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# Chapter 3- TRIGONOI\f ETRY

## At thc cnd oflhe lesson. students should be able to:

(a) understand the delinition ofthe six trigoDometric lunctions 1br angles of.rny
magnitude
(b) recall and use the exact valucs oftrigonometric lunctions of30",45" and 60'.
(c) understand the complenlentify angles and supplcrncntary angles propertres
(d) usc trigonometric identitir:s including cornpound anglcs, doublc anglc and lictor
formulae (listed in MF15) for
. thc simplilication and cxact cvaluation ofexpressions
. solving sirnplc trigoDometric equations
(e) undcrstand the use ofthc R-fornulae
(1) usc thc notrlion sin
l.r.
ctrs
I-L
and tan
I; to denote thc principal vahcs ofthe invcrse
tri gonolnetric relations.

ll Introduction
By convention, anglcs ate tneas$ed liom the initial line or the r-exis with rcspcct to thc origin. If OP is rotated drri c/ocl .risc fiom thc:r,axis, the angle so lonned is poriliyc- Bui if OP is rotated clo.tlule liom the r-axis, the angle so formed is lresdtl,e. angle Positive ## 1.2 Units of angles: Deerees & Radians /a .., 'l Angles are measured either in degrccs or radians. What is radian? Given a circle (as shown ir the diagram on the right) with radius /, the angle subtended by an arc oflength r" mcasures I radixn. Compadng the units, z rad = 180' c3-l 1.3 Trigonomctric Ratios P(x, y) ## The six trigonometric mtios are delined to be .vll srnA /, cost '', lilnr--. cu5cc, sec6' t r .\ -. d sln co\a t^n 0 ## N.'re:lso tanq srn d - cotd cos A cos A sin t, ## 1.4 Graphs of Triqonometric Functions In I complete cycle of / = a sin r, amplitudc - d units, period is 2r. Graph of l, - asin -t y=a sin-r ## In I conpletc cycle of / = o cos:r, amplitude: a units, period is 2a Graphofl=acosr ## In 2 complete cycles of / = a tan x , period is z Graph of )] = atan.x r ! al c3-2 1,5 Trieonometric ratios of specinl aneles We may use equilateral & isosceles trian gles to dcducc values ofspccial angles. r\" il \ +l++l+ l[ r\ -l- 30" 45. 60" 90" 180. 2'/0" 360" 1 I !5 ,1 s;n 0 0 t J, 2 0 0 l J: ) I T, I 2 0 0 I tane 0 F I v5 0 0 ## 1.6 ImDortant propcrtics ut A lst qu:rdrant F sinl21..r-rl = sin, ,os1)r r11 ,usd tJn\) 1 0t 2nd quadrant @nA ltin(z a) +ind cos(z d) = cos 6/ ra\10t e)= rane 3rd quadrant sin(z + A) = sinfl cos(z + d) = cosd ta\t(n + 0) = tan? 4th quadrant stlt(zft e) = .sine ,4,,'i ,)= .tna'\ cos(2r- 0) = cos9 OR I cos(-9) = cosB l tan(2r e)= b\q l tan( d)= tan 97 itt,\, ^ )i ltlt. i,,. .. .)tt- c3-3 1.7 ComDlementary angles qoo 7 Tuo dngles lhat sum up lo ur radlans arc,alled complemenlary anglcs. L.s.: r0" & 70". lu" & b0". or J *(, O) eomplementarv cnglc.. I n .n'O7 ,/1 .'n Rt,,tll sin 10 - - ) cos60" - 2 J r,n t0 - rort0 - I- ran60 cor J0' - JJ J: We say that sine & cosine are ,91yp!g1g91141t fwtctions. Also. langenl & colangcnl are !9wk!!9!l!g!t f onctlons. 3n srn-)t cos- E,g.: (i) sin40" - cos50' (rr ) = 3tr it (xl ) tan = cot- (iv) cot 35" = tan 55' l{ ',( 1.8 Basic Angle The basic atrgle is defined to be the positiv€, acute angle between the line OP & its projection on the ).-axis. For any general angle, there is a basic angle associated with it. Let (,t be the basic angle, 0" < d < 90" a = l8O" 0 a=0-18O" Examplc I ( Simplify (i) sin 210' (rr) cos 5n trrrt tanl 2n\ : - J Solution: ## (i) sin 210" c3-4 5n : I (1t) cos- 2 rii,r t-(-4) - Example 2 lf sin:r - 0.6, cos"r = 0.8, find (i) sin(32 -.r) , (ii) cos(42 + r) . Solution: (D (iD sin(3a x) cos(42 + rc) = sin(2tr + zr x) = cos(2n + x) = sin(z -x) = 0.8 Example 3 Sol\ e tlre lbllowing equarions: ru.)*in1l-t 2 a) J2! "1"." o. 0 - n. (b) cos(28-250) -0.8 *here 0" < d - 180' Solution: (a) Since sinlZ-8) is positive, it is in the (b) Since cos(2d + 25") is negative, it is io 1'1or 2d quadrant. the 2nd or 3rd quadrant ## Basic angle, a =36.87" "4 a=1 Basic ansle- -'- 20 +25" =180" -36.8'7' or SrrJt 20 + 25" =180" + 36.87' ''2"4""4 Hence d = 59.1' or 95.9" - -5n3nor H=- H=- 44 Since0!d(z .. -3n H= 4 Exercise Solve tle equation sec(9 + 30') = 2 Answer: d = 30",270' c3-5 l2.t li:r5ic ldcnriric\ \ ., )..- -- (l) ,;12A1so"2n.1 ## Dividing (1) throughout by cos2 A. ## (l) tan2;\ I I sec2 A ## Dividing (l) throughout by sin2 A, ## (r) l+rotl{ rn\.rl \ ## 2.2 lnlportant Fornlulac ## (l ) Compound Angle lrormuhc (givcn in MIr 15) sin[4tB) = sinlcos.BlcoslsilB cos(liB) = cos,.lcos,B+sinlsill,R tinl / + B)= litrnlltunB t.,n ,1 r.,n B ## (2) Doublc.\nglc Fornrulac (givcn in t\'1F15) sin 2,1 : 2 sin I cos I cos 2-,4 : cos2l sin2,4 ^ J, , : I 2 sin2 A 2tat A tat2A= 1 ta\'\2 A Example 4 ## It is given that tan I = 3,01A {zr. Find, without using calculator, (D the exact value of tana, given that tan(d+,4) = 5, (ir) the exact value of tanL giventhat s1n(6 + A)=2cos(d- A), (iiD the exact value of sin 2.4 . c3-6 Solution: (i) Given ran (A+,4):5 and tan I : -3, +(a lb + l+1 = lrr g *+t..[ . tcn9 3 1+3taDA 5+15tan0 =tan0 3 .. tun0 = -!7 (ii) Given sin (l +,1)=).cos(i l)ardtanl=-3, sin f cos I + cos Qsitt A =2lcos/ cosl + sinl sinll (rh 0i ."' / hi A = ).14f + n4 lar H ## sin I 3cos Q :2(cos /-3sin() Tsrn(=5cos/ t"nd:l7 (iii) Giventan,.1 : 3 and O< A <7t, 5r^ A 1 F? Jtc cat= -J Jl. Hence sinz,1 :2siMcos4 - / lr, = ) \J"l l- E/,l =15 Exercise It is given that tan I = 3 and sin (l -!) = I ses (l +r). Find, without using calculator, the exact ## value oftan B. Answer: tan -B = -l5 Example 5 (:,,+= :tfJ Given sin- -$ and ,4 is obtuse,
,4 find, withoul using calculators- the values of
" (+)
(i) cos 41. {ii) sin+.
Solution:
, : 16
Since sin' r.1
25 slrr a . +{
-B
1
5
Butl is obtuse,

