Claude-Oscar

MONET (1840-1926)

Water-Lilies
In 1890

Monet bought

house

at

Giverny. a village in the valley of the Seine, and

home for the rest of his life. There he created a water-garden that was to
become a major theme in his art. a motif which he could study exactly when and how

it

remained

his

he wished. The surface of the thickly strewn


him, and over the years he was

to paint

it

paintings grew, as did the pond, and this

around

1916.

pond or

floating leaves

lake.

pond

is

one of the

The pervasive yellowish

feel to

it

and challenged

large, late pictures,

much
light

and flowers create a shimmering effect,

with a deeper

fascinated

with increasing boldness. The scale of the

by which time .Monet was responding as

actuality of the

240

water-lily

to

and the mere

at first sight

of calmness, timelessness

executed

an inner vision as

to the

flecks of the

decorative but

and peace.

o
u

-wi*^.

RENOIR (1841 -1919)

Pierre-Auguste

The Seine atAsnieres


Few paintings seem
imply any lack of art
leaving so

much

to call for explanation less

in the painter

to his instinct,

- which

is

not to

Renoir followed a dangerous road, however, in

and the

response could be as vivid as here,

than Renoir's

it is

results

The sensation of sunlight striking water on


such astonishing freshness that the eye

can be dreadfully

trivial. Yet,

when

understandable that Renoir trusted his

is

a bright

summer's day

dazzled. This

is

no

is

artless

conjured up with

achievement: every

touch of paint has been as nicely calculated as has been the composition, with
horizon, giving the river the role of protagonist in a positive paean

the

instinct.

to

its

warmth and

high
light.

241

X
u

Pierre-Auguste

RENOIR (1841-1919)

The rmhrellas
Thought,

illness, travel

and despondeno.' played

achievement of this painting.


completed the

All

had had a beneficial

stylistically slightly schizoid

their part in the


effect

profound

on Renoir by the time he

composition around 1886. The right-hand


.

foreground figures are executed in a charming, feathery, thoroughly impressionist'


style.

The

left-hand portion of the painting

is

far

more linear, with

by means of hatching that derives from awareness of Cezanne. In

a definition of planes

travelling. Renoir

had

come to feel that for him Impressionism was exhausted.


The result is a painting that is more than charming - the umbrellas alone are skilfully
organised to rise to a crescendo of curves at the upper right - but which remains fully

looked also

at

Raphael. He had

characteristic of

scene

is

its

creator

Women are the heart of the matter for Renoir, whether the

a street or a boudoir,

realised as

more than

and

it is

significant that in

The

mbrellas the sole male

a head-and-shoulders background blur

is

man

trying to catch the eye of the pretty foreground miditiette.

242

hopefully

Camille PISSARRO (1830-1903)


Paris: The Boulevard Montmartre at Night
Pissarro

was

as instinctive a painter as Renoir, with

better disciplined

best paintings

is

and arguably more

no

less

in control of his talent.

keen an eye, but one

The

tonal accuracy of his

indeed unrivalled by any of the other Impressionists.

he remained, and

in this late picture

and technique could still

achieve.

painted in 1897

From

a hotel

An Impressionist

are revealed

what

room he looked out on

Boulevard Montmartre on a rainy evening, and made that his subject.


night-scene.

The need

to capture

complex

effects of gleaming

his vision

the busy

It is

his

only

lamps and wet pavements,

within an overall penumbra, has increased the confident freedom of his handling.

Looked

at

close

draws back, the

to,

life

the blobs

and dashes of paint nearly

of the street, with

its

trees

lose their

and architecture,

its

meaning but,
carriages

as

one

and crowds,

springs into total visual existence.

243

X
u

&

Georges-Pierre

SEURAT (1859-1891)

Bathers atAsnieres
Although the subject might suggest a Renoir-like scene (and the bridge
painting

is

that at the right in Renoir's Seine atAsnieres

approach and technique are


Salon in 1884, where

more pondered,
could be

less

it

larger

was

at

once apparent

ways

in Seurat's

p.24l). great differences in

in Seurat's picture.

rejected. In fact, in several

and more majestic than

on

it is

He sent

more

it

to the Paris

'academic', as

a typical Impressionist painting.

spontaneous. Like the bank and the buildings, the figures of Seurat's

devising are simplified shapes, of almost sculptural solidity, fixed in the fine

technique which approximates

to fresco. Yet

mesh

of the

not only does Seurat convincingly evoke

- with far more concern


than any Impressionist painter
he suggests the proximity of industrialisation
and the sheer prosaicness of modern costume. And about the incongruously
the hot, lazy atmosphere of the open-air scene but

bowler-hatted foreground man, reclining awkwardly on the grass amid


half-naked neighbours, hovers

244

it is

Nothing

some anticipation

of Magritte.

QO

GOGH (1855-1890)
The Chair and the Pipe

Vincent van

The chair
tiles in

chair.

is

and firmly defined against red

a simple peasant one. seen by daylight

a kitchen-like setting. Van

He depicted

it

at Aries

Gogh boldly

fills

the composition with

towards the end of 1888 and complemented

of Gauguin's chair, an armchair, seen

at night-time.

Gauguin's stay in Aries with van Gogh, something

it

it.

his

own

by a painting

The two paintings celebrated

to

which van Gogh had greatly

looked forward but which rapidly ended in a violent quarrel and van Gogh's mental

breakdown. The chair here

is

declared as the painter's

pipe and a twist of tobacco. In the

little

yellow house'

own by

at Aries,

the presence

on

it

of his

van Gogh had believed he

would live happily, meditate and paint. Some of his greatest and most memorable
paintings

breakdowns and
in

of which this
a petition

May

is

from

one - were indeed done

local people,

he

left

there.

Aries for the

But after further

asylum of Saint-Remy

1889. to survive only until July of the following year.

Vincent van

GOGH (1853-1890)

Sunflowers
It

was at Aries in the summer of 1888 that van Gogh conceived the idea of painting
- his own word - in which the

a series of pictures of sunflowers, a form of decoration

strong yellow of the flowers would blaze out against a variety of green and blue

backgrounds. In van Gogh's fiery vision, the sunflowers become


almost whirling

as well as blazing

- on

like

miniature suns.

their stems, in a parti-coloured jug of deep

chrome and lemon yellow. To separate the lemon tones from chrome in the jug. and in
the background, van Gogh drew hasty lines of vivid blue paint - arbitrary yet thrilling
- which ser\-e to intensify- the molten gold and pure yellows that speak of almost
delirious joy in colour and light.

