15 views

Uploaded by Carlos Larco

Mecánica analítica

- Vibration Engineering
- Generalized Coordinates
- Classical Dynamics
- T4 Solutions With Attachments
- Centroid Inertia
- Intelligent Flight Control of an Autonomous Quadrotor (1)
- The Universe Is Not A Computer
- CUSAT B.Tech ECE Syllabus for 2000 Admission
- Modeling and Simulation of the EMG30
- Manutec Robor Dynamic Simulation
- Lecture 2
- Salvesen N.ship Motions and Sea.1970.TRANS
- Solution Btest 7 Physics
- Langrangian Dynamics
- Essentials of Hamiltonian Dynamics_John H.lowenstein
- Null Lagrangians
- Machine Fdn
- ps8
- Lectures on Classical Dynamics David Tong.pdf
- jnnfm91

You are on page 1of 28

Lagrangian approach

Prof. Alessandro De Luca

Dynamic model

!

generalized forces u(t) acting on the robot

robot motion, i.e.,

assumed configurations q(t) over time

ujoints(t)

uCartesian(t)

q(t)

differential equations

Robotics 2

) = u

"(q, q , q

2

Direct dynamics

!

direct relation

" u1 %

u(t) = $ ! '

$$ ''

# uN &

" q1 %

q(t) = $ ! '

$$ ''

# qN &

q(0),q (0)

initial state at t != 0

!

!

experimental solution

!

! apply torques/forces with motors and measure joint variables

with encoders (with sampling time Tc )

) = u

"(q, q , q

solution by simulation

! use dynamic model and integrate numerically the differential

equations (with simulation step Ts ! Tc )

Robotics 2

Inverse dynamics

!

inverse relation

ud(t)

required input

for t [0,T]

desired motion

for t [0,T]

!

!

experimental solution

! repeated motion trials of direct dynamics using uk(t), with

iterative learning of nominal torques updated on trial k+1 based

on the error in [0,T] measured in trial k: uk(t) ud(t)

) = u

"(q, q , q

analytic solution

! use dynamic model and compute algebraically the values ud(t)

at every time instant t

Robotics 2

Euler-Lagrange method

(energy-based approach)

!

dynamic equations in

symbolic/closed form

best for study of dynamic

properties and analysis of

control schemes

Newton-Euler method

(balance of forces/torques)

!

dynamic equations in

numeric/recursive form

best for implementation of

control schemes (inverse

dynamics in real time)

available for the derivation of the robot dynamic model:

" principle of dAlembert, of Hamilton, of virtual works,

Robotics 2

Euler-Lagrange method

(energy-based approach)

(+ possibly, concentrated elasticity at the joints)

q " IR N

kinetic energy potential energy

" least action principle of Hamilton

" virtual works principle

!

!

Euler-Lagrange

equations

d " L "L

#

= ui

dt "q i "qi

i = 1, ..., N

generalized forces performing work on qi

Robotics 2

a first example

viscous friction

n"1

b!

"

" m = n "

" = n"m

bm

!m, "m

=0

!

(with reduction gear)

T = Tm + T!

d

!

1 2

1

!

Tm = I m " m T! = (I ! + md2 )" 2

!

2 !

2

Fx

motor inertia

link inertia

m g0

!

(around its

(around the z-axis

motor

transmission!

1!

1 2

2

2

2

2

2

!

Robotics 2

- d cos "

!m, "m

n!m, "

Fx

p x = ! sin"

p x = ! cos " # " = J x!

"

!

potential energy

1 2

L = T " U = I # + mg0 dcos # " U0

2

"L

= I #

"#

d "L

= I #

dt "#

"L

= $mg0 dsin#

"#

on motor side are multiplied by n

when moved to the link side

Robotics 2

due to force Fx applied to

the tip at point px

sum of

non-conservative

torques

8

!m, "m

I" + mg0d sin" = n#m $ (b ! + n2bm ) " + ! cos "% Fx

n!m, "

!

% b!

(

I m

"m

!

