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POWER SYSTEM I

ECB 3153
EXPERIMENT TITLE
________________________________
Name

Student ID

Group No

Lab Session

Date

Lecturer

GAs

:
:
:

Rubric for Pre-Lab & In-Lab


Course :

Power Systems

Date:

Student
Name:

Student
ID:

Topic
(Weight)

Analysis and
Preparation before
experiment
(2)

Knowledge &
Understanding
(3)

Safety & Health


Issues

Unacceptable
(0)

Punctuality
(1)
TOTAL

Examiner:

Acceptable
(2)

Exceptional
(3)

Demonstrated
little or no ability
to conduct
experiments. Did
not collect
meaningful
information.

No
understanding of
the topic and
accurate answer
to questions
posed by
instructor.

No understanding
or appreciation of
safety and health
related issues

(1)

Participation
in Teamwork
(If applicable)
(3)

Marginal
(1)

Demonstrated
little or no ability
to function
effectively as
leader/team
member during
experimental
work

>10 minutes late

Demonstrated
some ability to
conduct
experiments.
Collected some
meaningful
information.

Little
understanding of
the topic and
accurate answer
to questions
posed by
instructor.

Serious
deficiencies in
addressing health
and safety issues
leading to a
unsupported
and/or infeasible
result

Demonstrated
some ability to
function
effectively as
leader/team
member during
experimental
work

6-10 minutes late

Demonstrated
adequate ability
to conduct
experiments.
Collected most of
the needed
information.

Adequate
understanding of
the topic and
accurate answer
to questions
posed by
instructor.

Sound
understanding of
health and safety
issues. Mostly
effective in
achieving
supported results

Demonstrated
adequate ability
to function
effectively as
leader/team
member during
experimental
work

1-5 minutes late

Demonstrated
superior ability to
conduct
experiments.
Collected all the
appropriate
information.

Excellent
understanding of
the topic and
accurate answer
to questions
posed by
instructor.

Complete
understanding of
health and safety
issues leading to
sound and
supported results

Demonstrated
superior ability to
function
effectively as
leader/team
member during
experimental
work

Punctual

Points

Rubric for Lab Report


Course :

Power Systems

Date:

Student:

Student
ID:

Topic
(Weight)
Introduction

Background

Objective

Scope

Unacceptable
(0)

(3)

Results/Findings/Analysis
(3)

Report Organization
(2)

Acceptable
(2)

Exceptional
(3)

State the
Able to state the
introduction with introduction with
limited
minor error
information

Able to state the


introduction
clearly

Unable to state
the introduction
clearly

(2)
Theoretical Knowledge/
Literature Review

Marginal
(1)

Not explained or
not related to
the project

No results or
plagiarized work
are presented

Report is too
difficult to
understand with
many
grammatical
error and not
well organized

Not clearly
explained or
partially related
to the project

Minimum results
are presented
and analyzed

Report is easy to
understand with
few grammatical
error and
moderately
organized

Important
knowledge are
covered but still
missing some
important
concept

Results are
presented but
with minor error
and could still be
improved

Report well
written but
occasionally
some points are
difficult to
understand.
Minor
grammatical
error

Points

Clearly explained
the knowledge
and concept.
Student capable
of discussing the
theory and
simulated results

Results and
analysis are
clearly explained
using relevant
tool such as
graph , table,
etc.

Report very well


written and easy
to understand

TOTAL

Examiner:

One long report (hand written) will be assigned to each student which needs to
submit one week after the respective lab is conducted. Punctuality is very important.
The mark will be deducted to those are not punctual. Please follow all the lab safety
and procedures. The formats of lab report are as follows:
1. Cover Page: Title of experiment, student name, matrix number and group
number.
2. Report: Introduction, brief summary on how the experiment is done.
3. Conclusion: Brief conclusion and comments on the results obtained.

EXPERIMENT 1: SHUNT COMPENSATION


POWER SYSTEM 1 ( ECB3153 )

PRE-LAB (2.5%)
(1) What is a shunt compensation and why used in the transmission line?
(2) How does shunt compensation work on the lines?
(3) A shunt compensation as represented in single circuit below, determine what is
the exactly capacitor size for each phase and what is the effect of reactive
inductance in T.L.

(4) There are two types of compensation connections, series and shunt connections.
Compare between them in terms of current, voltages, system loss, and real
power.
(5) Design a table for experiment data to show the characteristics of the voltage and
reactive load.

1|Page

EXPERIMENT 1: SHUNT COMPENSATION


POWER SYSTEM 1 ( ECB3153 )

EQUIPMENT MANUAL (2.5%)


In order to do the experiment you have to follow these instructions and procedures;
1. At (C1), put the speed control and voltage control potentiometer COARSE in
minimum.
2. Put the speed control and voltage control potentiometer FINE on 50 percent
3. Put the switch for START/RUN in position start (only this is possible for starting
the machine).
4. Put the switch for the DC converter CBM1 in ON position. The machines will now
speed up to basic speed. During the acceleration a warning bell will sound and
the ammeter IA will jump up to several amp (for a couple of seconds).
5. Adjust the speed control potentiometer COARSE and FINE to a position that will
give a speed close to 1500 rpm.
6. Put the CB for the DC converter CBF1 in ON position. Then witch on isolator I1
or I2.
7. Switch on circuit breaker CB1. The power is transmitted either through line A230
orB230 depending on which isolator is switched on.
8. At (C3), adjust the voltage potentiometer COARSE and FINE until the outgoing
lines have approximately 240 V at no load as indicated in the meter.
9. At cubicle C3, switch on I5 or I6. Then switch on I9 and then CB3
10. Voltage, current and power readings can also be observed in the digital meter
connected.
11. At (C12), take down the readings (meter) of voltage and reactive power at no
load.
12. Increase the variable inductive load without compensation. i.e move the switch
of the inductive load to position 1 to 6, and record the readings of voltage, load
current, and reactive power.

