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A Style Analysis of Samuel Barber’s
Concerto for Piano and Orchestra, Op. 38

by
Yoon-Jung Song

Advisor
Dr. David M acbride

This thesis is submitted to the Graduate Comm ittee o f The Hartt School at the
University o f Hartford in partial fulfillm ent o f the requirements
for the degree o f Doctor o f Musical Arts.

October 11, 2004

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Op. . 38 BE ACCEPTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLM ENT OF THE REQUIREM ENTS FOR THE D O CTO R OF M USICAL ARTS DEGREE Thesis Advisor Division Director r^ ThesistfCommittee Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. 2004 I HEREBY RECOM M END THAT THE D OCTORAL THESIS PREPA RED U ND ER M Y SUPERVISION BY: Yoon-Jung Song ENTITLED: A Style Analysis o f Samuel B arber’s Concerto for Piano and Orchestra.The Hartt School University of Hartford Date: Decem ber 16. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

To my parents Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. .

The evolution o f the w ork based on the second m ovem ent offers a great opportunity to evaluate the coherence w ithin the structure.ABSTRACT A Style A nalysis o f Samuel B arber’s Concerto for Piano and Orchestra. the work was renam ed Canzone. published in 1962. The form al design and the treatm ent o f the them atic m aterial throughout the Concerto are discussed w ith regard to the influence o f the second m ovem ent. Op. tim bre. . as a result o f its craftsm anship o f com positional technique and its brilliant contending relationship betw een the orchestra and piano solo. and dynamics. register. Later. 38 A D octoral Thesis presented to the Graduate C om m ittee o f The H artt School. in conjunction w ith the rhythm ic and phrase structure. I exam ine the com positional style o f the w ork via perspectives derived from tonal orientation. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Op. The ultim ate goal o f this study is to put forth a convincing interpretation for perform ance. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. and was orchestrated as part o f the Concerto. U niversity o f H artford. I then explore the relationship between the piano and orchestra via an investigation o f other param eters including texture. The second m ovem ent o f the Concerto was com posed independently as the Elegy for flute and piano in 1958. 38 achieved acclaim am ong the best concertos w ritten by an A m erican com poser. orchestration. including pitch structure and internal connections. This thesis concludes w ith a summary w hich brings together the discussion presented throughout the thesis. Connecticut by Y oon-Jung Song Sam uel B arber’s Concerto for Piano and Orchestra.

.------------------------------------------------------------------. .v List o f Exam ples-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.. First movement: Allegro appassionato--------------------------------------------------------..15 3.... Finale: Allegro m olto-------------------------------------------------------------------------------...-----------------.vi Introduction ------------- 1 - 1.... — .27 4.------. Forms in relation to the Canzone— ..... Further Characteristics in the Relationship between the Solo Piano and O rchestra-----------------------------------------------------------------------84 Conclusion- -..---------------109 Bibliography------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------115 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.------------------.----....------------------------------------..8 2.------------------------------------------.... Canzone: M oderato ------------------------------------------------. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.Table of Contents Acknow ledgem ents-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------iv List o f Tables-------------------------------.60 5..

The com pletion o f this degree at Hartt would not have reached fruition without support from the faculty. Ronald Borror for his sincere advice and suggestions throughout my years at Hartt. I would like to thank Dr. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. for granting me permission to reproduce m usical exam ples from Barber’s Piano Concerto.Acknowledgements First. whose love and endless support has enabled me to com plete my degree. I give them my love and appreciation. Michael Schiano. Dr. I offer my sincere thanks to my friends. My sincere appreciation is extended to members o f the Committee. and Elizabeth Baumbach. I would like to express my deepest appreciation to Dr. Sara Overholt. . and Professor David W estfall for their helpful comments given in the com pletion o f this thesis. 1 owe a great debt to my parents. Dr. Dr. I also wish to thank my teacher Dr. Lastly. without whom I could not have achieved this degree. Schirmer Inc. I especially appreciate his diligence and w illingness to give advice during the summertime. including Dr. Paul Rutman. I am indebted to G. Akane Mori. Kun-Soo Choi.. He has been a source o f inspiration to me. I value their friendships. Imanuel Willheim who suggested the idea o f writing about Samuel Barber’s Concerto. for his invaluable guidance during the writing o f this thesis. who have encouraged and supported me through many challenges over the past years. I am deeply grateful for his continual support throughout the years. David Macbride. the Rev. iv Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.

. Main structural influences o f the Canzone throughout the Concerto------------------.List of Tables Table Page 1.15 v Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Finale in sonata-rondo fo rm ------------------------------------------------------------------------13 4. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Two-part strophic form o f the Canzone--------------------------------------------------------. The first movement in a modified concerto-sonata design---------------------------------11 3.10 2.

mm. 1-2.42 vi Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. 37 3... 1-3: m otives----------------------------------------------------------------------------------30 3. R. mm.-20 2.. 1. R.. 1-3: two linear counterpoints-----------------------------------------------------------. R. R. .38 3. 1. mm.-----. 3-4: thematic figure 2----------------------------------------------------------------------. 1-5----------------------------.21 2. 8. R.9 I.6 I.. 6-7-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.3 II. 1-4. 9.4 I. 1-5----------------------------------- 2. m.1 II. 1. 8. III. mm.12 I.3 I.. 1-3: thematic figure 1--------------------------------------------------------------------. 1. 3-8. and R. 9-11: vertical presentation o f thematic figure 1-------------------- 34 -. 3-4: two linear chromatic counterpoints---------------------- -1 8 21 1. mm. mm..6 II.. III. mm.. mm. mm. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. 1-10-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. mm. 1-9: theme 1------------------------------------------------------------------------.and R. 2. mm. 4-7: chord progression------------------------------------------------------------40 3. mm. 2.1 II..11 I.. R.----.. R. mm. R. R.22 3. 3-4--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 2. 5-6--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.7 I.2 I. 1-2.5 II. 18. m.10 I.13 I. mm. mm. 3-4.34 3. 1.4 II.16 2. mm..5 Key-relationship o f the Concerto----------------------------------------------------------------. 1. R. 1-3.2 II. mm. mm. mm.32 3. mm.. B.30 3.------------------------------. 2-3-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.. mm.32 3.8 I.. mm. 2--------------------------------------. 2. R. 1-4.List of Examples Example Page 2. mm. R. mm.— 28 3. 1. 11: motives A. 3-7.— . R. and D --------------------------------------------------------------------38 3. I. 7-8: thematic figure 3----------------------------- 3.I.36 3..

R. 5. mm. R.10 III. 1-2: motive A and 3:3:2 note pattern in theme-2-----. m. 9: motivic connection----------------------------------------------------------.9 III.44 3. mm. R. 3-7---------------------- 63 4.17 I. R.15 I. mm.------------------------57 3. 6-9---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 22. 2. 1: 2+3 metric pattern-----------------------------------------------------------------62 4.51 3. mm. 1. 1.45 3. R.19 I. m. m. 2-4— ----------. mm.4 III. mm.21 1-9: a com parison o f phrase structure-----------------49 I. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.61 4. 5-6------------------------------------------------------------------------- 46 3.20 I. R. m. m. 3-6: chromatic linear motion followed by a minor third---------------63 4.2 III.16 I. 1-8. mm. R. 5. mm. 2. 22. 1-5—---- 4.--------------------------------------------. 3. 2. 1-5. mm. R.24 Tonal relationships in the first movem ent 4. m.67 4. 9 .------------------. R.9. 1: 3+2 metric pattern---------------------------------------------------------------. 5. R. III. R. mm.47 3.23 I. 1. 6-8-----------------------------------------------------------------------. 1-3: three-note motive----------------------------------------------------------. R. 1-------------------------------------------------------------------- 55 3. . 10. 5.7 III.67 4. R. mm. II.22---.3 III. R.11 III. m. mm. mm. 1: chord progression--------------- 49 3.18 I.14 I. 9. 3-5. mm. mm. R. m.60 4. 3. 1.9. R. 8. 1: rhythmic relationship between thematic figure 1 and theme 2 ------- 52 3. mm. R. 4-5--------------- 65 4. R. 1-6---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. R.1 III. III. III. R.I. 1.3. mm.5 III.6 III. mm. 1-5----- 66 4. I. 1. 4-6--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------69 --------- 58 -69 vii Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.R. I.8 III. 1: linear presentation o f the five-note m otive-----------. I. mm. 7-8. 3. 1-2. R. 1-3. mm.

R. R.92 5. 20.------------------------------------------------. 6-7---------- 4. 10. 3. mm.98 5. R.106 v ii i Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. 15. mm. 12. mm. 1-4---------------------------------------------------------------------------------76 4. R. 1--------------------------------------------------------------------79 4. R.m. mm. 18.82 5. 25-6----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.23 III.77 4.78 4.4 I.R .R. R.20 III.2 I.73 71 4.19 III. R.70 4. 6 . 6------------------------------------------------ 5.6 I. R. R. 3-5. R. 17. R.80 4. 28----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 1-2----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------90 5. mm. R.1 I.104 5. 5---------------------------------------------------------------------. 22. mm.m. 1-5---------------- 87 5. mm. 8-11: circle-of-fifth’s progression-----------------------------------------------------. 21. 8. mm. mm.18 III. R. 95 100 . 2-6-------- 89 5.14 III. 1-4-------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 7-8-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 1-3------------------------------. mm. 1-8— ------- 75 4. 10.16 III. 1-5---------------------------------------------------------------------------------81 4. R. III.17 III. mm.5 III. mm.4. 22.12 III.22 III. R. R. mm. 8--------------------------------------------------- 5.7 1. 1-6-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------. III. R. R.74 4. m.15 III. 1-4-----------------------------------------------------------. R. 33. 4. 17. 22. mm.-------------------.9 III.8 II. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.21 III. R. 6-8-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 1. R. m. 17. 8. R.3 II.13 III. 1-5---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.

Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Barber refined his style in works such as the Piano Sonata (1949). 1 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. 46. and immediately following World War II.” part L H igh F id elity (June 1981). and Excursions (1944). as represented in particular by the String Quartet in B minor (1936). and strings. the ballet The Cave of the Heart (1946). B arber’s lyrical and subjective path continued in the late 40’s. Irregular and cross rhythms are incorporated into the Capricorn Concerto (1944). which integrates American folk material. oboe. along with “veering moderately toward a more chromatic. the slow movement o f which is orchestrated as the Adagio fo r Strings. the third m ovement o f which utilizes the twelve-tone technique in an American neo-Classic vein. during. Harmonic range is expanded drastically in the Violin Concerto (1939-40). 38 Introduction It has been claimed that Samuel B arber’s (1910-1981) music achieved popularity as a result o f its lyric style and its tonal principles. a concerto grosso for flute. angular. 5 0 ’s and 60’s. written for M artha Graham and later rearranged as a tone poem and renamed M edea's Meditation and Dance o f Vengeance (1955).A Style Analysis of Samuel Barber’s Concerto for Piano and Orchestra. Vanessa 1 Jo se p h M achilis. 2 A llan K o zina.”2 Knoxville: Sum mer o f 1915 (1947) for soprano and orchestra. Its poignantly expressive. “ Sa m ue l Barber: T h e Last Interview and the L e g a cy . and his operas. and others agree w ith this sentim ent. and dramatic language.1 His lyric style is clearly evident in his early music. sustained melody is quite striking within the 20th century repertoire. trumpet. Barber began to assimilate contemporary idioms into his lyric style in the period before. N icolas Slon im sk y. Op. .

38 was com pleted as com m issioned (in 1961) by the music publisher G. 34. “ Sadness. After composing Knoxville Barber injected “more rhetoric.(1958). . and was intended for performance during the inaugural week o f the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in N ew York (Septem ber 24. S a m u e l B arber: The C o m p o ser a n d H is M u sic. and stated: T o t a k e t h i n g s a s t h e y c o m e t o m i n d : it is firs t o f all a rea l c o n c e r t o t h a t p l a c e s t h e s o l o i s t o n a p e d e s t a l a n d a l l o w s h i m to b a k e in s u n l i g h t o f h is o w n v i r t u o s i t y . to m a k e t h e m s e r v e t h e c o n t e n t o f th e w o r k .” H iF i/S tereo R eview (O c to b e r 1966). Barber’s Concerto is widely recognized as an im portant 20th century example o f the genre. Jay Harrison reviewed a performance o f the Concerto by John Browning and New York Philharmonic with Josef Krips conducting. E v e r y d a z z l i n g p h r a s e . ' ‘S am uel Barber: Classical C larity and P a ssio n . and A nthony and Cleopatra (1966) commissioned by M etropolitan Opera Company are among the im portant pieces o f this period. B u t B a r b e r h a s b e g u n b y t u r n i n g h is d i f f i c u l t i e s t o a m u s i c a l a d v a n t a g e . while reinterpreting it via the use o f contemporary harmonic and rhythmic idioms.R o m a n t ic ’ in his article “The M usic o f S a m u e l B arb er. “ From his earliest piano piece. 1948.”4 Because o f his lyric expressivism. In fact. In 1962 B arber’s Concerto for Piano and Orchestra.M u sica l Q u a rterly. B arber’s music is described as “neo-Rom antic”5 incorporating the aesthetics of 19th century Romanticism.e y e d J Eric S alzm an. Despite and Still. . Barber won his second Pulitzer Prize for the Concerto in 1963. 5. n o t m e r e l y a p p e a r as s o m a n y e x c r e s c e n c e s s t u c k u p o n it. 5 N ath an B ro d e r has term ed B arb er a ‘n e o . 325) yet he o bje cted to oversim p lify ing B a rb e r’s music w ith such a term. However. 89. Schirmer. 0 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. self-expression was inseparable from the compositional process. 4 B a rb a ra H e y m a n . e v e r y w i l d . . Since then. 1962).” to the song cycle w ritten near the end o f his career. Op. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.” (. B arber’s musical style defies being categorized with a single term. more drama. and more scope within the framework o f the personal lyricism ” 3 and synthesized elements that he had developed from the very first. w hich was awarded Barber’s first Pulitzer Prize in 1958.

possibly achieving even greater unity than in the 6 Jay Harrison. every contortionist figuration comes alive as part of the whole and is not an isolated show of pianistic fancy. the work is not structured as the result o f functional harmonic organization. but also a balanced discourse between solo and orchestra.h as tunes. “In the twentieth century. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. 83 (D e c e m b e r 1963). which curl in and around the piece. the Concerto has been the subject o f little theoretical analysis. . the Concerto deviates from the Romantic norm in its main themes.. they fit in perfectly with the dash and splash that surrounds n them ..” M u sica l A m erica .scale. where the soloist is the Romantic protagonist within the context o f the Classical concerto. but are sometimes based upon a variety o f intervallic arrangements. Emphasizing the use o f the intervallic seconds. Thus. 243.” Although the diatonicism prevalent in the Concerto gives tonal allusions. Existent analyses seem to miss a true understanding of the Concerto’s style. chordal structure and harmonic relations are no longer governed by the axioms o f the major-minor system. 243. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. and the tritone. provide it with the added dimension o f emotional richness. all o f which produce dissonance. not a measure of the number detracts from the concerto as an entity. For this reason com posers now may allow their structural ideas to permeate the total organization. 7 Ibid. embrace it.. “T h e N e w Y ork M usic S c e n e . They are mostly romantic in flavor. and poetically summarize the style o f the Concerto as not only a highly virtuosic piece for soloist. sevenths. 178. Despite its importance. which is nothing to be said against them. Harrison also mentions the melodic theme “ . but whether they are pithy or languorous.6 His comments on the Concerto reflect his enthusiastic response to the work.

W i t h i n t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s . 2002. an analytical study is obligated to include cohesive and comprehensive aspects o f the work.11 In addition. However. 11 John Rink also refers this asp ect in his article “ A nalysis and (or?) Perform ance. The title “style analysis” o f this study is defined as following: T h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s in t h e m u s i c o f c o m p o s e r s a n d s c h o o ls by c o m p re h e n s iv e a n a ly sis o f h a rm o n y . This discussion might suggest the direction o f particular phrases as well as the overall form. and lack insight into unifying elements o f the work. m e lo d y . “T h e Synthesis o f M aterials and D evices in non-serial C o u n terp o in t.traditional period. and most importantly. s t y l e a n a l y s i s c o n s i d e r s all r a m i f i c a t i o n s a p p r o p r i a t e to t h e m u s i c e x a m i n e d . The use o f T o n a lity in F o u r C o n certo s b y A m erica n C o m p o sers. s u c h a s t i m b r e a n d te x t u r e ) . . 4 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. in shaping phrases dynamically and tim brally. f r o m 8 D o n ald O u ttu r n . 125. in helping memorize the piece. a p p l y i n g a n a l y t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s in all d i m e n s i o n s . 10 Paul H ayden. and these discussions shed little light on the Concerto’s stylistic and structural elements.”8 Several works o f literature mention the Concerto. but significant discussion is lacking. as w e l l a s f o r m . a n d so u n d (all a c o u s t i c a l e l e m e n t s . The investigation o f motivic construction in individual phrases is useful in solving technical problems. Analyzing the structure o f the Concerto using solely traditional approaching would yield unsatisfying analytic results.” M u sica l P erform a n ce: A G u id e to U n d e rsta n d in g . An in-depth structural discussion is crucial for a satisfying and revealing interpretation o f the work. 9 T h e references are included in the Bibliography. for a true understanding o f the genre. 198 1. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.” The M u sic R eview ( M a y 1970). For example.9 Some studies place the Concerto in historical context with regard to American concerti composers or twentieth century composers. rhy th m . a thorough investigation o f the relationship between soloist and orchestra is a crucial point. and does not fully acknowledge other elements that contribute to the structural coherence derived from other parameters. especially for performers. Paul H ayden10 concentrates exclusively on B arber’s use o f tonality o f the Concerto.

2 nd ed. and B arber’s idea o f adapting the layout o f the canzone as a cohesive element throughout the C oncerto. 14 H e y m a m notes this in her bo ok . strophic. 38. However. and structurally influenced the outer movements with regard to the formal design and the treatment o f the thematic material. the thematic and motivic relationships originated from the second movem ent will be examined in the second section (Chapters 2 . .small details to comparisons of whole movements and cycles. and Barber decided to orchestrate this piece. b R efe r to H ey m an .'2 This study is organized into three large sections. 517. This fact leads one to the assumption that the second movement was com posed first.13 The work was renam ed Canzone. and rondo form due to their explicit rendering o f the themes. Formal design and thematic and motivic ideas are inevitably related throughout the work. and distinguishing significant from coincidental phenomena by systematic and consistent frames of reference. The three movements o f the Concerto are seemingly clear with regard to recognizing the formal designs as the sonata allegro. and incorporate it into his Concerto for Piano and Orchestra. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. However. deviations from the standard form occur.4). The first section (Chapter 1) will discuss the formal design for each movement o f the Concerto. 5 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. 812. complements aesthetic and historical considerations of style. which deals concretely with the musical notes themselves. along with other structural elements o f the Concerto. which will be considered in the first chapter. This approach. Structural relationships in each movement are 12 T h e H a rv a rd D ic tio n a ry o f M u sic . The second m ovem ent o f the Concerto was composed independently as the Elegy for flute and piano in 1958. 412. Op. This will elucidate what elements influence deviations from the standard form. published in 196214.