245

ROUSSEAU (1844-1910)
Tropical Storm with a Tiger

Henri

Rousseau
taught
Paris.

is

probably the

first

of the naive "Sunday painters, a genuinely


'

self-

who retired early from his post as an inspector at a toll-station outside


His vision had its own consistency and was at its most effective in the exotic
artist

jungle scenes that he blended from studies in the Jardin des Plantes in Paris,
illustrations

and dream-like

fantiisy.

The Tropical Storm was

the

first

book

of these scenes,

exhibited in 1891 under the WxkSurpris!. Rousseau's highly finished style increases the

hallucinatory

power of his

tiger that matters

best work. In the present painting,

life,

one might

recall

Batignolles district can

246

less the

storm or the

than the dense and subtle pattern of shapes - and also textures -

which makes up a weird yet compelling


quiet untravelled

it is

jungle. Reflecting

Degas

s ironic

one not paint

on the paradox of the

painter's

query apropos Gauguin.- In the

as well as in Tahiti?'

o
u

Edouard VUILLARD (1868-1940)


The Chimneypiece
This picture dates from 1905. Vuillard

is

a poet of the

most ordinary and domestic

aspects of life, unforced in his originality, as in his decorative instincts.

the subject here has

The flowers

are in

no

patterned wallpaper.
all,

managing

to

its

The banality of

own daring. On the chimneypiece is a frank litter of objects.

tidy

arrangement, and medicine-bottles stand against the thickly

Some linen

is

drying on a clothes-horse. Vuillard lovingly records

convey the corner of a room that

is

very

much

lived-in

blooms with a magic intimaq' and appeal whereby ordinariness

is

and which

it

yet

transcended.

247

o
o
X
u

y^ii^
Paul

CEZANNE (1839-1906)

Mountains in Provence
Cezanne was born

in Aix-en-Provence,

and the

fierce light

and

dry,

landscape of the region provided both stimulus and subject-matter for his
as

van Gogh he
,

set

increasingly concerned not with surface effects so


In this painting,

the rocky

bank

at

art.

As

much

harmony he
He had begun by exhibiting with the Impressionists but was

out to interpret what he saw, struggling

detected in nature.

stony

much

are less remarkable than

and Cezanne

forms, their facets painted in varied tones of russet,

express a

as with underlying structure.

done probably around 1886, the mountains


the roadside, carved by the sun

to

umber and

into

an angular series of

violet-grey.

A few dabs of

green paint serve for the sparse vegetation, while in the middle distance the small,
tightly concentrated block of a

248

farmhouse - chief intimation

that the land

is

looks virtually camouflaged amid the brownish -green planes of the

inhabited

fields.

c
u

Paul CEZANxNE (1839-1906)

Bathers
Cezanne was intensely conscious of pictorial

museums. There
his

life,

Titian

is

to tackle

something challenging in

on

a large scale the

its

and ot the

art in

his ambitious attempt, towards the

theme of figures

and also of Rubens and Rembrandt

canvases of similar subject each with


the

traditions

cluster

end of

in a landscape. Associations of

around his Bathers, one of three

own compositional emphasis. The bodies of

women are almost roughly realised, with no regard for conventional ideas of beauty

or

finish'.

Their bathing

is

largely,

it

seems, a matter of sun-bathing. Certainly, the

landscape they occupy appears devoid of water and


Cezanne's native Provence in

its

blues, greens

themselves profoundly of the earth


terracotta,

sensuous forms

at

like

is

very

and warm

much a summary of

ochre.

The

figures are

outcrops of rock or giant shards of

ease in and harmonising with nature.

249

QO

Henri MATISSE (1809-1954J


Portrait of Greta Moll
The date ofexecution of this painting- 1908 about

it.

is

one of the

In the lifetime of such leading Impressionists as

a^stonishing things

Monet and

quietly but firmly replaced their concerns with an art vibrant in

areas of flat colour. He portrays Greta Moll

acuteness; she
that

is

is

very

its

clarity of line

herselfa painter and his pupil

and
great

much more than a mere motif, but it is the essence of a person

the greenish blouse

(p.2.-^l).

.Matisse

and black

changed

skirt that

his sitter's clothes, settling eventually

manage

to survive artistically against the

splendid blue and white patterned material of the background. Pattern


painting's secret.

Its

singing lines,

like its clear,

is

part of the

cool tones, carry one back to

of the earliest paintings in the Collection, especially to a

design and colour. Duccio.

250

- with

presented, in boldly simplified, clear-cut shapes. Just as obsessively as Ingres

with .Madame .Moitessier

on

Renoir. Matisse has

some

supreme master of

List

of Plates
BREENBERGH

Note: the sizes are given in centimetres followed by inches,

number in brackets is the Gallery


number. A date is given only when this appears on

The Finding of Moses (208)

height preceding width; the

Wood.

inventory

BRONZINO An Allegory with

x 56.^(16

4l 5

Wood, 146.1x116.2

the painting.

Vs x22Vi.,). 1636.

Venus and Cupid (651)

x45

(5'' Vi

/-* j

Bequeathed, 184".

V*

65

Purchased, 1860.

).

BRUEGEL the Elder The Adoration of the Kings (i'i^)


Wood. 111.1x83.2(43 'A x32 'a Purchased. 1920.

130

Ter BRUGGHEN The Concert (6483)

15

Pieter

ALTDORFER Christ taking Leave ofHis Mother (6463)


Wood, HI X

(55x43

111

125

I520(?). Purchased, 1980.

'/2 ).

Fra ANGELICO Christ Glorified in the Court of Heaven (663)


Wood, 31.8 X "3 (12 Vi X 28 H ). Purchased, 1860.

25

FoUower of Fra ANGELICO

26

Wood. 63.5x49.5(25x19

46

on Ascension 'av(4453)

47

CANALETTO

Wood. 50.8 xfal (20x

The Rape of Helen by Paris ( 591)

Wood. 35.6x25.4(14x10). Purchased,

The THnity with Christ Crucified (^(l)


Wood, 118.1x114.9(46 '/2 X45 'A ). Purchased. 1922.

118

AVERCAMP

142

Winter Scene uith Skaters near a Castle (1346)

BAIDOVINETTI

.-1

Lady in

Wood. 62.9x 40.6 (24

28

xl6). Purchased, 1866.

123

X 35 '/s). Purchased, 1854.


Jacopo BASSANO The Good Samaritan (2^^)
Canvas, 101. 5 x "'9.4 (40x31 W
Purchased, 1856.
BATON! Time orders Old Age to destroy' Beauty (6316)

BEERSTRAATEN

'A

83

x38). r46" Purchased.

102

1961.

156

The Castle ofMuiden in Winter (1311

48

the

Garden ^26)
(

Giovanni BELLINI The Madonna of the Meadow


Canvas, transferred from wood. 67.3 x 86.4 (26 Vi x

599)

172

'/4

x 16

1674. Purchased, 1894.

70
TU'o

Canvas.6"6x5"'.8(26y8 x22 H). Purchased,

Men (864)

54.3 (26

Vi

x 21

Vs

).

158

Purchased. 1894.

BOSCH Christ Mocked (4744)


Wood, 73.5x59.1 (29x23 W

114

3" 5 x 28.3 (l4

H x 11

).

BOTTICELLI Mystic Nativity (103i)


Canvas, 108.6x 74.9(42 Vi x 29 Vi ).

BOUCHER Landscape uith a


''3

(22

% x 28

Dieric BOl'TS Portrait of a


Dieric

BOUTS

The Virgin

Wood, 37.1x27.6(14

'/

Vs

50

Canvas, 12". 2 x 196.1 (50

and Child

'/s

).

249

Purchased, I964.

212

223

The House of Cards (40"8)

"1.8 (23

H x28

).John Webb Bequest, 1925.

'A

52
1910.

213

'

151

'A

'/2

).

'/2

The Haywam (1207)

Canvas, 130.2x185.4(51

214

).

204

x73). 1821. Presented, 1886.

'A

Family Group (821)

139

x 33 % Purchased,
COROT A Horseman m a Wood (3816)
Canvas. 391 x 29 8(15 Vs x 11 H
Purchased, 1923.
Canvas, approx 64 x 85 (25

'/4

).

1871.

232

).

West(m'!)

233

% x 28 H Lane Bequest, 1917.


CORREGGIO The Madonna of the Basket {H)
Wood. 33. "X 25.1 (13
x9 % Purchased, 1825.

66

CORREGGIO Mercury instructing Cupid before

66

Canvas. 33 " x "3 (13

).

'/4

Canvas. 155

6x91

).

W x36)

4(61

Wood,

81

Venus (10)

Purchased. 1834,

44

Concert (2486)

Wood.95,3x"5 6(3"

'/2

x29

3x54.6(32x21

'/2

'A

).

Salting Bequest, 1910.

124

Venus (6344

Purchased, 1963.

54

The Annunciation ("39)


207 x 146.7 (81

CUYP ibbergen Castle (824)

to canvas.

Vi

x 57

V*

).

i486 Presented, I864

Wood,

221

32.1

21 Vs

149
).

Purchased. 1871.

DAUBIGNY St Paulsfrom the Surrey Side (28"6)


'/2

"

X S8 4 (23

23 5

x32). 18"3 Presented. 1912.

Gerard DAVID The Adoration ofthe Kings


Wood, 54

109

54.5 (12 Vs

Canvas. 44 X 81 3(1"

109
595)

7"'

x^O). Presented, 1895.

Vi

32

Purchased. 1966.

Salting Bequest, 1910.

Wood, transferred

1462 Purchased, 1867.

x 10%).

Canvas. 259,"xr7.8(102

CRIVEUI

1874.

Man (943)

248

).

31

1500(?). Purchased. 1878.

r55

).

CRANACH Cupid complaining to

1876.

Watermill{()'S'^A)

'4

Wood,686x51.4{2"x20i/4)

149

Purchased, 1859.

'/s )

^QtUVCSLUVenus and Mars (m)


Wood. 69 2 X 173.4 (27 % x68 'A Purchased,

Canvas, 5" 2 x

155.3x263.5(61
xl03 H Purchased, 1853.
CEZANNE Mountains in Provence (4136)
Canvas, 63. 5x^9.4(25x31 W
Purchased, 1926.
CEZANNE Bathers (63 59)

COSTA A

Purchased, 1934.

).

BOTH Peasants uith Mules and Oxen (950)


Copper 39.6 x 58.1 (15 Vs x 22 % Wvnn Ellus Bequest.
BOTTICELLI Portrait ofa Young Man ((i2(i)
\X(K)d.

158

1871.

Ter BORCH Portrait of a Young Man (1399)


Canvas, 6". 3

Warrior adoring the Infant Chnst

.-l

COROT Avignon from the

.Mond Bequest, 1924.

5/4 ).

).

Virgin (234). Canvas, transferred from panel(?),

COQUES A

BOLTRAFFIO A Man in Profile (3916)


5 (22

"/,

51

).

88

79

'/.

Purchased, -1981.
ih x 59
CLAUDE Seaport with the Embarkation of the Queen ofSheba (I4)
x"6 'A 1648. Purchased, 1824.
Canvas. I48 6x193 "(58

Wood.4Mx38,"(18'/2 xl5 'A Purchased, 18^1.


The Market Place at Haarlem (1420)

Woman making Music with

The Supper at Emmaus {V^l)

CATENA

CONSTABLE

BERCKHEYDE

X 42

Bequest, 1876.

89

Canvas, 8"

148

Ellis

50

BERCHEM Peasants uith Cattle by an Aqueduct (820)

Wood. 56

155

Wynn

Wood, 4O.6 X 39.4 (16 X 15 '/2 ). Salting Bequest,


CLAUDE The Enchanted Castle (64"1

Purchased, 1858.

Ter BORCH A

V4

CMA David andJonathan {I'^O'))

34).

Giovanni BELLINI Doge Leonardo Loredan (189)


Wood. 61.6x45.1 (24 W x 17 '/O- Purchased, 1844.

).

(48x60

96

Gift, 1828.

50

Wood. 81.3x12" (32x50). Purchased, 1863.

8x67(20 Vs x26'/8

Canvas.

(12").

x7^
Presented, 1839.
Annibale CARRACCI The Dead Christ Mourned (2923)
Canvas. 92.8x 103.2 (36 Vi x40 Vs
Presented. 1913.

Canvas, 60.3

Giovanni BELLINI The Agony m

Yard

River Scene (96")

CARAVAGGIO

CHARDIN

Layard Bequest, 1916.

51

,-1

's

George Beaumont

Sir

CHAMPAIGNE Cardinal Richelieu (1449)

Canvas. 96. 5x129. 5 (38x51) 1658. Purchased, 1890.

Ascribed to Gentile BELLINI The Sultan Mehmet II 3099)


Canvas, transferred from wood('). 69-9x 52.1 (2^ Vi x 20 Vi ).

Canvas,

CAPPELLE

and the

).

Canvas. 135 3x96.5(53

95

).

BALDUNG Portrait ofa Man (245)


Wood, 593 X 48.9 (23

The Stonemason

Venice:

Canvas, l4lxl%.2(55

C^i)

Yellow

107

Salting Bequest, 1910

The Basin of San Marco

Venice.

Canvas. 122 x 154.5

Purchased. 1891.

(16)

).

123.8x162.9(481/4 x64'/8).

AUSTRIAN School

Wood, diameter 40.^

V,

Canvas, 121.9x 182.8 (48x^2). Bequeathed. 1929.

1883.

xlO). 1475. Purchased, 1884.

'/2

and Child before a Firescreen (2609)

The Virgin

CANALETTO

ANTONEU06m/Cm7//e^(ll66)
Wood, 419 X 25.4 (16

Canvas. 99.1x116,8 (39x46). Purchased, 1983.

CAMPIN

Purchased. 1857.

24).

KmomUS) Portrait (fa Man (\U\)

252

).

';

112

10"9)

23) Bequeathed, 1880.

Jacques-Louis DAVID lacobus Blauw (6495)


Canvas, 92 x 73 (36 % x"28 Vi ). 4 (1795). Purchased,

228
1984.

DEGAS La La at the Cirque Fernando.


Canvas. 116.8x77.5(46x30

'

238

Paris (4121)

Purchased. 1925.

'/z ).

x 4"

258

'/4

).

Vellum(>). 45.

Purchased, 1981.

DELACROIX Baron Schwiter (i2S6)


2r.8xk3.5(85 H x 56 Vi Purchased. 1918.
\;inDElE\ An Architectural Fantasy (MO)
x23'V;.). 1634. Wynn Ellis Bequest,
Wood. 46^x60. 5(18
Canvas.

230
165
18"6

5/8

DOMENICHINO Apollo pursuing Daphne (628^)

90

mounted on board, 311.8x 1892

H X "4
Purchased. 1958.
DOSSO The Adoration 0/ the Kings (W^)

(123

1/4

).

79

Wood. 85.1x108(33 Vi x42 Vi Mond Bequest.


DROUAIS Madame de Pompadour (644O)

225

2rxl56.8(85 78 x6l '/ ). r63-4. Purchased, 1977.


Dl'BBELS Shipping Becalmed Offshore (258")
Canvas. 48.3 x 48. (19 x 18 '7;,). Salting Bequest. 1910.
Dl'CCIO The Virgin and Child with Saints (Sbd)
Wood, central panel 61.3 x 39 (24 '/s x 15 Vs ). Purchased, 1857.
Canvas.

154

DUCCIO

The Annunciation

15

16

(1139)

Wood, 43. 2x43. 8(17xr %). Purchased, 1883.


Ascribed to DURER The Painter s Father (1938)
Wood. 51 x 4O.3 (20 7i,. X 15 7s ). UT- Purchased, 1904.
DIYSTER m-o Men playing Thc-trac (\W)
Wood. 4l X b'.6 (16 '/s X 26 % ). Purchased. 1893-

123

Canvas. 163

x 77

'/s

21.3 (6 Vs

128

x24

Vi

91
1831.

104

131

Wood.22.9xr.8(9x"). 5 5i. Presented. 1934.


Van der HEYDEN The Huis ten Bosch (1914)

150

\Xbod. 21

6x

28.6(8

xll

Vi

'A

Bequeathed. 1902.

).

The Avenue. Middelhamis (830)

Canvas, 1035

x 141

(40

x 55

Vi

151

1689. Purchased. 18^1.

'/z ).

Marriage a la Mode: The Marriage Contract (113 )

x 35 V4). Purchased,
HOLBEIN The Ambassadors (1514)
'/2

Vz

Wood. r9.1x82.6("0

x82

Vi

x32

Vi

126

1533- Purchased, 1890.

).

'/-

106

).

173

W x36

Duchess of Milan (2475)

231

1856. Purchased, 1936.

).

234

Canvas. 86.4x102.2

FRAGONARD Psyche showing her Sisters

222

De KEYSER Constantijn Huygens and hL^ Clerk or Page (212)


Wood. 92. 4 X 69. 3 (36 Vs x27 'A 162". Bequeathed. 1847.
KONINCK An Extensive Landscape (6398)

her Giftsfrom Cupid (644 5

x"5

FRENCH( ? ) School Richard I! presented to the


Child by his Patron Saints ( The Wilton Diptych

Wood. each panel47. 5x29. 2(18x11

V2

).

>

irgin

and

210

GAINSBOROUGH

V,

197
198

The Painter 5 Daughters


Vi

x4l

'/4

Canvas. 236.2

Vi

).

x 366 (168

x r2). Purchased. 1983.


GIORGIONE The Adoration oftbeMagidlbO)
Wood, approx.

199

229
94

Vi

29. 8x 81.3

(11 V4

x 32).

73

18

20

x 15

lomsi?)m^Mfi

'A

).

245
1924.

The Adoration of the Shepherds (6iM)


'/8

x 54

Vs

).

211

Purchased. 1962.

The I irgm and Child

56

x41). Presented. 1962.

U.O'SKRliO The Virgin of the Rocks (\0%)


Wood. 189. 5 X 120 ("4 Vs x47 W ). Purchased, 1880.
LE\Sim.ABoyandaGirl('i4\l)
Wood. 59.4X48.8(23% xl97^). Bequeathed, 1943.

lOCH^ER Saints Matthew.

57
162

29

FraFilippoLlPPir/je.-lwwafl//on(666)
1861.

Catherine ofAlexandria

Wood. 68.6x 58

(2"

x 22

/s

).

119

Presented, 1863.

LONGHl vi(?;M;oH ofa Rhinoceros in

x 4" (23 V4 x 18 Vi Purchased,


lOTTO A Lady as Lucretia (42%)
Canvas. 6U.4

Purchased. 1944.

\an GOGH The Chair and Pipe (3862)


Canvas, 9I.8x 73 (36 Vs x 28 W ). Purchased,

x58). Purchased. 192^.

with Saints Anne andfohn the Baptist (6337)

Pietro

retiring to the Desert (5454)


'A

220

andfohn the Evangelist CO^)

'/4

Wood. 31.1x38.8(12

Wood.68.6xl52.4(2"x6U). Purchased.

Purchased, 1884.

Ascribed to GIOTTO Pentecost C^ibO)


Wood, 45. "x43. 8(18x1"
). Bequeathed. 1942.
GIOVANNI di Paolo Saintfohn the Baptist

14 7

203

LA\i'REf<Cl Queen Charlotte (425^)

Cartoon; chalk on paper. 141.5x104.6(55

Purchased. 1954.

GERICAULT A Horsefrightened by Lightning (4927)


Canvas. 48.9x60. 3 (19 '^ x23 V*). Purchased. 1938.
GIORDANO Phineas and his Followers turned to Stone (648'')
Canvas. 285

160

x66). 1655. Acquired. 1971.

LANCRET A Lady and Gentleman taking Coffee

LEONARDO

The Morning Walk (6209)

xr9.1 (93x"0

'/s

Canvas. 109.5 x 13".4 (43

).

Henrv Vaughan Bequest. 1900.

GAINSBOROUGH

Bequeathed. 19^8.

).

).

Canvas. 239.4x14". 3 (94

I960.

chasing a Butterfly (m\\). Canvas, 113.7x104.8(44

'A

Canvas,88.9x9".8(35x38'/2). Bequeathed, 1972.

Purchased. 1929-

x 4"). Purchased.

167

with Children in a Garden (6422)

(44 51)

GAINSBOROUGH Mr and Mrs Andreas (6301


Canvas. 69 8 x 119.4 (2^

(34X40

Canvas. 13" 4x16". 7 (54

Purchased. 1978.

*/4 ).

135

of Saint Sebastian Archers Guild (6444)

1654. Purchased, 1924.

).

'A

116

1/4

FANTIN-LATOUR The Rosy Wealth offune(\bS6)


Canvas. '0.5x61.6(2" 'A x24 %
Presented, 1899.

Canvas. 168.3x192.4(66

169

1660(?). Purchased, 1869.

JOOSvanWassenhove.V/2tf/c(756)
Wood 5 5 .6 X 9" 2 (61 X 38 W ). Purchased, 1866.
)ORD\ESS The Holy Family (16^)
Wood. 123x93.9(487,,.x36'V,). Presented, 1838.
KXLF Still Life with the Drinking Horn
1

127

Presented. 1909.

).

).

'A

196

1824.

ISGRES. Madame Moitessier (4821)

1851

162

HEMESSEN Portrait of a Lady (4"32

Canvas. 120x92.1 (4"

'/2

V^

97

(2^)24)

xl6 % ). Salting Bequest. 1910.


GUERCINO Angels weeping over the Dead Christ (22)
Copper. 36.8x44.4(14 Vi xl7 Vi ). HolwellCarr Bequest,
HALS A Boy with a Skull (6458)
Canvas. 92. 2x80.8 (36 'A x34 V2 ). Purchased. 1980.

Canvas, 73.7x62.6(29x24^/8

VXBRniVS SelfPortraiK?) (4042)


Canvas. "0 5x61. 5 (2^

182

V8

Wood. 20"x209.5(81

).

'/4

144
19IO.

De HOOCH A Woman and her Maid in a Courtyard (794)

x 8 % Presented. 1920.
Van EYCK The Marriage of Giovanni Amolfini (\S6)
X 23 ). 1434. Purchased. 1842.
>Xood. 81.8 X 59." (32
Van EYCK A Man in a JUrban (222)
Wood, with frame 33.3x25.8 (13 Vs 10 'V,.,). 1433. Purchased.
Ifa

194

).

HOLBEIN Christina ofDenmark.

ElSHEmm Saint Paul on Malta (i'i55)


Copper.

193

Purchased. 1896.

).

Viewofthe Venetian Lagoon

Wood. 21.3x41.3(8

137

1657. Purchased, 1895.

).

'/i

21 Vi

'A.

Canvas. 69 9 X 90.8 (2"

Guild (l'i59)

x 197 (64

Studio of El GRECO The Agony in the Garden (3476)


Canvas. 102 x 131 (4O x 51
Purchased, 1919.

HOGARTH

174

115

Purchased, 1900.

).

Wood. 64.3 X 52.4 (25 H x 20 Vi ). Purchased. 1961.


GO\Y.H A Windmill by a River (2^1%)
Wood. 29.4 X 36.3 (ir'/.x 14 V,). 1642. Salting Bequest.

136

).

V2

GWK The Duke of Wellington (bl22)

HOBBEMA
159

Van DYCK The Balbi Children (6502)


Canvas. 219x151 (86 'A x 59 Vi
Purchased. 1985.
Van DYCK Equestrian Portrait of Charles I (VTl)
Canvas, approx. 36" x 292 (144 Vi x 115). Purchased, 1885.
EECKHOUT Four Officers ofthe Amsterdam Coopers

and Winerackers

U x 54.6 (32 W

GUARDI

1924.

).

"x6". 3(18x26

GO\k Dona Isabel de Parcel (h"^})


Canvas.

).

Fresco, transferred to canvas,

245
1924.

DEGAS Hetene Rouart (6469)


Canvas. 161 x 120 (63 Vg

\zn GOGH Sunflowers (i%h)


Canvas, t)2 x 73 (36 'A x 28 W ). Purchased,
GOSSAEKT An Elderly Couple (M9)

Canvas, 95.9x110.5 (37

).

Vi

x43

Vi

Venice (1101)

98

1881.

81

).Purchased. 1927.

253

LUINI Christ among the Doctors (18)


Wood. "2.^x8S."(28 Vi x33 'a HolurllCarr Bequest, 1831.
MAES Interior with a Sleeping Maid and her Mistress (207)

69

)^

Wood, "OxS3.3(277i x21).

MANET Music in the


Canvas. "6.2 x

MANET

118.1

163

16SS. Bequeathed, 18^^.-

Vi

).

W )&89x 30(3Sx 11
Purcha.sed,
centre 19 X 16 ("S x 63): right 99 xS9 (39x24 W
MANTEGNA The Agony in the Garden (HP)
3S.Sx 26(l4x

left

10

).

Wood, 62 .9 X 80 (24

MARGARITO

'A

31 Vi

The Virgin

).

23 7
'A

);

1918.

49

and Child Enthroned (^G^)

14
114

Tax Gatherers (944)


Wood.92.1x-'4.3(.^6'^ X 29 '/4).Wynn
Tu'o

MASACCIO

24
121

Temple COb). Wood, 83.8 x 108.6 (33 x 42 % Presented, 1863.


MASTER of the SAINT BARTHOLOMEW ALTARPIECE

122

).

).

The

irgin

and Child with Angels (6^99)


112

).

MATISSE Portrait of Greta Moll (64 SO


Canvas, 93x73.5 (.^6 W x29). 1908. Purchased, 1979( DACS

MAZO Queen Mariana of Spain in Mourning (2926)


x 57

Vi

V2

MELENDEZ Still Life with Oranges and


x 32).

Canvas, 61 x 81,3 (24

192
110

1910.

miSVi A Woman Drawing ('^12'^)

163

x 12 7...). Presented.
MICHELANGELO The Entombment (1^0)
Wood. 161." X 149.9 (63 % x 59). Purchased,
X

MIGNARD
and

30.:' (14 7,

58
1868.

218

Tu'o

I691.

MOLENAER Children making Music


Canvas. 68. 3x84. 5(26

MONET

).

Bequeathed,

1914.

161

5416)

1629, Bequeathed, 1943.

239

The Care St-Lazare (6479)

Canvas. 54.3 x ^3.6 (21

MONET

x33 W

78

Water

x29). Purchased, 1982,

Vs

240

Lilies {k^^'h},]

Canvas, 200. 'x426. 7(79x168), Purcha.sed, 1963.

MORETTO Portrait ofa

Young Man (299

Canvas, 113.7x94(44

x37). Purchased, 1858.

'A

MORONI Portrait (fa Man (The


Canvas. 97. 8x:?4.9(38'/2 x29'/2

Tailor
).

')

MURILLO

'The lU'o

V,

82

(69")

190

).

191

Canvas, 54x4^,5(21

Wood,

311.3

224

xl8). 1757. Bequeathed, 1945.

VanderNEER.-l Moonlit

19

7,..),

153
113

NICCOLO dell'Abate

The Story <fAristaeus[^l?,^)


x 23". 5 (74 1/2 x93 Vi ) Pre.sented, 1941,

Attributed to NOLTS A Family Group {\m)^ Canvas,


178x 235 (70 x 92 Vi ). Presented in two halves, 1000 and
OOST Portrait ofa Hoy aged Eleven [Wy]
Canvas, 80.

5x63

(31

"A,,

Wood. 95x49(37

254

Vi

11

19 Vi

Purcha.sed, 1857.

35

36
38
40

X 59.5 (52

1867.

41
18"4.

PINTORICCHIO Scenesfrom the O^vwr (911),


canvas, 125.

PISANELLO The
Wood. 4" x 29.2

152 (49

Virgin

(18

PISANELLO The

1/2

x 59

'/2

V4

).'

and Child with Saints


11

Visionof Saint Eustace (>)


Vi

x25

42

22

776)

Presented, 186^.

).

1/2

Fresco, transferred

Purchased, 18"4.

V4

(Mb)

23

Purchased, 1895.

).

Camille PISSARRO Paris: The Boulevard Montmartre


alNighti^m). Canvas, 53.3x64.8(21x25 Vi ). Purchased, 1925.

PITTONI The Nativity {bl''^)


Canvas. 222,^xl53.5'(87 Vi x60

).

Purchased, 1958.

VanderPOEL.-l Viewof Delft after the Explosion of 1654 {\Qb\)


Wood, 36.2 .^40,5(14 '4 xl9
1654, Bequeathed. 18"9,
Antonio and Piero del POLLAIUOLO The Martyrdom of
l'.

243
99

Vi

172

).

Saint Sebastian (292)


Wood. 241.5x202,6(114

32

% x"9 H Purchased, 185^,


Antonio and Piero del POLLAIUOLO Apollo and Daphne (928) 33
s

X 20

(11

'/8

),

7 Vi

Wynn

).

Ellis

Bequest, 1876.

PONTORMOyrwep/b in Egypt (1131)


96. 5

109.5

(38x43

Vs

64

Purchased, 1882.

).

POTTER Cattle and Sheep in a Stormy Landscape (2583)


3", 8 (18

'/4

l4 78

POUSSIN Cephalus and Aurora (65)


x 130,8(38x

51 V2

).

152

164", Salting Bequest, 1910,

).

215

Bequeathed, 1831.

POUSSIN The Adoration of the Golden C.V///"(559")


% x84 W Purcha.sed, 1945,
POUSSIN Landscape with a Snake (^b^)
Canvas, 119.4 x 198.8 (47 x 78 W
Purchased. 1947.

216

).

PREDA Francesco d'Archinto

217

68

1665)

3x38.1(21x15). 1494. Purchased, 1898,

RAPHAEL.-l/l//e^on'(213)
(6

V4

x6

V4

59
Purcha.sed, 1847,

),

RAPHAEL TheAnsideiMadimna

60

[\r\)

170

Wood. 209.6 X 148.6(82 Vi x 58 Vi ). 1505(?). Purchased,


RAPHAEL PopeJulius U {21)
Wood. 108x80,^(42 Vi x31 'A). Purchased. 1824.

138

REMBRANDT /?('/.v/w"rtr;s-f(Y/(6350)

1910

Canvas. 16"

x24'7,). 1650. Purchased, 1883-

Style of ORCAGNA The Adoration of the Kings i")! A)

Purchased. 1856.

x 23 Vs ). Purchased,
PIERO della Francesca The Natirity{^m)
Wood, 124.4x122,6(49x48 '/4), Purchased,
133

Wood, r.lxP.l

Wood,5(i,8x()8,6(20x2").Purcha,sed, 1889.

7i..).

Mythological Subject (698)

PIERO della Francesca The Baptism of Christ (665)


Wood, 16" X 116 (66 X 45 % Purchased, 1861.
PIERO della Francesca Saint Michael 769)

\X'ood. S3

Bequeathed, 1854.

NETHERLANDISH School/! Z-rtw^^xca/je (1298)

Canvas. 189

x 22

Vs

37

).

r/t''(239)

X 48 4 (ir/.,x

224

Purchased, 1976.

).

Canvas. 154,3x214(60

Purcha.sed, 1837,

NATTIER Manon Balletti ( 5 586)

68

Wood, 65.4x184.2 (23 V4 x72 14 ). Purchased, 1862.


Ascribed to PIERO di Cosimo A Man in Armour (895)
Wood. "0,5x51. 5(2"% x 20 W Presented, 18"1.

Canvas, 96,

mnitiesCThe Pedroso Murillo)(\^)


Vi

% x 28 %

pane!113.3x 56,5 (44

Wood. 46,3 x

Purchased, 1862,

W x87

right

Wood,

x42). Purcha.sed, 1953.

Canvas, approx. 293x170(115

67

PERUGINO The Virgin and Child with Saints Michael


and Raphael (1H8). Wood, centre 113.7x63.8
(44 y4 X 25 Vs ), left panel 115 x 56.3 (45 'A x 22 Vi.).

Wood, 29

82

MIJRILLO Self Portrait (6153)


Canvas, 122x10^(48

Canvas, 92,1 x 73 (36

Wood, 54.5x65.5(21

1940.

The Marquise de Seignelay

of her Children (2967)


Canvas, 194.3x154.9(76 Vi x6l).

and Child

).

to

The Donne Triptych' (6275). Wood, centre panel


///
'/8 X 27 y4), wings 71.1x30.5 (28x12). Acquired, 1957.

36. 3

The Madonna

78

Wood, 342.9 X 148,6(135 x 58 V2 Presented, 1826.


PARMIGIANINO Portrait ofa Man (644I
Wood. 89.5x63.8(35 W x 25 '/s). Purchased, 1977.

Wood,

^0.8 x "0.5 (27

Wood.

PARMIGIANINO

1947.

).

189

Walnuts (6505)

Young Man at Prayer 2 594


Wood, 38.7x25.4 (15 'A x 10). Salting Bequest,

MEMLINC

250
1987).

1772. Purchased, 1985.

MEMLINC A

120

).

I666. Presented. 1913.

).

Wood, 40.3 X 39.4 (15 78 X 15 Vi ). Bequeathed,


PALMA Vecchio Portrait of a Poet (636)
Wood, 83. 8x63. 5(33x25). Purchased, 1860.

PIERO di Cosimo A

Wood, S2 X 38 (19 Vi x IS). Purchased, 1985


MASTER of SAINT GILES Saint Giles and the HinddW)
Wood, (51.6x46. 4(24 'A xl8 % Purchased, 1894,

Canvas. 196. 8x 146(77

and Child Enthroned with

'irgin

PmROmiMi Jacques CazotteiMiS)

Bequest, 18^6.

Ellis

and Child 30^6


Wood. 13S.3x^3(S3 W x28 Vi Purchased. 1916.
MASTER of the LIFE of the VIRGIN The Presentation in the
The Irgin

Circle of PACHER The

152
18"1.

with Saintsfohn the Baptist andJerome (33)

Purchased, 1894.

Wood,92,"xl82.9(.36'/2 x"2). Purchased. 18S^.

MARINLS

Isack van OSTADE A Winter Scene (848)


Wood.48.8x4()(19 /. xl5 Vi). Purchased.
Saints and A ngels ( 5"'86)

1862. Lane Bequest, 19F.

The Execution of the Emperor Maximilian (3294)

Canvas fragments:

236

72

).

Tuilenes Gardens 3260)

(30x46

Ascribed to ORSI The Walk to Emmaus (1466)


Canvas, "1 Ix 5" (28x22 Vi
Purchased, 1895.

19

6x 209.2(66x82

Vs

).

V.

18

'/2

61

175

Purchased. 1964.

REMBRANDT A Woman bathing in a Stream


Wood, 61.8x4" (24

1885.

16m

54)

Holwell Carr Bequest. 1831.

176

KSMBKKSmMargaretbadeGeer(ie^^)
x 9". 5 5m x 38 Vs). Purchased,

Canvas. 130. 5

/"
1899.

IS

REMBRANDT SelfPortrait aged SLvty-tbree (221)


Canvas. 86 X ^0.5 (33

x 2-

"'s

V,

l()69.

).

Purchased, 1851.

RENI Lot and bL^ Daugbters leating Sodom 193)


Canvas. 111.2 x 1492 (43 V, x 58 V,
Purchased. 1844.
(

91

).

RENOIR

Tbe Seine at Asnieres(iH''^)


Canvas. ~1 x 92 (28 x 36 '4 ). Purchased, 1982.

24l

RENOK The imbreUas (3268)

242

Canvas,

180.3xlk.9Clx45

V^

Lane Bequest. 19r.

).

REYNOLDS Captain Robert Orme (681


Canvas. 2-iOx k-.3(94

REYNOLDS Anne
Canvas.

12(3.9

RIBALTA The

'a

58). 1*56.

x 39

200
201

'/2

1612.

).

Canvas. 125."

202.1 (49

x^9'/2

'/^

).

Canvas

116 3

c)4

Presented, 1933.

RIBESS

Vs

x63

V,

).

1891.

152
152

xirv/>). Presented, 1828.


x 298 (80
RUBENS Susanna Lunden ( Le Chapeau de Paille). (852).
Wood approx. "9 x 54(31 /- x21
Purchased. 18"1.
RliBf.SS An Autumn Landscape with a VieuofHetSteen(^)

155

Sir

RUISDAEL A Pool surrounded by Trees (854)


Canvas. 10" 5x143(42 U x 56 "i
Purchased. 18''1.
RUISDAEL The Shore at Egmond-aan-Zee(l590)
Canvas. 53." x66.2 (21
x 26 'A.). Purchased, 1893.

x32
Salting Bequest.
SAINT-.UBIN.-l Street Show in Paris (1U9)
x81."(23"/>

Canvas. SOxtn.l (31

'':

).

'/s

x 25

'4

Purchased.

).

x 56

'/2

x 22

5". 2 (28 Vi

V2

).

'

SEBASTLiNO del Piombo


Wood, transferred

to

168

Canvas. 201

226

'/s

x 118

Virgin

Purchased. 1862.

62

Wood. 265x193(104'/, x "6). 1515. Purchased.


SOL\RI Man with a Pink 923
Vibod. 49. 5

V2

15

'/,

).

55

).

Vy,).

166

211

Presented, 1938.

).

VELAZQUEZ Kitchen Scene with Christ


House of Martha and Mar\- ([V 5)

185

VEL\ZQUEZ Philip f\
VEL\ZQUEZ

The

x43

78

V,

).

bunting Wild Boar 19"

VERMEER

.-1

185

("1 Vs

118 /s

Toilet of Venus (

).

Purchased, 1846.

The Rokeby Vetius')(2Q5^)

1225x1"" (48 H x69 %


Young Woman standing at a

).

xl"/).

186

Presented. 1906.
\

irginal (1383)

/ "/

Purchased, 1892.

Claude-Joseph VTRNET A Sea-Shore ( 201


Copper. 62 2 X 85.1 (24 Vi x 33 'h ). r"6. Bequeathed,
VERONESE The Consecration ofSaint Mcbolas (26)
Canvas, approx. 282.6 xro.8 (111

184

Purchased. 1882.

'A

x6"

V,

).

22 7
1846/7.
8-1

Presented, 1826.

VERONESE Allegory- ofLore (1318)


Canvas. 1899x189.9 ("4 V4 x"4 H Purchased. 1890.
VERONESE The Family ofDarius before Alexander (294)

85

).

86

92
).

202

).

54

Wood.83tix(3t>(33x2b). Purchased. 186".

^14

247

The Chtmneypiece (52^1). Pasteboard,

""^(20

x30"2"). 1905. LaneBequest, 191"

'/4

(D.\CS 198")

Canvas

>ii

Sx5')."(20x23

V:

).

Wood.61 6x

M b(24 H

x21

'/:

).

Wood. 3^ b

4^

(14x1"

).

219

Bequeathed, 1912.

107

Purchased. I860.

108

.Acquired, 1956.