2|Page

EXPERIMENT 1: SHUNT COMPENSATION


POWER SYSTEM 1 ( ECB3153 )

13. Now move the variable capacitive switch to position 1. Shunt compensation is
applied to the circuit. Repeat step 14 for different values of compensation applies
the load and record the reading at each case.

SYSTEM COMPONENTS:

3|Page

EXPERIMENT 1: SHUNT COMPENSATION


POWER SYSTEM 1 ( ECB3153 )

OBSERVATIONS
For different values of compensation apply the load and record the readings.

TABLE (1)
Receiving End
Volts (V)

Amp (I)

Real Power

Load (Var)

(W)

Serial

Receiving End

TABLE (2)
Compensation

In load

No.

Load
current

Volts (V)

Reactive

(Var)

(Var)

OFF

OFF

OFF

OFF

OFF

OFF

OFF

OFF

(A)

Power (Q)

4|Page

EXPERIMENT 1: SHUNT COMPENSATION


POWER SYSTEM 1 ( ECB3153 )

Serial
No.

TABLE (3)
Receiving End
Compensation In load
Volts (V)

Reactive Power
(Var)

0
1
2
3
4
5
6

(Var)

(Var)

0
1
2
3
4
5
6

0
1
2
3
4
5
6

Load
current
(A)

Fill table (4), by connecting 3 phase induction motor as in Pre-Lab as star connection to
the shunt compensation terminals, and try to increase the compensation of position 1 to
position 4,

TABLE (4)
Serial
No.

Receiving End
Volts
(V)

0
1
2
3
4

Reactive Power
(Var)

Compensation In load
(Var)

(Var)

0
240
480
720
960

OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF

Load
current
(A)

5|Page

EXPERIMENT 1: SHUNT COMPENSATION


POWER SYSTEM 1 ( ECB3153 )

LAB (5%)
OBJECTIVE
To study the effect of mid-point shunt compensation on power transfer capability in a
transmission line.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

On long transmission lines heavy loads produce a large dip in voltage. Shunt
capacitors are used to improve voltage, increase power transfer and improve the
system stability. Capacitors are connected either directly to a bus bar or to the
tertiary winding of a main transformer and are disposed along the route to minimize
the losses and voltage drops.
Shunt capacitors are used for lagging power factor circuits created by heavy loads.
The effect is to supply the requisite reactive power to maintain the receiving end
voltage at a satisfactory level.
TASK
1. Perform experiment to show that power transfer to the load increases as
increasing shunt compensation. Show your results at any a table as represented
in plotted graphs.
2. What is the relationship between the load current and the reactive load?
3. Draw a schematic diagram of shunt compensation experiment.

6|Page

POWER SYSTEM I
ECB 3153
EXPERIMENT TITLE
________________________________
Name

Student ID

Group No

Lab Session

Date

Lecturer

GAs

:
:
:

Rubric for Pre-Lab & In-Lab


Course :

Power Systems

Date:

Student
Name:

Student
ID:

Topic
(Weight)

Analysis and
Preparation before
experiment
(2)

Knowledge &
Understanding
(3)

Safety & Health


Issues

Unacceptable
(0)

Punctuality
(1)
TOTAL

Examiner:

Acceptable
(2)

Exceptional
(3)

Demonstrated
little or no ability
to conduct
experiments. Did
not collect
meaningful
information.

No
understanding of
the topic and
accurate answer
to questions
posed by
instructor.

No understanding
or appreciation of
safety and health
related issues

(1)

Participation
in Teamwork
(If applicable)
(3)

Marginal
(1)

Demonstrated
little or no ability
to function
effectively as
leader/team
member during
experimental
work

>10 minutes late

Demonstrated
some ability to
conduct
experiments.
Collected some
meaningful
information.

Little
understanding of
the topic and
accurate answer
to questions
posed by
instructor.

Serious
deficiencies in
addressing health
and safety issues
leading to a
unsupported
and/or infeasible
result

Demonstrated
some ability to
function
effectively as
leader/team
member during
experimental
work

6-10 minutes late

Demonstrated
adequate ability
to conduct
experiments.
Collected most of
the needed
information.

Adequate
understanding of
the topic and
accurate answer
to questions
posed by
instructor.

Sound
understanding of
health and safety
issues. Mostly
effective in
achieving
supported results

Demonstrated
adequate ability
to function
effectively as
leader/team
member during
experimental
work

1-5 minutes late

Demonstrated
superior ability to
conduct
experiments.
Collected all the
appropriate
information.

Excellent
understanding of
the topic and
accurate answer
to questions
posed by
instructor.

Complete
understanding of
health and safety
issues leading to
sound and
supported results

Demonstrated
superior ability to
function
effectively as
leader/team
member during
experimental
work

Punctual

Points

Rubric for Lab Report


Course :

Power Systems

Date:

Student:

Student
ID:

Topic
(Weight)
Introduction

Background

Objective

Scope

Unacceptable
(0)

(3)

Results/Findings/Analysis
(3)

Report Organization
(2)

Acceptable
(2)

Exceptional
(3)

State the
Able to state the
introduction with introduction with
limited
minor error
information

Able to state the


introduction
clearly

Unable to state
the introduction
clearly

(2)
Theoretical Knowledge/
Literature Review

Marginal
(1)

Not explained or
not related to
the project

No results or
plagiarized work
are presented

Report is too
difficult to
understand with
many
grammatical
error and not
well organized

Not clearly
explained or
partially related
to the project

Minimum results
are presented
and analyzed

Report is easy to
understand with
few grammatical
error and
moderately
organized

Important
knowledge are
covered but still
missing some
important
concept

Results are
presented but
with minor error
and could still be
improved

Report well
written but
occasionally
some points are
difficult to
understand.
Minor
grammatical
error

Points

Clearly explained
the knowledge
and concept.
Student capable
of discussing the
theory and
simulated results

Results and
analysis are
clearly explained
using relevant
tool such as
graph , table,
etc.