6 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. There are several recommended analytical m ethods for post-tonal diatonic works: the prolongational approach by Schenker and Felix Salzer. 16 The use o f the full orchestral score w h en read in g C h a p te r 5 is recom m e n d ed . and elucidates B arber’s concept o f the genre. and methodologies for analyzing centricity are among the most well known. timbre. and dynamics. in conjunction with the rhythmic and formal structure. It is hoped that 15 A lthough m usical exam p les are included in this thesis. which consists of the elements o f coherence within the structure and the cohesion o f the stylistic amalgam among sharply contrasted movements. Allen Forte’s set-structured theory. voice-leading procedures combined with motivic analysis will be applied. in order to suggest a convincing interpretation for performance. register. These other parameters include texture. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. This chapter focuses on the relationship between the piano and orchestra via an investigation o f these parameters. .studied in the second section. The concluding chapter will summarize the discussions presented in the previous chapters. orchestration.15 Based on the presum ption o f the second movem ent being m ost influential. The analytical study in this section is intended to define the cohesive elements in structure and style o f the Concerto. In this study. and different analytical approaches will be added where deemed appropriate. The Concerto will be exam ined from many perspectives derived from tonal orientation. The third section (Chapter 5 )16 will present further characteristics o f the Concerto not included in previous chapters. the use o f the tw o -p ian o score is re c o m m e n d e d w hile reading this section. These are among the main factors for determining structural relationships. the chapter for the second movem ent (Chapter 2) will precede the discussion o f the first (Chapter 3) and third (Chapter 4) movements. the motivic analysis represented by Schoenberg. including pitch structure and internal coherence.

through this study performers will be provided with greater insight into the style o f B arber’s Piano Concerto. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. 7 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. . and consequently will be more able to make informed performance decisions.

creating the characteristic alternation o f tutti and solo. The form in the Canzone is modified due to the asymmetrical repetition o f the phrase in the first section. . The original Elegy consists o f three unbalanced phrase groups and a coda in a one-part form.Chapter 1 Forms in relation to the Canzone Canzone: M oderato The formal designs o f all three movements in the Concerto are clearly defined by each m ovem ent’s extensive use o f thematic repetition. having five to seven stanzas o f identical scheme and often ending with a shorter final stanza (. The second movement Canzone is an arrangement o f Barber’s own Elegy for flute and piano which was composed a few years earlier than the C oncerto. which is in a two-part strophic form. The canzone is an important type o f instrumental music of the 16th and 11th century originated by “a poetic form defined by Dante and made popular by Petrarch. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.18 The early 18th century concerto adapted the sectional layout derived from the canzone. laid the fo undation for the fugue. 18 T h e k ey bo ard canzone. and other multi-m ovement genres o f the Baroque E ra. 8 Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. the formal division is obscured by the interpolation 17 The H a rv a rd D ic tio n a ry o f M usic. 4 '1' cd.com m iato)C ]1 This form is found in numerous works for instrumental ensembles ((canzona da sonare) that developed into the sonata. Barber changed the title to the Canzone due to its formal structure. Therefore. This structural unity is derived from the 16th and 17th century canzone with its characteristic sectional structure involving repetition. concerto. 148. Barber expands this onepart form via reiteration in the Canzone. on the other hand.

the formal division o f the Canzone is symmetrical. The transitory passage leads into the second section (R. measures 3-4. and in turn emphasizes its thematic significance throughout the C oncerto. This reinforces the position o f the interpolation as the apex o f the movement. 19 T h e g old en m ean is “ a proportion used for centuries in art and architecture to obtain aesth etically p leasin g d esigns.. The resulting fraction is abo ut . In fact. In fact.” (Stefan Kostka. and the new D -sharp section is quite brief (1 measure) and the original key (C-sharp) returns quickly during the presentation o f the melodic theme. and Barber clearly adapts the idea o f commiato to make a structural point. despite changes in orchestration. This repetition at Rehearsal 2 preceded by G-sharp begins in D-sharp. and the second section is restated with the same material with different instrumentation (see the detailed discussion in Chapter 5). the second section is shorter. which becomes the thematic idea o f the Concerto (refer to Ex. 158) 9 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. the repetition..618. However. such analyses do not account for the unstable tonality at this point or. even more crucially. . 5). Thus. 3. Perhaps the most interesting aspect is that a reversed golden-m ean proportion19 occurs at the interpolation. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. W ithout this interpolation. M a teria ls a n d T ech n iq u e s o f T w en tieth -ce n tu ry M u sic . In other words. Barber’s covert design in two sections is quite ingenious. . the interpolation is a repetition o f the previous six measures that emphasizes the new melodic contour in the left hand accom panim ent at Rehearsal 1.1). other analyses have determined the movement as three-part form in which this segment begins the second main part.at Rehearsal 2 . It is the previous six bars that are repeated in the interpolation. 1 call this an “interpolation” because it does not return in the second section. and not the opening theme. the passage is a direct repeat o f preceding materials and cannot function as the opening o f a second formal group.

is evinced in the first movement. Table 1. The 10 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. 48) C # ----------------------------.In short. and utilizes it throughout all three movements. orchestration. and them atic material all m anifest strophic form. Barber adopts this idea o f repetition from the canzone. 3 1-5 1) Section Ph rase 1 Phrase 2 M easure n u m ber 31 33 35 36 37 R ehearsal n u m b er 5 6 M elodic unit A Key B C A’ A 39 43 45 7 D Link C lo sing (C od a) 47 49 51 8 C+A’ A (piano flourish) A (w ith p ia n o ’s D (flourish) arp egg io at m. Two-part strophic form of the Canzone P art 1 (S trophe 1: m m . tonal progression. . influenced by the Canzone with its asymmetrical phrases followed by altered repetitions. 1-30) Section P hrase 1 M easu re n u m b e r 1 2 P hrase 2 4 6 8 10 R ehearsal n u m b er M elo dic unit Key 12 16 18 22 *2 3 1 (A ) A B C A’ Transition A D A 24 26 4 D C+A’ A D (+ A + C ) (p iano flourish) C # ---------------------------------------G# D # -F # C # ------------------------------------------------------------ Part II (Strophe II: mm.G # ~ C # -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- * Interpola tion (m m . The formal design with reiterating phrases in each section is shown in Table 1. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. 16-21) First movement: A llegro appassionato The sonata structure.

and tonal organizations. 9) themes. notably with the ritornello-type passages. . 2 * T h e basic outline o f the stand ard con certo -so n a ta form in th ese brackets show s that the o p e n in g th em atic figures o f the C o n c e rto h av e taken on characteristics o f the ritornello in design. interestingly enough. These materials are also closely related to the first (R.sonata-based form is employed for the outer movements. thematic. 2) and second (R. 1. Emphasis on the virtuosic display o f the soloist (both piano solo and solo instruments in the orchestra) impacts on the C oncerto’s textural. The opening piano solo is a virtuosic display o f the main thematic figures. O rch estra ritornello] Section O p e n in g I O p e n in g II R ehearsal n u m b e r 1 T h e m a tic material T h em a tic figures 1. Therefore. Thus. Fig. 2. It is interesting to note that the solo cadenza. and the development section. The first m ovem ent follows the basic concerto-sonata design. normally reserved for the end o f the recapitulation. the opening section is not an introduction due to its reappearance at crucial sectional divisions. T able 2. The them atic m aterials o f the opening solo are exclusively utilized in the transitions. The first m ovem ent in a modified concerto-sonata design O p e n in g section (P ia n o solo) [Section 1 :Ritornello 1. The deviation from the standard concerto-sonata form in the first movement is shown in Table 2. initiated by the solo piano. 11 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. the opening thematic materials which are. and is used to punctuate formal divisions throughout the work. 3 Key E Th. coda. occurs before the recapitulation. can be conceived o f as the ritornello o f the concertosonata form. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

5 Theme 1 Theme 1 Inverted Th. m. solo R eh earsal number T h e m a tic m aterial 2 R. m.4. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.T h e m e 1------T h e m a tic figure 3 Key E " [ S e c t i o n 3: Ritornello 2.3 T h em e 2 Th.2.7 27 28 30 R. 1 Theme 2 Th. m. Fig.Table 2 continued E x p o sitio n [S ectio n 2: Solo a n d orchestral exposition] Section Theme 1 orchestra Theme 1 orch.2. T ransition T h em e 2 orchestra R ehearsal n u m b er T h e m a tic material 23 R.2 4. . m .Solo 3. 1.7 Theme 1 Theme 1 Key E G# R. 1. 3 Key C Based on th em e 1 R ecapitulation [S ection 5: Ritornello 3 . A ca d e n z a was an interruption o f ritornello 4 in the Classical co n c erto -so n a ta form. Solo and orchestral repetition] Section Theme 1 orchestra Theme 1 solo orch.6 Transition T hem e 2 orchestra T ra n sitio n ” 6 9 11 Th. 1.2----. 12 Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Orchestral ritornello] o f the C lassical co ncerto-sonata design ” * N otice the cad en za is inserted b etw een the d e v e lo p m e n t and recapitulation here. Fig.3 m G# D e v e lo p m e n t [S ectio n 4: Solo 2.30.3. 1 D evelop. Transition Theme 2 solo orch.2 T h em e 2 Key E B-flat 29 E (C) C o d a [Section 6: R itornello 4] Section C od a R ehearsal n u m b e r 31 T h e m a tic m aterial T h e m a tic figure 1. Fig. 2 Cadenza " R eh earsal n u m b e r 12 13 18 22 T h e m a tic material B ased on T h em atic figure 1 . 2 . Fig. Solo and orchestral d evelo pm ent] Section Solo introductory passage D evelop.

whose formal design is outlined in Table 3. and the opening melodic theme o f **** This section is followed by a cad enza-like passage. The third movement is in a m odified sonata-rondo form. and are transform ed in the finale. the motivic ideas from the opening piano solo in the first m ovem ent return. Each section o f the finale transforms material from the introductory passage. The pattern o f altered repetitions in asymmetrical phrases for both refrains and episodes in the finale are derived from the Canzone. Finale in sonata-rondo form Section R eh earsal number T h e m a tic m aterial Key E p isode 1 R efrain 2 E pisode 2**" Refrain 3 E pisode T Refrain 4 8 12 18 30 33 35 A B A’ C (D ev elo pm en t A” B’ A” ’ B-flat B F#.A (D )(G )(C )(F /E ) B-flat (-B -C -G C #) B-flat B B —B-flat Refrain 1 o f A. 13 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Therefore. this episode works as the development within the sonata form. . Further reproduction prohibited without permission. and are treated with techniques common to traditional development sections.B . D espite the fact that there is no direct quote from the thematic material o f the second movement. w hich rem in ds the listener o f the cad en za inserted b etw e en the d e v e lo p m e n t and recapitulation in the first m ov em en t.E. Episode 2 materials are derived from both refrain 1 and the first episode. B) D (-F#-G -flatD) The second episode shows a development o f previous materials instead o f presenting new ideas.F in a le : A llegro molto The finale is more remotely related to the Canzone than the first movement. T able 3.

14 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. . Details o f these thematic transformations are included in Chapter 4. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.each section is repeated several times in varied forms within each section.

The first phrase includes a pick-up opening measure. 4). T able 4. Strophe 1 (Part 1) The material o f this movement consists o f four melodic units (A: mm. including its phrase structure and the use o f thematic materials in both the melody and accompaniment parts.Chapter 2 Canzone: Moderato As mentioned in Chapter 1. 2-3. C: mm. R. Each point will be discussed in detail. M ain structural influences o f the Canzone throughout the Concerto M e lo d ic unit A M elo dic unit B and C • U tilizing the s a m e m elodic unit to open each phrase • Sequential m elod ic gesture • Imitative relationship betw ee n the voices A sym m etrical phrase structure caused by elision o r m etric displacem ent 15 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. which produces tension and release. phrase 2 (R. The following is a study o f the structural relationships present in the Canzone. D: R. 3-4). Structural influences o f the Canzone throughout the Concerto are listed in Table 4. The first part (mm. 6-7. 1 . melodic unit A. m. 1. mm. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. 1-9). B: mm. and a closing (transition. This phrase draws an arch-shape o f melodic line due to its ascending and descending sequences. 4. 2). 1. B. and C followed by a tail derived from antecedent part (melodic unit A). .R. the form o f the Canzone is tw o-part strophic. 5) consists o f two phrases and a closing: phrase 1 (mm. 4-5.

an d several repetitions o f the th em atic presen tation in both refrains and episo des o f the finale are exam ples o f this feature. 2-3) consists o f two sequences.5] [ 0 . 1-10 leg a to [0.3] 20 T h e o pening th e m a tic figure. 16 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. which is a feature o f the 20 sequential melodic gesture found throughout the Concerto. II.1. occurs repeatedly. This pattern.2 . The first measure contains the thematic and motivic ideas in the sixteenth-note accompaniment: the elision o f threenote group with upper neighbor note.2. and is bound by the descending chromatic linear motion throughout the first phrase (Ex. mm.6 ] M.1). [0.1. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. 2. 2.Table 4 continued M e lo d ic unit D • C o u n te rp o in t pro d u ces bo th chrom atic linear m o tio n and m otivic pitch • R h y th m ic pattern created by m elo dic contour (3 :3:2) contents M elodic unit A (mm. . initiated in the first measure. the first and se co n d th e m e o f the first m ovem ent. Ex.

Ex. but motivic materials that have influence on the first and third 21 The notation o f the pitch class set in brackets will be used in further discussion as utilized by A llen Forte in his The S tru c tu re o f A to n a l M usic. Schirm er. 38 by Sam uel B arber. not only is the main motivic figure [0. The accompaniment o f the harp and m id-register strings lead into the antecedent part where the melody is played by the flute in measures 2 and 3. O P . Inc (A S C A P ) In tern atio n al C o p y rig h t Secured. 2 . 17 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. 2.2.2).5]21 that outlines perfect fourth or perfect fifth predominant throughout. Therefore. the C-sharp minor tonality is strengthened significantly in that the three-note motive is tonal as opposed to the use o f chromatic counterpoint in the bass line. All R ights R eserved. 6 ] P IA N O C O N C E R T O .1 continued H [0 . The three-note motive itself is employed together with its accompaniment in the strings. C opyright © 1962 by G. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Used by Perm ission. This imitative relationship between the voices is clearly influential to the other movements as follows (Ex. 2. In fact. .

3] 22 is part o f the lower linear descent. mm. 1-4.1. III. 8. For example. m $ ^ 1 LJ ] 2 X I i ] _TT 1-®- accompaniment III. I. (A S C A P ) In tern atio n al C o p y rig h t Secured. II. Schirm er. R. O pening two measures melody p legato accompaniment I. C-sharp. 2.2.movements also sneak into the design. 1-2.. mm. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. 22 T h e m otivic p attern utilized in the first m o v e m e n t (m otiv e A) is hidden in m e asu re 3 w ith rh y th m ic aug m en tation . Episode 1 melody calm ando — a c c o m p a n im e n t P IA N O C O N C E R T O . the motive [0. 2. Ex. Inc. U sed by Perm ission.1).. . R.. B to A-sharp (see Ex. 18 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.. O P . Them e 1 r melody . 1-5 II. mm.. All R ights R eserved. 2. 38 by Sam uel B arber C opyright © 1962 by G.

19 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Along with the minor third em phasis as a boundary point for the first phrase at measure 9 found in the horns and harp. This was established at the beginning o f the movement with the orchestral pick-up to the onset o f the melody (m. That is. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.23 The melodic unit B is also interpreted as consisting o f a two-measure link and it is designed to vary them atic m aterials and to expand the register. The three-note m otivic idea is based on materials from melodic unit A. the changed meter 4/4 is employed in order to keep the sixteenth-note group at the end o f measure 5 functioning as a pick-up to the next down beat. The changing meter occurs to signify the minor second as a boundary point. The interval o f the second is made more predom inant with the trills o f the flute and oboe in melodic unit C. and does not prolong the harmonic pattern in the same way. The two-measure tail (melodic unit A ’) derived from melodic unit A finishes the opening phrase. measures 6 and 7. the final four sixteenth notes produce a three-note cell that outlines a tritone.6] is derived from the last four sixteenth-notes at measure 2 (see Ex. but does not have the same intervallic contents. em phasizing the minor second interval as one o f the motivic ideas for the entire work. 2) and orchestral opening phrase o f the second movement (nr. the melody would have ended in conjunction with the bar line (m. These elements are both references to the materials from the first movement.In the consequent part. 1).2. 9). 5). and complete the presentation o f the main thematic material (m. 23 T h e sam e type o f metric disp lacem en t that h ap p ened in th e m a tic figure 1 o f the first m o v e m e n t occurs here as well. This cell [0. M elodic unit C as a two-m easure counterpart o f measures 2 and 3 suggests the boundary points o f minor second w ith trills. 2. melodic units B and C are structurally linked due to the change o f the time signature from 3/2 to 4/4. . In addition. had the section rem ained in 3/2.1).

2.5] n [0. (A SC A P) In tern atio n al C o p y rig h t S ecu red All R ights R eserved.5] P IA N O C O N C E R T O . m.5] [0. l . O P .6] is related to the three-note cell (motive C) in the opening section and to the first and second themes o f the first movement. Two linear chromatic counterpoints occur in the melody in the upper part as well (Ex. 1. The sequence borrows from melodic unit A (mm. Ex. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.3).2. Schirm er. 2) (Ex. 3-4) in the place o f melodic unit B for four measures in 4/4 time. m ovement 1 (see Ex. C opyright © 1962 by G.51 [0. Therefore the ascending accompaniment o f the piano underneath the descending three-note melody groups is directly related to the melodic contour o f the opening thematic figure 1.2.4). 3.2. mm. The three-note melody in the upper part [0. Used by Perm ission What appears to be new material (melodic unit D) comes (R.3.The second phrase starts at Rehearsal 1. .5). 2. 2. II.2. The sixteenth-note accompaniment has two linear chromatic counterpoints. 20 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.4). The strings reinforce the three-note cells as chords in vertical arrangement (R. both converging in the pattern o f two three-note cells followed by a dyad (Ex. M elodic unit A reoccurs w ith the piano for two measures. 2. one ascending and one descending. 2 [0. 38 by Sam uel B arber. R.1. m . 2-3). Inc. 1.

