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CPG In-House Course on

Pile design (EC7 and SS EN 1997-1:2010


Singapore National Annex to Eurocode 7)
- July 2013

A/P Anthony Goh


Nanyang Technological University
E il ctcgoh@ntu.edu.sg
Email:
t
h@ t d

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References
Bauduin, C.M. (2001). Design procedure according to Eurocode 7 and
analysis of the test results. Proc. Symposium on Screw Piles Installation
and design in stiff clay, Brussels, Balkema, pp.275-303.
Bond, A. and Harris, A. (2008). Decoding Eurocode 7. Taylor & Francis.
Dept off Communities
C
and Local Government,
G
UK (2006).
(
) A designers
simple guide to BS EN 1997.
Driscoll R., Scott, P. and Powell J. (2008). EC7 implications for UK
practice. Eurocode 7 Geotechnical design. CIRIA C641.
Frank, R., Bauduin C., Driscoll, R., Kawadas, M., Krebs Ovesen, N., Orr, T.
and
d Schuppener,
S h
B (2004).
B.
(2004) Designers
D i
Guide
G id to
t EN 1997-1
1997 1 Eurocode
E
d 7:
7
Geotechnical design General rules. Thomas Telford.
p
B. and Driscoll,, R. ((1998)) Eurocode 7 a commentary.
y BRE.
Simpson
Tomlinson M. and Woodward, J. (2008). Pile design and construction
practice. 5th edition. Taylor & Francis.

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SINGAPORENATIONALANNEX
NAtoSSEN19971:2010
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SSINGAPORENATIONALANNEX
G O
O
NAtoSSEN19971:2010
SingaporeNationalAnnextoEurocode7:Geotechnical
design
P t1 G
Part1:Generalrules
l l

NA.2
NA 2 Nationally Determined Parameters
As indicated in Table NA.1, only Design Approach 1 is to
b used
be
d iin Si
Singapore.
The values given in the Tables in Annex A of this
National Annex replace the recommended values in
Annex A of SS EN 1997-1 : 2010.
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For example, Table A.NA.7 replaces Table A.7


Table A.NA.7 Partial resistance factors (R) for bored piles for the
STR and GEO limit states
Resistance

Base
Shaft
(compression)
T t l/C bi d
Total/Combined
(compression)
Shaft in tension

Symbol
R1

Set
R4 without explicit
verification of SLSA)

R4 with explicit
verification of SLSA)

b
s

1.0
1.0

2.0
1.6

1.7
1.4

10
1.0

20
2.0

17
1.7

s;t

1.0

2.0

1.7

A) The lower values in R4 may be adopted (a) if serviceability is verified by load tests (preliminary and/or working)
carried out on more than 1% of the constructed piles to loads not less than 1.5 times the representative load for
which they are designed, or (b) if settlement is explicitly predicted by a means no less reliable than in (a), or (c)
if settlement at the serviceability limit state is of no concern.

SS NA permits the use of different R4 values depending


on the verification of SLS
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For example, Table A.NA.7 replaces Table A.7


Table A.7 Partial resistance factors (R) for bored piles
Resistance

Base
Shaft
(compression)
Total/Combined
(compression)
Shaft in tension

Symbol

Set
R1

R4

b
s

1.25
1.0

1.6
1.3

1.15

1.5

s;t

1.25

1.6

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Definitions
Actions on the foundations (Clause 2.4.2(4))
Earth and g
groundwater p
pressures
Weight of soil, rock and water
Dead and imposed loading from structure
Imposed loading from ground movements (eg. swelling,
g , down-drag)
g)
shrinkage,
Ground properties (Clause 2.4.3)
from field or laboratory tests (directly or by correlation
correlation,
theory or empiricism)
Takes into account effects of time, stress level and
deformation etc

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Definitions
Geometrical data (Clause 2.4.4(1)P)
p of the g
ground surface,, g
groundwater
Include slope
levels and structural dimensions
Characteristic values of Geotechnical parameters
(Clause 2.4.5.2)
Selected from the available
a ailable information (eg
(eg. SI report)
Based on a cautious estimate of the data made within
the zone influenced by stresses transmitted to the
ground
Less than most probable values (most situations)
Higher than most probable where higher values have an
unfavourable effect on the foundation behaviour (eg.
down drag)
down-drag)
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Definitions
Ultimate Limit States (Clause 2.4.7.1) for foundations
STR: internal failure or excessive deformation of the
structure
GEO:
GEO failure
f il
or excessive
i d
deformation
f
ti off th
the ground
d

Model Factors (Clause 2.4.7.1(6))


Model
M
d l factors
f t
may be
b applied
li d to
t the
th design
d i
value
l
off a
resistance or the effect of an action to ensure that the
results of the design calculation model are either accurate
or err on the safe side.

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Design Approach 1 (Clause 2.4.7.3.4.2(1)P)


STR limit state failure or excessive deformation of the
structure
GEO limit state failure or excessive ground deformation
Ensure that:
Design effects of actions Ed design resistance Rd
Design Approach 1
Combination
C
bi ti 1:
1 A1 + M1 + R1
Combination 2: A2 + M2 + R1
A = action; M = material properties; R = ground resistance

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Design Approach 1 (Clause 2.4.7.3.4.2(1)P)


Combination 1: A1 + M1 + R1
Combination 2: A2 + M2 + R1

Clause 2.4.7.3.4.2(2)P Note 2 If it is obvious that


one combination governs the design, it is not
necessary to perform full calculations for the other
combination.
Often Combination 2 will govern the geotechnical
sizing and Combination 1 will govern the structural
design
design.
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GEO and STR ULS calculations (Design Approach 1)


Clause 2.4.7.3.2 and 2.4.7.3.3

Ed Rd

Ed = design value of the effects of all the actions


Ed = E{FFrep ; Xk / M; ad }
Rd = design value
al e of the corresponding gro
ground
nd and/or str
structure
ct re
R d = R{FFrep ; Xk / M; ad }
For piles and anchorages
Frep

R d = R{FFrep ; Xk ; ad }/ R

Representativevalueofanaction
p

Partialfactorforanaction

Xk

Characteristicvalueofamaterial (ground)property

Partialfactorforthematerialproperty

ad

Designvalueofageometricalproperty

Partialfactorforthe
a t a acto o t e resistanceoftheground
es sta ce o t e g ou d
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Serviceability
y Limit State ((Clause 2.4.8))
Partial factors normally taken as 1.0 (Clause
2.4.8(2))
( ))
Verification for serviceability
y limit states shall
require that
Ed Cd
where Cd = the limiting
g design
g value of the relevant
serviceability criterion (Clause 2.4.8(1)P)
or be done through the method given in 2.4.8(4).
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2.4.8(4).
2
4 8(4) It may be verified that a sufficiently low
fraction of the ground strength is mobilised to keep
deformations within the required serviceability limits,
limits
provided this simplified approach is restricted to
design situations where:
a value of the deformation is not required to check
th serviceability
the
i
bilit limit
li it state;
t t
established comparable experience exists with
similar ground, structures and application method.

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Limiting values of movements of foundations


(Clause 2.4.9(4)P Note)
In the absence of specified limiting values, Annex H
(informative) may be used.
Annex H For normal structures with isolated foundations,
total settlements of up
p to 50 mm are often acceptable.
p
Also provides guidelines for Maximum relative rotation.
Annex F Sample methods for settlement evaluation (based
on elasticity theory)
7.6.4. Vertical displacements of pile foundations
(serviceability of supported structures)
7 6 4 1 NOTE For piles bearing in medium-to-dense
7.6.4.1
medium to dense soils and for
tension piles, the safety requirements for the ultimate limit state
design are normally sufficient to prevent a serviceability limit state
in the supported structure.
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Pile Foundation Design (Design Approach 1)

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7.2 Limit states


(1)P The following limit states shall be considered ..... :
loss of overall stability;

bearing resistance failure of the pile foundation;


uplift or insufficient tensile resistance of the pile foundation;
failure in the ground due to transverse loading of the pile foundation;
structural failure of the pile in compression, tension, bending, buckling
or shear;
combined failure in the ground and in the pile foundation;
combined failure in the ground and in the structure;
excessive settlement;
excessive heave;
excessive lateral movement;
unacceptable vibrations
vibrations.

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7.3.1 Actions and design situations


Axial loading
g
Transverse ((horizontal)) loading
7.3.2 Actions due to ground displacement
consolidation
lid ti ((negative
ti skin
ki ffriction)
i ti )
swelling or heave (tension pile)
lateral loading from adjacent surcharge or embankment
Analysis
y of Geotechnical action ((Clause 7.3.2.1(3)P):
( ) )
pile-soil interaction analysis (t-z or p-y analysis); or
upper-bound force exerted on the pile by the ground
movementt iis calculated
l l t d and
d ttreated
t d as an action
ti

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Clause 2.4.7.3.4.2(2)P

Combination 1: A1 + M1 + R1
Combination 2: A2 + (M1 or M2) + R4
In combination 2, set M1 is used for calculating resistances
of piles (or anchors) and set M2 for calculating
unfavourable
nfa o rable actions on piles eg.
eg owing
o ing to negative
negati e skin
friction
Clause 2.4.7.3.4.2 (2) Note 2 If it is obvious that one
combination governs the design, it is not necessary to
perform
f
f ll calculations
full
l l ti
f the
for
th other
th combination.
bi ti
A = action; M = material properties; R = ground resistance
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7.4.1 Design
g methods
(1)P The design shall be based on one of the following approaches:
the results of static load tests, which have been demonstrated, by
means of calculations or otherwise, to be consistent with other relevant
experience;
empirical or analytical calculation methods whose validity has been
demonstrated by static load tests in comparable situations;
the results of dynamic load tests whose validity has been
demonstrated by static load tests in comparable situations;
the observed performance of a comparable pile foundation, provided
that
h this
hi approach
h is
i supported
d by
b the
h results
l off site
i investigation
i
i i
and
d
ground testing.