"m

"

+

g

d

sin

=

#

$

+

b

"

+

cos

+ Fx

' 2

0

m

m* m

2 m

n

n

n

n

n

&n

)

!

Robotics 2

vc body B

!

mass m = # "(x,y,z)dx dy dz = # dm

B

rc

RF0

1

position of

rc = " r dm

mB

center of mass (CoM)

when!all vectors are referred to a body frame

RFc attached to the CoM, then

!

rc = 0 " B r dm = 0

RFc

kinetic energy

(fundamental)

kinematic relation

for a rigid body

!

Robotics 2

mass density

T=

1

2

"

T

v

(x,y,z) v(x,y,z)dm

B

v = v c + " # r = v c + S(")r

skew-symmetric matrix

10

T=

1

T

v

+

S(")r

[

]

[v c + S(")r ] dm

c

#

2B

1

1 T T

T

T

= # v c v c dm + # v c S(")r dm + # r S (")S(")r dm

2B

2B

B

1

T

= m vc vc

2

!

!

translational

kinetic energy

!

(point mass

in CoM)

Knig theorem

Robotics 2

= v c S(") # r dm = 0

B

1

2

sum of elements

on the diagonal

of a matrix

aTb=trace{abT}

$ trace{ S(")r# r

S T (")} dm

%

( T

1

T

= trace{ S(")' $ r# r dm* S (")}

2

&B

)

+

rotational

kinetic energy

(of the whole body)

1

= trace{ S(") Jc S T (")}

2

1

= " T Ic " Euler matrix

Ex #1: provide the expressions

2

(around the CoM)

Ex #2: prove last equality and

provide the expressions of the

elements of inertia matrix Ic

11

homogeneous bodies of mass m, with axes of symmetry

parallelepiped with sides

a (length/height), b, c (base)

y

a

"I

xx

$

Ic =

$

#

!

b

" 1 m(a2 + b2 )

$2

Ic = $

$

#

x

a

Steiner theorem

!

I = Ic + m (r r" E3#3 $ rr

!

Robotics 2

Iyy

1

12

m(a2 + c2 )

%

'

'

1

m(a2 + b2 )'&

12

and external/internal radius a, b

2

2

% " 12 m(b + c )

' =$

' $

Izz & $

#

relative to the CoM

)=I

identity

matrix

+ m S (r)S(r)

Ex #3: prove the

last equality

1

12

m 3(a2 + b2 ) + h2

%

'

'

Izz '

&

Izz = Iyy

its generalization:

!

changes on body inertia matrix

due to a pure translation r of

the reference frame

12

N

T = " Ti

i=1

Ti = Ti (q j , q j , j " i)

!

vci

Knig theorem

!i

RFci

i-th link (body)

of the robot

Robotics 2

1

1 T

T

Ti = mi v ci v ci + " i Ici " i

2

2

absolute velocity of

the center of mass (CoM)

absolute

angular velocity

of whole body

13

1

1 T

T

Ti = mi v ci v ci + " i Ici " i

2

2

!i, Ici should be expressed in the same reference frame,

but the product !iTIci!i is invariant w.r.t. any chosen frame

$ " ( y 2 + z2 )dm

&

i

Ici = &

&

symm

%

constant!

Robotics 2

# " x y dm

2

2

x

+

z

)dm

"(

)

# " y zdm )

)

2

2

x

+

y

dm

) (

"(

14

.

Dependence of T from q and q

!i

vci

link i-1

qN

link 1

q1

q2

qi-1

link i

link N

qi

" !

v ci = JLi (q) q = $ 1 ! i

$$

# !

(partial) Jacobians

typically expressed in RF0

# !

" i = JAi(q) q = % 1 ! i

%%

!

$ !

Robotics 2

qi+1

0 ! 0%

0 ! 0 ' q

''

0 ! 0&

3 rows

0 ! 0&

0 ! 0 ( q

((

0 ! 0'

3 rows

15

Final expression of T

1 N

T = # (mi v ciT v ci + " iT Ici " i)

2 i=1

NOTE:

in practice, NEVER

!

use this formula

(or partial Jacobians)

for computing T;

a better method

!

is available...

N

&

1 T#

T

T

= q % "mi JLi (q)JLi(q) + JAi(q)Ici JAi(q)( q

2 $ i=1

'

1 T

T(q, q ) = q B(q)q

2

constant if ! i

is expressed in RFci

else

0

Ici(q)= 0 R i (q) i Ici 0 R iT (q)

! matrix

robot (generalized) inertia

" symmetric

" positive definite,q always invertible

Robotics 2

16

assumption: GRAVITY contribution only

N

U = " Ui

i=1

Ui = Ui (q j , j " i)

!

!

Ui = " mi g Tr0,ci

gravity acceleration

position of the

vector

center of mass of link i

dependence

! on q

"r0,ci % 0

"ri,ci %

1

i(1

$ 1 ' = A1 (q1 ) A2 (q2 )! A i (qi ) $ 1 '

# &

# &

Robotics 2

typically

expressed

in RF0

constant

in RFi

17

Summarizing ...

positive definite

1 T

1

T = q B(q)q = " bij (q)q i q j # 0 quadratic form

2

2 i,j

T = 0 q = 0

U = U(q)

kinetic

energy

potential

energy

Lagrangian

Euler-Lagrange !

equations

d "L

"L

#

= uk

dt "q k "qk

k = 1,...,N

non-conservative (active/dissipative)

generalized forces performing work on qk coordinate

!

Robotics 2

18

(the scalar derivation; see Appendix for vector format)

L(q, q ) =

"L

= # b kj q j

"q k

j

!

(dependences on q

are not shown)

1

" bij (q)q iq j # U(q)

2 i,j

"b kj

d "L

j + #

= # b kjq

q i q j

dt "q k

j

i,j "qi

"L 1 "bij

"U

= #

q i q j $

"qk 2 i,j "qk

"qk

..

LINEAR terms in ACCELERATION q

.

QUADRATIC terms in VELOCITY q

Robotics 2

19

d "L

"L

#

= uk

dt "q k "qk

% # b kj 1 # b ij (

#U

j

i, j &

i

k )

k

exchanging

indices i,j

!+* &

+

#

) qiq j + !

" qj " qk (

i, j 2 % " qi

of the first kind

Robotics 2

20

j

INERTIAL

terms

i, j

#U

= uk

# qk

CENTRIFUGAL (i=j)

and CORIOLIS (i#j) terms

k = 1,,N

GRAVITY

terms gk(q)

!

bkk(q) = inertia at joint k when joint k accelerates (bkk > 0!!)

ckii(q) = coefficient of the centrifugal force at joint k when

joint i is moving (ciii = 0, i)

ckij(q) = coefficient of the Coriolis force at joint k when both

joint i and joint j are moving

Robotics 2

21

in vector formats

1.

+ c(q, q ) + g(q) = u

B(q)q

c k (q, q ) = q T C k (q)q

k-th column

of matrix B(q)

2.

NOTE:

!

these models

are in the form

) = u

"(q, q , q

as expected

Robotics 2

T

#

1 " bk # " bk &

"B &

Ck (q) = %

+%

)

(

(

2 % " q $ " q ' " qk (

$

'

k-th component

of vector c

symmetric

matrix

+ S(q, q )q + g(q) = u

B(q)q

NOT a

symmetric

matrix

i

factorization of c

by S is not unique!

22

A structural property

matrix B " 2S is skew-symmetric

Proof

kj

b = # "b

! q i

kj

i "qi

% # b kj # b ki # b ij (

1

2s kj = 2" c kjiq i = 2" '

+

$

* q i

# qj # qk )

i

i 2 & # qi

*i & # q # q ) i kj

kj

kj

j (

% k

$ # b ik # b ji '

because of the

"

q

=

"n

) i

kj

symmetry of B

# qk (

i % # qj

x T B " 2S x = 0, #x

Robotics !

2

23

Energy conservation

!

1

E = T + U = q TB(q)q + U(q)

2

+ 1 q TB (q)q + " U q

E = q TB(q)q

2

"q

!