. 2. A more detailed discussion o f this relationship can be found in Chapter 3. R.3] that appears as a starting point in thematic figure 1 o f the first m ovement occurs as an accented split from the pattern o f two three-note cells... 1.. 1..6). 2. R. II. mm ... 2. 1. 38 by Samuel Barber C opyright © 1962 b y G . 5. Schirmer. 21 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Used by Permission. 3-4 Iun pochino p i u mosso torru xn do P iQ y T W ** ea A«uie/irt/o un^^jcAtVwjDtu //U>si0 i PIANO C O N C ER T O .. II.. o f the first movement. (ASCAP) International Copyright Secured All Rights Reserved. m. and ultimately the second theme in contour inversion. r Ex.1. OP.5. 4 J f . M i This. Inc. mm: 3-4: two linear chrom atic counterpoints £ ." T T r ’* f t % a . in turn.Ex.4. Another motive [0. Ex. (/ u. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. followed by a dyad (R. is related to the first theme.“f£ % ±H t * £ t ± 1£ *£ ’r = •>= t j.

M elodic unit D ends on D-sharp (R. However. (A S C A P ) In tern atio n al C o p y rig h t Secured. A-sharp. C op y rig h t © 1962 by G. the only digression from the tonal center in this whole movem ent occurs here at Rehearsal 2.2.3] at Rehearsal 1. M elodic unit D (R. mm. PP P IA N O C O N C E R T O . with G-double sharp moving to resolve in the upper range. C-double sharp leads into the brief D-sharp tonal center as a part o f the dominant chord. 1. That is. All R ights R eserved. mm. Voice leading o f the upper and lower parts cross over at their resolution. II. Schirm er.3] [0.1. 22 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. This melodic unit D functions as a transition. the crossing in the upper voice leads to the lower D-sharp. The last pitch o f this m otive [0.6. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Inc.3] poco [0. R.1. 1. 38 by Sam uel B arber. which is quickly denied by the return o f melodic unit D at the original tonal center C-sharp after the brief statem ent o f melodic unit A. U sed by Perm ission. 3-6) begins in G-sharp with a pedal. 2. 1) rather than ending on the dom inant (G-sharp) to lead the listener away temporarily. . O P . m.5] jpoco r a il.Ex.1.3] - PP T C 2 [0. The melody occurs in the same tonal center each time. 5-6 a l tempo I0 ’ *. measure 6. possibly to suggest motion to a new section. 2. and moves to Dsharp by Rehearsal 2.

which starts from Rehearsal 2. 2). measure 3.The third statem ent o f melodic unit A starts from Rehearsal 2. the main key area returns not with melodic unit B. The figurative sixteenth-note o f the piano part on the second inversion o f the tonic chord (R. but mostly by the full string groups based on melodic unit D. m. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. It is an antiphonal passage between the piano and the oboe solo or flute solo. This A restates in Dsharp m inor (R. The orchestration. but with melodic unit D. In fact. 3. That is. the interpolation is a repetition o f the previous six measures (R. 1) and F-sharp minor (R. which is presented in a dialogue between the piano solo and orchestra. as might be expected. m. The second phrase o f the first part in this movement is expanded to a length o f sixteen measures. and this em phasizes the material which will be quoted and utilized in the outer movements. tonal progression. This transitional passage functions as a 23 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. The interpolation at Rehearsal 2 is crucial element o f the structure both formally and thematically. 1). The measures with trills from melodic unit C follow at Rehearsal 3 in canon. This is played by the orchestra alone. 3) links to the transitional passage. Transition (Closing of Part 1) The transitional passage (R. accomplished by means o f a six-measure interpolation. The passage stays on the C-sharp minor tonal center and finishes with the leading tone to lead directly into the repetition o f the first section. 2. . and thematic material o f the interpolation manifest the idea o f the strophic form. 4) is a closing for the first section. m. The tonal center o f this m ovem ent C-sharp minor recurs with melodic unit D. 2.

measure 4) give the same sound as the dotted eighth note with sixteenth note groups.build-up to the recapitulation. 4) helps make the rhythm flow. It is interesting to note that the melodic instruments (oboe and flute) for the Canzone are not present during this transition area. Strophe 2 (Part 2) The repetition at the second half o f the movement (R. . The thematic m elody in quarter notes appears against the delicate. where the orchestra took the m elody in the first half. a device which is emphasized further by stereophonic displays o f the head-m otive. The intensity is increased considerably by the use o f this device in the second group (R. The entire transition passage here is loaded with overlapping statem ents in stretti. w hich occurs in the orchestration o f the movement. The theme appears in the middle register shared by both 24 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. with embellishments o f the three-note motives. That is. This predicates the idea o f balance. 4. 3-4). much like the formal function o f the solo cadenza in the first m ovem ent o f the Concerto. where it occurs on every beat except the last two. 4. the plainly audible slurred notes in the upper range (transferred to the lower range on beat 3 o f Rehearsal 4. mm. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Somewhat obscured in the score. The time signature 5/4 (R. 5) follows the original design o f the material without the interpolation during the second phrase in com parison with the materials o f the first half. m. rapid. the piano takes over in the second. but stationary accompanying thirty-second note figures. and the intensity finally dissolves into chromatic sixteenth-note figuration at the final extension. the dotted eighth followed by sixteenth figure.

M elodic unit D from Rehearsal 2. the right hand presents the diminution o f the same 3-3-2 note pattern from the left hand. the first violins play the principal theme. D-sharp and G-sharp. and the three-note dim inution changes to an em bellishment o f the melody. . measure 3. they sound like a continuation o f the embellishment. instead o f actually comprising a part o f the melodic line as it was in the first thematic statement (mm. Trills at Rehearsal 5. measure 5. Emphasis on perfect fifth. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. the same type o f canon occurs between the lower and upper parts. The role is exchanged so that the piano takes the melody (antecedent and consequent part). The same voice leading occurs one measure before Rehearsal 7 as in the previous segment one measure before Rehearsal 2. measure 3 returns in the violins. At Rehearsal 6. The trills are transformed into a succession o f the seventh-intervals. occurs again at Rehearsal 5. as it occurred in the parallel location in the first half. with the sweeping scale­ like gesture. 25 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. which leads into the following tail segment. The piano plays the 33-2 note pattern from melodic unit D in both hands. At Rehearsal 6. measure 2 emphasizes that the C-sharp tonality with its dom inant harmony. measure 5. anticipated at measures 6 and 7. while the piano’s left hand figure is a diminution o f the melody.hands. Since they occur quite rapidly as thirty-second notes. The accented perfect fifth (D-sharp and G-sharp) in the piano part at Rehearsal 5. Instead o f playing the three-note melody. The trill establishes em phasis on the location. becom e prom inent due to the em bellishm ent figure that follows. measure 6 via chromatic pizzicato o f the low-register strings right before melodic unit A reappears. 1-9). Just as at Rehearsal 5. outlining the tritone. with the upper part in diminution. The piano is in canon a sixteenth-note apart.

measure 4 which becomes 3/4 at Rehearsal 7. 1-4). This antiphonal passage is extended with melodic unit A. and they act as two 4/4 measures. and are also in canonic im itation. A tail o f the theme occurs in the orchestra (R. The 3/4 measure (R. serving as exam ples o f written-out metric and tempo fluctuations. In both o f these passages the music broadens (allargando). This measure balances the 5/4 measure at Rehearsal 4.The measures with trills o f melodic unit C and the tail from the opening complete the restatement o f the theme (R. and the piano completes the movement with the opening fragment in three-voice stretto allowing the m ovement to fade to nothing. 6) brings about the com pletion o f this section leading into the coda. 7. they compensate for each other. forming a succession o f dim inished triads that outline the tritones before the coda. mm. mm. m. and then solo bassoon. which is played by the solo clarinet and the piano. 5-6) together with the piano’s arpeggio at Rehearsal 7. together. In this way. measure 6. 7. between the right hand o f the piano and the oboe-flute solos. . Further reproduction prohibited without permission. measure 6. and balance out. 26 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. 4) in canon played only by the full strings. 8) consists o f two measures from the transition (R. The coda (R. 7.

24 S e p te m b e r 1962. 4-6. and a descending linear chromatic statement which can be derived from two contrapuntal lines. 1-3) is self-contained and consists o f four motivic cells. The first m ovement is in the key of E minor. . despite the major third on the final harmony.1). 27 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.” P h ilh a rm o n ic H a ll P ro g ra m 19 6 2 -6 3 . and m.2). G-sharp) as a structural device (Ex. Thematic figure 1 (mm. as discussed previously in Chapter 1. 3. These elements are derived from the Canzone. which are the unison statements in mm. 25 This detail is d iscussed later in this chap te r (32-3). 3) replaces the expected G-natural. The reason the G-sharp (m. 3. Thematic figure 1 establishes the key. D.Chapter 3 First movement: Allegro appassionato The first movem ent evinces the modified concerto-sonata form. 7-8.2:’ 24 R efer to H ey m an. B. 1-3. quoting “N o te s on the Program . O pening section Barber outlines three main thematic figures from the opening o f this movem ent in his program notes for the premiere performance24. is to predicate the use o f the minor third derived from the dominant dim inished-seventh chord (F. mm. and foreshadow connections throughout all three movements (Ex. two structural intervals found at boundary points. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. 4 15.

6 ] Chromatic linear motion 3 3 2 I. and R. R. 1. R. mm. mm. Theme 1. 1-3. (R. 8.1 [0. 3-4. 1. 1-5 II. R. mm. Them atic figure 1 (m m. R. 3-7. mm. 1-3) ' -. 3-4 [0 . 1.1. mm.1 1 [0. mm. 18. I f / i i I.6] — £m . 1. 1-2.6] 1 1 [0. 1-4) —4rH a i f —r pcf : ~Bpf - ------r^V~ w / -o. I.1.A _- J yj yfe--------------- 28 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.1. mm. and R. 3. 9.6 ] [0 . 3-8. mm.2. III. R.Ex.1. mm.3] [0. 1-4. 2. II.3] f4 1 3 . 1. . 2.

Ex.5] [0.2. 3-8) [0.2.1.2 . Further reproduction prohibited without permission. C opyright © 1962 by G.6] [0. 8.3] [2 .3] III. 1-5) a / vMlf y p c* c P (* £«•* g ltm ■1 if- 4 4 ^ 4 J P IA N O C O N C E R T O . Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. E pisode 1 (R.2. 1.1 continued I.3] I___________! [0.2.1. 1-2) [0.1.3] I_______ ! *_____ ! I . i !____ 1 '___ I 3:3:2 III. 38 by S am uel B arber. mm. 3. *.1. mm. 9.2. Inc. O P. U sed by Perm ission. All R ights R eserved. 18.8 ] [2 . 3-7) [0. (A S C A P ) In tern atio n al C o p y rig h t S ecured. [0.5] [0. Them e 2.6] [0. .1. Schirm er. mm.6] III.2 .3] [0. mm. (R.8 ] Episode 2 (R. Refrain (R.

1-3: thematic figure 1 SHE] P IA N O C O N C E R T O . and motive D [0. I. Schirm er. which is a modified motive B. . U sed by Perm ission.2. 1-3: motives minor 3 au g m e n te d unison (ic 1) m o t iv e A D 30 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. 38 ~VPP by S am uel B arber — k- C op y rig h t © 1962 by G .1.1. (A S C A P ) International C opyright Secured All R ights Reserved. D im in is h e d 7 11' o n th e d o m in a n t Thematic figure 1 consists o f the following structural ideas (Ex.4] can be inferred from motives B and C in conjunction with the boundary points.6]. 3.Ex. I.6].3): motive A contains a whole step and a major sixth [0. mm.3].1. 3. motive B outlines the tritone evenly divided by major second and major third [0. 3. Ex. outlines the tritone with the inflection o f repeated initial notes followed by a half step [0. motive C. mm. Inc.3.2. minor second and minor third. O P. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

the minor second. such as the key o f the second theme. M otive C brings together the boundary points from the endings o f the antecedent and consequent parts o f thematic figure 1. One could. The transformed m otive A creates the confusion felt at the metric division. 2. The formal structure o f the first thematic figure divides into two parts. but it is reordered in the second part. seco n d be at in 2/2 time. there is a metric elision at the onset o f the second part. M otive A initiates each part o f the first thematic figure.2)26 to have the same contour as motive A. .Them atic figure 1 has an unconventional three measure antecedent-consequent design. M elodic contour influences this metric displacement. and the second is a descending minor third. but not the same pitch class set. and motive C brings the minor second directly before the minor third. That is. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. this is not quite accurate. even though it conflicts with the motivic cells. each o f which ends w ith a defining boundary point. to show the connection o f the boundary points. In fact. for instance. analyze the theme division to begin with D-E-C-natural (m. 31 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. The last notes o f each motive in the antecedent part and the first notes o f the motives in the consequent part represent 26 M e as u re 2. Because o f this conflict. since the C-sharp initiates the pattern o f two three-note group followed by a dyad that is derived from melodic unit D o f the Canzone. the G-sharp occurs continually in the opening section. so that the C-sharp ends the first part and also begins the second. This boundary point produces the first o f the structural intervals. However. on a local level. In a sense motive C is related to motive B in that they both outline the tritone. The first is the ascending minor second. This G-sharp is crucial as a foreshadowing o f a key center for later events. The minor third interval at the end o f the first opening theme is inflected as the major third to signify the use o f the diminished-seventh relation as a structural point. them atic figure 1 fits more easily into 3/2 than the presented time signature o f 2/2.

and B) (Ex. 3. The line resolves to the tonic chord when considering the surface harmonic structure. D-sharp. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. The key o f each m ovem ent is E. Ex. C-sharp. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. C-sharp.o------------ However. . shows a diminished-seventh chord.the descending line (E. 3.» J i---. which was presented locally in thematic figure 1. ending on the m ajor third of the tonic chord. 3.4). Ex. 3.4. 18) and H ayden (1) also m e n tio n this detail. that is constructed by a succession o f m inor thirds and tritones in horizontal formation. I. The substitution o f G-sharp for G occurs within the larger tonal context when the diminished- 27 Joh n H anson (M a cro F orm in S e le c te d T w e n tie th -c en tu ry P ia n o C oncertos. This procedure occurs repeatedly to em phasize the tonal shape o f the Concerto via the diminished-seventh chord (Ex. mm. E minor. K ey-relationship of the Concerto I . II (»>« III Diminished 7th on the tonic The overall key-relationship o f the work between all three movements outlines a dim inished-seventh. the accented F-D-B-G-sharp from the opening.27 These notes clearly delineate into an upper range above the rest o f the phrase.5). when considering the deeper structure.5. B-flat in tonic dim inished-seventh with missing G. 1-3: two linear counterpoints r-» i h •---------. C.

33 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. . and the intervallic content can be derived from all three motives. and metric displacement as was discussed. That is. the theme consists entirely o f overlapping contrapuntal statements o f motive A. Notice that for the large-scale design. and in essence changing the modal inflection o f the piece. G-sharp) over a tonic E emphasis. Thus. F. Considering range. thus disguising its connection.6). This is precisely the pitch that is altered by the modal inflections throughout the piece. perhaps. but are each derived from thematic figure 1. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.3]. E diminished-seventh is outlined w ith the exception o f the third o f the chord. the repeated figure occurs directly on the beat. Tonality is further made ambiguous through the blurring o f motivic cells (such as the elision mentioned between two parts o f the first thematic figure). the modal quality is continually challenged by the insistence o f G-sharp on many structural levels. the diminished-seventh chord is based on the dominant (B. leaving the outer range G-sharp-A-sharp-B as the other statement o f motive A (Ex. The repeated note o f motive B establishes the rhythmic pattern for thematic figure 2. while the work outlines an E dimini shed-seventh chord. a subtle indication o f the metric modification used to obscure structural relationships throughout the work. As for the pitch content o f thematic figure 2. D. In motive B. At the local level. 3. 4-6) is based rhythmically from motive B and C. G is replaced with a G-sharp making the scale major instead o f minor. the close grouping D-E-E-sharp is one motive A [0. however. whereas thematic figure 2 begins w ith a pick-up note. Thematic figures 2 and 3 are not actually complete themes.seventh chord is based on E.1. This is. Thematic figure 2 (mm. These elements are used to obscure the clarity o f tonality and phrasing.

O P.6. (ASCAP) International Copyright Secured. Used by Permission. ■■■. All R ights R eserved. measures 7 and 8. 3. 3. Schirm er. Ex. 3. C o p y rig h t © 1962 by G. 7-8: thematic figure 3 ff poco totienuio P IA N O C O N C E R T O .7). Further reproduction prohibited without permission. 3 8 by Sam uel B arber. mm. Schirm er.8). 3-4: thematic figure 2 PIA N O C O N C E R T O . Thematic figure 3. Inc. 6) (see Ex.1 = J i D — A------------ The second m easure (m. f ■. 3. 34 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. (A S C A P ) In tern atio n al C o p y rig h t Secured.Ex. but also sums up thematic figure 1 (Ex.7. I. motive A 'j —H--- 1 J 9 ■■■— r 1 . begins with an isolated 5/4 tim e-signature that not only suggests the characteristic metrical displacement o f the work. Inc. I. 5) is a repeat. . U sed by Perm ission. mm. All Rights Reserved.----. followed by an altered repetition filled in with sixteenth notes (m. O P.. 38 by Samuel Barber Copyright © 1962 by G.