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Design methods for pile foundations (Clause 7.4.1(P))


Method

Comments

Staticloadtests#

Validity mustbedemonstratedbycalculations orother


meanstobeconsistentwithotherrelevantexperiences.

Empiricaloranalytical
calculations

Validity mustbedemonstratedbystaticloadtestsin
comparable situations
comparablesituations.

Dynamic impact tests#

Validitymustbedemonstratedbystaticloadtestsin
p
comparablesituations.

Piledrivingformulaeor
waveequationanalysis#

Validity mustbedemonstratedbystaticloadtestsin
comparablesituations, andgroundstratificationhasbeen
determined.
determined

Observation

Observedperformanceofcomparablepilefoundation;
mustbesupportedbyresultsofSI andgroundtesting.

Usually applies to trial (preliminary) piles and the


results of tests on these piles are used to design the
working piles.
#

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7.4.1(3)
7
4 1(3) Static load tests may be carried out on trial piles
piles, installed for
test purposes only, before the design is finalised, or on working piles,
which form part of the foundation.

Trial piles (installed for test purposes only, before the


design is finalised); preliminary
preliminary pile.
pile
Working piles (which form part of the permanent
); Test load must be at least equal
q
foundation works);
to the design load (Clause 7.5.2.3(2)P).
UK experience Most contracts tests on trial piles are impractical as
there is insufficient lead time between the main piling works and the test
programmes.
p
g
Preliminaryy tests are seldom carried out on p
piles with
similar widths and lengths, which makes it difficult to derive a sensible
mean test result. In many tests, the ultimate load is obtained from
extrapolation of the load
load-displacement
displacement curve, adding further to the
uncertainty in any calculated mean (Bond and Harris, 2008).
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7.5 Pile load tests


7.5.1(1)P Pile load tests shall be carried out in the following situations:
when using a type of pile or installation method for which there is no
comparable experience;
when the piles have not been tested under comparable soil and
loading conditions;
when the piles will be subject to loading for which theory and
experience do not provide sufficient confidence in the design. The pile
testing procedure shall then provide loading similar to the anticipated
loading;
g;
when observations during the process of installation indicate pile
behaviour that deviates strongly and unfavourably from the behaviour
anticipated
i i
d on the
h basis
b i off the
h site
i investigation
i
i i or experience,
i
and
d when
h
additional ground investigations do not clarify the reasons for this
deviation.
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(2) Pile load tests may be used to:


assess the suitability of the construction method;
determine the response of a representative pile and the
surrounding ground to load,
load both in terms of settlement and limit load;
to allow judgement of the overall pile foundation.

Clause 7.5.1(4)P and (5)P)


If one pile load test is carried out located where the
most ad
adverse
erse ground
gro nd conditions are belie
believed
ed to
occur. If this is not possible, an allowance shall be
made when deriving the characteristic value of the
compressive resistance.
If more than one pile load test is carried out locations
must be representative of the site of the pile
foundation and one of the test piles shall be located
where the most adverse ground conditions are
believed to occur. CPGEC7course(Goh)

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7.5.2 Static load tests


7.5.2.1 Loading procedure
(1)P Measurements during static load tests must allow
conclusions about deformation, creep and rebound of
the piled foundation. ...
Trial piles measurements must be able to draw
conclusions# about the ultimate failure load.
(4)Tensile pile test should be carried out to failure
(as brittle failure can occur).
However, it should be understood that it is not always
necessary to bring trial piles to failure: the common practice
of deriving the ultimate failure load by extrapolating the
load-displacement
load
displacement curve can be used.
used. (Frank et al. 2004)
#

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7.5.2.2 Trial piles


(1)P The number of trial piles required to verify the design shall depend on the
following:
the ground conditions and their variability across the site;
the Geotechnical Category of the structure, if appropriate;
previous documented evidence of the performance of the same type of pile in
similar ground conditions;
the total number and types of pile in the foundation design.
(2)P The ground conditions at the test site shall be investigated thoroughly. The
d th off borings
depth
b i
or field
fi ld tests
t t shall
h ll be
b sufficient
ffi i t to
t ascertain
t i the
th nature
t
off the
th ground
d
both around and beneath the pile tip. All strata likely to contribute significantly to pile
behaviour shall be investigated.
(3)P The method used for the installation of the trial piles shall be fully documented
in accordance with 7.9.

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7.5.2.3 Working Pile


(2)P Test load must be at least equal to the design load for the foundation.
foundation

7.5.3 Dynamic load tests


(1) Dynamic load tests may be used to estimate the compressive
resistance provided an adequate site investigation has been carried out
and the method has been calibrated against static load tests on the same
t
type
off pile,
il off similar
i il length
l
th and
d cross-section,
ti
and
d in
i comparable
bl soilil
conditions, (see 7.6.2.4 to 7.6.2.6).
(2)P If more than one type of dynamic test is used, the results of different
types of dynamic test shall always be considered in relation to each other.
(3) Dynamic load tests may also be used as an indicator of the
consistency of the piles and to detect weak piles.

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7.5.4 Load test report


(1)P It shall be specified that a factual report shall be written for all load
tests. Where appropriate, this report shall include:
a description of the site;
the ground conditions with reference to ground investigations;
the pile type;
description
d
i ti off the
th pile
il installation
i t ll ti and
d off any problems
bl
encountered
t d
during the works;
a description of the loading and measuring apparatus and the reaction
system;
calibration documents for the load cells, the jacks and the gauges;
the installation records of the test piles;
p
;
photographic records of the pile and the test site;
test results in numerical form;
time
time-displacement
displacement plots for each applied load when a step loading
procedure is used;
the measured load-displacement behaviour;
reasons for any departures from the above requirements .
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Limit states ((axially


y loaded p
piles)) Clause 7.6.1.1(1)P
( )
ULS of compressive or tensile failure of a single pile
ULS of compressive or tensile failure of the pile
foundation as a whole
ULS of collapse or severe damage to a supported
structure caused by excessive displacement or
differential displacements of the pile foundation
SLS in the supported structure caused by displacement
of the piles
p

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Ultimate compression limit state (Clause 7.6.1.1(3))


It is often difficult to define an ultimate limit state from a
load settlement plot. Settlement of the pile head = 10% of
pile base diameter is used as the failure
failure criterion.
criterion

Serviceability Limit State (Clause 2.4.8(2))


Partial factors normally taken as 1.0
Serviceability of supported structure
- Clause 7
7.6.4.1
6 4 1 (2) Note
For piles bearing in medium-to-dense soils and for tension
piles, the safety requirements for the ultimate limit state
design are normally sufficient to prevent a serviceability limit
state in the supported structure.
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7.6.2 Compressive ground resistance


7.6.2.1 General
(1)P To demonstrate that the pile foundation will support the design load
with
i h adequate
d
safety
f
against
i
compressive
i ffailure,
il
the
h ffollowing
ll i iinequality
li
shall be satisfied for all ultimate limit state load cases and load
combinations:

Fc;d Rc;d
Fc;d = design axial compression load on a pile
or a group of piles
Rc;d = compressive resistance

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(3)P For piles in groups, two failure mechanisms shall be


taken into account:
compressive resistance failure of the piles individually;
compressive resistance failure of the piles and the soil
contained between them acting as a block.
The design resistance shall be taken as the lower value
caused by these two mechanisms.
(4) The compressive resistance of the pile group acting as
a block may be calculated by treating the block as a single
pile of large diameter.

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(5)P The stiffness and strength of the structure connecting


the piles in the group shall be considered when deriving the
design resistance of the foundation.
(6) If the piles support a stiff structure, advantage may be
taken of the ability of the structure to redistribute load
between the piles. A limit state will occur only if a significant
number of piles fail together; therefore a failure mode
involving only one pile need not be considered.
considered
(7) If the piles support a flexible structure, it should be
assumed that the compressive resistance of the weakest
pile governs the occurrence of a limit state.

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(8) Special attention should be given to possible failure of


edge piles caused by inclined or eccentric loads from the
supported structure.
(9)P If the layer in which the piles bear overlies a layer of
weak soil, the effect of the weak layer on the compressive
resistance of the foundation shall be considered.
(10)P The strength of a zone of ground above and below
the pile base shall be taken into account when calculating
the pile base resistance.
NOTE This zone may extend several diameters above and
below the pile base. Any weak ground in this zone has a
relatively large influence on the base resistance.
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(11) Punching failure should be considered if weak ground is


present at a depth of less than 4 times the base diameter
below the base of the pile.
(12)P Where the pile base diameter exceeds the shaft
diameter, the possible adverse effect shall be considered.
(13) For open-ended driven tube or box-section piles with
openings of more than 500 mm in any direction,
direction and without
special devices inside the pile to induce plugging, the base
resistance should be limited to the smaller of:
the shearing resistance between the soil plug and the
inside face of the pile;
the base resistance derived using the cross-sectional area
of the base.
base
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Compressive Ground Resistance (Clause 7.6.2)

Fc;d Rc;d
Fc;d = design axial compression load on a pile
group
p of p
piles
or a g
Rc;d = compressive resistance

Fc;d should include the weight of the pile.