1

= q T (u # S(q, q )q # g(q)) + q TB (q)q + q T g(q)

2

1

= q Tu + q T B (q) # 2S(q, q ) q

2

E = 0

E = q Tu

q T B " 2S q = 0, #q, q

as the external velocity is the same

that appears in the internal matrices

!Robotics 2

here, any

factorization

of vector c

by a matrix S

can be used

of the total energy is

equal to the work of

non-conservative forces

24

T = T1 + T2

y

d

dc1

pc2

q2

!

x

q1

" q1 + d cos q2 %

p c2 = $ d sinq2 '

$

'

0

#

&

Robotics 2

p c1 = % 0 (

% 0 (

$

'

U = constant

(on horizontal plane)

v c1

T

= p c1

p c1 = q 12

1

T1 = m1q 12

2

!

1

1 T

T

T2 = m2 v c2 v c2 + "2 Ic2 "2

2

2

! q2 q 2 &

#0&

# q 1 " d sin

v c2 = % d cos q2 q 2 ( "2 = % 0 (

%

(

%% ((

%

(

0

$

'

$ q 2 '

1

1

2

2 2

2

2

!

!

25

# m1 + m2

B(q) = %

$ "m2d sinq2

b1

Ic2,zz + m2d2 ('

b2

" c1 (q, q ) %

c(q, q ) = $

'

c

q,

q

# 2( )&

c k (q, q ) = q T C k (q)q

T

#

1 " bk # " bk &

"B &

where Ck (q) = %

+%

)

(

(

!

%

2 " q $ " q ' " qk (

$

'

!

0

0

& #0

& #0 0&&

1 ##0

C1 (q) = % %

+%

"%

(

(

(

2 $ $ 0 "m2d cosq2 ' $ 0 "m2d cosq2 ' $ 0 0 (' '

!

c1 (q, q ) = "m2d cos q2 q 22

0

1 # # 0 "m2d cos q2 & #

C2 (q) = % %

+%

(

2 $$0

0

' $ "m2d cos q2

=0

Robotics 2

0& #

0

"m2d cos q2 & &

"%

((

(

0 ' $ "m2d cos q2

0

''

!

c2 (q, q ) = 0

26

+ c(q, q ) = u

B(q)q

# m1 + m2

% "m d sin q

$ 2

2

( = %u (

2 ( % ( + %

q

Ic2,zz + m2d ' $ 2 ' $

0

' $ 2'

is always a constant!

Q2: when applying a force u1, does the second joint accelerate? always?

Q3: what is the expression of a factorization matrix S? is it unique?

Q4: which is the configuration with maximum inertia?

Robotics 2

27

Appendix:

Vector format derivation of dynamic model

T

T

d #" L & #" L &

% ( )% ( = u

dt $ " q ' $ " q '

1

L = q TB(q)q " U(q)

[0

2

... 1 ... 0]

!

i=1

i-th

position

dyadic expansion

!

! T

T

N #

#

&

#" L &

T

d

"

L

" bi &

T

+ B(q)q = B(q)q

+ )% ( q i q

% ( = B(q)q

% ( = (q B(q)) = B(q)q

dt $ " q '

$ " q '

i=1 $ " q '

!

T

T

T

T

N #

# " L & T # 1 T # N " bi T & " U & # 1 T # N " bi & " U &

&

#

&

1

" bi

"U

e i (q * (( = %% q %)

qi ( * (( = )% ( qi q * % (

% ( = %% q % )

2 i=1 $ " q '

$ " q' $ 2 $ i=1 " q ' " q ' $ 2 $ i=1 " q ' " q '

$ " q'

!

T' .