28 The statement o f thematic figure 3 is a recurrence o f m otive B. thereby causing metric displacem ent which is a characteristic feature o f the Concerto. what is actually happening is the minor third (B . 7) related to B at measure 8 produces the overriding minor third relationship that was established at the end o f thematic figure 1. 35 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. It is an integral tonic area for the work. is the initial G-sharp at measure 7. A crucial connection at this point.G-sharp. 8). followed by the closing major third. The minor third from B to G-sharp is directly contradicted by the lower major third. This G-sharp (m. 28 This can be p erceiv ed as a g rouping ( o f a three-note cell followed by a dyad) that is deriv ed from the pattern ( o f two three-note cells followed by a dyad) o f them atic figure I . . E . which also began thematic figure 2. Therefore. and second theme o f the movement. That is. This note. The obscurity o f the boundary between major and minor thirds provides reason to expand measure 7 to include the initial low G-sharp. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. while on the surface one m ight analyze the major third as ending the group. However. the m idpoint repeated note pattern can be likened to the elision at the m idpoint o f thematic figure 1.The symmetrical rhythmic palindrome found in the quintuplet-eighths is rem iniscent o f the antecedent and consequent division caused by a metric displacem ent o f thematic figure 1. The pitch G-sharp at the onset o f thematic figure 3 ends the first segm ent o f the sequence (m. indicates later tonal centers o f the first theme for the soloist. 7) and is thus not necessary as a defining elem ent at the beginning o f the second part o f the sequence (m. but which ultim ately folds back into the E minor tonic. the relationship between onsets o f each o f the two quintuplets produces the major third interval that is hidden by G-sharp pedal. and one that helps to explain the new tim e signature.G-sharp) from thematic figure 1 with the tonic note o f the E chord interspersed.

that is followed by the combined statement o f the 36 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Ex. as the syncopation is made up o f a quintuplet thirtyseconds in the time o f an eighth note. This is a diminutive rhythmic value that precedes the 5/4 (5/4 with five separate evenly placed attacks) and also the quintuplet eighths. in a condensed version to present an elision o f boundary points. . the succession o f chords (mm. so to speak. another minor third. After the main ideas are displayed. A ll R ights R eserved. mm. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. 3. It is inserted between B and G-sharp. O P . U sed by Perm ission. are almost exclusively used throughout the movement. I. M otive A is also presented linearly. along with the two boundary points and linear descent in thematic figure 1. The pattern o f two three-note groups followed by a dyad in conjunction with four motives. C o p y rig h t © 1962 by G.8). Thus.O f special interest is the cluster-like sweep that leads into thematic figure 3 (Ex. m2. These are the significant motivic and boundary points from thematic figure 1. the metric displacement figures into this sweep. 6-7 J f poco tostenuto molto P IA N O C O N C E R T O . 9-11) is constructed based on specific intervals.G-sharp). Schirm er. 3 8 by Sam uel B arber. Inc. (A S C A P ) In tern atio n al C o p y rig h t S ecured. the rapid passage sounds like tone cluster is stated in the boundary o f the tritone (D . 3. M2): the major second can be considered a compound m inor second in relation to the bass line. Also. and the top line consists o f descending seconds (M2.8.

a m in o r third. (A SC A P) International C o p y rig h t S ecured All R ights R eserved.4.three m otives elaborated as a flourish (m.10).5. A. as interlocking statements o f three motives. 9-11: vertical presentation o f them atic figure 1 (chrom atic descending line) mm.8 3 mm. and opens the new section as well. This expands the register o f the piano. mm .8]29 (Ex. Ex. Each chord has the same pitch class set from the descending melodic line o f thematic figure 1 [0. . 3 8 by Sam uel B arber [0 .1 .4). This pitch set con sists o f three m inor seconds. 3. S c h irm er.3 . 9-11 PIA N O C O N C E R T O . U sed by Perm ission y 29 A pitch s e t’s characteristics are defined by its intervallic content. see also Ex. 3. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.3. Fragments are embellished.9.5 .9. I. and D (Ex. 3. and lead into the second statement o f the thematic figures via the descending flourish that sweeps through the keyboard. Inc. 37 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. O P . and a m a jo r third.4 . a m ajo r second. 3.1. These chords have a G-sharp tonal implication. 1-3 C opyright © 1962 by G. B. 11).

and suggests the prolongation o f the E tonality with the repeat o f thematic figure 1. 2-3 d ow n beat f [0. 1. . All R ights R eserved.Ex.10.5. (A S C A P ) In tern atio n al C o p y rig h t S ecured. Rehearsal 1 is the modified opening them e with altered time signatures (5/4-2/2-3/2). 11: m otives A. minor third). These chords are a com bination o f both boundary points from thematic figure 1 (minor second. 3. C o p y rig h t © 1962 by G. 38 by S am uel B arber. Ex. B. m. m. U sed by Perm ission. Rehearsal 1. I. I.4. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. in linear presentation (Ex. mm.8] minor 2 nd ^rd minor j P IA N O C O N C E R T O .1. 3.11). R. and D motive A The same process occurs at Rehearsal 1. This element o f the rhythmic shift comes to the surface that is foreshadowed in the opening passage as an elision. 38 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. The set o f the two chords (R. 3.3. 1.11. 2) is inserted in the middle o f the passage as an axis o f rhythmic division. measure 2 in ascending motion. S chirm er. measure 1 starts on the B pedal tone. Inc. and metric displacement. It reveals the notion o f split counterpoint. O P .

but also occurs rhythm ically on the weak part o f the beat. 1. 4). 2). Thematic figure 2 is also present. This will bring a rhythmical flow for the performance. . indicating the importance o f the w eak beat. This aspect is derived from the two-chord elision (R. The initial statement by the orchestra is not only prepared contrapuntally by two inserted chords. 9-11) reveals that orchestration is o f primary concern. For the piano performance. measure 1 moves linearly through the two-chord boundary point into C for the orchestra’s first statement. this opening section (mm. In the second opening section (R. A closer look at Rehearsal 1 measures 4-7 as compared to its previous statement (mm. up-beat pattern. on the off beat. This will clearly establish the 2/2 meter. Each o f the successive orchestral statements follows w ith this syncopated. then. albeit altered with added chords and without unison. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. 1.These two inserted chords lead to the initial chord in C o f the orchestra two measures later (R. This. no direct statement o f thematic figure 3 occurs in the second opening section. since the second chord occurs as syncopation (it sounds like it occurs “early”). by linear voice leading descent in the bass line. Thus. an actual progression can be seen moving to E minor (at R. 1-18) is divided into two repeating segments. which will in turn project a recitative style o f the theme. m. 2). This sequential presentation o f the theme in the section is influenced by the sequential melodic gesture that originated from the Canzone. performance should emphasize the middle note o f each group. progresses by minor third (the second boundary point) in the bass 39 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. In the piano’s statement. the underlying harmonic motion moves to B major. Formally. 1). thematic figure 1 occurs clearly. the three-note pattern establishes an anticipation to the main beat followed by a resolution. but when the orchestra takes over the large chords. Flowever. m. The B pedal (V/E minor) at Rehearsal 1.

but rather the motivic and contrapuntal design that allows for these harmonies to occur as incidental points along the linear design. . and 30 H ayden . and the upper voice moves chromatically (boundary point 1 is the minor 2nd. The bass motion outlines m inor thirds which is yet another example of the diminished-seventh chord outlined in the work.12) Ex. 3. C. 40 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.line back to an E m inor tonality at Rehearsal 2. R. Proper voice leading outlines the passage (bass descends by minor 3rd.6] T I VI dim inished 7lh Hayden also discusses this progression. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. which conjoin with the temporarily functional harmonic scheme. 4. and boundary point 2 the minor 3rd occurs once). 3. The main elements o f the passage are the motivic and contrapuntal elements. upper voice ascends in contrary motion). mm.7 m. In fact. The harmonic progression outlined by the orchestra is as follows: (Ex. our approaches differ in that the significance o f this passage is not the vertical harmonies produced. A.4 m.1.This is actually the dim inished-seventh on the subdominant.8 minor 3' E [0.5 m.30 However. 1. E-flat. measure 1.2. F-sharp.3. and is derived from thematic figure 1 on the dominant.12. the bass note F-sharp is necessary to fulfill this pattern. I. 4-7: chord progression R.6 m. 1 m.

9) that serves to prolong the E m inor tonality (Ex. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. These diverging outer voices prepare the full E m inor chord that occurs for the first tim e at the entrance o f the full orchestra. 2. C. The first them e A sym m etrical phrase structure o f the first them e is divided into tw o parts (R. 41 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. the same as in the Canzone and the second them e o f the first m ovem ent (refer to Ex.19). it com es directly prior to resolution to the tonic in order to reinforce B arber’s tonal structure. The penultim ate VI chord contains the characteristic “m odal” reference w ith an added note. G-sharp. 1-4 and mm.is the reason the III chord is found w ith a seventh and in this inversion. mm. G -sharp at R. o1 This is the same modal inflection that B arber expresses throughout the work. D. B. The first four-bar has a descending chrom atic line ((E)32. 32 E is in th e p a re n th e sis. 5-9). 3. . C-sharp. and th e m a jo r th ird re la tio n sh ip o f th e C to n a lity o f th e d e v e lo p m e n t to th e E to n a lity o f th e re c ap itu latio n . 2. 3. D-sharp. sin c e it is p re se n te d as a p ed al.13). Here. The consequent part seem s to em bellish the note B to lead into Gsharp. H o w e v e r. n o t p a rt o f th e m elo d y . th e line sh o u ld be p e rc e iv e d as in itia tin g fro m th e E d u e to th e E m in o r to n a lity at th is point. m. 31 O th e r e x a m p le s o f th is k in d o f “ m o d a l” re fe re n c e in c lu d e th e m a jo r th ird E -G -sh arp b e tw e e n th e o p e n in g th e m a tic fig u re s a n d b e tw e e n th e tw o m a in th e m e s.

mm. mm. 2. 9) T¥ ~3 . 2. O P . (A S C A P ) In tern atio n al C o p y rig h t Secured. R.>- ir This chromatic descending line. 3. 1-9: theme 1 TT TF P IA N O C O N C E R T O . 2. S chirm er. 38 by Sam uel B arber. resulting from the pattern o f the two three-note groupings followed by a dyad. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Inc. M elody at R.13. which is again In fact. Yet the tritone span creates surface tension. 2. 1-4 (R. and is then p ick ed up and d o u b led by the m elo d ic line. . th e d e sce n d in g lin ear p attern is in itiated in the a c c o m p a n im e n t line w ith E. 42 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. 3.1).33 borrows from the thematic figure 1 and melodic unit D o f the Canzone (see Ex. I.< --> . U sed by Perm ission. mm. 1-2 -t ’ ’r r t r —— ---. Ail R ig h ts R eserved.Ex. C opyright © 1962 by G. m. 3 : 1- A ccom panim ent at R.

reinforced by the A-sharp in the melodic line against the bass E (R. Therefore the metric displacem ent that occurs can be likened to the effect o f a hemiola. Thus. The three-note statement on G occurs five times with even metric placement. One is in the melodic voice. The three-note groups anticipated by thematic figure 1 create five statements o f the characteristic three-note groups in the lower register instruments. However. This polyrhythm is a consequence o f the counterpoint. and the other is in the tenor range o f the English horn and the clarinets and emphasizes G (the 3 rd scale degree). while the upper part on B shifts metrically to accommodate the melodic line. and is in turn a crucial point for analysis. throughout the piece Barber denies the structural im portance o f G (the minor 3rd) by his modal inflections between major and minor collections. . It is precisely the tritone span here. The statement o f motive C immediately leads to this A-sharp. that harks to the underlying dim inished-seventh structure o f the work. 4). the prominence o f the dim inished-seventh chord is heavily dependent upon the tension created by the tritone. Thus. The first two measures in 2/2 time subdivided by eighth note is eight pulses. m. The characteristic rhythm ic design is comprised o f two overlapping statements o f three note cells. during which the three-note pattern on G occurs five times. However. 2. with the possible exception o f the minor third. which em phasizes the B (the 5th scale degree). the tritone is perhaps the most rem iniscent o f the diminished-seventh o f all possible intervals. which occurs in both m otives B and C from opening thematic figure 1. as part o f the melodic contour. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. 8:5 is the ratio found 43 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. The theme starts on the second beat with the chromatic counterpoint o f the accompaniment. In fact. it is the metric displacem ent as established in the opening that causes the disjointed feel when the two groups are combined.

1-4) in the counterpoint o f the melodic line in octaves. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.1.14). F-sharp. the final minor third leap is retained from the original line in thematic figure 1. and is explored and predominates as the main meter 5/8 in the third movement. G. The bass line here is ascending chromatically. but each dyad is presented in reverse order. measures 7-9 modulate to a temporary A minor area by the three segm ents o f the sequence for the restatement o f the theme. Thus.1. (A S C A P ) In tern atio n al C o p y rig h t Secured. 6-9 motive A [0. The purpose o f this metrical displacement is to reveal the embedded cell [0. B-flat. After the four-measure theme in A minor with chromatic descending G-sharp.1. O P. the original 44 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. mm. All R ights R eserved. 2. Schirm er. mm. A. 3. 3. This time motive A [0. Inc. U sed by Perm ission. R.14. The four-measure theme is transformed and expanded at the second statement in 3/2 time (R. G-sharp. I.3] is embedded. Ex. The resultant pitch content reordered is F-sharp. 2. C-sharp. G. mm.C * —> A P IA N O C O N C E R T O .6] that is one o f the opening motives. where motive A [0. 3. The bass line is coupled with the upper voice o f the sequence pattern.3] 'A F* p - 6[ - a A <p Of* - A- C* 6b |3b ---------.3] occurs (Ex. C opyright © 1962 by G. 38 by Sam uel Barber. . 5-9). Rehearsal 2.1. F (R. The chromatic line from them atic figure 1 is disguised in the bass o f this sequence.here.

Schirm er. 2. P IA N O C O N C E R T O .4] from the initial three-note group o f the first theme accompaniment (R. The rhythm ic device used in this whimsical passage is accumulative. (A S C A P ) In tern atio n al C o p y rig h t Secured. syncopated feel.4]. 3. and it is placed on a downbeat as well in order to establish its role (Ex.15). Also the preceding F o f the descending line is the im portant minor second prior to the goal note E34. All R ights R eserved. m.1. 45 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. I. one measure before the pedal. measure 4. This gives the passage a jazzy. is changed to 3/2 in order for the pedal E to occur on the downbeat. mm. 5. 3. C o p y rig h t © 1962 by G. that is 2-3-4-5 by eighth note division in conjunction with the motivic ideas. O P. 38 by Sam uel B arber. The 3/4 at Rehearsal 3. 1-2) to be presented on the third beat. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. following the repeated minor seconds. 3. A n exam p le o f a flat II cad en tial ch o rd is also found b efo re th e seco n d them e. mm. R. Ex. The 3/2 time allows for the pitch content [0. U sed by Perm ission.1. 3. minor second and motive D [0.E is brought for two measures as a pedal (R.15. 5). 3. m. This brief passage includes the tonal direction to G-sharp (E at R. Inc. 1-6 poco ra il. B-A at R. .

The second part o f the first theme is developed in the solo exposition as is the contrapuntal texture. measure 1. measure 3 can be explained as a large-scale structural point. O P. This dissonant relationship creates a strong sense o f bitonality. A at R. I. mm. Rehearsal 4. Clear tonal centricity is obscured at Rehearsal 5. 3. That is. A nother exam ple o f a using an upper leading tone occurs to precede the second them e (R. Ex. 2. The contrapuntal lines are moving together by minor second. The solo exposition starts on G-sharp (minor) via modulation by fourth scale degree during the course o f exposition (E at R. After the full statement o f the theme. (A S C A P ) In tern atio n al C o p y rig h t Secured. . U sed by Perm ission. C o p y rig h t © 1962 by G. 1. a tempo motive D P IA N O C O N C E R T O . 3. The minor second appears as an upper leading tone to the next tonal center (Gsharp). m.16. Schirm er. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. the two contrapuntal lines are statements o f the first theme in two different tonalities. 3. 7) to C-sharp m inor (R. Inc. the first boundary point from them atic figure 1. m.3. At the point o f this new developmental passage beginning at Rehearsal 5. measure 7 (G-sharp). 3. m easure 6 (C- 46 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.16). 8. the larger tonal points at Rehearsal 3. m. 3. 1) then a step down (E-A-G-sharp). m. R. 38 by S am uel B arber. 6) with the developm ent o f the first part o f main theme. m. 5-6 poco rail. This is a hint at the G-sharp phrygian mode. 4. The sustained bass note G at Rehearsal 5. All R ights R eserved. mm. the tonal center shifts from G-sharp minor (R. 6). 3-6). and explains the recurrent use o f Gsharp in the previous section (Ex.

(A S C A P ) International C o p y rig h t Secu red . I. in sixteenth-note values. mm . mm. However. 5. 3-5. 3-5) R. C o p y rig h t © 1962 by G. Inc. I. 3. R. O P . This is particularly prom inent in the development section. .sharp). This has a structural significance for the work in that counterpoint actually serves to obscure tonality in the piece. Schirm er. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. this rhythmic device causes a quick and arrogant feel that conflicts with the three-note groups o f eighth notes in the bass. descending minor second followed by a rest. m easure 3 (G) produce motive C [0. 5. 38 by Sam uel B arber. This highly syncopated new rhythmic figure creates a dotted eighth pulse against the pre­ existing pulse in the accompaniment. It is rhythm ically derived from thematic figure 2 o f the opening section: two sixteenth-notes outlined by the tritone followed with a sixteenth-rest (Ex. 6-8 T hem atic figure 2 (m m. 3. 6-8 a rro g a n t PIA N O C O N C E R T O . Ex. U sed by Perm ission.6]. There is a new rhythmic figure at Rehearsal 5. The result o f this rhythm ic conflict together with the bi-tonality mentioned before is 47 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.17).1.17. m easure 7. mm. and Rehearsal 5. All R ights R eserved.

6. the phrasing is asymmetrical and the tonal implications are unclear. 3.18) 48 Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Barber clearly indicates a tempo. 8. All voices except the theme and bass pedals move chromatically by h alf step. At Rehearsal 8. A voice-leading graph o f the chord progression for the passage follows: (Ex.heightened tension and ambiguity. R. m ovendo at R. The bass also m oves by minor second from F to F-sharp at R. The second theme The com pellingly expressive second theme (R. m easure 7 brings added prom inence to the role o f the minor second as a melodic figure. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Transition The opening thematic figures recur in the entirety o f the transition to the second theme. De-emphasizing the thematic figure.7. 3). measures 79 in the bass line sequence. causes the section to fade away. . 7. At Rehearsal 6. As in the previous section. m. sometimes as an entire chord (as at R. mm. 7. but the new rhythm ic figure at Rehearsal 5. A similar device occurred at Rehearsal 2. 1-4). This is manifested as a written-out ritardando. mm. Both motives B and C outlined the tritone (R. produced by metric pulse in conjunction with the changing dynamics. mm. 1-6) and follow the stretto section (R. Barber manifests metric displacement by changing the time signatures 3/2-2/2-3/2 to have thematic figure 3 occur on the weak beat. the flute and French horn have the statements o f the opening theme respectively. 5-7. 9) is more secure with regard to functional harmony.7 with stretto-like imitations o f the opening theme between sections.

19).7 m. 1: chord progression R.19. 1-8. mm. 8 R . 9. 3. and end with a two-m easure tail segment (Ex.18. Both the second theme and the first phrase o f the Canzone contain a four-bar consequence with an elision point. Ex. con moio 49 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. mm. 3. 1-9: a comparison o f phrase structure I. I. 9.4 m. 3. The second theme consists o f four repetitions o f thematic material in ascending motion and a two-measure tail drawing back to the original range. .Ex. Thus the phrase structure in each case begins with a one bar melodic unit followed by a repeat.3 m . II. m.l m. 9 .R.l The pattern o f two three-note cells followed by a dyad is transformed via contour inversion and rhythm ic modification o f the opening thematic figure 1 and the first theme. mm. Them e 2 (R. 9 m. I. R. R.10 m. 1-9) melodic unit (repeat) consequence (4 bars) p espr. 10.

U sed by Perm ission. . First phrase (mm. 50 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. O P.19 continued II. 3. (A SC A P) In tern atio n al C o p y rig h t Secured. 38 by Sam uel B arber. C op y rig h t © 1962 by G. Inc.Ex. 1-9) melodic unit A j p legato consequence (4 bars) melodic unit A (repeat) I— tail (2 bars) mp P IA N O C O N C E R T O . All R ights R eserved. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. S chirm cr.