cosA= -2
5

## {i) cas4A- l' IJrn-){

: i - r( Li^Ac.rAJ]

=, ,f/1ll
\54
lll'
| 5/./

=t 21I 4\'
2s ,/
527
62s

' 1!/

'?
s = | -)si+(\$

.,(A\ 4
[2./ s

2

## i.e. 4 lies in the l'' ouadrant- So srn{ 7.

2

.(A\ lq z )G
\2, \5 Js s

Example 6
Prove the following identities:
{i] c9sJ,.{ -.lco,s | ,ntt d. .rt
(ii) sin
.4:os,
ll:3sinl 4sin7.A , ^,1

...
([r) l-cos2A
= lan A

(iv)
cos3I cos3d sinr d+sin39
- cosd sin I
c3-8
Solution:
(i) cos 3,1= <4 Q}tA)
: r-<)* c-s[ - !an).l!Jin
:( ^
Lro't -r )cos,1 (2sin,'1 cos,4)sin I
: 2cos3,4 cosl - 2cos,-4 sin14

## : 2.-rrl ,-5[ - )-j/r( 1--j'4

: .lcos3l - 3cos I
(ii) Do it yourself.

## {iii) LHS I qincos2l

/I
I r="1
tri,A4a

2sin')A -sinA
=tanr:RHS
2sin I cos,4 cos 71

(iu) Do it yoursclf

Exercise
Prove the following identities
1 + cos20 + s;n 2e
rb)
l+sin29 cosA+sinB
_=-.
(a)
1-cos2g+sin20 -"'"' cns )O cos 4 sin19

c3-9
Some points to note:
ln future topics you may need to simplify liacliol1s involving trigoDometric identities in the
denominator.

## Some eramDlcs: tll .rnd

| (u\v I I cnc 46l ) )\rt' H

which fonnulac can you use to simplity the dcnominator so that you can get rid ofthe constant?