T

+N $

$

'

$

'

" bi 1 " bi ) 0

"U

&

B(q)q + *&

# & ) )qi q + & ) = u

-, i=1 % " q 2 % " q ( ( 0/ % " q (

Robotics 2

S(q, q )

g(q)

28

- Vibration EngineeringUploaded byAlen Benguit II
- Generalized CoordinatesUploaded byKevin G. Rhoads
- Classical DynamicsUploaded bymaurizio.desio4992
- T4 Solutions With AttachmentsUploaded byGiannis Goulias
- Centroid InertiaUploaded byStavros Pitelis
- Intelligent Flight Control of an Autonomous Quadrotor (1)Uploaded byitaiorr
- The Universe Is Not A ComputerUploaded byhumbertorc
- CUSAT B.Tech ECE Syllabus for 2000 AdmissionUploaded byenky4u
- Modeling and Simulation of the EMG30Uploaded byOliver Malpartida Custodio
- Manutec Robor Dynamic SimulationUploaded bylegendsam
- Lecture 2Uploaded byShawn Waltz
- Salvesen N.ship Motions and Sea.1970.TRANSUploaded byigorgtgomez_2596335
- Solution Btest 7 PhysicsUploaded byomkar10814
- Langrangian DynamicsUploaded byDan Bartha
- Essentials of Hamiltonian Dynamics_John H.lowensteinUploaded by黃凱文
- Null LagrangiansUploaded bySceptic Granny
- Machine FdnUploaded byHemant Sonawadekar
- ps8Uploaded byYusuf Sahin
- Lectures on Classical Dynamics David Tong.pdfUploaded bylerhlerh
- jnnfm91Uploaded byHamid Mojiry
- Articulo Trans Elevado rUploaded byJavi Hal Jordan
- E203Uploaded byファハルド アンソニー
- 23-7-18 B Tech 1st YearUploaded byjoginder
- Rotational Inertia Energy 1151Uploaded byLuiz Sena
- Lecture 19Uploaded byngha
- Textbook.pdfUploaded byBryle James Nanglegan
- Moment of Inertia.pptUploaded byAngelo Sayson
- Dublin City CouncilUploaded byjorgedojimenez8c
- Basic ME101 - RevisedUploaded byMihir Kumar Mech
- mech2nd1Uploaded byBhanu Tej

- Consequences of Lorentz transformation notes.Uploaded bysumit khadka
- Physics Notes - Cosmic EngineUploaded byJohn
- Project Camelot Patrick Geryl the World Cataclysm in 2012 TranscriptUploaded byChristian UFO Illuminati
- M3a Continuity Mon and Energy BernoulliUploaded byRay Emperoa
- The 12 Chinese AnimalsUploaded byiteachtoo2
- O.A.K55Uploaded byJohn Bates
- SPH 2Uploaded byAaniya Cyril
- Lesson 5Uploaded byVincentsgirl
- KULIAH IV Keseimbangan Benda TegarUploaded byMu'tashim Hablillah
- B.A. Khesin and Yu.V.Chekanov- Invariants of the Euler Equations for Ideal or Barotropic Hydrodynamics and Superconductivity in D DimensionsUploaded byJuaxmaw
- Dark Sun - Planos e CosmologiaUploaded byKallistos Fnord
- Lesson 12 (Circular Motion)Uploaded byceja003
- Unsteady StateUploaded byMariana Unforeseen
- year 9 plate tectonics objectivesUploaded byapi-281232378
- The Origins of Symbolic MathematicsUploaded byupsilon2
- Differential Geometry NotesUploaded byAlan Scrivner
- SSS HoroscopeUploaded byAegan V
- PhysicsUploaded byElisa Baron
- The General Theory of RelativityUploaded bymaneesh_massey_1
- Thom’s Catastrophe Theory and Zeeman’s Model of the Stock MarketUploaded byMati Ger
- Taklimat Olimpiad 12042018Uploaded bywanaimran
- .What is the Big Bang TheoryUploaded byImmaculately Pretty
- Vocation NotesUploaded bysankarjv
- Introduction to AstronomyUploaded byCaplan Markley
- Greek PhilosophersUploaded byEsperanza Abegail T. Ibañez
- Ray Grasse - Synchronicity and the Mind of GodUploaded byWayne Campbell
- Freitag_2003_ApJ_583_L21Uploaded bykarlrevelar
- Physics Worksheet 2 AsUploaded byAllison Khoo
- One-Dimensional Kinematics Problems.docxUploaded byPhilip Jayson Lestojas
- lab 2 2012.docxUploaded byabozman123