Weight of piles is considered as permanent action.
Rc;d should include the overburden pressure of the soil at the
foundation base
base.
However, these two items may be disregarded if they
pp
y
cancel approximately.
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They
y mayy not cancel if: ((a)) downdrag
g is significant,
g
((b)) the
soil is very light, or (c) the pile extends above the ground
surface. (Clause 7.6.2.1(2))
For structures having sufficient stiffness and strength to
transfer loads from weak
weak to strong
strong piles,
piles a reduction
factor of 1.1 may be introduced. Clauses 7.6.2.2(9) and
( ) See Tables A.NA.9 and A.NA.10.
7.6.2.3(7).
Pile base resistance shall take into account the strength
above and below the pile base. Clauses 7.6.2.1(9) to (11).
See Clause 7
7.8
8 for Structural design of piles

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Rc;d = compressive resistance, shall be derived either from:

R c;d

R s;k Rb;k
=
+
s
b

or

R c;d

R t;k R s;k + Rb;k


=
=
t
t

Clause 7.6.2.2(14)
Refer to Tables A.NA.6, 7 and 8

Rb

Rs

s
b
t

Partialfactoronshaftresistance
Partial
factor on shaft resistance
Partial factoronbaseresistance
Partial factor on total characteristic
Partialfactorontotalcharacteristic
resistanceRt;k

The left
Th
l f equation
i
i normally
is
ll used
d when
h designing
d i i
by calculation. The right equation is used when
the shaft and base components cannot be
determined separately.
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Rc;d = compressive resistance

R c;d

R s;k Rb;k
=
+
s
b

R c;d

or

R t;k R s;k + Rb;k


=
=
t
t

Rs

Rb

The differences of the partial factor values


between driven,, bored and CFA p
piles is mainly
y
related to the increasing probability of unexpected
effects during pile installation adversely affecting
the pile bearing capacity (Bauduin 2001).
2001)

SS NA permits the use of different R4


values
l
d
depending
di
on the
th verification
ifi ti
off
SLS (Tables A.NA.6 to 8)
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Table A.NA.6 Partial resistance factors (R) for driven piles for the
STR and GEO limit states
Resistance

Symbol
R1

Set
R4 without
explicit
verification
ifi ti
off
SLS A)

R4 with explicit
verification of
SLS A)

Base
Shaft (compression)

b
s

1.0
10
1.0

1.7
15
1.5

1.5
13
1.3

Total/Combined
(compression)
Shaft in tension

1.0

1.7

1.5

s;t

1.0

2.0

1.7

A) The lower values in R4 may be adopted (a) if serviceability is verified by load tests (preliminary
and/or working) carried out on more than 1% of the constructed piles to loads not less than 1.5
ti
times
th representative
the
t ti
l d for
load
f which
hi h they
th
are designed,
d i
d or (b) if settlement
ttl
t is
i explicitly
li itl
predicted by a means no less reliable than in (a), or (c) if settlement at the serviceability limit
state is of no concern.

SS NA permits the use of different R4 values depending on the verification of SLS


With no testing (relying solely on calculation), a higher level of reliability
s needed
eeded in the
t e calculations.
ca cu at o s
is
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Table A.NA.7
A NA 7 Partial resistance factors (R) for bored piles for the STR
and GEO limit states
Resistance

Symbol

Base
Shaft
(compression)
Total/Combined
(compression)
Shaft in tension

R1

Set
R4 without explicit
verification of SLSA)

R4 with explicit
verification of SLSA)

b
s

1.0
1.0

2.0
1.6

1.7
1.4

1.0

2.0

1.7

s;t

1.0

2.0

1.7

A) The lower values in R4 may be adopted (a) if serviceability is verified by load tests (preliminary and/or working)
carried out on more than 1% of the constructed piles to loads not less than 1.5 times the representative load for
which they are designed, or (b) if settlement is explicitly predicted by a means no less reliable than in (a), or (c)
if settlement at the serviceabilityy limit state is of no concern.

SS NA permits the use of different R4 values depending on the verification


of SLS
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Table A.NA.8 Partial resistance factors (R) for continuous flight auger
piles for the STR and GEO limit states
CFA p
Resistance

Base
Shaft
(compression)
Total/Combined
(compression)
Shaft in tension
A)

Symbol
R1

Set
R4 without explicit
p
verification of SLS A)

R4 with explicit
p
verification of SLS A)

b
s

1.0
10
1.0

2.0
16
1.6

1.7
14
1.4

1.0

2.0

1.7

s,t

1.0

2.0

1.7

The lower values in R4 may be adopted (a) if serviceability is verified by load tests
(preliminary and/or working) carried out on more than 1% of the constructed piles to loads not
less than 1.5 times the representative load for which they are designed, or (b) if settlement is
explicitly predicted by a means no less reliable than in (a), or (c) if settlement at the
serviceability limit state is of no concern.

SS NA permits the use of different R4 values depending on the verification


of SLS
CPGEC7course(Goh)

42

Draft Malaysian
(
)
Standard (2011)

CPGEC7course(Goh)

43

Summary of partial factors (NA to SS EN 1997-1:2010)


Combination 1

Combination 2
With explicit
Without explicit
verification of SLS A) verification of SLS A)

A1
Action

Permanent
Variable

Soil

Driven Piles

Bored Piles
& CFA

M1

R1

A2

M1

R4

A2

Unfav

1.35

1.00

1.00

Fav

1.00

1.00

1.00

Unfav

1.50

1.30

1.30

M1

Tan

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

cu

1.00

1.00

1.00

Unit wt.

1.00

1.00

1.00

R4

Base

1.00

1.70

1.50

Shaft (comp)

1.00

1.50

1.30

Total

1.00

1.70

1.50

Base

1.00

2.00

1.70

Shaft (comp)

1.00

1.60

1.40

Total (comp)

1.00

2.00

1.70

The lower values in R4 may be adopted (a) if serviceability is verified by load tests (preliminary and/or working) carried out on
more than 1% of the constructed piles to loads not less than 1.5 times the representative load for which they are designed, or (b) if
settlement is explicitly predicted by a means no less reliable than in (a), or (c) if settlement at the serviceability limit state is of no
concern.
A)

CPGEC7course(Goh)

44

Ultimate compressive resistance by calculation


from Ground Test results
Clause 7.6.2.3.

Two calculation methods:


Model
Model pile
pile:: procedure (Clause 7
7.6.2.3(5)P)
6 2 3(5)P)
Alternative procedure (Clause 7.6.2.3(8))

CPGEC7course(Goh)

45

Ultimate compressive resistance by calculation from


Ground Test results (Clause7.6.2.3(5)P)
Model
Model Pile
Pile method assumes a fictitious pile of the
same cross-section and length as proposed for the project
is installed at the location of each borehole or in-situ test.
The shaft resistance and the base resistance are
calculated for the mean and minimum soil parameters for
each
h borehole
b h l or test
t t profile.
fil The
Th two
t
components
t off the
th
resistance are then divided by a correlation factor
which depends on the number of ground test profiles on
the site.
correlation factor 3 and 4 from Table A.NA.10

CPGEC7course(Goh)

46

Clause 7.6.2.3(5)
R c;k = (Rb;k + R s;k ) =

Model pile method


Rb;cal + R s;cal
)
(R
)
(R
= R c;cal = Min c;cal mean ; c;cal min

3
4

correlation factor 3 and 4 from


depending on number of profiles n

Table

(7.8)

A.NA.10

(Rc;cal )mean = (Rb;cal + R s;cal )mean = (Rb;cal )mean + (R s;cal )mean


(Rc;cal )min = (Rb;cal + R s;cal )min
Table A.NA.10 Correlation factors () to derive characteristic values of the resistance of axially
loaded piles from ground test results (n - number of profiles of tests)

for n =
3
4

1
1.55
1.55

2
1.47
1.39

3
1.42
1.33

4
1.38
1.29

5
1.36
1.26

7
1.33
1.20

10
1.30
1.15

NOTE For structures having sufficient stiffness and strength to transfer loads from ''weak'' to "strong piles,
values of 3 and 4 may be divided by 1.1, provided that 3 is never less than 1.0, see EN 1997-1 7.6.2.3(7).

CPGEC7course(Goh)

47

Ultimate compressive resistance from Ground Test results


Alternative method Ground test results (shear strength,
cone resistance etc) for all test locations are first combined
(assessed) to derive the characteristic values of the base
resistance and shaft resistance in the various strata based on
a cautious assessment of the test results and without
applying the factors . (Clause 7.6.2.3(8))

A model factor is introduced to account for uncertainty of the


calculation results.
results
Model factor = R;d
The value of the model factor should be 1.4, except that it may
be reduced to 1.2 if the resistance is verified by a maintained
load test taken to the calculated,
calculated unfactored ultimate
resistance.
CPGEC7course(Goh)
48

Alternative method
Clause 7
7.6.2.3(8)
6 2 3(8)

The characteristic values may be obtained by calculating:


Rb;k = Ab qb;k and

Rs;k = As;i qs;i;k

(7.9)

where qb;k and qs;i;k are characteristic values of base resistance and shaft
friction in the various strata i, obtained from values of ground parameters.
NOTE If this alternative procedure is applied, the values of the partial
factors b and s recommended in Annex A may need to be corrected by a
model factor larger than 1.0.
1 0 The value of the model factor may be set by
the National annex.

This is the most common method for pile design in UK.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

49

NA to SS EN 1997-1:2010
A.3.3.2
Partial resistance factors for pile foundations
For verifications of the structural (STR) and geotechnical (GEO) limit states of pile foundations, the
values of the partial factors on resistance (R) should be those given in Table A.NA.6, Table A.NA.7 and
Table A.NA.8. These values are used to convert characteristic resistances to design values for ultimate
li it state
limit
t t calculations.
l l ti
Th apply
They
l irrespective
i
ti off the
th process by
b which
hi h the
th characteristic
h
t i ti resistances
i t
are derived.

