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(a) understand the delinition ofthe six trigoDometric lunctions 1br angles of.rny

magnitude

(b) recall and use the exact valucs oftrigonometric lunctions of30",45" and 60'.

(c) understand the complenlentify angles and supplcrncntary angles propertres

(d) usc trigonometric identitir:s including cornpound anglcs, doublc anglc and lictor

formulae (listed in MF15) for

. thc simplilication and cxact cvaluation ofexpressions

. solving sirnplc trigoDometric equations

(e) undcrstand the use ofthc R-fornulae

(1) usc thc notrlion sin

l.r.

ctrs

I-L

and tan

I; to denote thc principal vahcs ofthe invcrse

tri gonolnetric relations.

ll Introduction

By convention, anglcs ate tneas$ed liom the initial line or the r-exis with rcspcct to thc

origin.

If OP is rotated drri c/ocl .risc fiom thc:r,axis, the angle so lonned is poriliyc-

Bui if OP is rotated clo.tlule liom the r-axis, the angle so formed is lresdtl,e.

angle

Positive

/a

.., 'l

Angles are measured either in degrccs or radians. What is radian?

Given a circle (as shown ir the diagram on the right) with radius /, the angle subtended by an arc

oflength r" mcasures I radixn.

Compadng the units, z rad = 180'

c3-l

1.3 Trigonomctric Ratios

P(x, y)

.vll

srnA /, cost '', lilnr--. cu5cc, sec6'

t r .\ -. d

sln co\a t^n 0

cos A sin t,

In I complete cycle of / = a sin r, amplitudc - d units, period is 2r.

Graph of l, - asin -t

y=a sin-r

Graphofl=acosr

Graph of )] = atan.x

r ! al

c3-2

1,5 Trieonometric ratios of specinl aneles

We may use equilateral & isosceles trian gles to dcducc values ofspccial angles.

r\"

il \

+l++l+

l[ r\

-l-

30" 45. 60" 90" 180. 2'/0" 360"

1 I !5 ,1

s;n 0 0

t J, 2

0 0

l

J:

)

I

T,

I

2

0 0

I

tane 0

F I v5 0 0

ut A lst qu:rdrant

F sinl21..r-rl = sin,

,os1)r r11 ,usd

tJn\) 1 0t

2nd quadrant

@nA

ltin(z a) +ind

cos(z d) = cos 6/

ra\10t e)= rane

3rd quadrant

sin(z + A) = sinfl

cos(z + d) = cosd

ta\t(n + 0) = tan?

4th quadrant

stlt(zft e) = .sine ,4,,'i ,)= .tna'\

cos(2r- 0) = cos9 OR

I cos(-9) = cosB l

tan(2r e)= b\q l tan( d)= tan 97

itt,\,

^

)i ltlt. i,,. .. .)tt-

c3-3

1.7 ComDlementary angles

qoo 7

Tuo dngles lhat sum up lo ur radlans arc,alled complemenlary anglcs.

L.s.: r0" & 70". lu" & b0". or J *(, O) eomplementarv cnglc..

I n .n'O7 ,/1

.'n

Rt,,tll sin 10 - - )

cos60" - 2

J

r,n t0 - rort0 -

I- ran60 cor J0' - JJ

J:

We say that sine & cosine are ,91yp!g1g91141t fwtctions. Also. langenl & colangcnl are

!9wk!!9!l!g!t f onctlons.

3n srn-)t

cos-

E,g.: (i) sin40" - cos50' (rr ) =

3tr it

(xl ) tan = cot- (iv) cot 35" = tan 55'

l{

',(

1.8 Basic Angle

The basic atrgle is defined to be the positiv€, acute angle between the line OP & its projection on

the ).-axis.

For any general angle, there is a basic angle associated with it.

Let (,t be the basic angle, 0" < d < 90"

a = l8O" 0 a=0-18O"

Examplc I

(

Simplify (i) sin 210' (rr) cos

5n

trrrt tanl 2n\

:

- J

Solution:

c3-4

5n : I

(1t) cos-

2

rii,r t-(-4) -

Example 2

lf sin:r - 0.6, cos"r = 0.8, find (i) sin(32 -.r) , (ii) cos(42 + r) .

Solution:

(D (iD

sin(3a x) cos(42 + rc)

= sin(2tr + zr x) = cos(2n + x)

= sin(z -x)

= 0.8

Example 3

Sol\ e tlre lbllowing equarions:

ru.)*in1l-t

2 a) J2! "1"."

o. 0 - n. (b) cos(28-250) -0.8 *here 0" < d - 180'

Solution:

(a) Since sinlZ-8) is positive, it is in the (b) Since cos(2d + 25") is negative, it is io

1'1or 2d quadrant. the 2nd or 3rd quadrant

"4 a=1

Basic ansle-

-'- 20 +25" =180" -36.8'7' or

SrrJt 20 + 25" =180" + 36.87'

''2"4""4

Hence d = 59.1' or 95.9"

- -5n3nor H=-

H=-

44

Since0!d(z

.. -3n

H=

4

Exercise

Solve tle equation sec(9 + 30') = 2 Answer: d = 30",270'

c3-5

l2.t li:r5ic ldcnriric\ \ ., )..- --

(l) ,;12A1so"2n.1

sin[4tB) = sinlcos.BlcoslsilB

cos(liB) = cos,.lcos,B+sinlsill,R

tinl / + B)= litrnlltunB

t.,n ,1 r.,n B

sin 2,1 : 2 sin I cos I

cos 2-,4 : cos2l sin2,4

^ J, ,

: I 2 sin2 A

2tat A

tat2A=

1 ta\'\2 A

Example 4

(D the exact value of tana, given that tan(d+,4) = 5,

(ir) the exact value of tanL giventhat s1n(6 + A)=2cos(d- A),

(iiD the exact value of sin 2.4 .

c3-6

Solution:

(i) Given ran (A+,4):5 and tan I : -3, +(a lb + l+1 = lrr g *+t..[

. tcn9 3

1+3taDA

5+15tan0 =tan0 3

.. tun0 = -!7

(ii) Given sin (l +,1)=).cos(i l)ardtanl=-3,

sin f cos I + cos Qsitt A =2lcos/ cosl + sinl sinll

(rh 0i ."' / hi A = ).14f + n4 lar H

Tsrn(=5cos/

t"nd:l7

(iii) Giventan,.1 : 3 and O< A <7t,

5r^ A 1 F?

Jtc

cat= -J

Jl.

Hence sinz,1 :2siMcos4

- / lr,

= ) \J"l l- E/,l

=15

Exercise

It is given that tan I = 3 and sin (l -!) = I ses (l +r). Find, without using calculator, the exact

Example 5 (:,,+= :tfJ

Given sin- -$ and ,4 is obtuse,

,4 find, withoul using calculators- the values of

" (+)

(i) cos 41. {ii) sin+.

Solution:

, : 16

Since sin' r.1

25 slrr a . +{

-B

1

5

Butl is obtuse,

cosA= -2

5

: i - r( Li^Ac.rAJ]

=, ,f/1ll

\54

lll'

| 5/./

=t 21I 4\'

2s ,/

527

62s

' 1!/

'?

s = | -)si+($

.,(A\ 4

[2./ s

2

2

.(A\ lq z )G

\2, \5 Js s

Example 6

Prove the following identities:

{i] c9sJ,.{ -.lco,s | ,ntt d. .rt

(ii) sin

.4:os,

ll:3sinl 4sin7.A , ^,1

...

([r) l-cos2A

= lan A

(iv)

cos3I cos3d sinr d+sin39

- cosd sin I

c3-8

Solution:

(i) cos 3,1= <4 Q}tA)

: r-<)* c-s[ - !an).l!Jin

:( ^

Lro't -r )cos,1 (2sin,'1 cos,4)sin I

: 2cos3,4 cosl - 2cos,-4 sin14

: .lcos3l - 3cos I

(ii) Do it yourself.

/I

I r="1

tri,A4a

2sin')A -sinA

=tanr:RHS

2sin I cos,4 cos 71

(iu) Do it yoursclf

Exercise

Prove the following identities

1 + cos20 + s;n 2e

rb)

l+sin29 cosA+sinB

_=-.

(a)

1-cos2g+sin20 -"'"' cns )O cos 4 sin19

c3-9

Some points to note:

ln future topics you may need to simplify liacliol1s involving trigoDometric identities in the

denominator.

| (u\v I I cnc 46l ) )\rt' H

which fonnulac can you use to simplity the dcnominator so that you can get rid ofthe constant?

I I

r r*c rdl

I cu'9 , r-:..^'fdJ ,.o" l'l L 'r

' ) )) ')

'

ltlt -5(-ld

I .os49 t ,lt."J tO I ^

)cos' '0 '

tl

llll

' )srn rr )l\/I .;n-Bt zcoJa l"'"

(3) 'IheR-lbrmula (Rcvisc on your orvn, it's in'O'lc!el Additiirnal Maihs syllabus)

4sind l a)

bcosd = Rsin(d !

4cosd tbsin P = Rcos(P+ a)

0--.a

1t

a 2

Derivalion of R-formula

Let's look at the case wherea sin d + rcosd = R sin(0 + d).

a sin g+ 6cos I = Rsin(d + rr)

-R sin d cos a + 1l cos 9sin a

Solving the simultaneous cquations,

C3-IO

(t)2 r(2)2 :

.l 1 r \

\i

R2 =n2 +b2 = n= 2

+b2

(2). b

(r) '

You may derive other forms ofR-formula using the sinrilar approach as shown above.

Examplc 7

Express 3 sin r + 4 cos jr in the f-olrn ,R sin (,r + rr.

Solution:

3sin x+ 4cosr = Rsin(.:r+a)

n=J:'+A

4

=

"[s =:

3

a = 53.13'

. - 3sin r+ 4cosr = 5 sin(r. + 53. 13" )

Excrcisc

Express 3sinr cos-r in the lbrrn of Rsin(r a) where 0 <.r < 90o

Answer: Jl0siDlx 18.4".1

(given in MFI5)

l

sinPr:inO

- 2sinl I r-Oy:t Ip- ''

2' )' Ot

sinP sirrp-2cos

')') l( P) Qlsinl-lP-Ql

cmP cmp-2cm]1e

'2'''2' rq1co. l1e p;

ccP-eoso-

' :sin ?'

lt e-O1,in )'

l{e-?)

'

-- (2)

sin(l B) = sinlcos, coslsinB

cos(l+B)=cos,4cos, sinlsinl] --(3)

cos(l ,) = cos I cos-R + sin lsin -B -- (4)

C3-] I

By lettin9 P: A+ B arld Q: A B, thus we obtain:

Conversely,

I

sin lsin B= lcos(,4+r)-cos(l-B)l

Example 8

Show that

(i) cosd + cos3d + cos50 = cos3A(4cos'? 9 l)

(iD sind + sin 3d +sin 5A + sin 7A = l6sinAcos' g 20

"o"2

Solution:

(D cosA+cos3d+cos5A

: (.actqc + -tt) + .cr3.

=2cos30cos20 + cns30

= ..tlf ( )arlc +t

_ ..ttc ( I(16rle {) +,

= cos3d(4cos'z a l)

(iD LHS

= (ri"e + li^lfl + ( sincc t3;n1";

c3-12

=2cose 2sin4e cos20

= 8cos, 2sinAcosBcos' 2B

: RHS

Exercise

,g

sin d + 2 sin 29+ sin 30 2

Example 9

Express each ofthe followings as a sum or difference of two sine or two cosine:

(a) sin5dcos39 (b) cosT9cos29 (c) sin5rsinr

( ln order to integrate these three fiulctions, it is required to express them in terms of a single

function ofsine or cosine by using the factor formulae)

Exercise

Express 2sin 6d sin 4A as a difference of two cosine.

2sin60 sin4e = -[cos(69++a)-cos(ao- ae)] =cos29 cosl0d

c3-13

3 Principal Value and Principal Range

']l:0.5

sin d

Thc graph above shows that without restriction on d, therc arc infinitely many solutions. Howcvcr,

, I, ? tl'cnd \in Ll.' lJkc. c uniqu" r'u|r". Ls. rr = sin 6., I *1'cr*1 I.4,'s

O -

the principal range, and the angle thal lies within the principle range is thc principnl valuc.

When solving a trigonometric equation in ,ts pdncipal range, wc have the fbllowing:

l!-r(1

'-l +'tl

lnvctse cosine I < -t <1 o elo, rl

re

Inverse tangcnt ]R

'1 :'+)

,L ]

i r g -titr tr

^rrr,/,

t s,n'r . = ..nrl

c3-14

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