Ml A -----.3]. * A L— . . There is another motive A inserted within the melodic line at Rehearsal 9.. C-double sharp is motive A [0. iy Further on in the second theme.. The melodic line begins with a leap to B.35 The rhythmic structure o f the second theme is 35 H ay d en b riefly m en tio n s this as w ell (10).. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. R. Then a chrom atic linear descent leads to another leap up to B-sharp. 9. 3.=#• A R.20. mm.The next measure also includes m otive A. The interval between two initial notes o f each sequence is a minor third that is anticipated by thematic figures 1 and 3. measure 1. and these two m otive A groups produce an octatonic scale in linear motion. 1-2: motive A and 3:3:2 note pattern in them e 2 R. followed by C-double sharp. Ex. B-sharp. I.20). 1 3 : 3 : 2 * y~! * * 1 f r— T. motives from the opening section are utilized in the melodic line.M otive A fills in the second theme as part o f the three-note group sequence.1.... m. 9. 3. 51 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.The connecting materials use major and m inor seconds as below (Ex. 9. This group B. 1-2 motive A 4-ft— J .y . The significant aspect here is the rhythmic relationship between opening them atic figure 1 and the second theme. mm..j r-MM------- 1—*--T.T Z Z L .---.

3.19). R. instead o f the expected two measures. mm. 9. 9. This creates the rhythmic flexibility and a flowing sound. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. 9. m . I. the second them e occurs w ithout elision since the “extra beat” is allowed.21. Thus. 1-3.clearer than opening them atic figure 1 because o f the time signature (Ex. due to varied time signatures and rhythm. The transition to the development (R. 3-6) is expanded for four measures. I. While the transition between the first and second theme presents the complete 52 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.l: rhythm ic relationship between them atic figure 1 and them e 2 Them atic figure 1 (mm. 3. mm. the elision occurs between the antecedent and consequent parts due to the compression o f the time signature to 2/2. 3. Rem ember in the opening them atic figure 1. 7) o f the transition between the first and second themes. m .21). The successions o f these two elements are disguised by metric displacem ent with the changing o f the time signature (see Ex. 11) is rhythmically diminutive o f the material from the movendo section (R. 1-3) Theme 2 (R. Ex.l) J The second part o f the second theme (R. . at Rehearsal 9 in 3/2.

and contrasts against the pause before the development. tonality is weakened due to the abundant use o f counterpoint. and at the end of the opening to the first theme. thematic figures 1. The sense o f the rhythm ic regularity is also obscured. D e v e lo p m e n t The developm ent section is most economic in its utilization o f the opening thematic figures. 2. 5. The development section utilizes materials from the opening section. especially at Rehearsal 15 and 20. .first them atic figure at a h alf step higher.7). 13) are derived from the same notes. This syncopated figure is the same rhythmic device that was introduced in the transition (R. The dim inutive rhythmic value o f this section creates an incessant continuation tow ard the end o f the section. The accompaniment chords and the counterpoint above (R. this time the transition begins right away with the stretto passage to increase intensity although with the use o f different instruments (the w oodwinds) in a lighter texture. which provides an exam ple o f B arber’s unified material and style throughout the Concerto. The intervallic com ponents o f the chord are directly quoted from the motive that is played simultaneously as a melody. and 3. That is. followed by inversion o f the flourish in the opening and successive fourths prepare for the first tonal emphasis on C six measures after the start o f the development (R. Chords in descending minor third. Again. which fragment and cooperate in contrapuntal texture with one another in canonic imitation. as in the previous parts. 12. m. 7). m. This flourish is anticipated between two sections o f the opening. especially the tritone interval. the procedure o f choosing a chord played 53 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. This aspect affects the grandiose opening o f the development. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. This leads into the development.

This is not a temporary or passing dissonance. and C. 1-6). m. 18. as well as a verticalized statement for the final chord (R. Thus. . Rehearsal 17. G. 7-8). The large underlying pedal tones in the Development are C. mm. Rehearsal 18. mm. 22. Both the melodic line and bass end with a minor third. Previously in this section the melody is found in octaves. These points refer to the 3 rd relationship progression that leads into the first them e o f the exposition. 21. The main pedal tones occur at Rehearsal 12. measure 7 (C returns). during the development section. Before the section in which them atic figure 3 predominates (R. that predicates the bi-tonal signature o f the cadenza. tied p attern. 13. the parallel to the part o f the transition to the second theme in the exposition (R. 17. R. d u e to its su stain ed . ’6 E is in the p a re n th e se s b e cau se it so u n d s so m e w h a t vague. 1). A linear descent in octave displacement leads to this C pedal tone. 7. mm. 5-6) occurs in the development (R. measure 11 the interval is compressed to allow for parallel motion by minor second. measure 7 (C). m. but at Rehearsal 21. 21. 54 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. o f a structural boundary point to lead into the cadenza. mm. measure 11. thematic figure 1 and rhythmically modified thematic figure 2 are woven together into the contrapuntal texture. (E)36. C major is prolonged. Then.simultaneously against a melodic figure com prised o f the same pitch m aterial is typical o f B arber’s m ethod throughout the work. but rather an indicator o f the use o f two separate tonal centers simultaneously that occurs in the cadenza. despite the apparent lack o f tonality on the surface. The minor third interval has the same role as in thematic figure 1. measure 3 (G). measure 8 (E) and Rehearsal 21. a major seventh sneaks in vertically at Rehearsal 21. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. After the statement o f motive A is presented in augmentation (R. 1-4).

and recapitulation) starts with cadenza-like passages (mm. 22). The key signature o f D-flat major and C major are written-out sim ultaneously (Ex. 118.22). 1) attacca subxto ffp r e tio 8~ j7 It also is the clim ax o f the d ev elo p m e n t section. development. m . It is interesting to note that the virtuosic m anifestation o f the piano is integrated with the structural ideas: every m ain section (exposition. 2 2 . . Further reproduction prohibited without permission. 55 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.l (R . 3. It begins with ‘snatched’ descending quartal chords with pentatonic scale passage converging with the left hand in polytonal harmony. 12. R. Ex.22. m. I . 3. 22. R.R .Cadenza The solo cadenza adopts a significant structural role by initiating the recapitulation37 and utilizing the first theme.

Further reproduction prohibited without permission. 38 by Sam uel B arber.23).E x. U sed by Perm ission. 56 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. A long measure o f converging and diverging chromatic lines built by a succession o f major seconds and minor thirds initiates the cadenza. . The notes with accents produce a descending chromatic linear motion from thematic figure 1. C o p y rig h t © 1962 by G. P IA N O C O N C E R T O . and opens bravura passages with the first theme in rhythmic diminution. All R ights R eserved. measures 2-4: o ffb eat accents between the hands. 22. Inc. O P . (A S C A P ) In tern atio n al C o p y rig h t S ecured. and the cross-hand techniques are explored. 2-4) (Ex. mm. 3. The rhythmic augmentation and diminution with canonic treatment o f the first theme dominates the cadenza. This passage consists o f the whole-tone scale disguised by unexpected leaps (R. 3. There are significant elements at Rehearsal 22.22 continued I I I LE. Schirm er.

22. mm.24. 5-6) followed by the right hand in octaves (R. (A S C A P ) In tern atio n al C o p y rig h t Secured. C o p y rig h t © 1962 by G. All R ights R eserved. The interaction between voice leading principles. and pitch content is the impetus behind Barber’s compositional procedures. The large-scale tonal relationship o f each section is shown in Ex. 38 by Sam uel B arber. 57 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. . Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Finally. mm. O P . The tonal orientation o f the piece works in conjunction with intervallic and motivic relationships. mm. 7).E x. accompanied by chromatic doubled-thirds in an inner voice (R. 22. both hands in octaves state the first theme in canon (R. Schirm er. Because the them e overpowers this section. R. 22. Inc. 12-14). $ P IA N O C O N C E R T O . 22. embellished by chromatic doublings. 2-4 I •=to o a tempo fs ta c c . The canonic first theme is in the outer voices. 8-9). (R. I . mm. m. accom panied by a slow paced C major scale. At the end o f the cadenza there is an ascending sweeping scale that is patterned into groups o f four chromatic notes divided by a whole step. mm.23. harmonic elements. U sed by Perm ission. the first theme is em phasized first with left hand in the upper part. 22. The ninth interval o f the grace notes with a natural minor flavor leads to the octave passages and chords (R. 10-11). 3. 3. The cross-hand technique applies the first theme with its original rhythm ic values. 22.

moving into a C pedal note (minor sixth or relation to the E). and then piano takes the theme in the tritone related Bflat. then moves back via E-flat to E-M inor at the second theme. The orchestral first theme restarts in the original E Minor. (R.Ex. and the structure o f this section is organized with the opening m otive A played by the cello. mm. The tonal center is ambiguous in this section. B-flat tonality is briefly stated in the second theme. The full statements o f the first theme and second theme are restated. The coda contains all the motivic ideas from this movement. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. 3.24. . The transition at Rehearsal 27 to the second theme is shortened. except for the second theme. This lingering effect from the recurrence o f the second theme manifests the dramatic change in the coda. 5-10). 18. instead o f the G-sharp from the exposition. 11) occurs prior to Rehearsal 30. Thus. the brief statement o f the second theme in C reappears before the coda (R. and the opening figure is inverted as presented in the development (R. 5-9). the 58 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. 29) The parallel to the transition to the developm ent (R. Due to the lyrical character o f the second theme. T onal relationships in the first movem ent Exposition Development Recapitulation Recapitulation Formally the only significant difference between the exposition and the recapitulation is that the piano part takes the second theme in the recapitulation. mm. 30.

. 59 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. 31) starts with them atic figure 1 juxtaposed with thematic figure 3 in rhythmic diminution. The first beat played by cello. The final statement o f motive 3 occurs twice between the lower and higher register instrument groups. and beginning and end o f coda). as found at the most important structural points (end o f introduction. It is derived from the statement o f opening thematic figure 3 that immediately precedes it. as well as within the piano part itself. and serves as a written-out accelerando. It also gives a rhythm ical flow. and produces a grand ascending sweep to the end o f the movement. Here the new time signature 5/8 occurs briefly in bi-tonal imitation at Rehearsal 31. Thematic figure 3 returns in stretto between the piano and orchestra. and not in the coda that its lyrical quality does not fit the driving nature established in the coda section. The piano solo begins the coda with a trill on E. with a pattern o f omitting notes in successive fourths. then the tritone sequences derived from motive B and thematic figure 2 in the lower register impetuously ascend to give the sense o f culmination. which becomes the three-note gesture. Coda The original E M inor is reestablished after the flourish o f an ascending sweeping scale. measures 9-10 foreshadowing the last m ovem ent’s characteristic rhythm. outlines the pitch content. to emphasize the close o f the movement. The final sweeping gesture comes from opening thematic figures 1 and 3. The coda (R. from motive B. The characteristic metric displacement occurs before Rehearsal 32. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. end o f cadenza. In the coda the gesture contains a tritone related sequence in patterns o f three notes. beginning o f development.reason the second theme occurs twice in the recapitulation.

3. 4. a combining o f the sonata and the rondo forms was clearly shown in the finale (see Table 3). Further reproduction prohibited without permission. . C. 1. m.7] [0. 6 ] [ 0 .R. The opening five-note chord is formed by quartal structure. and presents important motivic cells found in the previous two movements as vertical statements: the five-note chord can be rearranged as G-flat. 1. m. B-flat. Section A (Refrain 1) The first section (m. 4. 7) in B-flat minor starts with the full orchestra for five opening measures. 9: m otivic connection Finale (m .1. and F [0.7] [ 0 .2 . 1. I. 2 .6.6.2. I ll. and can be inferred as a minor third and the three-note motivic pattern that includes a tritone (Ex. Ex.3.1. 9) [0.l) First movement (m.Chapter 4 Finale: Allegro molto W hen discussing form in Chapter 1.7]. The fanfare-like opening anticipates the motivic ideas for the following piano ostinato figure. This chord structure is anticipated in the opening section o f the first movem ent at measures 9-10 as discussed previously.6 ] [0. D.1).7] 60 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.2.

6] The piano solo begins with a five-note ostinato accompaniment [0.6] minor 2 nd motive B [0.1. the metric pattern really determines the groupings. 4.5] 4 motive B [0.2. 1. 4.1 continued Linear presentation o f the five-note chord tritone minor 3rd [0. However.3).6]. 4.5. Initially the ostinato contour appears to contain a three-note cell [0. R.1. .6] followed by a compound m inor second as shown in the descending three-note cell followed by a leap to the descending dyad (Ex. where the downbeat is doubled by a persistent timpani B-flat pedal.1. the indication o f the metric pattern 2+3 given at the onset o f the m ovement suggests a different partitioning o f the ostinato to align with the 2+3 marking: a tritone dyad followed by a three-note cell [0. 1: 3+2 m etric pattern motive C [0.1. Thus. Ex. helping the performer interpret the passage.Ex.4] (Ex. m.6] 61 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. I ll.2.2. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.2.2). 4.1.

. 4.38 The melodic theme enters after the ostinato is established for two measures. 4.Ex. due to its tritone relationship to the underlying dim inished-seventh formal plan. The m elodic them e is actually based on a B-flat pedal which always occurs on the downbeat. I ll. 62 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. 1. 7). see also Ex. the main pitch class set o f the piano left-hand ostinato is best understood as a large five-note set containing two smaller subsets. this is made clearer by the addition o f tri-chords descending in the opposite direction. The syncopated feel o f the rhythm. when the melody initially enters. already created by asymmetrical metric pulse. 38 R efer to d is cu ssio n in C h a p te r 3. 1: 2+3 m etric pattern tritone motive D [0. a tritone dyad and the set that produces motive D.4] This 2+3 alignment becomes obscured in measure 6 at Rehearsal 1 due to the syncopation caused by the accent on beat 2. m. This produces the anticipation into the second h alf o f the measure. 1.4. This is important motivically as well as structurally. thus obfuscating the 2+3 pattern.3. m. 3. combined with the subsequent dyad to become a three-note motivic pattern. becomes more am plified in this measure. At the midpoint o f the melody (R. However. beginning on the third beat. Also the melodic theme carries the chromatic linear motion followed by a minor third seen in previous movements (Ex. the 2+3 division is made obvious by the way the m elody is rhythmically presented.1). R. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.1. To summarize.

4.Ex. measure 7 (Ex.2. mm.5. mm.6] in measure 5 at Rehearsal 1 is prominent and was anticipated by the chord found in the low-register instrumentation in the fanfare-like opening. I ll. 4. The rhythmic pacing quickens as a result o f the syncopated feel caused by the accent on the second eighth note at Rehearsal 1. 3-7 mm.4. 3-6: chromatic linear motion followed by a minor third r +L j •---(7»---^ r 1 " i. 1-2. . R. 1-2 63 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. with ostinati. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.5). the m otivic cell [0. Ex. Also the m ajor and minor seconds from the opening fanfare are linearly shown as the succession o f dyads in the melodic theme throughout the movement.Jr'j *— --------- r The driving and forceful character o f the solo part is the result o f its percussive quality. measure 6 which implies the changing direction o f the three-note figure. Among the three-note patterns at the end o f each measure. In addition Barber adds descriptive markings such as deciso. III. 1. 1. mm. and successions o f chords with big leaps. octave doublings. This anticipates the inverted direction o f the melodic theme at Rehearsal 1. 4. R. repeated notes. non legato and sempre martellato. I ll.

B-flat (as was studied in the previous movements). 2. A center point o f the arch shape o f the theme occurred at Rehearsal 1. 3-7 P IA N O C O N C E R T O . Inc. the penultim ate dyad moves to a major third. replacing the dyad that would have occurred given the established pattern. rather than to the expected minor third at the dow n beat o f Rehearsal 2. mm. All R ights R eserved. 4-8) is in contour inversion from the original at Rehearsal 1. 4. 1. 4-5. 7-8. 4. so that it not only resolves the metric conflict by ending strongly on the downbeat. C o p y rig h t © 1962 by G. 38 by Sam uel B arber. mm. The epilogue-type passage (R. Although the A 64 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. 4.6). see Ex. A metric conflict w hich was anticipated at Rehearsal 1. 2. measure 6 occurs with the overlap o f four m em bers o f a broken dim inished-seventh chord against the 5/8 meter. measures 1-3. tension is heightened rather than lessened due to the reappearance o f the material in contrary m otion from Rehearsal 1 measure 7 (Ex. A major at R. However. but also ends on that downbeat on B-flat. Schirm er. The A triad outlined in the upper m elody is glimpsed in these passages (A diminished-triad at R. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.Ex. and leads to the B-flat tonal center. which is another example o f the approach to a formal division by minor second: A . However. At Rehearsal 2. U sed by Perm ission. (A S C A P ) In tern atio n al C o p y rig h t Secured. mm.5 continued R. 1. .6). measures 7-9. an ascending string o f major second dyads from the theme creates the arpeggiated diminished seventh chord that em phasizes the minor third and the tritone. in in. measure 4. measures 6-7. O P .

the B-flat remains the tonal center. Inc. and precedes a second statement o f the melodic theme at Rehearsal 3. The piano solo plays the opening fanfare and then the left hand ostinato. mm. and the trombone takes the role o f the theme. mm. . and the ascending arpeggio o f the piano em bellishes the B-flat pedal point and the accented notes that reinforce the melody (Ex. 3. with reversed orchestration. R. 38 by S am u el B arber. U sed by Perm ission. The four-measure repetition (R. mm . O P . 65 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. 4-5 E A D-flat (C-sharp) C A E-flat ii!ii 9 m ~ j._ < P IA N O C O N C E R T O . 5-8) o f the melodic theme. The fanfare-like opening reappears at Rehearsal 4. R. 1. This time the orchestra (contrabass and trumpets) takes the ostinato and the theme. while the timpani and lower-register strings (cello. 2. inserted before the apex o f the theme at Rehearsal 3. 4-5 R. bass) play the B-flat pedal. 2. Ex. mm. mm. 7-8 R. All R ig h ts R eserved. (A S C A P ) International C o p y rig h t Secured. I ll. C o p y rig h t © 1962 by G. The repetition materials are basically the same as the previous four measures except for the displacement by octave. delays and emphasizes the center o f the arch shape. 1.major melodic com ponents against a B-flat bass are understood in a polytonal context.7). 4. The theme is restated at Rehearsal 5.6. m easure 9. 4. 7-8. III. Schirm er. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

Ex. 4.7. I ll, R. 5, mm. 1-5

I

n

u.r^rfN-- "” 1

I<(I*fe

---—

------ = p

----------

cn
H--------- 1
^ ^ I

--------------

P IA N O C O N C E R T O , O P . 38 by Sam uel B arber. C op y rig h t © 1962 by G. Schirm er, Inc. (A S C A P )
In tern atio n al C o p y rig h t S ecured All R ights R eserved. U sed by Perm ission.

The accented notes are the same pitches as the endings o f each measure in the melody,
which now, more than ever, clearly show the linear presentation o f the five-note motive
derived from the fanfare-like opening (Ex. 4.8, also see Ex. 4.1).

66
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

Ex. 4.8. I ll, R. 5, mm. 1-5; III, m. 1: linear presentation o f the five-note motive

R. 5, mm. 1-5

m. 1

(0,1,5)
(0,1,5)

The flourish o f the piano also consists o f the same cell structure [0,2,6] in small-scale
linear presentation, as was the chordal positioning o f the cell in the opening (see Ex. 4.1,
m otive B). This three-note motive is shown in the melodic theme (Ex. 4.9).

Ex. 4.9. I ll, R. 5, mm. 1-3: three- note motive
[0 ,2,6]

[0 ,2 ,6]

[0 ,2 ,6 ]

[0 ,2 ,6 ]

I

n
s i m.

P IA N O C O N C E R T O , O P. 3 8 by S am uel B arber. C op y rig h t © 1962 by G. Schirm er, Inc. (A S C A P )
Intern atio n al C o p y rig h t Secured. All R ights R eserved. U sed by Perm ission.

The epilogue-type passage recurs at Rehearsal 6, and repeats at Rehearsal 6,
measure 6 to balance Rehearsal 2 measures 4-8. Here, imitation occurs between the piano
and orchestra for first time at Rehearsal 6, measure 7, and bitonality39 can be inferred by
the juxtaposition between the melodic A major theme (C-sharp as D-flat) against the B-

j9 H ayden d isc u sses th is featu re as w ell (33).

67
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

flat centered ostinato. This was anticipated earlier at the passages (R. 1, mm. 7-8, R. 2,
mm. 4-5), and its minor second relationship influences the change o f the key signature
occurring at Rehearsal 7, where F-sharp minor is foreshadowed. Displaced rhythmic
accents shown in the imitation (R. 6, m. 7) create not only the syncopated rhythm but also
the ambiguity o f the rhythmic pattern between 2+3 and 3+2, which continues in the next
section (B), along with a stretto-like feel that leads into the next section. The instrumental
groups accumulate forces toward the end o f this section. Before the new section arrives,
the fanfare-like opening occurs a half step up, suggesting B minor over the B-flat pedal
(R. 7, mm. 1-4). The F-sharp minor key signature continues into section B. The new
section (B) is preceded by a descending dim inished-seventh arpeggiated chord. This
dim inished-seventh chord (A-sharp, G, E, C-sharp) is partially hidden by a pattern o f
dyads (see theme at Ex. 4.4), suggesting VII°7 o f B minor. This leads to the brief F-sharp
m inor o f the new section.

S e c tio n B (E p iso d e 1)

Section B (episode 1) starts at Rehearsal 8 with the chromatic five-note ostinato [0,
1,2,3,4], a kind o f contour inversion o f the ostinato figure from the A section, played by
the xylophone, ordered as motive [0,1,3] and a major second. This ostinato is joined by
the clarinet solo melodic theme [0,1,2,3,4], which directly quotes the ostinato
accompaniment (Ex. 4.10). The condensed form o f the notes o f the opening melodic
them e quotes from the epilogue-type passage at Rehearsal 2, measures 4-6 (Ex. 4.11).

68
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

the dyad at the end o f each gesture is expressed as a verticality. mm. U sed by Perm ission. 8. All R ights R eserved.3 ] [ 0 . I ll. 3 8 by S am uel B arber. After the first statement o f the melodic theme in F-sharp. C op y rig h t © 1962 by G. All R ights R eserved. mm. Inc. O P . 2.1 . the piano solo takes the theme in octaves (displaced by three octaves) with the ostinato o f the harp and the horns in B tonal center. This also relates back to the unfolding form o f the A section theme. 1-5 [ 0 .E x. C op y rig h t © 1962 by G. O P . In the theme from section A however. 3 8 by Sam uel B arber. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. then immediately returns with a dyad.3 ] m a jo r 2 nd [0 . (A S C A P ) in tern atio n al C o p y rig h t Secured.1 .11. 4.1 . 4-6 P IA N O C O N C E R T O . U sed by Perm ission. 69 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. R. Inc. Ex. each o f which move by measure in a sequence­ like pattern. .3 ] m a jo r 2' m a jo r 2 nd »rnn P IA N O C O N C E R T O . In the same way that the ostinato figure was characterized by a gesture that moves away from its main pitch center. the same occurs within the melodic theme in the B section. Schirm er. I ll. (A S C A P ) In tern atio n al C o p y rig h t Secured. R. Schirm er. 4.10.

Three-note motives can be inferred overlapping the sixnote groupings o f the sixteenth-note figuration (Ex. te n ia peel. This is the beginning o f 70 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.1 . Ill. R. mm. The m elody from the violin solo is an inverted minor second. I— — ■^ L—_J "L__ I [ 0 . The contour o f the pattern o f the sixteenth-note figuration at Rehearsal 10. Ex. which is the one o f the structural points o f the Concerto. Schirm er. . 4.3 ] P m a jo r 7 w- (m in o r 2 ) M r P IA N O C O N C E R T O .3 ] . 38 by Sam uel B arber. m easures 1-5 is inverted beginning at Rehearsal 10. 1-6 p p legato. C opyright © 1962 by G. O P. [0 . All R ights R eserved. Inc (A S C A P ) In tern atio n al C op y rig h t S ecured. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.Two new figurations occur in the third statement that are a sixteenth-note pattern in the octave piano solo and the descending and ascending major-sevenths o f the violin solo.12. U sed by Perm ission.1 . 4. 10.12). measure 6.

III.1. mm. R. C o p y rig h t © 1962 by G. E-flat. mm. 71 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. D-sharp o f the opening melodic them e o f the B section at R. 10. D at R. Ex.13). 3-5. which contradicts both the metric pattern 2+3 indicated on the score. 38 by Sam uel B arber. 10. C-sharp. .3] m ajor 2 nd R. R. 4. 8. m. mm. 3-5 [0. and represents the m idpoint o f an arch-shape structure o f the sixteenth-note pattern.1. C-sharp).the fourth statem ent o f the melodic theme. 8. 6-7 R. D) (Ex. 6-7 major 2! 2 3 P IA N O C O N C E R T O . I ll. O P. 6 are from D. 3). 10. 8. (A S C A P ) In tern atio n al C o p y rig h t Secured. C-sharp. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.13. C-sharp. 4.3] occurred on the first threenotes (E. The violins emphasize the theme in inversion (Eflat. All R ights R eserved. mm. U sed by Perm ission. The motivic cell [0. Inc. as well as the reference to the melodic contour inversion o f the first statement o f this theme (E-flat. Schirm er. m.

40 However. That is. b u t is e sp ecially p o ig n a n t here. 3-4). 10). 3-8). that produce the progression o f D major moving to B-flat (Refrain 2) via a circle-of-fifth’s progression (D. 7 . 10. muted horn. measure 6. and undermines the motivic cells. Unlike section A. This technique was foreshadowed at Rehearsal 1. measure 6 where the 2+3 pattern was obscured by the tied note. it is the series o f melodic statements. 12) is used here again as a structural point (see R. mm. 40 T his occu rs in ail th ree m o v em en ts. mm. .R. Although the circle-of-fifths progression for both voices shows Barber’s functional use o f tonality. The resolution to the B centered ostinato occurs at Rehearsal 9. 8-9) pervades the texture. The ascending half step (minor second) resolution (A .That is. G. the melodic material for the B section is derived from section A. 6-7. vs. the juxtaposition o f two key areas and Barber’s characteristic use o f orchestration (xylophone. mm.B-flat at R. C. The B minor implication (with B-flat pedal) at Rehearsal 7 progresses to V (F-sharp) with the ostinato. mm. and the original melodic theme that related back to the first statement o f the theme follows (R. then shifts to E (R. the piano reinforces the contour o f the sixteenth-note pattern that began at the onset o f the contour inversion at Rehearsal 10. At Rehearsal 11. then A (R. 11. The opening fragment from the fourth statement o f the theme repeats at the first half o f Rehearsal 11. F. B-flat). while the oboe takes the melodic theme. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. 6. The syncopated feel caused by tied notes in this section (R. 72 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. not the ostinato pattern. allow ing for a covert presentation o f the B material within the formal section A (refrain 1). 7). m. each statement o f the theme in section B is presented with the ostinato at different pitch centers. the melodic progression determines the underlying harmonic component. 11. The ostinato shifts to the A tonal center as well as accompanying the return o f the theme.

1. Ex. m. 10. and viola) for an ostinato against the distinctive theme audibly dilute the tonality in this section (Ex. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. 1 o s tin a t o S ectio n A ’ (R e fr a in 2) The reprise o f the section A starts at Rehearsal 12 without the opening fanfare. . m. 11. R. and continues into the reprise section (A ’) (Ex. This cell was used as the main m otive in B section. 4. The piano reinforces the three-note motivic cell [0. 12. m. The bassoon plays the melodic theme and the piano presents the ostinato.15). m. 73 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.3] as with the accented notes during the ostinato.14). I l l .14. 3 R.l R. 4. m 1 m e lo d y If* o s tin a t o 0 R. 1 R. com pared to the parallel location in section A where the melodic theme and the ostinato were played by the piano alone. 8-11: circle o f fifth’s progression R. 4. m. 10. 9.harp. 8. 6 c a R.

12. .15. intensity is created by canonic imitation at Rehearsal 15. and thus require no further elaboration here. I ll. 6-8 R. 74 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. 4. All R ig h ts R eserved. S chirm er. As in measures 6-11 at Rehearsal 6. raising the musical tension into the next section (Ex. R. I n P IA N O C O N C E R T O .16). U sed by Perm ission. O P. These two statements o f the theme are quite similar to their respective positions in section A. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. The third statement o f the theme at Rehearsal 14 repeats the canonic imitation o f the melodic theme between the piano with an octave higher and the high register woodwinds.E x. (A S C A P ) In tern atio n al C o p y rig h t Secured. 4. 38 by S am uel B arber. The second statement (R. C o p y rig h t © 1962 by G. Inc.6 Sim. 13) o f the theme in the reprise consists o f canonic imitation o f the melodic theme between the piano and the lower register woodwinds. 12 m . mm.

Further reproduction prohibited without permission. All R ights R eserved. The sixth statement at Rehearsal 16 with a G pedal is a repetition o f the fifth statement follow ed by the opening fanfare over a C-sharp pedal. and anticipates the metric pattern 2+3 o f the next section. Rehearsal 15. obscuring the m etric patterns. measure 9. played by the trum pet solo in 3+2.Ex. R. and then reintegrating them. the fourth statem ent o f the melody in the reprise is the combination o f the sections A and B. The only 2+3 pattern with the melodic theme solely from section B (R. O P . 38 by Sam uel B arber. 10. measures 1-8 present the patterns 3+2 and 2+3 step by step. y P IA N O C O N C E R T O . (A S C A P ) In te rn a tio n a l C o p y rig h t Secured. 1-8 f m arc. The material o f the 75 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. U sed by Perm ission. m. 2) is finally established with C pedal at the fifth statement at Rehearsal 15. . Inc. The B-flat centered perpetual ostinato o f the A section is broken and shifted to B minor at the onset o f this fourth group. 4. measures 7-11 dissolves the 3+2 and 2+3 patterns.16. m. C o p y rig h t © 1962 by G. There is an overlapping o f the metric patterns in measures 6-7 at Rehearsal 15. 15. and the high strings in 2+3 in canonic imitation. Schirm er. I ll. While the canonic imitation at Rehearsal 6. mm. 11. Therefore. 6 R.

3 8 by Sam uel B arber. 4. All R ights R eserved.3] that 76 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. O P . R. D. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. beginning at Rehearsal 18. The three-note motive [0.1. 1-4 dim inished 7'h o c t a t o n i c s c a le d e s c e n d i n g p e r f e c t 4 t h + t r i to n s P IA N O C O N C E R T O . C-sharp. and the metric pattern 2+3 natural partitions these notes. Schirm er. mm.17. 17. 2. E-flat. 1. 3] on D.17).statements from the B section as discussed is used throughout sections 4. 5.5]. 4. (A S C A P ) In tern atio n al C o p y rig h t Secured. D. C.1. G) make up a large-scale occurrence o f the motivic cell [0. and the succession o f three consecutive descending perfect fourths followed by a tritone in the left hand (which is derived from the right hand) (Ex. which is a statement o f five notes. measures 1-4. and 6. . the pedal tones beneath these statements (B. U sed by Perm ission. I ll. The flourish passage is an expanded version o f the two measures before the B section. is preceded by four-measures o f the ostinato pattern [0. This passage consists o f the succession o f the arpeggiated diminished-seventh chord and the octatonic scale that includes m ajor and m inor seconds in the right hand. Section C (E pisode 2) Section C. Ex. C. Furthermore. C o p y rig h t © 1962 by G. Inc. This motivic cell is also a com ponent o f the long descending piano flourish at Rehearsal 17.

Csharp. 4. 4. pp — . 77 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. The 9 measure melodic theme played by the flute in reversed arch contour. The mid-point o f the reversed arch-like melodic contour at Rehearsal 18.1. . 18. U sed by Perm ission.was prominently used in the B section comprises the three-note group that follows the repeated-note dyad. 6 . 18. O P . m. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. 38 by Sam uel B arber. All R ights R eserved. measures 4-5. 18.R. m. 17. (A S C A P ) In tern atio n al C o p y rig h t Secured. = n P IA N O C O N C E R T O . and also presents the C and C-sharp from the melodic theme (Ex.M e n o m o s s o J J .18). The D. measure 5 is a link played by the bassoon solo.3) a lla r g . Csharp. C opyright © 1962 by G Schirm er. These motivic pitches are derived from section A at Rehearsal 2. E-flat augmented chords o f the second measure (R. M eno m o sso J J . Inc. descending and ascending. 1) and the D. is again transformed by the preceding ostinato. C chords o f the first measure o f the melodic theme (R. Ex. I ll.18. m. 5 (0. R. m. 2) are derived from the ostinato and unfolded.

The difference from the statement in section B. mm. 4. is that the section B statement is freer in gestural form. so that a syncopated feel is produced (Ex. C op y rig h t © 1962 by G. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. (A SC A P) In tern atio n al C o p y rig h t Secured. 20.19). All R ights R eserved. Used by Perm ission. 4. however. 21) except during links played by the full string section and the bassoons respectively.19. 38 by Sam uel B arber. R. 1-4 pp P IA N O C O N C E R T O . I ll. measure 4.The piano plays alone for the third statem ent (R. while the statement at Rehearsal 20 is governed by the descending long-range linear contrapuntal structure seen in the up-stemmed notes. the piano not only takes the melodic theme. O P . Ex. . and can be understood as the three-note motivic cells. Schirm er. The fourth statement at Rehearsal 22 led by the link in the bassoon uses a direct pitch-specific quotation o f the motivic cell from section B juxtaposed with the ideas from 78 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Here. Inc. The rhythmic accents o f the theme shift slightly at Rehearsal 20. This figuration is related to the third statement o f section B (episode 1). 20. but also em bellishes the them e with a triplet sixteenth-note figuration.

4. Ex.20. 38 by Sam uel B arber.1. I R. A -sharp (major second) o f the B section ostinato (Ex.1. measure 2 (F-sharp.3] o f the B section ostinato. 79 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.22>m.1. R. m. The notes D-sharp. E. The motivic idea is found in the new rhythm ic pattern o f the piano that is used as an ostinato emphasizing F-sharp. Thus. measure 1 (F-sharp. 4. 8.3] P IA N O C O N C E R T O . A [0. III. and measure 3 (F-sharp. (A S C A P ) In tern atio n al C o p y rig h t Secured.the opening o f section C. U sed by Perm ission The orchestra states the melodic theme in the form o f major chords. G (major second) in the right hand are G-sharp. 1. 22. G.1 R. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Inc. I ll. 8. F. R. E-sharp. G augmented). 4.3] in the left hand are related to the F-sharp.21). O P . 1 [0. E-natural). m. unfold the new figuration o f the piano in the same measures as shown in the first statement o f section C.20). and the notes E-sharp. F. m. All R ights R eserved. C op y rig h t © 1962 by G. E-flat augmented). the same intervallic relationships occur between the orchestral chords and the piano figuration (Ex. F-sharp [0. These melodic chords at Rehearsal 22. . S chirm er.

except for the extension measure before Rehearsal 24. and leads into the sixth statement that occurs in an extrem ely wide range o f the piano. produces motive A [0. Schirm er. and the arpeggiated chords in the triplets o f the piano part alternate with the ostinato and the melodic theme. 3 8 by Sam uel Barber. R. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. U sed by Perm ission. (A S C A P ) In tern atio n al C o p y rig h t S ecured. 4. I l l .21. The scale sweeps up throughout this passage. The ascending thirty-second note figuration opens the melodic theme. O P .3] distinctively (Ex. Inc. All R ights R eserved. 41 T his scale is n o t e x a c tly o cta to n ic sin ce the pattern s do not fit a single o ctato n ic co llectio n .1. C op y rig h t © 1962 by G. .22). 1-3 P IA N O C O N C E R T O . mm. and the scale on the piano.41 The fifth statement at Rehearsal 23 is a repetition o f the fourth statement. six octaves (as compared to four octaves in previous statements). 22. 80 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. This scale expands the range as found in statements 4 and 5.Ex. and utilizes the same motivic materials. 4. This scale filled with both major and minor seconds.

3] chrom atic [0.22. 38 by Sam uel B arber.3] |0. mm. Inc. 81 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.3] P IA N O C O N C E R T O . (A S C A P ) In tern atio n al C op y rig h t Secured.1. . This delay o f the recapitulation demonstrates how Barber balances out this mediant-key relationship by the use o f a false reprise. yet has a different sound. Although the original key signature signals the impending arrival o f the reprise o f the theme. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. 4.1. A ll R ights R eserved. R. 1-5 m inor 2' minor [0. I ll.3J [0.1.42 The previous F-sharp tonal area connects beautifully to the enharmonic G-flat based chord that was presented in the opening fanfare. More importantly. 22. At Rehearsal 25. C opyright © 1962 by G. S chirm er. this fanfare is not like the opening fanfare due to the rhythmic augmentation.1. the fanfare-like opening recurs with the same pitch collection as in the opening. subdued dynamics. O P . This false reprise features opposing dynamics 42 See discu ssio n in C h ap ter 5. U sed by Perm ission. this time with rhythmic augmentation. and the hom ogeneously mingled sound o f the orchestration.Ex. the melodic theme o f the A section following the opening fanfare recurs here in D minor instead o f B-flat as in the opening.

All R ights R eserved. Episode 1’. The original B-flat is interrupted after three statements o f the A section by the recurrence o f the ostinato and the melodic theme o f section B in rhythmic augm entation at Rehearsal 33 (Ex. O P . in both outer movements o f the work the cadenza precedes the recapitulation.and orchestration w hen com pared to the A section as well as the different key. Section A ” . mm. R. 82 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. A ’” (Refrain 3. Ex. 1-4 . Inc. I l l . P IA N O C O N C E R T O . This resolves the anxious. M__ . This shows a parallel formal structure in comparison with the first movement.b»~ ». shifting to higher octaves in the melodic them e creates growing intensity that leads into tertian polychord passages in the piano solo. (A S C A P ) In tern atio n al C o p y rig h t Secured.23). Although the dynam ics are still subdued. Refrain 4) The brilliant cadenza-like piano passage leads into the reprise in its original form at Rehearsal 30. 33. U sed by Perm ission. with converging and parallel m otions respectively. 4.23. B ’. . Further reproduction prohibited without permission. 4. Schirm er. and expectant section that occurs between Rehearsal 25 and 29. 38 by Sam uel B arber. C o p y rig h t © 1962 by G.