Characteristic resistances mayy be derived from static load tests using


g EN 1997-1
7.6.2.2 (7.6.3.2 for tensile loading), or from ground test results using EN 1997-1
Equations 7.8 or 7.9 (7.17 or 7.18 for tensile loading). When the approach of
Equations 7.9 or 7.18 is used to derive the characteristic resistances, a model
factor should be applied to the shaft and base resistance calculated using
characteristic values of soil properties by a method complying with EN 1997 -1,
2.4.1(6). The value of the model factor should be 1.4, except that it may be
reduced to 1.2 if the resistance is verified by a maintained load test taken to the
calculated, unfactored ultimate resistance.
Model factor = R;d

Rb;k = Ab qb;k and

Rs;k = As;i qs;i;k


CPGEC7course(Goh)

(7.9)
50

More than one


profile of g
p
ground
test data?

Yes
Number of profiles = n

Calculate characteristic pile


resistance from this single
profile of ground properties.
Apply model factor R;d
R d.
Apply partial factors b and
s to determine design
resistance Rc,d
c d.

correlation
l ti factor
f t 3 and
d 4
from Table A.NA.10
depending on n

Calculate characteristic pile


resistance for the different
profiles;
Determine minimum to be
characteristic resistance
Rc;cal.
Apply partial factors b and
s to
t determine
d t
i design
d i
resistance Rc;d.

No

Rb;k =

A bqb;k
A s;iqs;k;i
; R s;k =
R;d
R;d

R c;d

Rb;k R s;k
=
+
b
s

CPGEC7course(Goh)

51

Ultimate compressive resistance from static


load tests (Clause 7.6.2.2(8)P)
(R )
(R )
Rc;k = Min c;m mean ; c;m min
1
2

Table A.NA.9 Correlation factors () to derive characteristic values of the resistance of


axially loaded piles from static pile load tests (n - number of tested piles)

for n =

1.55

1.47

1.42

1.38

1.35

1.55

1.35

1.23

1.15

1.08

NOTE For structures having sufficient stiffness and strength to transfer loads from ''weak'' to "strong piles,
values 1 and 2 may be divided by 1.1, provided that 1 is never less than 1.0, see EN 1997-1 7.6.2.2(9).

Usually applies to trial (preliminary) piles and the results


of tests on these piles are used to design the working
piles
piles.
CPGEC7course(Goh)

52

7.6.2.2 Compressive ground resistance from static load


tests

(2)P Trial piles to be tested in advance shall be installed in


the same manner as the piles that will form the foundation
and shall be founded in the same stratum.
(3) If the diameter of the trial pile differs from that of the
working
ki piles,
il
th possible
the
ibl difference
diff
i performance
in
f
off piles
il
of different diameters should be considered in assessing the
compressive resistance to be adopted.
adopted

CPGEC7course(Goh)

53

(4) In the case of a very large diameter pile, it is often


impractical to carry out a load test on a full size trial pile.
Load tests on smaller diameter trial piles may be considered
provided that:
the ratio of the trial pile diameter/working pile diameter is
not less than 0.5;;
the smaller diameter trial pile is fabricated and installed in
the same way as the piles used for the foundation;
the trial pile is instrumented in such a manner that the
base and shaft resistance can be derived separately
f
from
the
h measurements.
This approach should be used with caution for open-ended
open ended driven piles
because of the influence of the diameter on the mobilisation of the
compressive resistance of a soil plug in the pile.
CPGEC7course(Goh)

54

(5)P In the case of a pile foundation subjected to downdrag,


the pile resistance at failure,
failure or at a displacement that equals
the criterion for the verification of the ultimate limit state
determined from the load test results, shall be corrected. The
correction shall be achieved by subtracting the measured, or
the most unfavourable, positive shaft resistance in the
compressible stratum and in the strata above, where
negative skin friction develops, from the loads measured at
the pile head.
head
(6) During the load test of a pile subject to downdrag, positive
shaft friction will develop along the total length of the pile and
should be considered in accordance with 7.3.2.2(6). The
maximum test load applied to the working pile should be in
excess of the sum of the design external load plus twice the
downdrag force.
force
CPGEC7course(Goh)

55

(10)P The systematic and random components of the


variations in the ground shall be recognised in the
interpretation of pile load tests.
(11)P The
Th records
d off the
th installation
i t ll ti
off the
th test
t t pile(s)
il ( ) shall
h ll
be checked and any deviation from the normal execution
conditions shall be accounted for.
for

CPGEC7course(Goh)

56

An important requirement stated in Eurocode 7 is


that the interpretation of the results of the pile load
tests must take into account the variability of the
ground over the site and the variability due to
deviation from the normal method of pile installation.
In other words, there must be a careful examination
of the results of the ground investigation and of the
pile load tests results. The results of the pile load
tests might lead, for example, to different
homogeneous parts of the site being identified,
each with its own particular characteristic pile
compressive resistance. (Frank et al. 2004)

CPGEC7course(Goh)

57

Ultimate compressive resistance from dynamic impact tests/pile


driving formulae/wave equation analysis (Clause 7.6.2.4 to 7.6.2.6)
(R )
(R )
Rc;k = Min c;m mean ; c;m min
5
6

Table A.NA.11 Correlation factors ( ) to derive characteristic values of the


resistance of axially loaded piles from dynamic impact tests (n - number of tested
piles)
for n =
5
6

2
1.94
1.90

5
1.85
1.76

10
1.83
1.70

15
1.82
1.67

20
1.81
1.66

NOTE 1 The - values may be multiplied with a model factor of 0.85 when using dynamic impact tests with
signal
i
l matching.
t hi
NOTE 2 The - values should be multiplied with a model factor of 1.10 when using a pile driving formula with
measurement of the quasi-elastic pile head displacement during the impact.
NOTE 3 The - values should be multiplied with a model factor of 1.20 when using a pile driving formula
without measurement of the quasi-elastic pile head displacement during the impact.
NOTE 4 If different piles exist in the foundation
foundation, groups of similar piles should be considered separately when
selecting the number n of test piles.

The blow counts used in pile driving should be obtained from driving
records of at least five piles (Clause 7.6.2.5(4)).
CPGEC7course(Goh)

58

Pile Load test method


PileLoadtestmethod
staticloadtests

Rc;m andn
profiles
fil 1,2

Applyb,s ort
Rc;d

TableA.NA.9and
T bl A NA 6
TableA.NA.6

dynamic impact Rc;m andn


tests,piledriving
,p
g p
profiles5,,6
formulae, wave
equation

Applyb,s ort
Rc;d

TableA.NA.11
andTableA.NA.6

G
Groundtestmethod
dt t
th d
alternative
method (single
method(single
profile)

Applymodel
factor R;d
factor
to
R d,to
obtainRc;k

Applyb,s
Rc;dd

TableA.NA.6

modelpile
method
(nprofiles)

Rc;cal andn
profiles3,4

Applyb,s
Rc;d

TableA.NA.10
andTableA.NA.6

CPGEC7course(Goh)

59

Summary of correlation factors (NA to SS EN 1997-1:2010)

No.of
tests

staticloadtests

groundtests

mean

min.

mean

min

1.55

1.55

1.55

1.55

1 47
1.47

1 35
1.35

1 47
1.47

1 39
1.39

1.42

1.23

1.42

1.33

1.38

1.15

1.38

1.29

1.35

1.08

1.36

1.26

1 33
1.33

1 20
1.20

10

1.30

1.15

CPGEC7course(Goh)

dynamictests
No.of
tests

mean

min.

---

---

---

2-4
2
4

1 94
1.94

1 90
1.90

5-9

1.85

1.76

10-14

1.83

1.70

15-19

1.82

1.67

20

1.81

1.66
60

The SS NA (and BS NA) provide larger correlation factors to


those given in Annex A of SS EN 1997-1 : 2010.
According to Bauduin (2001), the correlation factors are
based on a reference value of about 10% for the COV of the
pile compressive resistance. For the COV less than 10%,
the mean of the resistance should govern the design,
whereas for COV greater than 10%, the lowest resistance
should govern. See Example 2.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

61

Example 1A (Axially loaded pile in clay single profile of


P
ground test data)
Piletype

Boredpile

Pilelength(m)

30

Pilewidth(m)

0.6

cu;k (kPa)characteristicvalue
( )

100

Skinfriction

0.5

Soil unitweight(kN/m
unit weight (kN/m3)

20

Permanentverticalload(kN)

1000

Variableverticalload(kN)

200

Rs

Rb

Alternative method

Note: For simplicity, Self Weight of pile is omitted in the


calculations

CPGEC7course(Goh)

62

Example 1A

Combination 1: A1 + M1 + R1
Pil t
Piletype
Pilelength(m)

30

Pilewidth(m)

0.6

cu;k (kPa)characteristicvalue
(kPa) characteristic value

100

Skinfriction

0.5

unitweight(kN/m3)

20

Permanent vertical load (kN)


Permanentverticalload(kN)

1000

Variableverticalload(kN)

200

Soil

B d il
Boredpile

Rs

Rb

Design Action (A1)

A1

Design
g vertical action
Fc;d = 1000 x 1.35 + 200 x 1.5 = 1650 kN

G;dst

1.35

G;stb

1.0

Q;dst

1.5

cu

1.0

CPGEC7course(Goh)

Material Factors (M1)


Pil t
Piletype

63

Example 1A

cu = 1.0, cu = cu;k

B d il
Boredpile

A1

Pilelength(m)

30

Pilewidth(m)

0.6

G;dst

1.35

cu;k (kPa)characteristicvalue
(kPa) characteristic value

100

G;stb
G

1.0

Skinfriction

1.5

0.5

Q;dst

unitweight(kN/m3)

20

cu

Permanent vertical load (kN)


Permanentverticalload(kN)

1000

Variableverticalload(kN)

200

Soil

M1

M1

Rs
1.0

Rb

Design Resistance (R1)


Pile base resistance = 9cu
Pile shaft friction = cu = 0.5cu

From Table A.NA.7 (Bored piles)

Base resistance Rb = 9cuAb = 9(100)( x 0.62/4)


= 254 kN
Shaft resistanc Rs = 0.5cuAs = 0.5(100)(0.6 x 30)
= 2827 kN
Compressive Resistance Rc;d = Rb;d + Rs;d

CPGEC7course(Goh)

R1
Base
Shaft
(compression)
Total/Combined
(compression)

b
s

1.0
10
1.0

1.0

64

Example 1A

Base resistance Rb = 9cuAb = 9(100)( x 0.62/4) = 254 kN


Shaft resistanc Rs = 0.5c
0 5cuAs = 0.5(100)(0.6
0 5(100)(0 6 x 30) = 2827 kN

(A.3.3.2) For pile design from ground parameters, partial factors have to
be corrected by a Model Factor R;d = 1.4
14

Compressive Resistance Rc;d = Rb;d + Rs;d


= (254/1.4
(254/1 4 x 1
1.0)
0) + (2827/1.4
(2827/1 4 x 1
1.0)
0) = 2201 kN
Over design factor = Rc;dd / Fc;dd = 2201 / 1650 = 1.33 > 1
Over-design
OK
From Table A.NA.7 (Bored piles)

Rb;k =

A bqb;k
;
R;d

R c;d =

R s;k =

A s;iqs;k;i
R;d

Rb;k R s;k
+
b
s

R1
Base
Shaft
(compression)
Total/Combined
(
(compression)
i )

b
s

1.0
1.0

1.0

CPGEC7course(Goh)

65

Example 1A

Combination 2: A2 + M1 + R4
Pil t
Piletype
Pilelength(m)

30

Pilewidth(m)

0.6

cu;k (kPa)

100

Skinfriction

0.5

unitweight(kN/m3)

20

Permanent vertical load (kN)


Permanentverticalload(kN)

1000

Variableverticalload(kN)

200

Soil

B d il
Boredpile

Rs

Rb

Design Action (A2)

A2

Design
g vertical action
Fc;d = 1000 x 1.0 + 200 x 1.3 = 1260 kN

CPGEC7course(Goh)

G;dst

1.0

G;stb

1.0

Q;dst

1.3

cu

M1

1.0

66

A2

cu = 1.0, cu = cu;k

Material Factors (M1)

G;dst

1.0

B d il
Boredpile

G;stb

1.0

Pilelength(m)

30

Q;dst

1.3

Pilewidth(m)

0.6

cu;k (kPa)

100

cu

Skinfriction

0.5

Pil t
Piletype

unitweight(kN/m3)

20

Permanent vertical load (kN)


Permanentverticalload(kN)

1000

Variableverticalload(kN)

200

Soil

1.0

From Table A.NA.7 (Bored piles)


R4 with explicit
verification of SLS A)

Design Resistance (R4)


Pile base resistance = 9cu
Pile shaft friction = cu = 0.5cu
A)

Example 1A

M1

Base
Shaft
((compression)
p
)
Total/Combined
(compression)

b
s

1.7
1.4

1.7

The lower values in R4 may be adopted (a) if serviceability


is verified by load tests (preliminary and/or working) carried
out on more than 1% of the constructed piles to loads not less
than 1.5 times the representative load for which they are
designed, or (b) if settlement is explicitly predicted by a means
no less reliable than in (a),
(a) or (c) if settlement at the
serviceability limit state is of no concern.
CPGEC7course(Goh)

67

Example 1A

Base resistance Rb = 9cuAb = 9(100)( x 0.62/4) = 254 kN


Shaft resistanc Rs = 0.5cuAs = 0.5(100)(0.6 x 20) = 2827 kN

(A.3.3.2) For pile design from ground parameters, partial factors have to
be corrected by a Model Factor R;d = 1.4

Compressive Resistance with SLS verification

Compressive Resistance Rc;dd = Rb;d


b d + Rs;d
d
= 254/(1.7 x 1.4) + 2827/( 1.4 x 1.4)
= 254/(2.38) + 2827/(1.96) = 1549 kN
Over-design factor = Rc;d / Fc;d = 1549 / 1260 = 1.23 > 1
OK
Rb;k =

A bqb;k
;
R;d
R c;d

R s;k =

A s;iqs;k;i
R;d

R
R
= b;k + s;k
b
s

R4 with explicit
verification of SLS A)
Base
Shaft
(compression)
Total/Combined
(compression)

CPGEC7course(Goh)

b
s

1.7
1
7
1.4

1.7

68

Example 1A

Base resistance Rb = 9cuAb = 9(100)( x 0.62/4) = 254 kN


Shaft resistanc Rs = 0.5c
0 5cuAs = 0.5(100)(0.6
0 5(100)(0 6 x 20) = 2827 kN

(A.3.3.2) For pile design from ground parameters, partial factors have to
be corrected byy a Model Factor R;d = 1.4

Compressive Resistance without SLS verification


Compressive Resistance Rc;d = Rb;d + Rs;d
= 254/(2.0 x 1.4) + 2827/( 1.6 x 1.4)
= 254/(2.8) + 2827/(2.24) = 1353 kN
Over-design factor = Rc;d / Fc;d = 1353 / 1260 = 1.07 > 1
OK
R4 without explicit
verification of SLS A)
Base
B
Shaft
(compression)
Total/Combined
(
(compression)
i )

b
s

2.0
2
0
1.6

2.0

CPGEC7course(Goh)

Comparison with conventional FS

69

Example 1A

Base resistance Rb = 9cuAb = 9(100)( x 0.62/4) = 254 kN


Shaft resistanc Rs = 0.5cuAs = 0.5(100)(0.6 x 20) = 2827 kN

Applied vertical load = 1000 + 200 = 1200 kN

FS =

or

254 + 2827
= 2.57
1200

Qallowable =

254 2827
+
= 1969 > 1200 kN
3
1.5

Qallowable =

254 2827
+
= 1498 > 1200 kN
3
2.0
CPGEC7course(Goh)

70

Comparison with conventional FS (Bored piles)

Qb
Qs
+
Qallowable =
3 1 .5 ~ 2 .0
Combination 2: A2 + M1 + R4 (with model factor = 1.4)
Compressive Resistance with SLS verification
Rc;d = Qb/(1.7 x 1.4) + Qs/(1.4 x 1.4) = Qb/(2.38) + Qs/(1.96)
Compressive Resistance without SLS verification
Rc;d = Qb/(2.0.x 1.4) + Qs/(1.6 x 1.4) = Qb/(2.8) + Qs/(2.24)

CPGEC7course(Goh)

71

Example 1B (Axially loaded pile in clay single profile


P
of ground test data)
Piletype

Boredpile

Pilelength(m)

30

Pilewidth(m)

0.6

cu;k; (kPa)characteristicvalue

100

Skinfriction

0.5

Soil unitweight(kN/m3)

20

Permanent vertical load (kN)


Permanentverticalload(kN)

800

Variableverticalload(kN)

400

Rs

Rb

Note: Self Weight of pile is omitted in the calculations

Effects of Load Combinations (Only Combination


2 is considered in this example)
CPGEC7course(Goh)

72

Example 1B

Combination 2: A2 + M1 + R4
Pil t
Piletype
Pilelength(m)

30

Pilewidth(m)

0.6

cu;k (kPa)

100

Skinfriction

0.5

unitweight(kN/m3)

20

Permanent vertical load (kN)


Permanentverticalload(kN)

800

Variableverticalload(kN)

400

Soil

B d il
Boredpile

Rs

Rb

Design Action (A2)

A2

Design
g vertical action
Fc;d = 800 x 1.0 + 400 x 1.3 = 1320 kN

G;dst

1.0

G;stb

1.0

Q;dst

1.3

cu

M1

1.0

CPGEC7course(Goh)

73

A2

cu = 1.0, cu = cu;k

Material Factors (M1)

G;dst

1.0

B d il
Boredpile

G;stb

1.0

Pilelength(m)

30

Q;dst

1.3

Pilewidth(m)

0.6

cu;k (kPa)

100

cu

Skinfriction

0.5

Pil t
Piletype

unitweight(kN/m3)

20

Permanent vertical load (kN)


Permanentverticalload(kN)

800

Variableverticalload(kN)

400

Soil

M1

1.0

From Table A.NA.7 (Bored piles)


R4 with explicit
verification of SLS A)

Design Resistance (R4)


Pile base resistance = 9cu
Pile shaft friction = cu = 0.5cu
A)

Base
Shaft
((compression)
p
)
Total/Combined
(compression)

b
s

1.7
1.4

1.7

The lower values in R4 may be adopted (a) if serviceability is verified


by load tests (preliminary and/or working) carried out on more than 1%
of the constructed piles to loads not less than 1.5
1 5 times the
representative load for which they are designed, or (b) if settlement is
explicitly predicted by a means no less reliable than in (a), or (c) if
settlement at the serviceability limit state is of no concern.

Example 1B
CPGEC7course(Goh)

74

Example 1B

Base resistance Rb = 9cuAb = 9(100)( x 0.62/4) = 254 kN


Shaft resistanc Rs = 0.5cuAs = 0.5(100)(0.6 x 20) = 2827 kN

(A.3.3.2) For pile design from ground parameters, partial factors have to
be corrected by a Model Factor R;d = 1.4

Compressive Resistance with SLS verification

Compressive Resistance Rc;dd = Rb;d


b d + Rs;d
d
= 254/(1.7 x 1.4) + 2827/( 1.4 x 1.4)
= 254/(2.38) + 2827/(1.96) = 1549 kN
Over-design factor = Rc;d / Fc;d = 1549 / 1320 = 1.17 > 1
OK
Rb;k =

A bqb;k
;
R;d
R c;d =

R s;k

A s;iqs;k;i
=
R;d

Rb;k R s;k
+
b
s

R4 with explicit
verification of SLS A)
Base
Shaft
(compression)
Total/Combined
(compression)

b
s

1.7
1
7
1.4

1.7

CPGEC7course(Goh)

75

Comparison of Example 1A and 1B (Combination 2)


Effects of Load Combinations (Only Combination 2 is
considered in this example)

Example 1A

Example 1B

Permanent vertical
load (kN)
Variable vertical load
(kN)
Over-design
Over
design factor

1000

800

200

400

1.23

1.17

Design Length (m) for


=1.0

23.98

25.23

CPGEC7course(Goh)

76

Example 1C (Axially loaded pile in sand single profile


P
of ground test data)
Piletype

1m

Boredpile

Pilelength(m)

18

Pilewidth(m)

0.6

k characteristicvalue
BearingcapacityfactorNq

35o
49

Pileinterfacefriction

35o

Soil unitweight(kN/m
unit weight (kN/m3)

20

Permanentverticalload(kN)

1000

Variableverticalload(kN)

200

Rs

18 m

Rb

Note: Self
Weight of pile is
omitted in the
calculations

Combination 1: A1 + M1 + R1
A1

Design Action (A1)

Design
g vertical action
Fc;d = 1000 x 1.35 + 200 x 1.5 = 1650 kN

G;dst

1.35

G;stb

1.0

Q;dst
Qdt

1.5

cu

1.0

CPGEC7course(Goh)

Piletype

Boredpile

Pilelength(m)

18

Pilewidth(m)

0.6

k characteristicvalue
BearingcapacityfactorNq

35o
49

Pileinterfacefriction
il i
f
fi i

35o

Soil unitweight(kN/m3)

20

M1

77

K0 = (1 sin)

Example 1C

1m
Rs

18 m

D i R
Design
Resistance
i t
(R1)
R

b
Pile base resistance = qb = Nqvb(Ab)
piles))
Pile shaft friction = qs =
h,averagetan(As) From Table A.NA.7 ((Bored p

R1

vb = 20x1 + 17(20 w) = 190 kPa


h,average= 0.5vb(1 sin)

Base
Shaft
(compression)
Total/Combined
(compression)

b
s

1.0
10
1.0

1.0

Base resistance Rb = 49(vb)( x 0.62/4)


Shaft resistance Rs = 0.5
0 5vbb(1 sin
sin)tan(0
)tan(0.6
6 x 18)
CPGEC7course(Goh)

78

Example 1C

Base resistance Rb = 49(vb)( x 0.62/4) = 2632 kN


)
(
x 18)) = 962 kN
Shaft resistanc Rs = 0.5vb((1 sin)tan(0.6

(A.3.3.2) For pile design from ground parameters, partial factors have to
be corrected by a Model Factor R;d
R d = 1.4

Compressive Resistance Rc;d = Rb;d + Rs;d


= (2632/1.4
(2632/1 4 x 1
1.0)
0) + (962/1.4
(962/1 4 x 1
1.0)
0) = 2567 kN
Over design factor = Rc;dd / Fc;dd = 2567 / 1650 = 1.56 > 1
Over-design
OK
From Table A.NA.7 (Bored piles)

Rb;k

A q
= b b;k ;
R;d

R s;k

A s;iqs;k;i
=
R;d

R c;d =

Rb;k R s;k
+
b
s

R1
Base
Shaft
(compression)
Total/Combined
(
(compression)
i )

b
s

1.0
1.0

1.0

CPGEC7course(Goh)

79

Example 1C

Combination 2: A2 + M1 + R4
Pil t
Piletype

B d il
Boredpile

Permanentverticalload(kN)

1000

Variableverticalload(kN)

200

A2

Design Action (A2)

G;dst

1.0

G;stb

1.0

Q;dst

1.3

cu

M1

1.0

Design vertical action


Fc;d = 1000 x 1.0 + 200 x 1.3 = 1260 kN

CPGEC7course(Goh)

80

Base resistance Rb = 49(vb)( x 0.62/4) = 2632 kN


Shaft resistanc Rs = 0.5vb(1 sin)tan(0.6 x 18) = 962 kN

Example 1C

(A.3.3.2) For pile design from ground parameters, partial factors have to
be corrected by a Model Factor R;d = 1.4

Compressive Resistance with SLS verification


Compressive
p
Resistance Rc;d = Rb;d + Rs;d
= 2632/(1.7 x 1.4) + 962/( 1.4 x 1.4)
= 2632/(2.38) + 962/(1.96) = 1597 kN
Over-design factor = Rc;d / Fc;d = 1597 / 1260 = 1.27 > 1
OK
Rb;k =

A bqb;k
;
R;d
R c;d

R s;k

A s;iqs;k;i
=
R;d

R
R
= b;k + s;k
b
s

R4 with explicit
verification of SLS A)

Base
Shaft
(compression)
Total/Combined
(compression)

b
s

1.7
1
7
1.4

1.7

CPGEC7course(Goh)

81

Base resistance Rb = 49(vb)( x 0.62/4) = 2632 kN


Shaft resistanc Rs = 0.5vb(1 sin)tan(0.6 x 18) = 962 kN

Example 1C

(A.3.3.2) For pile design from ground parameters, partial factors have to
be corrected by a Model Factor R;d = 1.4

Compressive Resistance without SLS verification


Compressive Resistance Rc;d = Rb;d + Rs;d
= 2632/(2.0 x 1.4) + 962/( 1.6 x 1.4)
= 2632/(2.8) + 962/(2.24) = 1369 kN
Over-design factor = Rc;d / Fc;d = 1369 / 1260 = 1.09 > 1
OK
R4 without explicit
verification of SLS A)

Base
B
Shaft
(compression)
Total/Combined
(
(compression)
i )
CPGEC7course(Goh)

b
s

2.0
2
0
1.6

2.0

82

Example 1C

Comparison with conventional FS


Base resistance Rb = 49(vb)( x 0.62/4) = 2632 kN
Shaft resistanc Rs = 0.5vb(1 sin)tan(0.6 x 18) = 962 kN
Applied vertical load = 1000 + 200 = 1200 kN

FS =

or

2632 + 962
= 3.00
1200

Qallowable =

2632 962
+
= 1519 > 1200
3
1 .5

kN

Qallowable =

2632 962
+
= 1358 > 1200
3
2 .0

kN

CPGEC7course(Goh)

83

Example 2 (Axially loaded pile in clay data from 3


P
boreholes)
Piletype

Boredpile

Pilelength(m)

30

Pilewidth(m)

0.6

cu (kPa)BH1
(kPa) BH1

100

cu (kPa)BH2

110

cu (kPa)BH3
(kPa) BH3

130

Skinfriction

0.5

g
Soil unitweight
3
(kN/m )

20

Permanentvertical
l d (kN)
load(kN)

1000

Variablevertical
load(kN)
( )

200

Rs

Rb
Note: Self Weight of pile is
omitted in the calculations

M d l pile
Model
il method
th d

CPGEC7course(Goh)

84

Example 2

Combination 1: A1 + M1 + R1
P
Design Action (A1)
Rs

Design
g vertical action
Fc;d = 1000 x 1.35 + 200 x 1.5
= 1650 kN

Rb
A1

cu = 1.0, cu = cu;k

Material Factors (M1)

G;dst

1.35

G;stb

1.0

Q;dst

1.5

cu

M1

1.0

CPGEC7course(Goh)

Clause 7.6.2.3(5)
Rc;k = (Rb;k + R s;k ) =

85

Example 2

Model pile method


Rb;cal + R s;cal
)
(R
)
(R
= Rc;cal = Min c;cal mean ; c;cal min

3
4

(7.8)

correlation factor 3 and 4 from Table A.NA.10 depending on number of profiles n

(Rc;cal )mean = (Rb;cal + R s;cal )mean = (Rb;cal )mean + (R s;cal )mean


(Rc;cal )min = (Rb;cal + R s;cal )min
Table A.NA.10 Correlation factors () to derive characteristic values of the resistance of axially
loaded piles from ground test results(n - number of profiles of tests)

for n =
3
4

1
1.55
1.55

2
1.47
1.39

3
1.42
1.33

4
1.38
1.29

5
1.36
1.26

7
1.33
1.20

10
1.30
1.15

NOTE For structures having sufficient stiffness and strength to transfer loads from ''weak'' to "strong piles,
values of 3 and 4 may be divided by 1.1, provided that 3 is never less than 1.0, see EN 1997-1 7.6.2.3(7).

CPGEC7course(Goh)

86

Design Resistance (R1)


Pile base resistance = 9cu
Pile shaft friction = cu = 0.5cu

cu (kPa)BH1

100

cu (kPa)BH2

110

cu (kPa)BH3

130

Skinfriction

0.5

Base resistance Rb = 9cuAb = 9(cu)( x 0.62/4)


Shaft resistanc Rs = 0.5cuAs = 0.5(cu)(0.6 x 30)

Rc;cal = Rb;d + Rs;d


BH cu (kPa)
BH1
100
BH2
BH3

Rb (kN)
254

110
130

280
331

Rs (kN)
2827

Example 2

R1
Base
Shaft
(compression)
Total/Combined
(compression)

b
s

1.0
1.0

1.0

Rc;cal (kN)
3081

3110
3676

3390
4007

CPGEC7course(Goh)

Design Resistance (R1)


BH

cu (kPa)

Rb (kN)

Rc;cal = Rb;d + Rs;d


Rs (kN)

Rc;cal (kN)

BH1

100

254

2827

3081

BH2

110

280

3110

3390

BH3

130

331

3676

4007

87

Example 2

(Rc;cal)mean = (3081+3390+4007)/3 = 3483 kN


(Rc;cal)min = 3081 kN

Rc;k = (Rb;k + R s;k ) =

Rb;cal + R s;cal
)
(R
)
(R
= Rc;call = Min c;cal mean ; c;cal min

3
4

CPGEC7course(Goh)

88

Design Resistance (R1)

Example 2

Rc;cal = Rb;d + Rs;d

Table A.NA.10

(Rc;cal)mean = 3483 kN
(Rc;cal)min = 3081 kN
Rc;k = (Rb;k + R s;k ) =

Rb;cal + R s;cal
)
(R
)
(R
= Rc;cal = Min c;cal mean ; c;cal min

3
4

= Min {(3483/1.42) ; (3081/1.33)} = Min {2436; 2317} = 2317 kN


BH

cu (kPa)

Rb (kN)

Rs (kN)

Rc;cal (kN)

BH1

100

254

2827

3081

BH2

110

280

3110

3390

BH3

130

331

3676

4007

BH1 gives minimum

R1

Rs;k = 2827/1.33 kN

Rb;k = 254/1.33 kN

Rc;d = Rb;k/b + Rs;k/s = 2317 kN


CPGEC7course(Goh)

Base
Shaft
(compression)
Total/Combined
(compression)

b
s

1.0
1.0

1.0
89

Example 2

Note: The lowest value is the lowest of the total compressive


p
resistance, and not a combination of the lowest base
compressive resistance and the lowest shaft friction
d d
deduced
d from
f
another
th test.
t t
Rc;k = (Rb;k + R s;k ) =

Rb;cal + R s;cal
)
(R
)
(R
= Rc;cal = Min c;cal mean ; c;cal min

3
4

Rc;dd = Rb;k
b k/b + Rs;k
k/s = 2317 kN
Design vertical action
Fc;d = 1000 x 1.35 + 200 x 1.5 = 1650 kN
Over-design factor = 2317 / 1650 = 1.40
1 40 > 1
OK

CPGEC7course(Goh)

90

Example 2

Combination 2: A2 + M1 + R4
P
Design Action (A2)
Rs

Design vertical action


Fc;dd = 1000 x 1.0 + 200 x 1.3
= 1260 kN

Rb
A2

cu = 1.0, cu = cu;k

Material Factors (M1)

G;dst

1.0

G;stb

1.0

Q;dst

1.3

cu

1.0

CPGEC7course(Goh)

91

Example 2

Material Factors (M1)

A2
Pil t
Piletype

cu = 1.0, cu = cu;k

B d il
Boredpile

Pilelength(m)

30

Pilewidth(m)

0.6

cu;k (kPa)

100

Skinfriction

0.5

Soil unitweight(kN/m3)

20

Permanent vertical load (kN)


Permanentverticalload(kN)

1000

Variableverticalload(kN)

200

M1

G;dst

1.0

G;stb

1.0

Q;dst

1.3

cu

M1

1.0

From Table A.NA.7 (Bored piles)


R4 with
ith explicit
li it
verification of SLS A)

Design Resistance (R4)


Pile base resistance = 9cu
Pile shaft friction = cu = 0.5cu
A)

Base
Shaft
(compression)
Total/Combined
(compression)

b
s

1.7
14
1.4

1.7

The lower values in R4 may be adopted (a) if serviceability is verified


by load tests (preliminary and/or working) carried out on more than 1%
of the constructed piles to loads not less than 1.5
1 5 times the
representative load for which they are designed, or (b) if settlement is
explicitly predicted by a means no less reliable than in (a), or (c) if
settlement at the serviceability limit state is of no concern.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

92

Example 2

Design Resistance (R4)

Rc;cal = Rb + Rs

BH

cu
(kPa)

Rb
(kN)

Rs
(kN)

Rc;cal (kN)

BH1

100

254

2827

3081

BH2

110

280

3110

3390

BH3

130

331

3676

4007

(Rc;cal)mean = (3081+3390+4007)/3 = 3493 kN


(Rc;cal)min = 3081 kN

Rc;k = (Rb;k + R s;k ) =

Rb;cal + R s;cal
)
(R
)
(R
= Rc;cal = Min c;cal mean ; c;cal min

3
4

CPGEC7course(Goh)

Design Resistance (R4)

Rc;cal = Rb;d + Rs;d

93

Example 2

Table A.NA.10

(Rc;cal)mean = 3493 kN
(Rc;cal)min = 3081 kN
Rc;k = (Rb;k + R s;k ) =

Rb;cal + R s;cal
)
(R
)
(R
= Rc;cal = Min c;cal mean ; c;cal min

3
4

= Min
Mi {(3493/1.42
1 42) ; (3081/1.33
1 33)} = Min
Mi {2443
{2443; 2317} = 2317 kN
BH

cu (kPa)

Rb (kN)

Rs (kN)

BH1

100

254

2827

3081

BH2

110

280

3110

3390

BH3

130

331

3676

4007

Rs;k = 2827/1.33 kN

Rc;cal (kN)

BH1 gives minimum

R4 with explicit
verification of SLS A)

Rb;k = 254/1.33 kN

Rc;d = Rs;k/b + Rb;k/s


= 2827/(1.33 x 1.4) + 254/(1.33 x 1.7)
= 1631 kN

Base
Shaft
(compression)
Total/Combined
(compression)

CPGEC7course(Goh)

b
s

1.7
1.4

17
1.7
94

Example 2

Compressive Resistance with SLS verification


Design Resistance (R4)

Rc;d = Rs;k/b + Rb;k/s = 2827/(1.33x1.4) + 254/(1.33x1.7)


= 2827/(1.86) + 254/(2.26) = 1631 kN
Design vertical action
Fc;d = 1000 x 1.0
1 0 + 200 x 1.3
1 3 = 1260 kN
Over-design factor = 1631 / 1260 = 1.29 > 1
OK
R4 with explicit
verification of SLS A)

Base
Shaft
(compression)
Total/Combined
(compression)

b
s

1.7
1.4

17
1.7

CPGEC7course(Goh)

95

Compressive Resistance without SLS verification

Example 2

Design Resistance (R4)

Rc;d = Rs;k/b + Rb;k/s = 2827/(1.33x1.6) + 254/(1.33x2.0)


= 2827/(2.13) + 254/(2.66) = 1423 kN
Design vertical action
Fc;d = 1000 x 1.0
1 0 + 200 x 1.3
1 3 = 1260 kN
Over-design factor = 1423 / 1260 = 1.13 > 1
OK
Base
Shaft
(compression)
Total/Combined
(compression)
CPGEC7course(Goh)

R4 without explicit
verification of SLS A)

b
s

2.0
1.6

1.7

96

According to Bauduin (2001), the correlation factors are


based on a reference value of about 10% for the COV of the
pile compressive resistance. For the COV less than 10%,
the mean of the resistance should govern the design,
whereas for COV greater than 10%,
10% the lowest resistance
should govern.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

Example 3 (Axially loaded pile in


clay data from 4 static pile load
tests, tested to failure)
Piletype

30

Pilewidth(m)

0.6

PileTest #1Rm (kN)

4000

PileTest #2Rm (kN)

4200

PileTest #3Rm (kN)

4500

PileTest #4Rm (kN)

5000

Permanentvertical
l d (kN)
load(kN)

1000

Variablevertical
load(kN)
( )

200

Rs

Boredpile

Pile length (m)


Pilelength(m)

97

Rb
Note: Self Weight of pile is omitted in
the calculations

CPGEC7course(Goh)

98

Example 3

Combination 1: A1 + M1 + R1
P
Design Action (A1)

Design vertical action


Fc;d = 1000 x 1.35 + 200 x 1.5
= 1650 kN

Rs

Rb
A1

Material Factors (M1)

G;dst

1.35

G;stb

1.0

Q;dst

1.5

cu

M1

1.0

CPGEC7course(Goh)

99

Example 3

Ultimate compressive resistance from static load tests


(Clause 7.6.2.2)
(R )
(R )
Rc;k = Min c;m mean ; c;m min
1
2

Table A.NA.9 Correlation factors () to derive characteristic values of the resistance of


axially loaded piles from static pile load tests (n - number of tested piles)

for n =

1.55

1.47

1.42

1.38

1.35

1.55

1.35

1.23

1.15

1.08

NOTE For structures having sufficient stiffness and strength to transfer loads from ''weak'' to "strong piles,
values 1 and 2 may be divided by 1.1, provided that 1 is never less than 1.0, see EN 1997-1 7.6.2.2(9).

CPGEC7course(Goh)

100

Design Resistance (R1)

PileTest #1Rm (kN)

4000

Pil T t #2R
PileTest
#2 Rm (kN)

4200

PileTest #3Rm (kN)

4500

Pile Test #4R


PileTest
#4 Rm (kN)

5000

Example 3

(Rc;m)mean = (4000+4200+4500+5000)/4 = 4425 kN


(Rc;m)min = 4000 kN

(R )
(R )
Rc;k = Min c;m mean ; c;m min

= Min {(4425/1.38)
{(4425/1 38) ; (4000/1.15)}
(4000/1 15)} = Min {3207; 3478}
= 3207 kN

Table A.NA.9

for n =

1.55

1.47

1.42

1.38

1.35

1.55

1.35

1.23

1.15

1.08

NOTE For structures having sufficient stiffness and strength to transfer loads from ''weak'' to "strong piles,
values 1 and 2 may be divided by 1.1, provided that 1 is never less than 1.0, see EN 1997-1 7.6.2.2(9).

CPGEC7course(Goh)

101

Example 3

Design Resistance (R1)

Rc;d = 3207 kN
Design vertical action
Fc;d = 1000 x 1.35 + 200 x 1.5 = 1650 kN
Over-design factor = 3207 / 1650 = 1.94 > 1
OK
R1
Base
Shaft
(compression)
Total/Combined
(compression)
CPGEC7course(Goh)

b
s

1.0
1.0

1.0

102

Example 3

Combination 2: A2 + M1 + R4
P
Design Action (A2)

Design vertical action


Fc;d = 1000 x 1.0 + 200 x 1.3
= 1260 kN

Rs

Rb
A2

Material Factors (M1)

G;dst

1.0

G;stb

1.0

Q;dst

1.3

cu

1.0

CPGEC7course(Goh)

Design Resistance (R4)

M1

103

PileTest #1Rm (kN)

4000

Pil T t #2R
PileTest
#2 Rm (kN)

4200

PileTest #3Rm (kN)

4500

Pile Test #4R


PileTest
#4 Rm (kN)

5000

Example 3

(Rc;m)mean = (4000+4200+4500+5000)/4 = 4425 kN


(Rc;m)min = 4000 kN

= Min {(
{(4425/1.38)) ; (4000/1.15)}
(
)} = Min {{3207; 3478}}
= 3207 kN
Table A.NA.9
for n =

1.55

1.47

1.42

1.38

1.35

1.55

1.35

1.23

1.15

1.08

NOTE For structures having sufficient stiffness and strength to transfer loads from ''weak'' to "strong piles,
values 1 and 2 may be divided by 1.1, provided that 1 is never less than 1.0, see EN 1997-1 7.6.2.2(9).

CPGEC7course(Goh)

104

Compressive Resistance with SLS verification

Example 3

Design Resistance (R4)

Rc;k = 3207 kN

Compressive Resistance Rc;d = 3207/(1.7) = 1886 kN


Design vertical action
Fc;d = 1000 x 1.0 + 200 x 1.3 = 1260 kN
Over-design
O
d i factor
f t = 1886 / 1260 = 1.50
1 50 > 1
OK
R4 with explicit
verification of SLS A)

Base
B
Shaft
(compression)
Total/Combined
(
(compression)
i )

b
s

1.7
1
7
1.4

1.7

CPGEC7course(Goh)

105

Compressive Resistance without SLS verification

Example 3

Design Resistance (R4)

Rc;k = 3207 kN

Compressive Resistance Rc;d = 3207/(2.0) = 1604 kN


Design vertical action
Fc;d = 1000 x 1.0 + 200 x 1.3 = 1260 kN
Over-design
O
d i factor
f t = 1604 / 1260 = 1.27
1 27 > 1
OK
R4 without explicit
verification of SLS A)

Base
B
Shaft
(compression)
Total/Combined
(
(compression)
i )
CPGEC7course(Goh)

b
s

2.0
2
0
1.6

2.0

106

Pile subjected to Downdrag (Negative skin friction)


Clause 7.3.2.1(3)P

Two
o app
approaches:
oac es
(a) the ground displacement is treated as an action. An
interaction analysis (e.g., t-z method) is then carried out to
determine the forces, displacements and strains in the pile;
(b) an upper bound to the force, which the ground could
pile shall be introduced as the design
g action.
transmit to the p
Downdrag is considered a permanent action

CPGEC7course(Goh)

107

Example 4

Example 4 (Pile subjected to Downdrag)


P
Piletype

surcharge

Boredpile

Pilewidth(m)

0.3

downdrag skinfrictionqD;k
(kPa)characteristicvalue

20

stiffclayskinfrictionqs;k
(kPa) characteristic value
(kPa)characteristicvalue

50

Permanentverticalload(kN)

300

FD

5 m soft clay

Rs

18 m stiff clay
y

Rb
A surcharge is placed at ground level after pile installation, causing settlement of
the soft clay and downdrag FD (negative skin friction) on the pile. The base
resistance Rb is assumed to be negligible.
Note: For simplicity, Self Weight of pile is omitted in the calculations

Any
y variable action may
y usually
y be ignored
g
((Clause 7.3.2.2(7))
( ))
In most cases, downdrag is only relevant for SLS
E
Example
l M
Modified
difi d ffrom Simpson
Si
&D
Driscoll
i
ll (1998) E
Eurocode
d 7 a commentary
t
CPGEC7course(Goh)

108

Example 4
Piletype
il

Boredpile
d il

Pilewidth(m)

0.3

downdrag skinfrictionqD;k
(kP ) h
(kPa)characteristicvalue
i i
l

20

stiffclayskinfrictionqs;k
(kPa)characteristicvalue

50

surcharge

FD

5 m soft clay

18 m stiff clay
y

Rs
Permanentverticalload(kN)

300

Rb

The interaction between the pile shaft and the soft clay should take into
account the relative movement of the pile and the soil eg. using t-z
method. This may result in negative skin friction that varies with depth
and the location of the neutral point above the bottom of the layer.
This approach is more complicated that assuming a maximum (limiting)
downdrag load along the entire length of the pile in the settling layer.
In this example, for simplicity the maximum downdrag load is assumed.
CPGEC7course(Goh)

109

Example 4
Piletype

Boredpile

Pile width (m)


Pilewidth(m)

03
0.3

downdrag skinfrictionqD;k
(kPa)characteristicvalue

20

stiffclayskinfrictionq
stiff
clay skin friction qs;kk
(kPa)characteristicvalue

50

Permanentverticalload(kN)

300

FD

surcharge
5 m soft clay

18 m stiff clay
y

Rs

Combination 1: A1 + M1 + R1

Rb 0

Design Action (A1)

A1

Total downdrag load = FD;k


; = (0.3)(5)qD;k
;
= (0.3)(5)(20) = 94.2 kN
Design
g value of downdrag
g load FD;d = GFD;k
= 1.35 x 94.2

G;dst

1.35

G;stb

1.0

Q;dst

1.5

cu

M1

1.0

Design vertical action


Fc;d = 300 x 1.35 + 94.2 x 1.35 = 532 kN
CPGEC7course(Goh)

110

Piletype

Example 4

Boredpile

Pilewidth(m)
( )

0.3

stiffclayskinfrictionqs;k
(kPa)characteristicvalue

50

FD

surcharge
5 m soft clay

Combination 1: A1 + M1 + R1
Design Resistance (R1)

Rs

A.3.3.2 Model Factor R;d = 1.4

Compressive
C
i R
Resistance
i t
Rc;d = Rs;d
= (0.3)(18)50/( 1.0 x 1.4) = 606 kN
Over-design factor = Rc;d / Fc;d
= 606 / 532 = 1.13 > 1
OK

18 m stiff clay
y

Rb 0
From Table A.NA.7 (Bored piles)
R1
Base
Shaft
(
(compression)
i )
Total/Combined
(compression)

b
s

1.0
1.0

1.0

Design
D
i vertical
ti l action
ti
Fc;d = 300 x 1.35 + 94.2 x 1.35 = 532 kN

CPGEC7course(Goh)

Piletype

Example 4

Boredpile

Pilewidth(m)
( )

0.3

downdrag skinfrictionqD;k
(kPa)characteristicvalue

20

stiffclayskinfrictionqs;k
(kPa)characteristicvalue

50

Permanentverticalload(kN)

300

111

FD

surcharge
5 m soft clay

Rs

Combination 2: A2 + M2 + R4

18 m stiff clay
y

Rb 0

Design
g Action (A2) and M2

Total downdrag load = FD;k = (0.3)(5)qD;k= (0.3)(5)(20) = 94.2 kN


Design value of downdrag load FD;d = ()FD;k
= 1.25 x 94.2 = 118 kN
Design vertical action
Fc;d = 300 x 1.0 + FD;d = 418 kN
M2 = 1.25
1 25 is considered an action factor because downdrag is
usually calculated by effective stress analysis (eg. method)
CPGEC7course(Goh)

A2
G;dst

1.0

G;stb

10
1.0

Q;dst

1.3

M2

1.25

112

Example 4

Compressive Resistance with SLS verification


P

surcharge

Combination 2: A2 + M1 + R4
FD

Design Resistance (R4)

5 m soft clay

Model Factor R;d = 1.4

Rs

Compressive Resistance Rc;d = Rs;d


= (0.3)(18)50/(
(0 3)(18)50/( 1.4
1 4 x 1.4)
1 4) = 433 kN

Rb 0

A.3.3.2

Over design factor = Rc;d / Fc;d


Over-design
= 433 / 418 = 1.04 > 1
OK

18 m stiff clay
y

From Table A.NA.7


A NA 7 (Bored piles)
R4 with explicit
verification of SLS A)

Base
Shaft
(compression)
Total/Combined
(compression)

b
s

1.7
1.4

17
1.7

CPGEC7course(Goh)

113

Compressive Resistance without SLS verification


P

Example 4

surcharge

Combination 2: A2 + M1 + R4
FD

Design Resistance (R4)

5 m soft clay

Model Factor R;d = 1.4

Rs

Compressive Resistance Rc;d = Rs;d


= (0.3)(18)50/(
(0 3)(18)50/( 1.4
1 4 x 1.6)
1 6) = 379 kN

Rb 0

A.3.3.2

Over-design factor = Rc;d / Fc;d


= 379 / 418 = 0.91 < 1
Not OK

From Table A.NA.7


A NA 7 (Bored piles)

Base
Shaft
(compression)
Total/Combined
(compression)
CPGEC7course(Goh)

18 m stiff clay
y

R4 without explicit
verification of SLS A)
b
s

2.0
1.6

20
2.0
114

Thank You

CPGEC7course(Goh)

115