~9

at the .\eu Fishmarket in Amsterdam in ( 3682

Presented. 1888.

x 59 H Purchased. 1961.
STUBBS The Melbourne andMilbanke Families (6429)
Canvas. 9".2 x 1493 (38
x 58 V, Purchased. 19''5.
S WABL\N School A Lady of the Hofer Family "22)
Wood. 53." X 40.8(21
xl5 /s ). Presented. 1863.
'/*

V^

De W ITTE Adriana i an Heusden and her Daughter

STROZZIfflOTe(6321)
Canvas. 106." x 151." (42

52

Van der WEYDEN Wf/fl (6265)

1910.

of the Vanities of Human Life (12%)

X 19

x 134 (38 x

17

Van der WEYDEN The Magdalen Reading (bS-i)


164

'/:.

27

xl26). Purchased, 185".

W.\TTL\U La Gamme d Amour (2ST)

Purchased. 18"5.

STEEN Skittle Players outside an Inn 2 560)


Wood. 335 X 2" (13 "/- X 10 % Salting Bequest.
STEE.NHYCK Still Life: An Allegory
Wood. 39.2 X 50." (15

V:

UGOLINO

VUILL\RD
45

1901.

X 38. 5 (19

6 X 320 ("1

207

1856.

Follower of VERROCCHIO Tobias and the Angel C'Sl)

244

and Child with Saints {\W)

.-1

181

1856.

Canvas. 236.2x4"4.9(93xl8"). Purchased. 1857.

Purchased. 1924.

).

x 48). Turner Bequest.


UCCELLO The Battle ofSan Romano {SSi)
'4

Canvas. 51."x45.2(20'''8

65

3908

'/

TURNER Rain.

Canvas, approx.

canvas and remounted on board, approx.

x 300 "9

206

W x"80). Turner Bequest,


Steam and Speed (538)

Canvas approx. 182 x 302

381 x 2896(150x114). Purchased. 1824.

SIGNORELLI The

TURNER [ lysses deriding Polyphemus (508)

Canvas, approx. 195x110 ("6

1902. Presented. 1916.

The Raising of Lazarus (1)

205

Turner Bequest. 1856.

Canvas. 60x103. 5(23^8 x40y4'). I6I8. Bequeathed. 1892.

).

SEURAT Bathers at Asnieres

H x 48).

VELAZQUEZ Philip flofSpain in Brown and Silrer (U29)

).

45
1867.

145

21
S.\SSETTA The Dream of Saint Francis (4"57)
x20V8 Purchased. 1934.
Wood 8" X 52.4(34
S.WOLDO Saint Mary Magdalen approaching the Sepulchre (1031) 78
Canvas. 86.4 x "Q 4 34 x 31 .
Purchased. 18"8.
1/4

TIRA SaintJerome C^5)


Wood 101 X 5".2 (39 H x 22 Vi Purchased.
TURNER The Fighting Temeraire' (524)

77

in the

190:'.

SARTO Portrait ofa Young Man (690)


Linen. "2.4

76

147

208
).

TITLAN The Vendramin Family {+i52)


Canvas. 205." x 301 (81 x 118
Purchased. 1929TITL\N The Death ofActaeon (6420)
Canvas. r8.4x 198.1 ("0 Va x"8). Purchased. 19"2.

Canvas. 96. 5

1910.

SARGLNT Lord Ribblesdale (3044)


Canvas. 258.4x1435(101

75

I46

'/

RM'SSlihEL River Scene (Gm)


Wood. ^1.5x96.5(20 '4 x38). 1632. Bequeathed, 1972.
S.4ENREDA.M TbeGroteKerk. Haarlem (2531)
>

lYlWS Bacchus and Ariadne (i^)

The Way to Caliar\-(\m)


Wood. 34.5 X 53 (13 ''2 X 21). Purchased. 1885.
Le VALENTLN The Four Ages ofMan (4919)

).

-Q

74

154

George Beaumont

Gift. 1828.

Wood

iniKS Portrait ofa Man (VH^)

Wood.

).

Wood, approx. 131.2x 229.2 (51^8 x90'/4).

80

Canvas. 90.8x121.9 (55

'/s

'/,

101

HolwellCarr Bequest, 1831.

).

Canvas. 132." x 203.2 (52

RUBENS Peace and War (46)


Canvas, approx. 203. 5

195"".

Giovanni Battista TIEPOLO An Allegory with Venus


and TimeibW). Canvas, 292 x 19O.4 (115 x "5). Purchased, 1969
TINTORETTO Saint George and the Dragon I6)

Canvas. 90.8x121.9 (35

Purchased. I844.

).

'/4

2^6

Purchased. 1972.

TheJudgement ofParis (m)

Wood. 144.8 X 193." (57 x 76

tston of the Trinity

).

Henri ROl SSL\U TYopical Storm uitb a Tiger {(hII)


Canvas. 129.8xltil.9(51

92
93

x 3").

(^5 Vg

Pope Saint Clement (62"3)


Canvas. 6"-1. 2 x>^ 2(2" U x21 %). Purchased.

to

").

Purchased. 185".

ROSA SelfPortrait (4680)

100

'/2

Purchased. 1913-

ROS\ Landscape uitbMercuri- and the Dishonest WoodmaniS-i)

Giovanni Battista TIEPOLO The

Canvas. r5.2xl90.5(69x"5). Purchased, 1826.

188

of Father Simon (2930)

ision

Canvas. 210.8x110.5(83x43

NO

Canvas. 81.2 x66.3 (32 x 36). Purchased, 1904.

Purchased, 1888-90.

).

David TENIERS the Younger.^ VieuofHetSterckshof


near Anfwerp (^D
Canvas. 82x118 (32 '< x-K^
Purchased. 18"1

Canvas. 15".5xl00.3(62x39'/2

Purchased, 1862.

Countess of Albemarle (12 59)

101 (49 ^4

))

119

Canvas. 5".lx64.1 (22

'/2

x25

'A

).

Purchased. 1922.

WOUWER.M.ANS Cavalrymen halted at a Sutler's Booth (%''%)


Wood >! ^ 4l "(20 W xlb /..). Purchased. 18"1.
ZURBAR.\N Saint Margaret(m^)

180

Canvas, 163x105(64x41

^4

).

187

Purchased, 1903.

'/8

255

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o

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a
Span

1
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r=?

1
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Marly

u
93

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z^

'W

c
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ij
ij

;/i

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%;

f-

'

sc
x

^
^

A SELECTION OF OVER TWO HUNDRED & FIFTY PAINTINGS


FROM ALL THE MAJOR EUROPEAN SCHOOLS. EACH WORK
REPRODUCED IN COLOUR AND WITH A COMMENTARY
BY SIR MICHAEL LEVEY FORMER DIRECTOR OF
THE NATIONAL GALLERY

1^

r ;*:

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