. and the chords in the last five measures drop drastically back to the original range in octaves. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Prior to the piano sweeps at Rehearsal 35. then suddenly drops down at the piano sweeps to prepare the finale section. 83 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. The ascending line builds to the high range o f the piano over twelve measures then ceases to ascend. dramatic release o f tension. the finale finally presents the melodic theme o f the A section at the original B-flat pitch level (R. the orchestra gradually builds to a climax with the opening fanfare. which are derived from the opening fanfare. Here. The arpeggiated descending dim inished-seventh chords o f the piano at the first four measures o f Rehearsal 17 are transformed into the descending sweeps in three octaves throughout the range o f the piano at the beginning o f Rehearsal 35. Rehearsal 34 is a parallel to Rehearsal 16 that ended the reprise section and led into a new section. 35. are made up o f stacked major seconds against the melodic theme in the orchestra (see nine measures from the end). measure 9. Here the soloist’s chordal passages.A t this point the tonal area changes to B. 9). m. which can be understood as an upper neighbor to B-flat. Excitem ent is created by the constant ascent in octaves in the orchestra and the trem olo-effect o f the arpeggiated sweeping piano passage with its clashing major second dyads. The effect is a rapid. This is also a large-scale instance o f the minor second structural element as well. The last statement o f the ostinato figure establishes the final pitch as the goal note for the movement.

Chapter 5
Further Characteristics in the Relationship between
the Solo Piano and Orchestra

The Latin term concertare (to contend, dispute, debate) is a likely genesis for the
w ord “concerto.” Since the word “concerto” was used as a musical term in Italy (Italian
m eaning is “to arrange, agree, jo in together”), it refers to a vocal ensemble or a mixed
ensemble o f voices and instruments. Therefore two derivations o f the word “concerto,”
“collaboration o f m ixed ensem ble” and “competition between two contrasting sound
forces,” existed together, and these dual concepts o f collaboration and contending are
utilized in the concerto form throughout its history. While the collaboration between the
solo and orchestra is shown as equally shared thematic material, contending elements
integrated with the formal separation o f thematic materials between solo and orchestra,
climatic dense canonic setting, and technical display o f both the prim ary and secondary
soloists are also exhibited in the C oncerto. The following investigations titled Thematic
materials and the relationship of orchestra and soloist, Rhythmic relationships,
Tim bre and register: orchestration, Influence o f the concertante, and Intensity
towards the climax, support this contention that these two forces have equal roles.

Them atic materials and the relationship of orchestra and soloist

B arber’s mastery o f craftsm anship in composition is evident in his use o f thematic
m aterials as cohesive elements in the Concerto’s relationship between the orchestra and

84
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soloist. Each sound force represents a horizontal line with their individual design.
Virtuosic, idiomatic writing for both the piano and orchestral instruments results. In fact,
both the piano soloist and the solo instrumentalists o f the orchestra are required to
possess a certain degree o f technical prowess. In the first movement, Barber introduces
principle thematic materials in the opening section to the piano solo and inscribes the
thematic figures in the listener’s mind by repeating the section. The orchestra follows and
presents the first and second themes. Each theme is repeated in a m odified version, just as
the piano did in the opening.
Barber builds his formal design w ith a different deployment o f instrum ents in the
return o f each theme. Although the piano dominates the first movement by opening the
exposition, development, and cadenza,43 the orchestra achieves an equal partnership with
the soloist throughout the movement. The fact that the first and second themes o f the first
movement are presented by the orchestra’s secondary soloists, not the piano soloist,
creates a kind o f balance between the solo and the orchestra.
The two parts o f the second movem ent are manifested with different orchestration,
the first part initiated by the flute and oboe, and the second part starts with the piano. The
equality between forces occurs with these two strophic parts. The same principle
operates within each o f these parts, so that the melodic theme repeats three times in the
first part. First it is played by the secondary soloists, next by the piano, and then an
antiphonal passage between two sound forces occurs at the third repetition to show the
contending relationship between the piano and orchestra. The opening and the transition
between two strophes in the second m ovement are played solely by the orchestra, which

4 ’ T his is co n sid ered the o p en in g o f the recap itu latio n .

85
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resembles the first m ovem ent in which the opening and cadenza were played only by the
soloist.
W hile the piano solo sings the melody at Rehearsal 5 in the second m ovem ent, the
orchestra regresses into nothing but a doubling with the chromatic bass o f the piano. The
piano takes on two roles here, that o f a solo part and an accompaniment. W hen the violins
take the m elody at Rehearsal 6 the piano accompanies in the same decorative figuration
while it plays with the main melody at Rehearsal 5. The solo is absorbed into an
orchestral fabric due to its static figuration. However, the solo piano refuses to serve as a
m ere accompaniment for the orchestra, since the piano takes a part o f the m elody in a
form o f accom panim ent in a higher register and at a loud volume. Interestingly, the
secondary solo such as the clarinet sneaks in a beat early as a pick-up into the section
where the piano drops its melody and switches to accompaniment at Rehearsal 6. The
thematic material is well conceived in the texture with the piano at Rehearsal 6, measure
3.
An appropriate density o f orchestral texture can add immeasurably to the effective
presentation o f solo material. For instance, the orchestra is given a sparse
accompaniment texture during solo passages that allows the melodic gestures o f the piano
or the secondary soloists to remain distinctive. While the orchestra provides a transparent
texture with sustained notes as the accompaniment throughout the work, the piano
accompanies secondary soloists with technical brilliance that creates a dense texture (first
movement, R. 4, mm. 1-5) (Ex. 5.1). At Rehearsal 16, measure 5 through Rehearsal 17,
measure 6, the piano not only presents the accompaniment with a technical display in
static figurations, but also adds an effective color contrast to thematic figure 1.

86
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R. 5. mm. I. 4. 1-5 O. < U GO O c: ^. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. .E x.1.2 <N •£ — u i ■ < 3u ou E5 00 r= >> < Cu a o£ o' Z H op si O u § o a 5-< 4EJ E = 87 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.

both sound forces play against each other using the figuration derived from the thematic m aterial at the distance o f a quaver as in the first movement. 88 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. B arber’s persistent use o f the thematic repetition in canonic presentation creates an accumulation o f tension. the thematic figures dominated by the tritone are developed in a contrapuntal relationship between the solo and orchestra. In the development o f the first movement.The relationship between the solo and orchestra is well balanced in the finale as well. While the soloist plays the theme first in the refrains. This leads into the development section which is opened with bursting piano chords via a brief transition. after the second theme played exclusively by the oboe solo for eight measures. measures 611. This passage resembles the opening section at Rehearsal 1 with an opposite deployment o f sound forces. measures 3-6 (Ex. juxtaposed by fragments o f the theme in rhythmic diminution from the woodwinds and the viola.2). Rehearsal 21. The piano and orchestra conflict with each other in the form o f canonic imitation. . the flute solo and the selected instruments from each instrum ent group in the second episode). For example. the orchestra takes the lead in the episodes (the clarinet solo and xylophone ostinato in the first episode. the theme is repeated at Rehearsal 10 by the violins and piccolo. 5.44 44 T h e o rch e stra play s the c h o rd in the o p e n in g section. For example. Rehearsal 19.

P) Ex. PIANO C O N C E R T O . 5. 38 by Samuel Barber. All Rights Reserved. Copyright © 1962 by G. I. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. R. OP. Schirmer. (ASCA. Used by Perm ission. c 89 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. ■frm.2. Inc International Copyright Secured. 21. mm.S i-m. 2-6 ■* .

38 by Sam uel B arber. . The dialogues between tw o sound forces establish the contending relationship between the two. S chirm er. R.The antiphonal passages share a theme between instrum ents (exam ples o f this are found at Rehearsal 2 and 3 in the second movement). and this m anifests a close integration between the piano solo and the secondary soloists. All R ights R eserved. Ex. 90 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.3). 102-8). 1-2 m a tempo PP PP PP P IA N O C O N C E R T O . O P . 5. measures 6-10 and Rehearsal 7 in the finale illustrates that the two sound forces cooperate to build a tension tow ard the structural division. mm.3. The imitating passages at Rehearsal 6. 3. in order to em phasize structural points. C o p y rig h t © 1962 by G. 5. (A S C A P ) In tern atio n al C o p y rig h t Secured. Examples o f this are found at Rehearsals 2 and 3 in the second movement (Ex. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. U sed by Perm ission. inc. This contending relationship creates intensity that builds into the clim ax with other musical parameters that will be discussed later (pp. II.

The new 91 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Another exam ple is shown at Rehearsals 16. the theme played by the piano and the horn solo m ove together to em phasize the melody. This polyrhythmic characteristic displays the underlying contrapuntal texture o f the work. the second part o f the first theme is accompanied by steady double sixths in the piano part (R. m easure 3. where the first theme repeats in the orchestra at Rehearsal 4 in the first movement. One example is the homorhythmic texture in the third m ovem ent’s introductory fanfare.1). and vice versa. thematic figure 1 played by the orchestra juxtaposes against the piano’s them atic figure 2. m easure 5 through Rehearsal 17 in the first movement. 4. Although the distinctive rhythmic patterns o f the influential ‘accom panim ent’ neither duplicates nor imitates. The 3-3-2 metric pattern that suggests an angular gesture in the left hand is played as an accompaniment against the simple melody played by the right hand o f the piano and the orchestra at Rehearsal 1. mm. 1-5) (see Ex. Here. and functions as an accompaniment (Ex. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. A nother exam ple o f this feature occurs in the second movement where the thematic material is presented in the form o f accom panim ent at Rehearsal 1. 5. There is also a radical difference between the angular orchestral theme and the rhythm ically smooth accompaniment o f the soloist. However. . measures 3-5 o f the second movement. 5. the orchestra and solo move independently with regard to rhythm. persistent use o f thematic figure 2 in steady rhythm played by the piano is strengthened by octave doublings. There is an exception where the chordal texture occurs as a structural point.Rhythm ic relationships Throughout the Concerto. This is during the first occurrence o f m aterials that comprise the “interpolation” to follow.4). For exam ple.

and between forces respectively.4. In the third movement.counter-pulse against the 3-3-2 metric pattern occurs at Rehearsal 5 in the first movement between hands. . I. Ex. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. and leads into the transition at Rehearsal 6. the sixteenth-note figuration in an obscured m etric pattern o f the piano at Rehearsal 10 is balanced w ith the orchestra’s participation o f the scale. mm. VI* Vo. measures 7-10. 2. vm. 17. R. 92 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. 1-5 1 0» VP ci. which is displaced metrically at Rehearsal 22. The rhythmic tension is further intensified at Rehearsal 5. 5.

4 continued ym * r c if/s t. Timbre and register: orchestration B arber’s orchestration in the Concerto is highly personal and reveals his conception o f sonority as a defining element.45 Barber. Inc. G y o rg y L ig eti (b. (A S C A P ) Intern atio n al C o p y rig h t Secured. 93 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. rh y th m s. O P.Ex. B ru n o M a d e rn a ’s (1 9 2 0 -1 9 7 3 ) P ian o C o n c erto (1 9 5 9 ) p ro d u ces n ew tim b re s v ia th e use o f ex te n d e d in stru m en tal tech n iq u es such as th e use o f th e strin g s inside the piano. U sed by Perm ission. For exam ple. Schirm er. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. C o p y rig h t © 1962 by G. 5. . 'm § fx a fits P IA N O C O N C E R T O . All R ights R eserved. 1928) u tilizes the elec tro n ic a m p lificatio n o f in stru m en ts in his M ix tu r (1 9 6 4 ) fo r c h am b e r o rc h e stra . for the most part. While his contemporaries worked with unusual orchestrational techniques. 38 by Sam uel Barber. sticks to traditional practice. T h ese a re a m o n g th e m o st influ ential e x a m p le s o f un u su al o rch estratio n al tech n iq u es. 1923) u ses o rch estral clu sters th at efface in d iv id u al lines. the first violins contribute a highly expressive melody as the 45 K arlh ein z S to c k h a u se n (b. a n d in te rv als in A tm o sp h e re s (1 961).

horn.5). Further reproduction prohibited without permission. 22-24). At Rehearsal 18 in the first movement. antique cymbals. 30. R. snare drum. tom-tom. cymbals. but as individual voices. 5. 5).lyrical second theme o f the first movement. Barber extracts new sounds from ordinary instruments. triangle. A contemplative atmosphere is fully realized by the use o f a horn in the second statement o f the second them e in the recapitulation o f the first movement (R. but also for special effects. The piano is also used as percussive instrument throughout the finale. The woodwinds and the horns also present themes. Chamber music style is found here where the clarinet solo plays the theme accompanied by the xylophone’s ostinato (Ex. tam-tam. The percussion instruments include the xylophone. Barber employs new timbres and instrumental combinations in the Concerto. . whip. which contrasts to the scherzando character o f the piano passage. B arber’s expanded percussion group serves not only as rhythmic reinforcement. and bass drum. 10. and are barely used as melodic instruments (except R. while the theme is repeated by the woodwinds. the strings are used for rhythmic purposes. and trum pet in canonic im itation with the piano. 8) o f the third movement. 94 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. In the third movement. The woodwinds are used economically and for their characteristic timbre. The combination o f clarinet and xylophone is quite unique in the first episode (R. m. suspended cymbals. the violins and violas contribute percussive effects with pizzicato. The trom bones and the trumpets are used when a passage requires a massive sound.

PIANO C O N C E R T O . R. Copyright © 1962 by G Schirm cr. . 38 by Samuel Barber. I ll. OP. Used by Perm ission Ex. All Rights Reserved. Inc. (A SC A P) International Copyright Secured. 5.5. 8 95 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

46 The color o f the piano sounds fresh at Rehearsal 1 especially in relationship to the bass movement by the harp and horn at measure 9. and o f how he gives a balance o f distributing instrumental roles between the piano and orchestra. 96 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. and the flute and oboe in succession. using two instrumental colors: the melodic theme is played first by the flute and oboes in succession. Barber utilizes orchestral timbral com binations that elucidate the contrast between not only the piano and orchestra. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. starting at the opening in the second movement. section B using different timbres gives contrast between different statements o f the melodic theme. This com bination o f contrasting tim bres continues w ith the second reiteration played by the solo piano accompanied by the sonorous harp and homs. This passage is then followed by another repetition with antiphonal relationship between the piano solo. . but also sections o f the orchestra. Here. The three-octave displacement in the piano at Rehearsal 9 is a prom inent example o f this. the serene. then followed by the piano at Rehearsal 1 in the second movement. He writes the theme twice. and among the secondary soloists. In the third movement. providing timbral contrast to the soloists’ legato. These are ju st a few examples o f how Barber uses timbre as a structural device. 46 T h is is also a g o o d ex am p le o f th e use o f d ialo g u e in th e C o n c e rto . This combination o f two different sounds (the sustained sound o f the clarinet and the dry sound o f the xylophone) obscures the tonality in the passage discussed previously in Chapter 4. and between different sections as well.The single notes from the xylophone’s ostinato pattern have a sharp articulation due to its lack o f sustaining power. yet evocative flute and oboe’s dialogue is contrasted by the pizzicati o f the viola.

the piano solo is accompanied only by the violas and cellos when the second theme recurs in the recapitulation o f the first movem ent (Ex. 97 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. at Rehearsal 3. The fanfare opening in the third movement is played not only by brass instruments. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. The sound o f the piano is drastically reduced or amplified as soon as the orchestra states the main themes.Another way o f using contrasting colors is that a sustained or sparse accompaniment o f only strings or woodwinds provides a contrasting color to the piano’s timbre or vice versa. The dynamics change drastically as if this accompaniment figure is ju st as important as the melody. the accompanying piano lowers its dynamics to pp. it changes in the next measure where the flute and clarinet play the melody in / and ff. The piano accompanies the theme with the crucial thematic material in the same volume as the melody. measure 7 o f the first movement the piano repeats the first four measure o f the first theme after the orchestra present whole first theme. Therefore. this kaleidoscopic piano trio texture presents the striking contrast to the true second theme at Rehearsal 29. However. This balances with the piano solo opening in unison in the first movement. At Rehearsal 4. 5. the piano plays the theme at Rehearsal 2. or vice versa: for example. measure 2 in mp. strings. However.6). Tutti sections are reserved for those areas where Barber wants to draw attention. and percussion to effectively call attention to the beginning o f the finale. and also creates intensity due to the generally light texture o f the Concerto. In the second movement. For example. while the English horn and viola sing a melody in mf. but also by woodwind. the piano is not totally dissolved into the orchestral texture due to its technical display within dense texture. .

R. 3 Cm o rt w Vj 00 O -H H 5P os C >.6. . Further reproduction prohibited without permission. 5. @ >. 28 $(J oo < O c — ^ a. I .L U u c3 z _ O a UI o s $ E O J r c 98 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.E x. —x S'S o (J i-" £ 0§0 ^< XI A* T3 8 K .

the first theme is played by the orchestra in high register. R.A t Rehearsal 6 (the transition between the first and second them es) in the first movement. or high range instruments (flute solo in the second movement). or both (first movement. thematic material is played by the secondary soloists in the w oodw inds and brass respectively. m. At Rehearsal 30 (before the coda). 30. then.7). first theme). 5) in continuation o f the building o f intensity that leads into the coda. 99 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. The range from the high (flute solo) to the lower (horn solo) is smoothly shifted by the mediation o f the solo clarinet’s chromatic descending line. W hile the wind instrum ents are used in high register in the first movement. refrain and episodes o f the third movement). 1). and is repeated by the piano in the middle range. there is no need to com prom ise the registral balance by either the secondary soloists or the piano. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. and the piano (in the second section) play in the high register in the second movement. unlike the first theme. This signifies the dram a between the orchestra and solo’s idiomatic writing in wide range and unison. . The shift o f register to higher range creates intensity. the strings. the piano takes transition material in high register. m. In the first movement. second theme o f the first movement. the second theme reappears in the horn. the horn plays unusually high in register (R. especially the violin (transition. Here the theme is accom panied by the string’s sustained notes as if the piano concerto regresses to the size o f a small ensemble (Ex. Since the second them e played by the oboe solo and violins is in the middle range. 5. 4. Here. The themes are presented in light texture resulting in the use o f few instrum ents (transition between the first and second theme.

R . 5.7. . 6 'I ) n a.E x . I . Further reproduction prohibited without permission. u 5 100 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.

g .7). and the Concerto’s formal design. and W e b e r’s G ra n d d u o c o n ce rta n t op. p a rtic u la rly in th e 18 th c e n tu ry . 48 for cla rin et and piano. the flute solo.. the secondary soloists within the orchestra play a significant role in terms o f their thematic participation. and o rch e stra. (1 9 6 ): “ B eg in n in g in th e 18lh centu ry. 6) between the first and second themes o f the first movement. 364 (3 2 0 d ) for v iolin. Therefore. ad jec tiv es ap p lied to w orks fo r tw o o r m o re o f the p e rfo rm ers (in c lu d in g orch estral w o rk s) in w hich one o r m o re o f the p erfo rm e rs is c a lle d u p o n for so lo istic d isp la y . B arber clearly m anifests the idea o f the virtuosic solo concerto favored by the Romantic composers where the soloist is usually pitted against the entire orchestra. the ending is played by nearly the full orchestra w ith the piano solo in low range. 4 th ed. However. horn and clarinet solo. 47 T he genre is e x p la in e d in th e H a rv a rd D ic tio n a ry o f M u sic . in contrast to the secondary soloist’s legato in the transition. The use of secondary soloists shows B arber’s shift o f the concerto genre to the concertante type where a different instrumental color is needed for each repeated passage. the second theme ends with pizzicato strings and staccato in the piano and winds. viola. virtuosic display. that causes the idea o f concertante 47 integrated with the texture. e. In the recapitulation o f the first movement. This aspect shows B arber’s use o f different instrumental color to develop the structure with phrase reiteration. This contrasting timbre in the orchestra exem plifies the sectional division. . T h e term c o n c e rta n te has also b e e n u sed as a n o u n to re fe r to p ie c e s to th is kind. While the opening fanfare is played by the full orchestra in high range. 5.The balance o f registral deploym ent is also evident in the third movement. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. his reliance on phrase repetition for the piece’s construction emphasizes both solo and group instrumental colors. Influence o f the concertante In this work. M o z a rt’s S in fo n ia co n ce rta n te K. and violins play the theme in succession with the sparse string accompaniment (see Ex. In the transition (R.” 101 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.

dynamics. m easures 7-13. low range woodwinds. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. where the grandeur is reinforced by the juxtaposition o f the piano’s them atic figure 2 with the first thematic figure played by the trombone. dissonance and rhythmic impulse. 10) contribute the second them e in succession. measure 5. all o f which are used together or independently to build powerful culminations with a m assive sound. are integrated to build the intensity.W hile the w oodwind secondary soloists are used as members o f the concertante group in the transitional passage (R. dissonance. and it achieves the stylistic character o f the concertante. follows the orchestral passage (parallel to R. including accum ulation o f texture. the second part o f the development at Rehearsal 19. In te n sity to w a r d s th e c lim a x Intensity is achieved by several musical parameters including accumulation o f texture. and horn in succession. bright trum pet solo. This exam ple shows that the contending nature o f the concerto genre is not only between the piano and orchestra. measure 6. A building toward climatic point occurs in the golden section o f the first m ovem ent is found at Rehearsal 21. The climax leads into the cadenza is at Rehearsal 21. the oboe solo (R. The homogeneously mingled orchestration is a structural element. register. Also the sonority gains dissonance to intensify toward the cadenza. but also betw een instrum ental groups within the orchestra. timbre. played by the piano) in light texture with 102 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. dynamics. For exam ple. rhythmic impulse. 6) in the first movement. and is an example where the elements. 9) and violins (R. as well as delaying resolution. . then finally played together to finish the developm ent section. 13.

R. and reaches the refrain material at tempo primo (a tempo) at Rehearsal 27. and oboe create intensity. 5. the antiphonal passages (R. flute. R. 25. and the wrong tonality. . the string’s sulponticello technique combined with bowed tremolo creates an eerie timbre. 3. 27. occurs in this phrase. 10-12). and this passage prepares a climax. The rhythmic augm entation o f the opening fanfare played by the orchestra is followed by the piano’s m ajor second dyads from Rehearsal 2. The polyrhythmic texture with a short distance between canonic entrances.occasional doublings. D.8). Further reproduction prohibited without permission. and lead into each ending played by the strings (R. The passage to build into the climax in the finale begins at Rehearsal 25. 5. mm. However. the dynamic level is piano (senza crescendo).9). 103 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.R. 7) between the piano. and begins with an imitative passage o f double tritones. The tempo gradually picks up (stringendo poco a poco) at Rehearsal 26. 46. 29) played only by the orchestra adds intensity to build toward the piano’s cadenza-like solo passage. Shifting to a higher register o f the melodic theme (R. In the second movement. along with B arber’s characteristic use o f counterpoint enables the building o f intensity (see Ex.2). This intensifies the moment with thicker texture and leads into the climax. At this point. 4. 5. 8) (Ex. This is an exam ple o f delaying resolution to make the listener anxiously wait for the true return (Ex. measures 1-3 in dim inution (R.

I I .E x. R. 5.8. Further reproduction prohibited without permission . 7-8 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.

E x. 5.8 continued
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PIA N O C O N C E R T O , O P . 38 by S am u el B arber. C opyright © 1962 by G. S chirm er, Inc. (A S C A P )
International C o p y rig h t S ecured. All R ights R eserved. U sed by Perm ission.

105
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Ex. 5.9. I l l , R. 25-6

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P IA N O C O N C E R T O , O P . 38 by Sam uel B arber. C o p y rig h t © 1962 by G. S chirm er, Inc. (A S C A P )
In tern atio n al C o p y rig h t Secured. All R ig h ts R eserved. U sed by Perm ission.

Delaying resolution is one o f the most effective ways to increase tension. The
second theme in the recapitulation o f the first movement is repeated twice to delay the
following coda. The piano solo and the lower strings in strikingly light texture are

107
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presented for the first time. The fanfare-like opening passage o f the finale in fortessimo is brought to the end o f overwhelm ing excitem ent along with the piano hammering technique am plified by octave doublings at Rehearsal 34. The ending o f the first and third movements is presented w ith a driving rhythm . measure 1 in the first movement. 108 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. the Concerto shows the orchestrational influence o f the concertante style. the soloist’s technical brilliance with big leaps. and loud dynam ics. Therefore. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. . and followed (for the second time) by the violin m elody accom panied by the piano and sustained notes o f the lower strings-trombone. measure 7. and the piano solo starts to sweep the range in a huge build with the orchestra until the very end. C onclu d in g rem a rk s The aspects discussed in this chapter indicate that the relationship between the piano solo and orchestra o f the Concerto is projected by the thematic and formal organization.Rehearsal 35. double octaves. especially at Rehearsal 32. The contending nature o f the concerto genre is evident in the relationships both between the piano solo and orchestra. and among two homogeneously mingled instrum ental groups. This technique occurs at each ending o f the refrain sections. The texture gets heavier right before the very end. The final B-flat pedal reinforces the tritone relationship to the original E. while the contending relationship between the piano solo and orchestra can be seen in the formal divisions on the large scale. where the secondary soloists play against each other on the local level.

Conclusion Analysis o f the structural relationships throughout the Concerto and its stylistic characteristics greatly enhance one’s understanding o f Barber’s inspired writing. cadenza. notably with the ritom ello-like preceding material. strophic. development. recapitulation. The ritornello is also presented in the form o f a transition. B arber’s emphasis on the m otivic structure beyond the scope o f the thematic and tonal structures. The apparent main divisions o f the first m ovem ent are the opening section by the soloist. w hich contains all the thematic material for the movement. which are influenced by the canzone with its characteristic sectional structure. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. and the coda. the first theme followed by the transition. . the contrasted second theme. All three movements operate w ithin the bounds o f traditional forms (sonata. However. The formal designs include reiterations o f thematic ideas. The soloist serves the role o f the ritornello in the opening section. The sonata structure originated from the canzone is utilized not only for the first m ovem ent but also for the finale. B arber’s idea o f balance and dram a relates to the Canzone via its influence in the formal and thematic structures throughout the work. The opening section is not functionally an introduction due to the predominant use o f its motivic material and its reappearance at the crucial divisions. and phrase repetitions create an obscurity o f the formal design. and Barber adapts the idea o f the canzone to the C oncerto. rondo). which will result in a more insightful performance. the formal scheme departs from traditional procedures in each movement. providing a deeper appreciation for his musical language. 109 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. and sometimes the fragments are inverted.

formal. and thematic relationships. most notably found in the second theme o f the first movement and the Canzone. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. . textural (orchestrational). However. In fact. The Canzone is the most im portant movement o f the Concerto since it contains the formal and thematic ideas from which the outer movements grow. and every episode theme within the movement is altered using the same 110 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. the Concerto’s large-scale tonal relations reflect the intervallic contents o f the melodic motives rather than traditional tonal progressions. the tonality is obscured by the use o f the accom panim ent in a different tonal center. especially where the lyrical them e is presented. The most interesting elem ent o f coherence and unity throughout the Concerto is that the apex o f the Canzone in the form o f the accompaniment signifies the main idea o f the work. which can be related to the ritornello or the refrain o f the outer movements. orchestration is used to heighten contrast between both forces (orchestra and solo) and among secondary instrum ent groups to define the structure. Each phrase starts with the same melodic unit A. Therefore. in a rondo form. There are several exam ples o f the established hierarchy o f the tonal center used by non-harmonic or pedal tones. which is thematically quoted in the first movem ent in thematic figure 1. This thematic figure transforms the motivic ideas of other themes throughout the work. That is. and each phrase is also treated with a strophic pattern. the title Canzone generates all three aspects o f the piece. motivic ideas from the previous movements return transformed. In the finale. The Canzone is in a two-part strophic form.A lthough the Concerto conveys clear tonal implications. the Canzone is also elaborated through B arber’s deploym ent o f the orchestration. approached and resolved by h alf step. The melodic theme in the first part is initiated by the orchestra and then repeated by the piano in a solo passage.

neo-Classic spirit to the Concerto. caused by the motor rhythm via persistent ostinati. the first theme. even though the presentation o f refrains and episodes is distinctive. As we discussed. This finale is less balanced in structural detail than the previous m ovements. 2+3) in a measure in the finale. and the structure reinterprets the 111 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.material from the refrain. tonal progression. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. and its m ain purpose is to provide excitement and a contrasting timbre. and the second theme o f the first movement. the melodic contour. and is a characteristic aspect throughout the work. The introductory fanfare is predominant throughout the m ovem ent. The them atically influential passage in the second movement is quoted with modified rhythm at thematic figure 1 in the opening. all main themes are transformations o f the phrase in the second movem ent that furnishes the motivic and thematic ideas. The first thematic figure o f the first m ovem ent consists o f motivic ideas that provide cohesive elements throughout the Concerto including the intervallic and rhythmic motives. In that sense. em phasizes the most crucial points. This also influences five beats (3+2. B arber’s treatm ent o f the phrase structure is explained via the intricate use o f melodic and rhythm ic motives. and counterpoint. The excitem ent. . due to the treatment o f the them e in the transformation. Barber’s utilization o f the asymmetrical phrase structure with an odd num ber o f measures or odd number o f beats creates frequent changes o f time signature. melodic contour. which produces a 3-3-2 note pattern o f the accom panim ent passage in the second m ovement creates the unbalanced structure o f the thematic phrase. Charles Rosen emphasizes the reciprocal relation between motive and structure in a sonata form in that “the m otif articulates structure. evokes a tw entieth-century.

thematic and intervallic coherence. B arber’s use o f counterpoint techniques are integrated not only between voices. defined by intervallic contents and the rhythmic pattern including its melodic contour. and rhythmic connections. which generate the tritones and minor thirds and seconds in the first movement.”48 The motives. 224. contrasts the tonal atmosphere o f the second movem ent with triadic elaborations o f the melodic theme.motif. The prom inent use o f the diminished-seventh chords. along w ith idiomatic piano writing and treatment o f the orchestral instruments. These constituent intervals manifest an important role in the structural coherence throughout the work via both vertical and horizontal presentations in large-scale musical events. Another significant aspect is that the principal thematic figure in linear motion implies hidden counterpoint which involves the chromatic linear m otion along with motivic pitch contents. 112 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. In addition to the structural elements including tonal progression. which indicates Barber’s use o f modal implication. . but also manifested in unison thematic figures. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. The contending relationship between the soloist and orchestra is explained via passages assigned with 48 C h arles R osen. S o n a ta F o rm s. which is a characteristic gesture in all three movements. This use o f the counterpoint becomes the pattern o f imitation between the accompaniment and the melody. the study o f other param eters such as texture and timbre illuminates their structural influences in the C oncerto. The dim inishedseventh chord relation is found both in large-scale and more local events with tritone emphasis. giving each appearance a new and sometimes radically different significance. promote thematic unity and structural coherence throughout the Concerto. The minor second appears as an upper leading tone to the next tonal center.

to driving excitem ent to each movement. as well as his interest in stylistic amalgamation of the w ork contribute to its 113 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. the most significant styles and features from previous trends and the twentiethcentury idioms are brought together in the C oncerto. Thus. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. their dialogue. These include the use o f thematic materials between solo or orchestra in separated occasions. and various characters and moods for each theme and m ovem ent ranging from the dramatic declamatory. their rhythm ic independence. ultimate placement o f its range. The soloist’s role as a protagonist is integrated with asymm etrical melodic phrasing to determine the Concerto’s structural design and its characteristic rhetoric. the concertante-like orchestration juxtaposed with phrase reiteration. and m ost distinctively. transparent texture. equal roles to both sound forces. B arber’s economic use o f thematic material in modified but conventional forms. Barber’s reliance on the Romantic style is involved with dramatic nature presented by a florid and virtuosic piano part. use o f a stable or sparse accom panim ent texture for each other. as well as his reliance on standard forms. exploitation o f contrasting timbre for both sound forces. the contrapuntal texture between soloist and orchestra or am ong soloists. utilization o f the ostinato and significant use o f the percussion and brass instruments are his neo-Classic aspects in the work.numerous ideas. exploiting the possibilities o f piano technique and varied timbre. percussive piano writing. the Concerto reflects Barber’s brilliance in culm inating his interest in both stylistic diversity. syncopated rhythms. Barber’s mastery o f craftsmanship in using the Canzone as a structural pedestal for the Concerto. In conclusion. the lyrical serenity. its contrapuntal writing superimposed with homogenously m ingled sound forces w hich suggests the concertante aspect. .

178. M ost importantly. 14 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. . This study o f Barber’s musical style was intended to influence performance interpretations via the structural relationships outlined in the preceding chapters. it is hoped that performers will bring this knowledge to their performance o f the Concerto in order to bring both passion and new insights to the music. 49 H arriso n.acclaim as the “best American piano concerto”49 o f the period. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. The purpose o f this analysis was to find stylistic integration throughout the Concerto. it was to show how the underlying dram a unfolds w ithin the Concerto. and to illuminate the directionality o f phrasing with regard to gestural and interpretive understanding o f the work. Through an appreciation o f Barber’s creative inspiration. An insightful performance should be based on a technical and emotional understanding o f the work.

” The Music Review (M ay 1970): 124-135. N ew York: G. 1982. Canzone fo r Flute and Piano. Dunsby. Forte. ed. Carter. 115 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. University o f Rochester. 38a.M. The Use o f Tonality in Four Concertos by American Composers. H arvard Dictionary o f Music. Paul M. Harrison. Willi. Schirmer. U niversity o f Kansas. 2nd ed. Heyman. Karen E. 1969. D.D.. Jonathan. 1992. Inc.. Donald R. 1981. Barbara B.” Musical America. diss. Allen.. diss. diss. and Arnold Whittall..D. Ph. N ew York: Oxford University Press. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. . University o f Illinois. Samuel Barber: The Composer and His Music. 1970. “The New York Music Scene.A. 34 (1948): 325-335. Cook.. Hanson.” Musical Quarterly. M assachusetts: The Belknap Press o f Harvard University Press.) Broder.243. diss. Texas Tech University. Op. John R. Op. “The Music o f Samuel Barber. Susan B. 1988. Jay S. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Inc. Samuel. Barber. New York: G. Schirmer.M. — . (full orchestral score and tw o-piano score. 38. The Piano Music o f Samuel Barber. Schirmer. New Haven: Yale University Press.Bibliography Apel. 1980. “The Synthesis o f M aterials and Devices in non-serial Counterpoint. Chittum. 1994. Bals. Inc. 1962. reprinted by permission o f G. 83 (D ecem ber 1963): 178. Nicholas.A. 1973. Cambridge. 1962. N ew Haven: Yale University Press.. A Guide to M usical Analysis. The Structure o f Atonal Music. Nathan. Macroform in Selected Twentieth-Century Piano Concertos. D. The American Piano Concerto in the Mid-Twentieth Century. Urbana-Champaign. Music Analysis in Theory and Practice. Ph. Piano Concerto. Hayden.

” M usical performance: A Guide to Understanding. Ph. Introduction to Contemporary Music. diss. The H arvard Dictionary o f Music. Eric. 1988. Laura. 1990. “Samuel Barber: The Last Interview and the Legacy. Sonata Form. High Fidelity (June 1981): 44-46. Schoenberg. Edited by H. John. Inc. University o f Wisconsin. 1975. Style and Idea. 1963..” part 1. New York: Schirmer Books. diss. 116 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. N ew York: Thomas Y.Jackson. diss. Richard. 2003. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. London: Faber.” The N ew Grove Dictionary o f Am erican Music.Century Music... New York: Dover Publications. M eyer.” HiFi/Stereo Review (October 1966): 78-89. Cambridge. Slonimsky. The Piano Concerto o f Samuel Barber. Charles. Northwestern University.. D. Rev.M. Stylistic Analysis and Performance Practice o f the Piano Sonata and the Piano Concerto o f Samuel Barber. New York: Schirmer Reference. Kuhn. 65-68. Randel. The Solo Piano Concerto in the Twentieth Century. “Samuel Barber: Classical Clarity and Passion.A. Crowell Company. 2002. M assachusetts: The Belknap Press o f Harvard University Press. An Imprint o f the Gale Group. Lu. D. 1986. London: M acmillan. Norton & Co. Lee. 4th ed. Allan. New York: W.W. Centennial edition. American Composers o f Our Time. W. 2001. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.. Kozinn. Emily.. M achlis. B aker's Biographical Dictionary o f M usicians.M. Norton & Co. Structural Hearing: Tonal Coherence in Music. N ew York: W. — . Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall. Edited by Leonard Stein. M usic since 1900. Inc. Inc. Rosen.. . “Samuel Barber. Stefan. Salzman. Wiley Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie.. Joseph. John A. Kichoung.A. 6th ed. 1986. ed. Inc. 1979. Kostka. ed. Arnold. editor emeritus. Salzer. ed. “Analysis and (or?) Perform ance. Felix. Nicolas. an imprint o f the Gale Group. 1962. Don M. University o f Western Australia. 1973.. 1994. Rink.D. 2001. M aterials and Techniques o f Twentieth.

Further reproduction prohibited without permission.. 117 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.M. D. Peabody Conservatory o f The Johns Hopkins University. 1999. M otivic and Thematic Design in the Piano Works o f Sam uel Barber. . Heidi L. diss.W illiams.A.