Report very well


written and easy
to understand

TOTAL

Examiner:

One long report (hand written) will be assigned to each student which needs to
submit one week after the respective lab is conducted. Punctuality is very important.
The mark will be deducted to those are not punctual. Please follow all the lab safety
and procedures. The formats of lab report are as follows:
1. Cover Page: Title of experiment, student name, matrix number and group
number.
2. Report: Introduction, brief summary on how the experiment is done.
3. Conclusion: Brief conclusion and comments on the results obtained.

EXPERIMENT 2: TRANSMISSION PARAMETERS


POWER SYSTEM 1 ( ECB3153 )

PRE-LAB(2.5%)
ANSWER FOLLOWING
1. How transmission and inverse transmission line parameters are determined;
explain the two tests required to determine these parameters

2. What is the necessity to obtain transmission parameters?

3. Explain following block diagram and describe the transmission and inverse
transmission line parameters in terms of two-port network and explain the
relationship for all parameters.

Figure: Two port representation of transmission line

4. Why inverse transmission parameters are determined.

5. Design a table that includes variables, those should be measured and


recorded in order to achieve transmission and inverse transmission
parameters.

1|Page

EXPERIMENT 2: TRANSMISSION PARAMETERS


POWER SYSTEM 1 ( ECB3153 )

EQUIPMENT OPERATING MANUAL (2.5%)


Transmission Parameters
Open-circuit test: To determine A and C, the output side of the transmission line
network is open-circuited to make I R = 0 . The input side is supplied with source
voltage (equal to 400V the nominal value ) keeping the impedance of the
transmission line at some value.
Short-circuit test: The output port is short-circuited to make VR = 0 . The input port is
supplied with low voltage and adjusted until nominal current (check the rated value of
the current on the three phase transmission line board) is attained. By measuring the
voltages and current the required parameters are calculated.
Warning :

High voltages are present in this Laboratory! Do not make any


connections with the power on.
The module must be connected to a three-phase variable 0240/415 V power supply, labeled 4, 5, 6 and N.

Open-circuit test
1) To connect the three phase transmission line circuit to the power supply. The
terminals (4, 5, and 6, variable voltage supply) of power supply should be
connected to terminals (1,2 and 3) of the three phase transmission line.
2) Place and ammeter in between the terminals 4 (of the power supply) and 1 (of
the transmission line).
3) Set the value of transmission impedance to zero.
4) Connect a voltmeter in between 4 and 5or5 and 6or4 and 6 of the power
supply to measure sending end voltage VS. Since the measured voltages
between any two terminals is equal.
5) Connect a voltmeter in between 4 and 5or5 and 6or4 and 6 of the three
phase transmission line to measure receiving end voltage VR .(figure 2)
6) Apply the power supply and increase the connected three-phase supply
variable voltage slowly from zero. All the meters should read positive. If not
interchange the terminals of the respective meters .With the output port open,
adjust the voltage of the source so the line to line voltage is 400 V.
7) Record the voltages and current values in the table.
8) Turn down the source voltage to zero.
2|Page

EXPERIMENT 2: TRANSMISSION PARAMETERS


POWER SYSTEM 1 ( ECB3153 )

9) Set the line impedance to 200 ohms


10) Repeat the experiment for line impedances of 200, 400, and 600 ohms.
Short-circuit test
1) Using the same setup as mentioned above, but short the terminals 4, 5 and 6
of the transmission line through an ammeter. (figure 3)
2) Apply the power and increase the connected three phase voltage slowly and
very carefully from zero until nominal current is reached. Record the results in
the table.
3) For 0 transmission impedances do not go to nominal voltage. Just take 0.5V
at this value the current around 5A.
4) Turn the voltage to zero and shut the power supply.
5) Repeat the experiment for different line impedances.
TABLE I. MEASURMENTS
Impedance

Open-circuit test
VS IS
IR VR
volt

amp

amp

volt

Short-circuit test
VS IS
IR VR
volt

amp

amp

volt

200

400

600

Transmission parameters
A
B
C
D
Siemens
( )

3|Page

EXPERIMENT 2: TRANSMISSION PARAMETERS


POWER SYSTEM 1 ( ECB3153 )

Inverse Transmission Parameters


Open-circuit test: To determine a and c, the input port is open-circuited to make
I S = 0 . The output port is supplied with source and voltage of 220 V is applied
keeping the impedance of the transmission line at some value.
Short-circuit test: The input port is short-circuited to make VS = 0 . The output port
is supplied with low voltage and adjusted until nominal current is attained. By
measuring the voltages and current the required parameters are calculated.
Open-circuit test
1) Connect the circuit to the power supply. The terminals 4,5,and 6 of power
supply should be connected to 4,5 and 6 of the three phase transmission line.
2) Set the value of transmission impedance to zero.
3) Place and ammeter in between the terminals 4 (of the power supply) and 4 (of
the transmission line).
4) Connect a voltmeter in between 1 and 2 or 2 and 3 or 1 and 3 of the
transmission line to measure receiving end voltage VR . The input port is left
open.
5) Connect a voltmeter in between 4 and 5 or 5 and 6 or 4 and 6 of the power
supply to measure sending end voltage VS
6) Apply the power supply and increase the connected three-phase supply
slowly from zero. All the meters should read positive. With the input port open,
adjust the voltage of the source so the line to line voltage is 400 V.
7) Record the voltages and current values in the table.
8) Turn down the source voltage to zero
9) Set the line impedance to 200 ohms
10) Repeat the experiment for line impedances of 200, 400, and 600 ohms.

4|Page

EXPERIMENT 2: TRANSMISSION PARAMETERS


POWER SYSTEM 1 ( ECB3153 )

Short-circuit test
1) Using the same setup as mentioned above, short the terminals 1, 2 and 3 of
the transmission line through an ammeter.
2) Apply the power and increase the connected three phase voltage slowly and
very carefully from zero until nominal current is reached. Record the results in
the table
3) For 0 transmission impedances do not go to nominal voltage. Just take 0.5V
at this value the current around 5A.
4) Turn the voltage to zero and shut the power supply.
5) Repeat the experiment for different line impedances.
TABLE II. MEASURMENTS
Impedance

Open-circuit test

IS
amp
0

200

400

600

VS
volt

IR
amp

VR
volt

Inverse Transmission
parameters

Short-circuit test
VS
volt
0

IS
amp

IR
amp

VR
volt

b
( )

b
Siemens

5|Page

EXPERIMENT 2: TRANSMISSION PARAMETERS


POWER SYSTEM 1 ( ECB3153 )

LAB(2.5%)
Objective
By using following equipments, conduct the experiment to determine the
transmission and inverse transmission parameters.
Required Equipment
Model

Description

8821
8329
8426
8425
9128

Power supply unit


Three-Phase Transmission Line
AC Voltmeter
AC Ammeter
Connection Leads

Quantity
1
1
2
2

Theory
TRANSMISSION PARAMETERS
The transmission line for determining transmission parametersmay be represented
by a two port network as shown in Figure.01

Figure.01 Transmission line representation for transmission parameters

V S = AV R + BI R
I S = CV R + DI R
Where
VR:Receiving End voltage

IR:Receiving End currentVS:Sending End voltage

IS: Sending End voltage

The two-port parameters provide a measure of how a circuit transmits voltage and
current from a source to a load. They are called transmission parameters or A, B, C,
and D parameters.
The transmission parameters are determined as
I
V
I
V
A= S
B= S
C= S
D= S
VR I R = 0
VR I R = 0
I R VR = 0
I R VR = 0
The transmission parameters are called, specifically
A = Open-circuit voltage ratio
B = Negative short circuit transfer impedance
C = Open-circuit transfer admittance
D = Negative short circuit current ratio

6|Page

EXPERIMENT 2: TRANSMISSION PARAMETERS


POWER SYSTEM 1 ( ECB3153 )

A and D are dimensionless, B is in ohms and C is in siemens.


The parameters are obtained by open-circuit and short-circuit test
INVERSE TRANSMISSION PARAMETERS
The transmission line for determining inverse transmission parametersmay be
represented by a two port network as shown in Figure.02

Figure.02 Transmission line representation for inverse transmission parameters

V R = aV S + bI S
I R = cV S + dI S
Where
VR:Receiving End voltage

IR: Receiving End currentVS:Sending End voltage

IS: Sending End voltage

The parameters a, b, c and d are called the inverse transmission parameters. They
are determined as follows
a=

VR
I
V
I
b= R
c= R
d = R
VS I S = 0
VS I S = 0
I S VS = 0
I R VS = 0

The transmission parameters are called, specifically


a = Open-circuit voltage gain
b = Negative short circuit transfer impedance
c = Open-circuit transfer admittance
d = Negative short circuit current gain

a and d are dimensionless, b is in ohms and c is in siemens.


The parameters are obtained by open-circuit and short-circuit test
Tasks

Draw the schematic diagram of open-circuit and short-circuit test for


transmission and inverse transmission parameters.

Draw the table of all the variables measured and recorded during laboratory
experiment for transmission and inverse transmission parameters.

Calculate transmission parameters (A, B, C, and D) and inverse transmission


parameters (a, b, c, and d) by open-circuit and short-circuit tests.

7|Page

POWER SYSTEM I
ECB 3153
EXPERIMENT TITLE
________________________________
Name

Student ID

Group No

Lab Session

Date

Lecturer

GAs

:
:
:

Rubric for Pre-Lab & In-Lab


Course :

Power Systems

Date:

Student
Name:

Student
ID:

Topic
(Weight)

Analysis and
Preparation before
experiment
(2)

Knowledge &
Understanding
(3)

Safety & Health


Issues

Unacceptable
(0)

Punctuality
(1)
TOTAL

Examiner:

Acceptable
(2)

Exceptional
(3)

Demonstrated
little or no ability
to conduct
experiments. Did
not collect
meaningful
information.

No
understanding of
the topic and
accurate answer
to questions
posed by
instructor.

No understanding
or appreciation of
safety and health
related issues

(1)

Participation
in Teamwork
(If applicable)
(3)

Marginal
(1)

Demonstrated
little or no ability
to function
effectively as
leader/team
member during
experimental
work

>10 minutes late

Demonstrated
some ability to
conduct
experiments.
Collected some
meaningful
information.

Little
understanding of
the topic and
accurate answer
to questions
posed by
instructor.

Serious
deficiencies in
addressing health
and safety issues
leading to a
unsupported
and/or infeasible
result

Demonstrated
some ability to
function
effectively as
leader/team
member during
experimental
work

6-10 minutes late

Demonstrated
adequate ability
to conduct
experiments.
Collected most of
the needed
information.

Adequate
understanding of
the topic and
accurate answer
to questions
posed by
instructor.

Sound
understanding of
health and safety
issues. Mostly
effective in
achieving
supported results

Demonstrated
adequate ability
to function
effectively as
leader/team
member during
experimental
work

1-5 minutes late

Demonstrated
superior ability to
conduct
experiments.
Collected all the
appropriate
information.

Excellent
understanding of
the topic and
accurate answer
to questions
posed by
instructor.

Complete
understanding of
health and safety
issues leading to
sound and
supported results

Demonstrated
superior ability to
function
effectively as
leader/team
member during
experimental
work

Punctual

Points

Rubric for Lab Report


Course :

Power Systems

Date:

Student:

Student
ID:

Topic
(Weight)
Introduction

Background

Objective

Scope

Unacceptable
(0)

(3)

Results/Findings/Analysis
(3)

Report Organization
(2)

Acceptable
(2)

Exceptional
(3)

State the
Able to state the
introduction with introduction with
limited
minor error
information

Able to state the


introduction
clearly

Unable to state
the introduction
clearly

(2)
Theoretical Knowledge/
Literature Review

Marginal
(1)

Not explained or
not related to
the project

No results or
plagiarized work
are presented

Report is too
difficult to
understand with
many
grammatical
error and not
well organized

Not clearly
explained or
partially related
to the project

Minimum results
are presented
and analyzed

Report is easy to
understand with
few grammatical
error and
moderately
organized

Important
knowledge are
covered but still
missing some
important
concept

Results are
presented but
with minor error
and could still be
improved

Report well
written but
occasionally
some points are
difficult to
understand.
Minor
grammatical
error

Points

Clearly explained
the knowledge
and concept.
Student capable
of discussing the
theory and
simulated results

Results and
analysis are
clearly explained
using relevant
tool such as
graph , table,
etc.

Report very well


written and easy
to understand

TOTAL

Examiner:

One long report (hand written) will be assigned to each student which needs to
submit one week after the respective lab is conducted. Punctuality is very important.
The mark will be deducted to those are not punctual. Please follow all the lab safety
and procedures. The formats of lab report are as follows:
1. Cover Page: Title of experiment, student name, matrix number and group
number.
2. Report: Introduction, brief summary on how the experiment is done.
3. Conclusion: Brief conclusion and comments on the results obtained.

EXPERIMENT 3: ALTERNATOR SYNCHRONIZATION


POWER SYSTEM 1 ( ECB3153 )

PRE-LAB (2.5%)
OBJECTIVE
To understand the general concept of an alternator sycrhonization with an existing
power system grid.
PRE-LAB QUESTIONS
1. What do you understand by alternator synchronization with power system grid?
2. Why do we need alternator synchronization in power system grid?
3. What are the necessary conditions to synchronize our alternator with an existing
power system grid?
4. An alternator could be severely damaged mechanically in attempting to
synchronize it with the power line. Under what two conditions could this happen?
5. An alternator generating a different value of voltage also may not be exactly in
phase with the power line. But one condition must be met in order for it to deliver
power. What is that condition?

1|Page

EXPERIMENT 3: ALTERNATOR SYNCHRONIZATION


POWER SYSTEM 1 ( ECB3153 )

EQUIPMENT MANUAL (2.5%)


OPERATING PROCEDURES
In order to do the experiment you have to follow these instructions and procedures;
1. a) Connect your DC Motor/Generator and your Synchronous Motor/ Generator
to their respective wiring modules and then couple them using a rubber coupler.
b) Install your Electrical Tachometer on one of the two machines.
2. a) Using your Power Supply Module, your Wiring Module for DC Motor
Generator, your Wiring Module for Synchronous Motor/Generator, two Field
Rheostat Modules, your DC Metering Module, your AC Ammeter Module, your
AC Voltmeter Module, and your Synchronizing Module, connect the circuit shown
in Figure 1.
b) Note that the output of the alternator is connected through the synchronizing
switch to the fixed, 415 V ac. 3 phase output of the power supply (terminals 1, 2
and 3).
c) Note that the rotor of the alternator is connected to the fixed 220 V dc output
of the power supply (terminals 8 and N).
d) Note that the dc shunt motor is connected to the variable 0-220 V dc output of
the power supply (terminals 7 and N).
3. a) Set the dc motor field rheostat at its full cw position (for minimum resistance).
b) Set the alternator field rheostat at its full ccw position (for maximum
resistance).
c) Make sure that the synchronizing breaker is in its open position.
d) Open the toggle switch in the excitation circuit of the alternator.
e) Make sure that the power supply control knob is at zero.
4. a) Turn on the power supply and adjust the variable dc voltage of the power
supply to 220 V dc (use your power supply meter with the selector switch in
position 7-N).

2|Page

EXPERIMENT 3: ALTERNATOR SYNCHRONIZATION


POWER SYSTEM 1 ( ECB3153 )

b) Using your electrical tachometer adjust the dc motor field rheostat for a speed
of approximately 1500 r/min.
c) Measure the power supply fixed ac voltage E2.
d) Close the toggle switch of the alternator excitation circuit.
e) Adjust the dc excitation of the alternator until the alternator output voltage EI is
equal to E2.
Note: These two voltages must be kept equal for the remainder of this Laboratory
Experiment.
f) The three synchronizing lights should be flickering on and off.

415 Vac

Figure 1: System Components

3|Page

EXPERIMENT 3: ALTERNATOR SYNCHRONIZATION


POWER SYSTEM 1 ( ECB3153 )

5. a) Carefully adjust the dc motor speed until the beat frequency becomes quite
low.
b) Observing all three lights become bright and then dark, at the same time.
Yes

No

c) If they do not all become dark and then bright simultaneously, the phase
sequence is wrong, Turn off the supply and interchange any two of the leads
coming from the stator. Set the dc motor field rheostat at its full cw position and
the alternator field rheostat at its full ccw position again.
d) Carefully adjust the rotor speed until all three lights slowly darken and then
slowly brighten. Your alternator frequency is very nearly equal to that of the
power company.
e) When all of the light are completely dark, the alternator and supply voltages
are in phase.
I) When all of the light are fully bright, the alternator and supply voltages are 180
degrees out of phase. (This is the "tooth-to-tooth" condition, and the
synchronizing switch should never be closed under these conditions).
g) Check to see that the two voltages EI and E2 are equal. If not, readjust the dc
excitation to the alternator.

4|Page

EXPERIMENT 3: ALTERNATOR SYNCHRONIZATION


POWER SYSTEM 1 ( ECB3153 )

OBSERVATIONS AND MEASUREMENTS


1. With the synchronizing conditions in case of E1 is equal to E2.
a) Close the synchronizing breaker when all three lights are dark and note the
behavior of I1 at the moment of closure.
b) Close the synchronizing breaker when all three lights are dim and note the
behavior of I1 at the moment of closure.
c) Close the synchronizing breaker when all three lights are partially bright and
note the behavior of I1 at the moment of closure.
2. With the synchronizing breaker open, adjust the dc excitation to the alternator
until the output voltage E1 = 450 Vac. Close the synchronizing breaker when all
three lights are dimmed completely and note the effect upon I1 at the moment of
closure and after closure.
3. Reverse the rotation of the dc motor by interchanging the shunt field and then
attempt to synchronize the alternator as before.

5|Page

EXPERIMENT 3: ALTERNATOR SYNCHRONIZATION


POWER SYSTEM 1 ( ECB3153 )

LAB (5%)
OBJECTIVE
 To learn how to synchronize an alternator to the electric power utility system.
 To observe the effects of improper phase conditions upon the synchronizing
process.
THEORY
The frequency of a large electric power utility system is established by the speed of
rotation of many powerful alternators all connected by various tie-lines into the total
network. The collective inertia and power of these generators is so great that there is
no single load or disturbance which would be large enough to change their speed of
rotation. The frequency of an electric system is therefore remarkably stable.
An alternator can only deliver power to an existing electric power system if it operates
at the same frequency as the system. They must both operate at exactly the same
frequency. This is not as difficult to realize as may first appear, because automatic
forces come into play when an alternator is connected into an existing system to keep
its frequency constant.
Synchronization of an alternator with a large utility system. or "infinite bus" as it is
called is analogous to meshing a small gear to another of enormous size and power.
If the teeth of both gears are properly synchronized at the moment of contact. then
the meshing will be smooth. But should tooth meet tooth at the critical instant shock
will result with possible damage to the smaller gear.
Smooth synchronization of an alternator means first that its frequency must be equal
to that of the supply. In addition, the phase sequence (or rotation) must be the same.
Returning to our example of the gears. we would not think of trying to mesh two gears
going in opposite directions, even if their speeds were identical.
The next thing to watch for when we push gears together is to see that the tooth of
one meets the slot of the other. In electrical terms the voltage of the alternator must
be in phase with the voltage of the supply.

6|Page

EXPERIMENT 3: ALTERNATOR SYNCHRONIZATION


POWER SYSTEM 1 ( ECB3153 )

Finally, when meshing gears we always choose a tooth depth which is compatible
with the master gear. Electrically, the voltage amplitude of the alternator should be
equal to the supply voltage amplitude. With these conditions met, the alternator is
perfectly synchronized with the network and the switch between the two can be
closed.
TASKS
1. Perform pre-synchronizing experiment to witness synchronizing lights conditions
for wrong phase sequence between the alternator and power supply and discuss
your findings
2. Conduct pre-synchronizing experiment to witness synchronizing lights conditions
when the alternator and supply voltages are in phase and out of phase and
discuss your findings
3. Conduct correct synchronizing experiment between the alternator and supply
voltages and discuss your findings

7|Page

POWER SYSTEM I
ECB 3153
EXPERIMENT TITLE
________________________________
Name

Student ID

Group No

Lab Session

Date

Lecturer

GAs

:
:
:

Rubric for Pre-Lab & In-Lab


Course :

Power Systems

Date:

Student
Name:

Student
ID:

Topic
(Weight)

Analysis and
Preparation before
experiment
(2)

Knowledge &
Understanding
(3)

Safety & Health


Issues

Unacceptable
(0)

Punctuality
(1)
TOTAL

Examiner:

Acceptable
(2)

Exceptional
(3)

Demonstrated
little or no ability
to conduct
experiments. Did
not collect
meaningful
information.

No
understanding of
the topic and
accurate answer
to questions
posed by
instructor.

No understanding
or appreciation of
safety and health
related issues

(1)

Participation
in Teamwork
(If applicable)
(3)

Marginal
(1)

Demonstrated
little or no ability
to function
effectively as
leader/team
member during
experimental
work

>10 minutes late

Demonstrated
some ability to
conduct
experiments.
Collected some
meaningful
information.

Little
understanding of
the topic and
accurate answer
to questions
posed by
instructor.

Serious
deficiencies in
addressing health
and safety issues
leading to a
unsupported
and/or infeasible
result

Demonstrated
some ability to
function
effectively as
leader/team
member during
experimental
work

6-10 minutes late

Demonstrated
adequate ability
to conduct
experiments.
Collected most of
the needed
information.

Adequate
understanding of
the topic and
accurate answer
to questions
posed by
instructor.

Sound
understanding of
health and safety
issues. Mostly
effective in
achieving
supported results

Demonstrated
adequate ability
to function
effectively as
leader/team
member during
experimental
work

1-5 minutes late

Demonstrated
superior ability to
conduct
experiments.
Collected all the
appropriate
information.

Excellent
understanding of
the topic and
accurate answer
to questions
posed by
instructor.

Complete
understanding of
health and safety
issues leading to
sound and
supported results

Demonstrated
superior ability to
function
effectively as
leader/team
member during
experimental
work

Punctual

Points

Rubric for Lab Report


Course :

Power Systems

Date:

Student:

Student
ID:

Topic
(Weight)
Introduction

Background

Objective

Scope

Unacceptable
(0)

(3)

Results/Findings/Analysis
(3)

Report Organization
(2)

Acceptable
(2)

Exceptional
(3)

State the
Able to state the
introduction with introduction with
limited
minor error
information

Able to state the


introduction
clearly

Unable to state
the introduction
clearly

(2)
Theoretical Knowledge/
Literature Review

Marginal
(1)

Not explained or
not related to
the project

No results or
plagiarized work
are presented

Report is too
difficult to
understand with
many
grammatical
error and not
well organized

Not clearly
explained or
partially related
to the project

Minimum results
are presented
and analyzed

Report is easy to
understand with
few grammatical
error and
moderately
organized

Important
knowledge are
covered but still
missing some
important
concept

Results are
presented but
with minor error
and could still be
improved

Report well
written but
occasionally
some points are
difficult to
understand.
Minor
grammatical
error

Points

Clearly explained
the knowledge
and concept.
Student capable
of discussing the
theory and
simulated results

Results and
analysis are
clearly explained
using relevant
tool such as
graph , table,
etc.

Report very well


written and easy
to understand

TOTAL

Examiner:

One long report (hand written) will be assigned to each student which needs to
submit one week after the respective lab is conducted. Punctuality is very important.
The mark will be deducted to those are not punctual. Please follow all the lab safety
and procedures. The formats of lab report are as follows:
1. Cover Page: Title of experiment, student name, matrix number and group
number.
2. Report: Introduction, brief summary on how the experiment is done.
3. Conclusion: Brief conclusion and comments on the results obtained.

EXPERIMENT 4: REAL POWER AND REACTIVE POWER


POWER SYSTEM 1 (ECB3153)
.

PRE-LAB (2.5%)
OBJECTIVE
To understand the general concept of the power flow in a power system Grid.

PRE-LAB QUESTIONS
 How does can observe the flow of real and reactive power in a three-phase
circuits?
 When the current will be lagging, leading and when will be in-phase with the
voltage?
 Explain why the reactive power is needed?
 What is your expectation if the power flows in the direction of the input terminals
from the output terminals?
 What does the real power accomplish? and what does the reactive power
accomplish?

1|Page

EXPERIMENT 4: REAL POWER AND REACTIVE POWER


POWER SYSTEM 1 (ECB3153)
.

EQUIPMENT MANUAL (2.5%)


OPERATING PROCEDURES
In order to do the experiment you have to follow these instructions and procedures;
1. The experiment involve a three-phase source provides a voltage of about 415 V
with terminals 4, 5, 6, one voltmeter, three Ammeters, one Three-Phase
Wattmeter/Varmeter, should connect it to AC 24 V source, and a balanced
three-phase star-connected load.
2. Using a load of 1200 from each of the three Resistive Loads as shown in Figure 1,
measure E, I, P, Q and record your results in Table 1.

FIGURE 1
3. Replace the Resistive Load by three Inductive Loads having a reactance of 1200
. Record your results in Table 1.
4. Repeat procedure step 3, using three Capacitive Loads having a reactance of
1200 . Record your results in Table 1.
5. Repeat procedure step 4, but add three Resistive Loads of 1200
(star- connected) in parallel with the Capacitive Loads. Record your results in
Table 1.
6. Repeat procedure step 2, but place the Inductive Load of procedure step 3 in
parallel with the Resistive Loads. Record your results in Table 1.
7. Repeat procedure step 2, but use an Inductive Load of 1200 in parallel with a
Capacitive Load of 1200 , all star-connected. Record your results in Table 1.
8. Repeat procedure step 2, but use a Three-Phase Wound-Rotor Induction Motor at
no load instead of the Resistive Load as shown in Figure 2. Record your results in
Table 1.

2|Page

EXPERIMENT 4: REAL POWER AND REACTIVE POWER


POWER SYSTEM 1 (ECB3153)
.

Three-phase Wound-Rotor Induction Motor


FIGURE 2
Table 1

3|Page

EXPERIMENT 4: REAL POWER AND REACTIVE POWER


POWER SYSTEM 1 (ECB3153)
.

OBSERVATIONS AND MEASUREMENTS


1. In procedure step 5, is the real power affected when the Capacitive Loads are
switched on and off?
Yes

No

2. In procedure step 5, is the reactive power affected when the Resistive Loads are
switched on and off?
Yes

No

3. Why the real power is slightly affected when the Inductive Loads are switched on
and off, in procedure step 6?

4. In procedure step 6, is the reactive power affected when the Resistive Loads are
switched on and off?
Yes

No

5. In procedure step 7, do you agree that, to all intents and purposes, the
Capacitive Load is supplying most of the reactive power required by the Inductive
Load?
Yes

No

6. From procedure step 7, would you agree that the Capacitive Load can be
considered to be a source of reactive power?
Yes

No

7. From procedure step 8, does the motor absorb both real and reactive power?
Yes

No

8. Knowing that the apparent power (S) in volt-amperes (VA) is given by the
expression S = P 2 + Q 2 , calculate the apparent power in Table 1.
4|Page

EXPERIMENT 4: REAL POWER AND REACTIVE POWER


POWER SYSTEM 1 (ECB3153)
.

LAB (5%)
OBJECTIVE
 To interpret the meaning of positive, negative, real and reactive power.


To observe the flow of real and reactive power in three-phase circuits.

THEORY
In direct current circuits the real power (in watts) supplied to a load is always equal to
the product of the voltage and the current. In alternating current circuits, however, this
product is usually greater than the real (or active) power which the load consumes. For
this reason, wattmeters are used to measure the real power (in watts).
In three-phase, three-wire AC circuits two wattmeters are needed to measure the real
power while three-phase, four-wire circuits require three. These meters may be
combined into a single wattmeter of special construction, which greatly simplifies the
problem of adding the readings of two or three wattmeters to obtain the total
three-phase power. A typical three-phase wattmeter (Figure 1) has three input terminals
(1, 2, 3) and three output terminals (4, 5, 6).

FIGURE 1
If the wattmeter is connected into a three-phase line, as shown in Figure 1, it will show
the total real power flowing in the line. if the power flows in the direction of the input
terminals to the output terminals (left to right in Figure 1) the meter pointer will be
deflected to the right and the reading will be positive.
However, if power flow is from right to left, that is, from the output terminals to the input
terminals, the meter pointer will be deflected to the left and the reading will be negative.
Real power, therefore, is positive or negative according to its direction of flow. The
direction of power flow can easily be found when the "input" terminals have been
identified.

5|Page

EXPERIMENT 4: REAL POWER AND REACTIVE POWER


POWER SYSTEM 1 (ECB3153)
.

Reactive power is the power associated with the charge and discharge of condensers
and the increase and decrease of the magnetic fields of inductors when they are part of
an alternating current circuit. Because the energy (joules) in a coil merely builds up and
decays as the magnetic field increases and decreases in response to the alternating
current which it carries, it follows that there is no flow of real power in a coil. On the
other hand, a current flows through the coil and a voltage appears across it, so a casual
observer is apt to believe that power of some kind is involved. The product of the
voltage and current in a coil is called the reactive power, and it is expressed in var or in
kilovar (kvar). Reactive power is needed to produce an alternating magnetic field.
In the same way, the alternating electric field in a capacitor also requires reactive
power. Owing to the overwhelming prevalence of electromagnetic devices (as opposed
to electrostatic devices), we consider that reactive power, whenever it appears, is the
kind of power which has the ability to produce a magnetic field.
Reactive power, just like real power, can be measured with appropriate meters called
varmeters. In three-phase circuits, the two or three varmeters which would ordinarily be
needed can be combined into a single instrument to give one reading of the total
reactive power flow in the circuit. Such a meter, shown in Figure 2, possesses three
input terminals (1, 2, 3) and three output terminals (4, 5, 6).

FIGURE 2
When reactive power flows from the input to the output terminals, the meter will give a
positive reading. Conversely, if the flow of reactive power is from the output terminals to
the input terminals, a negative reading will result. For example, if a three- phase source
and a three-phase coil are connected as shown in Figure 3, the flow of reactive power is
obviously from left to right, and the varmeter will give a positive reading. Just as with a
wattmeter, the direction of reactive power flow can readily be found when the input
terminals of the varmeter are identified.

6|Page

EXPERIMENT 4: REAL POWER AND REACTIVE POWER


POWER SYSTEM 1 (ECB3153)
.

FIGURE 3

Three-phase alternating circuits may involve many types of circuits and devices, but the
flow of active and reactive power can always be determined by introducing wattmeters
and varmeters. The example of Figure 4 will illustrate how some typical readings can be
interpreted. An impedance Z forms part of a larger circuit (not shown), and wattmeters
W1, W 2 and varmeters var1, var2 are connected on either side. The input terminals are
assumed to be on the left-hand side of each instrument. The meters give the following
readings:

FIGURE 4

W1 = +70 W
W2 = -40 W

var1 = -60 var


var2 = -80 var

How are we to interpret these results? First, we must recognize that real power and
reactive power flow quite independently of each other. One does not affect the other.
Consequently, we must never add or subtract real power and reactive power.
Consider first the active power. Because W, is positive. real power is flowing to the right.
Because W2 is negative. real power is flowing to the left. It follows, therefore, that the
impedance Z must be absorbing 70 + 40 = 110 W.
Next, let us look at the reactive power; 80 var are flowing to the left, towards the
impedance Z, while 60 var are flowing to the left, away from it. It follows that Z is
absorbing (80 -60) = 20 var, and this reactive power creates a magnetic field.
This example shows that when wattmeters and varmeters are connected on either side
of an electrical circuit or device, we can determine the real and the reactive power which
it produces or absorbs.
7|Page

EXPERIMENT 4: REAL POWER AND REACTIVE POWER


POWER SYSTEM 1 (ECB3153)
.

TASK
1. An electrical load Z is connected to the terminals of a 240 V ac source. Show the
direction of real and reactive power flow if Z is a) a resistor, b) an inductor, c) a
capacitor, d) a resistor and inductor, e) a resistor and capacitor, f) a single- phase
motor (See Figure 6).

FIGURE 6
2. Calculate the real and reactive power delivered by the single-phase source in the
two single-phase circuits shown in Figure 7.

FIGURE 7

3. A three-phase source having a line-to-line voltage of 69 kV supplies a starconnected resistive load having an impedance of 100 per phase. Calculate the
real power delivered.

4. Explain what is meant by the statement than an inductor absorbs reactive power
while a capacitor supplies reactive power.

8|Page

EXPERIMENT 4: REAL POWER AND REACTIVE POWER


POWER SYSTEM 1 (ECB3153)
.
5. A three-phase power line, shown schematically in Figure 8, delivers real and
reactive power as given in Table 2. Calculate the real and reactive power absorbed
by the line.

P1

Q1

P2

Q2

P LINE

Q LINE

kw

kvar

kw

kvar

kw

kvar

+100
+100
+100
-100

+10
+10
-10
+10

+95
+95
+95
-95

+5
-10
-25
+5
Table 2

6. A three-phase line operating at a line-to-line voltage E supplies power to a starconnected load whose impedance is Z ohms per phase. Show that the total
apparent power S is given by the equation.
S=

E2
Z

9|Page