## Answer: By applying appropriately thc doublc anglc fbnnulae

I I
r r*c rdl
I cu'9 , r-:..^'fdJ ,.o" l'l L 'r

' ) )) ')
'
ltlt -5(-ld
I .os49 t ,lt."J tO I ^
)cos' '0 '
tl

## By applying appropriatl3 basic identities

llll
' )srn rr )l\/I .;n-Bt zcoJa l"'"

4sind l a)
bcosd = Rsin(d !
4cosd tbsin P = Rcos(P+ a)

## where R = , R>0 tar\ a : b

0--.a
1t

a 2

Derivalion of R-formula
Let's look at the case wherea sin d + rcosd = R sin(0 + d).
a sin g+ 6cos I = Rsin(d + rr)
-R sin d cos a + 1l cos 9sin a

## By comparing the coefficients of cos 9, we have ,Rsin(l: , ---- (2)

Solving the simultaneous cquations,

C3-IO
(t)2 r(2)2 :

.l 1 r \
\i
R2 =n2 +b2 = n= 2
+b2
(2). b
(r) '
You may derive other forms ofR-formula using the sinrilar approach as shown above.

Examplc 7
Express 3 sin r + 4 cos jr in the f-olrn ,R sin (,r + rr.
Solution:
3sin x+ 4cosr = Rsin(.:r+a)

n=J:'+A
4
=
"[s =:
3
a = 53.13'
. - 3sin r+ 4cosr = 5 sin(r. + 53. 13" )

Excrcisc
Express 3sinr cos-r in the lbrrn of Rsin(r a) where 0 <.r < 90o

## (4) Thc Factor Formrrlae - Sum or tlifference ol similrlr trigonometric functions

(given in MFI5)
l
sinPr:inO
- 2sinl I r-Oy:t Ip- ''
2' )' Ot
sinP sirrp-2cos
')') l( P) Qlsinl-lP-Ql

cmP cmp-2cm]1e
'2'''2' rq1co. l1e p;
ccP-eoso-
' :sin ?'
lt e-O1,in )'
l{e-?)
'

## sin(l + B) = sin lcos B + cos lsinB --- (l )

-- (2)
sin(l B) = sinlcos, coslsinB
cos(l+B)=cos,4cos, sinlsinl] --(3)
cos(l ,) = cos I cos-R + sin lsin -B -- (4)
C3-] I
By lettin9 P: A+ B arld Q: A B, thus we obtain:

Conversely,

## coslcosB= 11cos1,l + 1) + cos1,a l)1

I
sin lsin B= lcos(,4+r)-cos(l-B)l

Example 8
Show that
(i) cosd + cos3d + cos50 = cos3A(4cos'? 9 l)
(iD sind + sin 3d +sin 5A + sin 7A = l6sinAcos' g 20
"o"2
Solution:
(D cosA+cos3d+cos5A
: (.actqc + -tt) + .cr3.
=2cos30cos20 + cns30

= ..tlf ( )arlc +t
_ ..ttc ( I(16rle {) +,
= cos3d(4cos'z a l)

(iD LHS

## : Sinf + Ji^jt + Ji^tl + Ji^'lt

= (ri"e + li^lfl + ( sincc t3;n1";

## = )<-"rf ( 5i^I6 + ti^(6)

c3-12
=2cose 2sin4e cos20

= 8cos, 2sinAcosBcos' 2B

: RHS

Exercise

## Provc lhalsin9 )sin )0 ' srn30- lan

,g
sin d + 2 sin 29+ sin 30 2

Example 9
Express each ofthe followings as a sum or difference of two sine or two cosine:
(a) sin5dcos39 (b) cosT9cos29 (c) sin5rsinr
( ln order to integrate these three fiulctions, it is required to express them in terms of a single
function ofsine or cosine by using the factor formulae)

## (c) sinsrsin.r: t[ - (sr,n J - ..r (\-! ] =1"o.4t-f "o"6"

Exercise
Express 2sin 6d sin 4A as a difference of two cosine.
2sin60 sin4e = -[cos(69++a)-cos(ao- ae)] =cos29 cosl0d

c3-13
3 Principal Value and Principal Range

## Consider the eqLration sin d = 0.5.

']l:0.5

sin d

Thc graph above shows that without restriction on d, therc arc infinitely many solutions. Howcvcr,

, I, ? tl'cnd \in Ll.' lJkc. c uniqu" r'u|r". Ls. rr = sin 6., I *1'cr*1 I.4,'s
O -
the principal range, and the angle thal lies within the principle range is thc principnl valuc.

When solving a trigonometric equation in ,ts pdncipal range, wc have the fbllowing:

## Function Notation Domain Principal Range

l!-r(1
'-l +'tl
lnvctse cosine I < -t <1 o elo, rl

re
Inverse tangcnt ]R
'1 :'+)
,L ]
i r g -titr tr
^rrr,/,

t s,n'r . = ..nrl

c3-14
My Notes: