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Singapore National Annex to Eurocode 7)

- July 2013

Nanyang Technological University

E il ctcgoh@ntu.edu.sg

Email:

t

h@ t d

CPGEC7course(Goh)

References

Bauduin, C.M. (2001). Design procedure according to Eurocode 7 and

analysis of the test results. Proc. Symposium on Screw Piles Installation

and design in stiff clay, Brussels, Balkema, pp.275-303.

Bond, A. and Harris, A. (2008). Decoding Eurocode 7. Taylor & Francis.

Dept off Communities

C

and Local Government,

G

UK (2006).

(

) A designers

simple guide to BS EN 1997.

Driscoll R., Scott, P. and Powell J. (2008). EC7 implications for UK

practice. Eurocode 7 Geotechnical design. CIRIA C641.

Frank, R., Bauduin C., Driscoll, R., Kawadas, M., Krebs Ovesen, N., Orr, T.

and

d Schuppener,

S h

B (2004).

B.

(2004) Designers

D i

Guide

G id to

t EN 1997-1

1997 1 Eurocode

E

d 7:

7

Geotechnical design General rules. Thomas Telford.

p

B. and Driscoll,, R. ((1998)) Eurocode 7 a commentary.

y BRE.

Simpson

Tomlinson M. and Woodward, J. (2008). Pile design and construction

practice. 5th edition. Taylor & Francis.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

SINGAPORENATIONALANNEX

NAtoSSEN19971:2010

CPGEC7course(Goh)

SSINGAPORENATIONALANNEX

G O

O

NAtoSSEN19971:2010

SingaporeNationalAnnextoEurocode7:Geotechnical

design

P t1 G

Part1:Generalrules

l l

NA.2

NA 2 Nationally Determined Parameters

As indicated in Table NA.1, only Design Approach 1 is to

b used

be

d iin Si

Singapore.

The values given in the Tables in Annex A of this

National Annex replace the recommended values in

Annex A of SS EN 1997-1 : 2010.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

Table A.NA.7 Partial resistance factors (R) for bored piles for the

STR and GEO limit states

Resistance

Base

Shaft

(compression)

T t l/C bi d

Total/Combined

(compression)

Shaft in tension

Symbol

R1

Set

R4 without explicit

verification of SLSA)

R4 with explicit

verification of SLSA)

b

s

1.0

1.0

2.0

1.6

1.7

1.4

10

1.0

20

2.0

17

1.7

s;t

1.0

2.0

1.7

A) The lower values in R4 may be adopted (a) if serviceability is verified by load tests (preliminary and/or working)

carried out on more than 1% of the constructed piles to loads not less than 1.5 times the representative load for

which they are designed, or (b) if settlement is explicitly predicted by a means no less reliable than in (a), or (c)

if settlement at the serviceability limit state is of no concern.

on the verification of SLS

CPGEC7course(Goh)

Table A.7 Partial resistance factors (R) for bored piles

Resistance

Base

Shaft

(compression)

Total/Combined

(compression)

Shaft in tension

Symbol

Set

R1

R4

b

s

1.25

1.0

1.6

1.3

1.15

1.5

s;t

1.25

1.6

CPGEC7course(Goh)

Definitions

Actions on the foundations (Clause 2.4.2(4))

Earth and g

groundwater p

pressures

Weight of soil, rock and water

Dead and imposed loading from structure

Imposed loading from ground movements (eg. swelling,

g , down-drag)

g)

shrinkage,

Ground properties (Clause 2.4.3)

from field or laboratory tests (directly or by correlation

correlation,

theory or empiricism)

Takes into account effects of time, stress level and

deformation etc

CPGEC7course(Goh)

Definitions

Geometrical data (Clause 2.4.4(1)P)

p of the g

ground surface,, g

groundwater

Include slope

levels and structural dimensions

Characteristic values of Geotechnical parameters

(Clause 2.4.5.2)

Selected from the available

a ailable information (eg

(eg. SI report)

Based on a cautious estimate of the data made within

the zone influenced by stresses transmitted to the

ground

Less than most probable values (most situations)

Higher than most probable where higher values have an

unfavourable effect on the foundation behaviour (eg.

down drag)

down-drag)

CPGEC7course(Goh)

Definitions

Ultimate Limit States (Clause 2.4.7.1) for foundations

STR: internal failure or excessive deformation of the

structure

GEO:

GEO failure

f il

or excessive

i d

deformation

f

ti off th

the ground

d

Model

M

d l factors

f t

may be

b applied

li d to

t the

th design

d i

value

l

off a

resistance or the effect of an action to ensure that the

results of the design calculation model are either accurate

or err on the safe side.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

STR limit state failure or excessive deformation of the

structure

GEO limit state failure or excessive ground deformation

Ensure that:

Design effects of actions Ed design resistance Rd

Design Approach 1

Combination

C

bi ti 1:

1 A1 + M1 + R1

Combination 2: A2 + M2 + R1

A = action; M = material properties; R = ground resistance

CPGEC7course(Goh)

10

Combination 1: A1 + M1 + R1

Combination 2: A2 + M2 + R1

one combination governs the design, it is not

necessary to perform full calculations for the other

combination.

Often Combination 2 will govern the geotechnical

sizing and Combination 1 will govern the structural

design

design.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

11

Clause 2.4.7.3.2 and 2.4.7.3.3

Ed Rd

Ed = E{FFrep ; Xk / M; ad }

Rd = design value

al e of the corresponding gro

ground

nd and/or str

structure

ct re

R d = R{FFrep ; Xk / M; ad }

For piles and anchorages

Frep

R d = R{FFrep ; Xk ; ad }/ R

Representativevalueofanaction

p

Partialfactorforanaction

Xk

Characteristicvalueofamaterial (ground)property

Partialfactorforthematerialproperty

ad

Designvalueofageometricalproperty

Partialfactorforthe

a t a acto o t e resistanceoftheground

es sta ce o t e g ou d

CPGEC7course(Goh)

12

Serviceability

y Limit State ((Clause 2.4.8))

Partial factors normally taken as 1.0 (Clause

2.4.8(2))

( ))

Verification for serviceability

y limit states shall

require that

Ed Cd

where Cd = the limiting

g design

g value of the relevant

serviceability criterion (Clause 2.4.8(1)P)

or be done through the method given in 2.4.8(4).

CPGEC7course(Goh)

13

2.4.8(4).

2

4 8(4) It may be verified that a sufficiently low

fraction of the ground strength is mobilised to keep

deformations within the required serviceability limits,

limits

provided this simplified approach is restricted to

design situations where:

a value of the deformation is not required to check

th serviceability

the

i

bilit limit

li it state;

t t

established comparable experience exists with

similar ground, structures and application method.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

14

(Clause 2.4.9(4)P Note)

In the absence of specified limiting values, Annex H

(informative) may be used.

Annex H For normal structures with isolated foundations,

total settlements of up

p to 50 mm are often acceptable.

p

Also provides guidelines for Maximum relative rotation.

Annex F Sample methods for settlement evaluation (based

on elasticity theory)

7.6.4. Vertical displacements of pile foundations

(serviceability of supported structures)

7 6 4 1 NOTE For piles bearing in medium-to-dense

7.6.4.1

medium to dense soils and for

tension piles, the safety requirements for the ultimate limit state

design are normally sufficient to prevent a serviceability limit state

in the supported structure.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

15

CPGEC7course(Goh)

16

(1)P The following limit states shall be considered ..... :

loss of overall stability;

uplift or insufficient tensile resistance of the pile foundation;

failure in the ground due to transverse loading of the pile foundation;

structural failure of the pile in compression, tension, bending, buckling

or shear;

combined failure in the ground and in the pile foundation;

combined failure in the ground and in the structure;

excessive settlement;

excessive heave;

excessive lateral movement;

unacceptable vibrations

vibrations.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

17

Axial loading

g

Transverse ((horizontal)) loading

7.3.2 Actions due to ground displacement

consolidation

lid ti ((negative

ti skin

ki ffriction)

i ti )

swelling or heave (tension pile)

lateral loading from adjacent surcharge or embankment

Analysis

y of Geotechnical action ((Clause 7.3.2.1(3)P):

( ) )

pile-soil interaction analysis (t-z or p-y analysis); or

upper-bound force exerted on the pile by the ground

movementt iis calculated

l l t d and

d ttreated

t d as an action

ti

CPGEC7course(Goh)

18

Clause 2.4.7.3.4.2(2)P

Combination 1: A1 + M1 + R1

Combination 2: A2 + (M1 or M2) + R4

In combination 2, set M1 is used for calculating resistances

of piles (or anchors) and set M2 for calculating

unfavourable

nfa o rable actions on piles eg.

eg owing

o ing to negative

negati e skin

friction

Clause 2.4.7.3.4.2 (2) Note 2 If it is obvious that one

combination governs the design, it is not necessary to

perform

f

f ll calculations

full

l l ti

f the

for

th other

th combination.

bi ti

A = action; M = material properties; R = ground resistance

CPGEC7course(Goh)

19

7.4.1 Design

g methods

(1)P The design shall be based on one of the following approaches:

the results of static load tests, which have been demonstrated, by

means of calculations or otherwise, to be consistent with other relevant

experience;

empirical or analytical calculation methods whose validity has been

demonstrated by static load tests in comparable situations;

the results of dynamic load tests whose validity has been

demonstrated by static load tests in comparable situations;

the observed performance of a comparable pile foundation, provided

that

h this

hi approach

h is

i supported

d by

b the

h results

l off site

i investigation

i

i i

and

d

ground testing.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

20

Method

Comments

Staticloadtests#

meanstobeconsistentwithotherrelevantexperiences.

Empiricaloranalytical

calculations

Validity mustbedemonstratedbystaticloadtestsin

comparable situations

comparablesituations.

Validitymustbedemonstratedbystaticloadtestsin

p

comparablesituations.

Piledrivingformulaeor

waveequationanalysis#

Validity mustbedemonstratedbystaticloadtestsin

comparablesituations, andgroundstratificationhasbeen

determined.

determined

Observation

Observedperformanceofcomparablepilefoundation;

mustbesupportedbyresultsofSI andgroundtesting.

results of tests on these piles are used to design the

working piles.

#

CPGEC7course(Goh)

21

7.4.1(3)

7

4 1(3) Static load tests may be carried out on trial piles

piles, installed for

test purposes only, before the design is finalised, or on working piles,

which form part of the foundation.

design is finalised); preliminary

preliminary pile.

pile

Working piles (which form part of the permanent

); Test load must be at least equal

q

foundation works);

to the design load (Clause 7.5.2.3(2)P).

UK experience Most contracts tests on trial piles are impractical as

there is insufficient lead time between the main piling works and the test

programmes.

p

g

Preliminaryy tests are seldom carried out on p

piles with

similar widths and lengths, which makes it difficult to derive a sensible

mean test result. In many tests, the ultimate load is obtained from

extrapolation of the load

load-displacement

displacement curve, adding further to the

uncertainty in any calculated mean (Bond and Harris, 2008).

CPGEC7course(Goh)

22

7.5.1(1)P Pile load tests shall be carried out in the following situations:

when using a type of pile or installation method for which there is no

comparable experience;

when the piles have not been tested under comparable soil and

loading conditions;

when the piles will be subject to loading for which theory and

experience do not provide sufficient confidence in the design. The pile

testing procedure shall then provide loading similar to the anticipated

loading;

g;

when observations during the process of installation indicate pile

behaviour that deviates strongly and unfavourably from the behaviour

anticipated

i i

d on the

h basis

b i off the

h site

i investigation

i

i i or experience,

i

and

d when

h

additional ground investigations do not clarify the reasons for this

deviation.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

23

assess the suitability of the construction method;

determine the response of a representative pile and the

surrounding ground to load,

load both in terms of settlement and limit load;

to allow judgement of the overall pile foundation.

If one pile load test is carried out located where the

most ad

adverse

erse ground

gro nd conditions are belie

believed

ed to

occur. If this is not possible, an allowance shall be

made when deriving the characteristic value of the

compressive resistance.

If more than one pile load test is carried out locations

must be representative of the site of the pile

foundation and one of the test piles shall be located

where the most adverse ground conditions are

believed to occur. CPGEC7course(Goh)

24

7.5.2.1 Loading procedure

(1)P Measurements during static load tests must allow

conclusions about deformation, creep and rebound of

the piled foundation. ...

Trial piles measurements must be able to draw

conclusions# about the ultimate failure load.

(4)Tensile pile test should be carried out to failure

(as brittle failure can occur).

However, it should be understood that it is not always

necessary to bring trial piles to failure: the common practice

of deriving the ultimate failure load by extrapolating the

load-displacement

load

displacement curve can be used.

used. (Frank et al. 2004)

#

CPGEC7course(Goh)

25

(1)P The number of trial piles required to verify the design shall depend on the

following:

the ground conditions and their variability across the site;

the Geotechnical Category of the structure, if appropriate;

previous documented evidence of the performance of the same type of pile in

similar ground conditions;

the total number and types of pile in the foundation design.

(2)P The ground conditions at the test site shall be investigated thoroughly. The

d th off borings

depth

b i

or field

fi ld tests

t t shall

h ll be

b sufficient

ffi i t to

t ascertain

t i the

th nature

t

off the

th ground

d

both around and beneath the pile tip. All strata likely to contribute significantly to pile

behaviour shall be investigated.

(3)P The method used for the installation of the trial piles shall be fully documented

in accordance with 7.9.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

26

(2)P Test load must be at least equal to the design load for the foundation.

foundation

(1) Dynamic load tests may be used to estimate the compressive

resistance provided an adequate site investigation has been carried out

and the method has been calibrated against static load tests on the same

t

type

off pile,

il off similar

i il length

l

th and

d cross-section,

ti

and

d in

i comparable

bl soilil

conditions, (see 7.6.2.4 to 7.6.2.6).

(2)P If more than one type of dynamic test is used, the results of different

types of dynamic test shall always be considered in relation to each other.

(3) Dynamic load tests may also be used as an indicator of the

consistency of the piles and to detect weak piles.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

27

(1)P It shall be specified that a factual report shall be written for all load

tests. Where appropriate, this report shall include:

a description of the site;

the ground conditions with reference to ground investigations;

the pile type;

description

d

i ti off the

th pile

il installation

i t ll ti and

d off any problems

bl

encountered

t d

during the works;

a description of the loading and measuring apparatus and the reaction

system;

calibration documents for the load cells, the jacks and the gauges;

the installation records of the test piles;

p

;

photographic records of the pile and the test site;

test results in numerical form;

time

time-displacement

displacement plots for each applied load when a step loading

procedure is used;

the measured load-displacement behaviour;

reasons for any departures from the above requirements .

CPGEC7course(Goh)

28

y loaded p

piles)) Clause 7.6.1.1(1)P

( )

ULS of compressive or tensile failure of a single pile

ULS of compressive or tensile failure of the pile

foundation as a whole

ULS of collapse or severe damage to a supported

structure caused by excessive displacement or

differential displacements of the pile foundation

SLS in the supported structure caused by displacement

of the piles

p

CPGEC7course(Goh)

29

It is often difficult to define an ultimate limit state from a

load settlement plot. Settlement of the pile head = 10% of

pile base diameter is used as the failure

failure criterion.

criterion

Partial factors normally taken as 1.0

Serviceability of supported structure

- Clause 7

7.6.4.1

6 4 1 (2) Note

For piles bearing in medium-to-dense soils and for tension

piles, the safety requirements for the ultimate limit state

design are normally sufficient to prevent a serviceability limit

state in the supported structure.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

30

7.6.2.1 General

(1)P To demonstrate that the pile foundation will support the design load

with

i h adequate

d

safety

f

against

i

compressive

i ffailure,

il

the

h ffollowing

ll i iinequality

li

shall be satisfied for all ultimate limit state load cases and load

combinations:

Fc;d Rc;d

Fc;d = design axial compression load on a pile

or a group of piles

Rc;d = compressive resistance

CPGEC7course(Goh)

31

taken into account:

compressive resistance failure of the piles individually;

compressive resistance failure of the piles and the soil

contained between them acting as a block.

The design resistance shall be taken as the lower value

caused by these two mechanisms.

(4) The compressive resistance of the pile group acting as

a block may be calculated by treating the block as a single

pile of large diameter.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

32

the piles in the group shall be considered when deriving the

design resistance of the foundation.

(6) If the piles support a stiff structure, advantage may be

taken of the ability of the structure to redistribute load

between the piles. A limit state will occur only if a significant

number of piles fail together; therefore a failure mode

involving only one pile need not be considered.

considered

(7) If the piles support a flexible structure, it should be

assumed that the compressive resistance of the weakest

pile governs the occurrence of a limit state.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

33

edge piles caused by inclined or eccentric loads from the

supported structure.

(9)P If the layer in which the piles bear overlies a layer of

weak soil, the effect of the weak layer on the compressive

resistance of the foundation shall be considered.

(10)P The strength of a zone of ground above and below

the pile base shall be taken into account when calculating

the pile base resistance.

NOTE This zone may extend several diameters above and

below the pile base. Any weak ground in this zone has a

relatively large influence on the base resistance.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

34

present at a depth of less than 4 times the base diameter

below the base of the pile.

(12)P Where the pile base diameter exceeds the shaft

diameter, the possible adverse effect shall be considered.

(13) For open-ended driven tube or box-section piles with

openings of more than 500 mm in any direction,

direction and without

special devices inside the pile to induce plugging, the base

resistance should be limited to the smaller of:

the shearing resistance between the soil plug and the

inside face of the pile;

the base resistance derived using the cross-sectional area

of the base.

base

CPGEC7course(Goh)

35

Fc;d Rc;d

Fc;d = design axial compression load on a pile

group

p of p

piles

or a g

Rc;d = compressive resistance

Weight of piles is considered as permanent action.

Rc;d should include the overburden pressure of the soil at the

foundation base

base.

However, these two items may be disregarded if they

pp

y

cancel approximately.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

36

They

y mayy not cancel if: ((a)) downdrag

g is significant,

g

((b)) the

soil is very light, or (c) the pile extends above the ground

surface. (Clause 7.6.2.1(2))

For structures having sufficient stiffness and strength to

transfer loads from weak

weak to strong

strong piles,

piles a reduction

factor of 1.1 may be introduced. Clauses 7.6.2.2(9) and

( ) See Tables A.NA.9 and A.NA.10.

7.6.2.3(7).

Pile base resistance shall take into account the strength

above and below the pile base. Clauses 7.6.2.1(9) to (11).

See Clause 7

7.8

8 for Structural design of piles

CPGEC7course(Goh)

37

R c;d

R s;k Rb;k

=

+

s

b

or

R c;d

=

=

t

t

Clause 7.6.2.2(14)

Refer to Tables A.NA.6, 7 and 8

Rb

Rs

s

b

t

Partialfactoronshaftresistance

Partial

factor on shaft resistance

Partial factoronbaseresistance

Partial factor on total characteristic

Partialfactorontotalcharacteristic

resistanceRt;k

The left

Th

l f equation

i

i normally

is

ll used

d when

h designing

d i i

by calculation. The right equation is used when

the shaft and base components cannot be

determined separately.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

38

R c;d

R s;k Rb;k

=

+

s

b

R c;d

or

=

=

t

t

Rs

Rb

between driven,, bored and CFA p

piles is mainly

y

related to the increasing probability of unexpected

effects during pile installation adversely affecting

the pile bearing capacity (Bauduin 2001).

2001)

values

l

d

depending

di

on the

th verification

ifi ti

off

SLS (Tables A.NA.6 to 8)

CPGEC7course(Goh)

39

Table A.NA.6 Partial resistance factors (R) for driven piles for the

STR and GEO limit states

Resistance

Symbol

R1

Set

R4 without

explicit

verification

ifi ti

off

SLS A)

R4 with explicit

verification of

SLS A)

Base

Shaft (compression)

b

s

1.0

10

1.0

1.7

15

1.5

1.5

13

1.3

Total/Combined

(compression)

Shaft in tension

1.0

1.7

1.5

s;t

1.0

2.0

1.7

A) The lower values in R4 may be adopted (a) if serviceability is verified by load tests (preliminary

and/or working) carried out on more than 1% of the constructed piles to loads not less than 1.5

ti

times

th representative

the

t ti

l d for

load

f which

hi h they

th

are designed,

d i

d or (b) if settlement

ttl

t is

i explicitly

li itl

predicted by a means no less reliable than in (a), or (c) if settlement at the serviceability limit

state is of no concern.

With no testing (relying solely on calculation), a higher level of reliability

s needed

eeded in the

t e calculations.

ca cu at o s

is

CPGEC7course(Goh)

40

Table A.NA.7

A NA 7 Partial resistance factors (R) for bored piles for the STR

and GEO limit states

Resistance

Symbol

Base

Shaft

(compression)

Total/Combined

(compression)

Shaft in tension

R1

Set

R4 without explicit

verification of SLSA)

R4 with explicit

verification of SLSA)

b

s

1.0

1.0

2.0

1.6

1.7

1.4

1.0

2.0

1.7

s;t

1.0

2.0

1.7

A) The lower values in R4 may be adopted (a) if serviceability is verified by load tests (preliminary and/or working)

carried out on more than 1% of the constructed piles to loads not less than 1.5 times the representative load for

which they are designed, or (b) if settlement is explicitly predicted by a means no less reliable than in (a), or (c)

if settlement at the serviceabilityy limit state is of no concern.

of SLS

CPGEC7course(Goh)

41

Table A.NA.8 Partial resistance factors (R) for continuous flight auger

piles for the STR and GEO limit states

CFA p

Resistance

Base

Shaft

(compression)

Total/Combined

(compression)

Shaft in tension

A)

Symbol

R1

Set

R4 without explicit

p

verification of SLS A)

R4 with explicit

p

verification of SLS A)

b

s

1.0

10

1.0

2.0

16

1.6

1.7

14

1.4

1.0

2.0

1.7

s,t

1.0

2.0

1.7

The lower values in R4 may be adopted (a) if serviceability is verified by load tests

(preliminary and/or working) carried out on more than 1% of the constructed piles to loads not

less than 1.5 times the representative load for which they are designed, or (b) if settlement is

explicitly predicted by a means no less reliable than in (a), or (c) if settlement at the

serviceability limit state is of no concern.

of SLS

CPGEC7course(Goh)

42

Draft Malaysian

(

)

Standard (2011)

CPGEC7course(Goh)

43

Combination 1

Combination 2

With explicit

Without explicit

verification of SLS A) verification of SLS A)

A1

Action

Permanent

Variable

Soil

Driven Piles

Bored Piles

& CFA

M1

R1

A2

M1

R4

A2

Unfav

1.35

1.00

1.00

Fav

1.00

1.00

1.00

Unfav

1.50

1.30

1.30

M1

Tan

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

cu

1.00

1.00

1.00

Unit wt.

1.00

1.00

1.00

R4

Base

1.00

1.70

1.50

Shaft (comp)

1.00

1.50

1.30

Total

1.00

1.70

1.50

Base

1.00

2.00

1.70

Shaft (comp)

1.00

1.60

1.40

Total (comp)

1.00

2.00

1.70

The lower values in R4 may be adopted (a) if serviceability is verified by load tests (preliminary and/or working) carried out on

more than 1% of the constructed piles to loads not less than 1.5 times the representative load for which they are designed, or (b) if

settlement is explicitly predicted by a means no less reliable than in (a), or (c) if settlement at the serviceability limit state is of no

concern.

A)

CPGEC7course(Goh)

44

from Ground Test results

Clause 7.6.2.3.

Model

Model pile

pile:: procedure (Clause 7

7.6.2.3(5)P)

6 2 3(5)P)

Alternative procedure (Clause 7.6.2.3(8))

CPGEC7course(Goh)

45

Ground Test results (Clause7.6.2.3(5)P)

Model

Model Pile

Pile method assumes a fictitious pile of the

same cross-section and length as proposed for the project

is installed at the location of each borehole or in-situ test.

The shaft resistance and the base resistance are

calculated for the mean and minimum soil parameters for

each

h borehole

b h l or test

t t profile.

fil The

Th two

t

components

t off the

th

resistance are then divided by a correlation factor

which depends on the number of ground test profiles on

the site.

correlation factor 3 and 4 from Table A.NA.10

CPGEC7course(Goh)

46

Clause 7.6.2.3(5)

R c;k = (Rb;k + R s;k ) =

Rb;cal + R s;cal

)

(R

)

(R

= R c;cal = Min c;cal mean ; c;cal min

3

4

depending on number of profiles n

Table

(7.8)

A.NA.10

(Rc;cal )min = (Rb;cal + R s;cal )min

Table A.NA.10 Correlation factors () to derive characteristic values of the resistance of axially

loaded piles from ground test results (n - number of profiles of tests)

for n =

3

4

1

1.55

1.55

2

1.47

1.39

3

1.42

1.33

4

1.38

1.29

5

1.36

1.26

7

1.33

1.20

10

1.30

1.15

NOTE For structures having sufficient stiffness and strength to transfer loads from ''weak'' to "strong piles,

values of 3 and 4 may be divided by 1.1, provided that 3 is never less than 1.0, see EN 1997-1 7.6.2.3(7).

CPGEC7course(Goh)

47

Alternative method Ground test results (shear strength,

cone resistance etc) for all test locations are first combined

(assessed) to derive the characteristic values of the base

resistance and shaft resistance in the various strata based on

a cautious assessment of the test results and without

applying the factors . (Clause 7.6.2.3(8))

calculation results.

results

Model factor = R;d

The value of the model factor should be 1.4, except that it may

be reduced to 1.2 if the resistance is verified by a maintained

load test taken to the calculated,

calculated unfactored ultimate

resistance.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

48

Alternative method

Clause 7

7.6.2.3(8)

6 2 3(8)

Rb;k = Ab qb;k and

(7.9)

where qb;k and qs;i;k are characteristic values of base resistance and shaft

friction in the various strata i, obtained from values of ground parameters.

NOTE If this alternative procedure is applied, the values of the partial

factors b and s recommended in Annex A may need to be corrected by a

model factor larger than 1.0.

1 0 The value of the model factor may be set by

the National annex.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

49

NA to SS EN 1997-1:2010

A.3.3.2

Partial resistance factors for pile foundations

For verifications of the structural (STR) and geotechnical (GEO) limit states of pile foundations, the

values of the partial factors on resistance (R) should be those given in Table A.NA.6, Table A.NA.7 and

Table A.NA.8. These values are used to convert characteristic resistances to design values for ultimate

li it state

limit

t t calculations.

l l ti

Th apply

They

l irrespective

i

ti off the

th process by

b which

hi h the

th characteristic

h

t i ti resistances

i t

are derived.

g EN 1997-1

7.6.2.2 (7.6.3.2 for tensile loading), or from ground test results using EN 1997-1

Equations 7.8 or 7.9 (7.17 or 7.18 for tensile loading). When the approach of

Equations 7.9 or 7.18 is used to derive the characteristic resistances, a model

factor should be applied to the shaft and base resistance calculated using

characteristic values of soil properties by a method complying with EN 1997 -1,

2.4.1(6). The value of the model factor should be 1.4, except that it may be

reduced to 1.2 if the resistance is verified by a maintained load test taken to the

calculated, unfactored ultimate resistance.

Model factor = R;d

CPGEC7course(Goh)

(7.9)

50

profile of g

p

ground

test data?

Yes

Number of profiles = n

resistance from this single

profile of ground properties.

Apply model factor R;d

R d.

Apply partial factors b and

s to determine design

resistance Rc,d

c d.

correlation

l ti factor

f t 3 and

d 4

from Table A.NA.10

depending on n

resistance for the different

profiles;

Determine minimum to be

characteristic resistance

Rc;cal.

Apply partial factors b and

s to

t determine

d t

i design

d i

resistance Rc;d.

No

Rb;k =

A bqb;k

A s;iqs;k;i

; R s;k =

R;d

R;d

R c;d

Rb;k R s;k

=

+

b

s

CPGEC7course(Goh)

51

load tests (Clause 7.6.2.2(8)P)

(R )

(R )

Rc;k = Min c;m mean ; c;m min

1

2

axially loaded piles from static pile load tests (n - number of tested piles)

for n =

1.55

1.47

1.42

1.38

1.35

1.55

1.35

1.23

1.15

1.08

NOTE For structures having sufficient stiffness and strength to transfer loads from ''weak'' to "strong piles,

values 1 and 2 may be divided by 1.1, provided that 1 is never less than 1.0, see EN 1997-1 7.6.2.2(9).

of tests on these piles are used to design the working

piles

piles.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

52

tests

the same manner as the piles that will form the foundation

and shall be founded in the same stratum.

(3) If the diameter of the trial pile differs from that of the

working

ki piles,

il

th possible

the

ibl difference

diff

i performance

in

f

off piles

il

of different diameters should be considered in assessing the

compressive resistance to be adopted.

adopted

CPGEC7course(Goh)

53

impractical to carry out a load test on a full size trial pile.

Load tests on smaller diameter trial piles may be considered

provided that:

the ratio of the trial pile diameter/working pile diameter is

not less than 0.5;;

the smaller diameter trial pile is fabricated and installed in

the same way as the piles used for the foundation;

the trial pile is instrumented in such a manner that the

base and shaft resistance can be derived separately

f

from

the

h measurements.

This approach should be used with caution for open-ended

open ended driven piles

because of the influence of the diameter on the mobilisation of the

compressive resistance of a soil plug in the pile.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

54

the pile resistance at failure,

failure or at a displacement that equals

the criterion for the verification of the ultimate limit state

determined from the load test results, shall be corrected. The

correction shall be achieved by subtracting the measured, or

the most unfavourable, positive shaft resistance in the

compressible stratum and in the strata above, where

negative skin friction develops, from the loads measured at

the pile head.

head

(6) During the load test of a pile subject to downdrag, positive

shaft friction will develop along the total length of the pile and

should be considered in accordance with 7.3.2.2(6). The

maximum test load applied to the working pile should be in

excess of the sum of the design external load plus twice the

downdrag force.

force

CPGEC7course(Goh)

55

variations in the ground shall be recognised in the

interpretation of pile load tests.

(11)P The

Th records

d off the

th installation

i t ll ti

off the

th test

t t pile(s)

il ( ) shall

h ll

be checked and any deviation from the normal execution

conditions shall be accounted for.

for

CPGEC7course(Goh)

56

that the interpretation of the results of the pile load

tests must take into account the variability of the

ground over the site and the variability due to

deviation from the normal method of pile installation.

In other words, there must be a careful examination

of the results of the ground investigation and of the

pile load tests results. The results of the pile load

tests might lead, for example, to different

homogeneous parts of the site being identified,

each with its own particular characteristic pile

compressive resistance. (Frank et al. 2004)

CPGEC7course(Goh)

57

driving formulae/wave equation analysis (Clause 7.6.2.4 to 7.6.2.6)

(R )

(R )

Rc;k = Min c;m mean ; c;m min

5

6

resistance of axially loaded piles from dynamic impact tests (n - number of tested

piles)

for n =

5

6

2

1.94

1.90

5

1.85

1.76

10

1.83

1.70

15

1.82

1.67

20

1.81

1.66

NOTE 1 The - values may be multiplied with a model factor of 0.85 when using dynamic impact tests with

signal

i

l matching.

t hi

NOTE 2 The - values should be multiplied with a model factor of 1.10 when using a pile driving formula with

measurement of the quasi-elastic pile head displacement during the impact.

NOTE 3 The - values should be multiplied with a model factor of 1.20 when using a pile driving formula

without measurement of the quasi-elastic pile head displacement during the impact.

NOTE 4 If different piles exist in the foundation

foundation, groups of similar piles should be considered separately when

selecting the number n of test piles.

The blow counts used in pile driving should be obtained from driving

records of at least five piles (Clause 7.6.2.5(4)).

CPGEC7course(Goh)

58

PileLoadtestmethod

staticloadtests

Rc;m andn

profiles

fil 1,2

Applyb,s ort

Rc;d

TableA.NA.9and

T bl A NA 6

TableA.NA.6

tests,piledriving

,p

g p

profiles5,,6

formulae, wave

equation

Applyb,s ort

Rc;d

TableA.NA.11

andTableA.NA.6

G

Groundtestmethod

dt t

th d

alternative

method (single

method(single

profile)

Applymodel

factor R;d

factor

to

R d,to

obtainRc;k

Applyb,s

Rc;dd

TableA.NA.6

modelpile

method

(nprofiles)

Rc;cal andn

profiles3,4

Applyb,s

Rc;d

TableA.NA.10

andTableA.NA.6

CPGEC7course(Goh)

59

No.of

tests

staticloadtests

groundtests

mean

min.

mean

min

1.55

1.55

1.55

1.55

1 47

1.47

1 35

1.35

1 47

1.47

1 39

1.39

1.42

1.23

1.42

1.33

1.38

1.15

1.38

1.29

1.35

1.08

1.36

1.26

1 33

1.33

1 20

1.20

10

1.30

1.15

CPGEC7course(Goh)

dynamictests

No.of

tests

mean

min.

---

---

---

2-4

2

4

1 94

1.94

1 90

1.90

5-9

1.85

1.76

10-14

1.83

1.70

15-19

1.82

1.67

20

1.81

1.66

60

those given in Annex A of SS EN 1997-1 : 2010.

According to Bauduin (2001), the correlation factors are

based on a reference value of about 10% for the COV of the

pile compressive resistance. For the COV less than 10%,

the mean of the resistance should govern the design,

whereas for COV greater than 10%, the lowest resistance

should govern. See Example 2.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

61

P

ground test data)

Piletype

Boredpile

Pilelength(m)

30

Pilewidth(m)

0.6

cu;k (kPa)characteristicvalue

( )

100

Skinfriction

0.5

Soil unitweight(kN/m

unit weight (kN/m3)

20

Permanentverticalload(kN)

1000

Variableverticalload(kN)

200

Rs

Rb

Alternative method

calculations

CPGEC7course(Goh)

62

Example 1A

Combination 1: A1 + M1 + R1

Pil t

Piletype

Pilelength(m)

30

Pilewidth(m)

0.6

cu;k (kPa)characteristicvalue

(kPa) characteristic value

100

Skinfriction

0.5

unitweight(kN/m3)

20

Permanentverticalload(kN)

1000

Variableverticalload(kN)

200

Soil

B d il

Boredpile

Rs

Rb

A1

Design

g vertical action

Fc;d = 1000 x 1.35 + 200 x 1.5 = 1650 kN

G;dst

1.35

G;stb

1.0

Q;dst

1.5

cu

1.0

CPGEC7course(Goh)

Pil t

Piletype

63

Example 1A

cu = 1.0, cu = cu;k

B d il

Boredpile

A1

Pilelength(m)

30

Pilewidth(m)

0.6

G;dst

1.35

cu;k (kPa)characteristicvalue

(kPa) characteristic value

100

G;stb

G

1.0

Skinfriction

1.5

0.5

Q;dst

unitweight(kN/m3)

20

cu

Permanentverticalload(kN)

1000

Variableverticalload(kN)

200

Soil

M1

M1

Rs

1.0

Rb

Pile base resistance = 9cu

Pile shaft friction = cu = 0.5cu

= 254 kN

Shaft resistanc Rs = 0.5cuAs = 0.5(100)(0.6 x 30)

= 2827 kN

Compressive Resistance Rc;d = Rb;d + Rs;d

CPGEC7course(Goh)

R1

Base

Shaft

(compression)

Total/Combined

(compression)

b

s

1.0

10

1.0

1.0

64

Example 1A

Shaft resistanc Rs = 0.5c

0 5cuAs = 0.5(100)(0.6

0 5(100)(0 6 x 30) = 2827 kN

(A.3.3.2) For pile design from ground parameters, partial factors have to

be corrected by a Model Factor R;d = 1.4

14

= (254/1.4

(254/1 4 x 1

1.0)

0) + (2827/1.4

(2827/1 4 x 1

1.0)

0) = 2201 kN

Over design factor = Rc;dd / Fc;dd = 2201 / 1650 = 1.33 > 1

Over-design

OK

From Table A.NA.7 (Bored piles)

Rb;k =

A bqb;k

;

R;d

R c;d =

R s;k =

A s;iqs;k;i

R;d

Rb;k R s;k

+

b

s

R1

Base

Shaft

(compression)

Total/Combined

(

(compression)

i )

b

s

1.0

1.0

1.0

CPGEC7course(Goh)

65

Example 1A

Combination 2: A2 + M1 + R4

Pil t

Piletype

Pilelength(m)

30

Pilewidth(m)

0.6

cu;k (kPa)

100

Skinfriction

0.5

unitweight(kN/m3)

20

Permanentverticalload(kN)

1000

Variableverticalload(kN)

200

Soil

B d il

Boredpile

Rs

Rb

A2

Design

g vertical action

Fc;d = 1000 x 1.0 + 200 x 1.3 = 1260 kN

CPGEC7course(Goh)

G;dst

1.0

G;stb

1.0

Q;dst

1.3

cu

M1

1.0

66

A2

cu = 1.0, cu = cu;k

G;dst

1.0

B d il

Boredpile

G;stb

1.0

Pilelength(m)

30

Q;dst

1.3

Pilewidth(m)

0.6

cu;k (kPa)

100

cu

Skinfriction

0.5

Pil t

Piletype

unitweight(kN/m3)

20

Permanentverticalload(kN)

1000

Variableverticalload(kN)

200

Soil

1.0

R4 with explicit

verification of SLS A)

Pile base resistance = 9cu

Pile shaft friction = cu = 0.5cu

A)

Example 1A

M1

Base

Shaft

((compression)

p

)

Total/Combined

(compression)

b

s

1.7

1.4

1.7

is verified by load tests (preliminary and/or working) carried

out on more than 1% of the constructed piles to loads not less

than 1.5 times the representative load for which they are

designed, or (b) if settlement is explicitly predicted by a means

no less reliable than in (a),

(a) or (c) if settlement at the

serviceability limit state is of no concern.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

67

Example 1A

Shaft resistanc Rs = 0.5cuAs = 0.5(100)(0.6 x 20) = 2827 kN

(A.3.3.2) For pile design from ground parameters, partial factors have to

be corrected by a Model Factor R;d = 1.4

b d + Rs;d

d

= 254/(1.7 x 1.4) + 2827/( 1.4 x 1.4)

= 254/(2.38) + 2827/(1.96) = 1549 kN

Over-design factor = Rc;d / Fc;d = 1549 / 1260 = 1.23 > 1

OK

Rb;k =

A bqb;k

;

R;d

R c;d

R s;k =

A s;iqs;k;i

R;d

R

R

= b;k + s;k

b

s

R4 with explicit

verification of SLS A)

Base

Shaft

(compression)

Total/Combined

(compression)

CPGEC7course(Goh)

b

s

1.7

1

7

1.4

1.7

68

Example 1A

Shaft resistanc Rs = 0.5c

0 5cuAs = 0.5(100)(0.6

0 5(100)(0 6 x 20) = 2827 kN

(A.3.3.2) For pile design from ground parameters, partial factors have to

be corrected byy a Model Factor R;d = 1.4

Compressive Resistance Rc;d = Rb;d + Rs;d

= 254/(2.0 x 1.4) + 2827/( 1.6 x 1.4)

= 254/(2.8) + 2827/(2.24) = 1353 kN

Over-design factor = Rc;d / Fc;d = 1353 / 1260 = 1.07 > 1

OK

R4 without explicit

verification of SLS A)

Base

B

Shaft

(compression)

Total/Combined

(

(compression)

i )

b

s

2.0

2

0

1.6

2.0

CPGEC7course(Goh)

69

Example 1A

Shaft resistanc Rs = 0.5cuAs = 0.5(100)(0.6 x 20) = 2827 kN

FS =

or

254 + 2827

= 2.57

1200

Qallowable =

254 2827

+

= 1969 > 1200 kN

3

1.5

Qallowable =

254 2827

+

= 1498 > 1200 kN

3

2.0

CPGEC7course(Goh)

70

Qb

Qs

+

Qallowable =

3 1 .5 ~ 2 .0

Combination 2: A2 + M1 + R4 (with model factor = 1.4)

Compressive Resistance with SLS verification

Rc;d = Qb/(1.7 x 1.4) + Qs/(1.4 x 1.4) = Qb/(2.38) + Qs/(1.96)

Compressive Resistance without SLS verification

Rc;d = Qb/(2.0.x 1.4) + Qs/(1.6 x 1.4) = Qb/(2.8) + Qs/(2.24)

CPGEC7course(Goh)

71

P

of ground test data)

Piletype

Boredpile

Pilelength(m)

30

Pilewidth(m)

0.6

cu;k; (kPa)characteristicvalue

100

Skinfriction

0.5

Soil unitweight(kN/m3)

20

Permanentverticalload(kN)

800

Variableverticalload(kN)

400

Rs

Rb

2 is considered in this example)

CPGEC7course(Goh)

72

Example 1B

Combination 2: A2 + M1 + R4

Pil t

Piletype

Pilelength(m)

30

Pilewidth(m)

0.6

cu;k (kPa)

100

Skinfriction

0.5

unitweight(kN/m3)

20

Permanentverticalload(kN)

800

Variableverticalload(kN)

400

Soil

B d il

Boredpile

Rs

Rb

A2

Design

g vertical action

Fc;d = 800 x 1.0 + 400 x 1.3 = 1320 kN

G;dst

1.0

G;stb

1.0

Q;dst

1.3

cu

M1

1.0

CPGEC7course(Goh)

73

A2

cu = 1.0, cu = cu;k

G;dst

1.0

B d il

Boredpile

G;stb

1.0

Pilelength(m)

30

Q;dst

1.3

Pilewidth(m)

0.6

cu;k (kPa)

100

cu

Skinfriction

0.5

Pil t

Piletype

unitweight(kN/m3)

20

Permanentverticalload(kN)

800

Variableverticalload(kN)

400

Soil

M1

1.0

R4 with explicit

verification of SLS A)

Pile base resistance = 9cu

Pile shaft friction = cu = 0.5cu

A)

Base

Shaft

((compression)

p

)

Total/Combined

(compression)

b

s

1.7

1.4

1.7

by load tests (preliminary and/or working) carried out on more than 1%

of the constructed piles to loads not less than 1.5

1 5 times the

representative load for which they are designed, or (b) if settlement is

explicitly predicted by a means no less reliable than in (a), or (c) if

settlement at the serviceability limit state is of no concern.

Example 1B

CPGEC7course(Goh)

74

Example 1B

Shaft resistanc Rs = 0.5cuAs = 0.5(100)(0.6 x 20) = 2827 kN

(A.3.3.2) For pile design from ground parameters, partial factors have to

be corrected by a Model Factor R;d = 1.4

b d + Rs;d

d

= 254/(1.7 x 1.4) + 2827/( 1.4 x 1.4)

= 254/(2.38) + 2827/(1.96) = 1549 kN

Over-design factor = Rc;d / Fc;d = 1549 / 1320 = 1.17 > 1

OK

Rb;k =

A bqb;k

;

R;d

R c;d =

R s;k

A s;iqs;k;i

=

R;d

Rb;k R s;k

+

b

s

R4 with explicit

verification of SLS A)

Base

Shaft

(compression)

Total/Combined

(compression)

b

s

1.7

1

7

1.4

1.7

CPGEC7course(Goh)

75

Effects of Load Combinations (Only Combination 2 is

considered in this example)

Example 1A

Example 1B

Permanent vertical

load (kN)

Variable vertical load

(kN)

Over-design

Over

design factor

1000

800

200

400

1.23

1.17

=1.0

23.98

25.23

CPGEC7course(Goh)

76

P

of ground test data)

Piletype

1m

Boredpile

Pilelength(m)

18

Pilewidth(m)

0.6

k characteristicvalue

BearingcapacityfactorNq

35o

49

Pileinterfacefriction

35o

Soil unitweight(kN/m

unit weight (kN/m3)

20

Permanentverticalload(kN)

1000

Variableverticalload(kN)

200

Rs

18 m

Rb

Note: Self

Weight of pile is

omitted in the

calculations

Combination 1: A1 + M1 + R1

A1

Design

g vertical action

Fc;d = 1000 x 1.35 + 200 x 1.5 = 1650 kN

G;dst

1.35

G;stb

1.0

Q;dst

Qdt

1.5

cu

1.0

CPGEC7course(Goh)

Piletype

Boredpile

Pilelength(m)

18

Pilewidth(m)

0.6

k characteristicvalue

BearingcapacityfactorNq

35o

49

Pileinterfacefriction

il i

f

fi i

35o

Soil unitweight(kN/m3)

20

M1

77

K0 = (1 sin)

Example 1C

1m

Rs

18 m

D i R

Design

Resistance

i t

(R1)

R

b

Pile base resistance = qb = Nqvb(Ab)

piles))

Pile shaft friction = qs =

h,averagetan(As) From Table A.NA.7 ((Bored p

R1

h,average= 0.5vb(1 sin)

Base

Shaft

(compression)

Total/Combined

(compression)

b

s

1.0

10

1.0

1.0

Shaft resistance Rs = 0.5

0 5vbb(1 sin

sin)tan(0

)tan(0.6

6 x 18)

CPGEC7course(Goh)

78

Example 1C

)

(

x 18)) = 962 kN

Shaft resistanc Rs = 0.5vb((1 sin)tan(0.6

(A.3.3.2) For pile design from ground parameters, partial factors have to

be corrected by a Model Factor R;d

R d = 1.4

= (2632/1.4

(2632/1 4 x 1

1.0)

0) + (962/1.4

(962/1 4 x 1

1.0)

0) = 2567 kN

Over design factor = Rc;dd / Fc;dd = 2567 / 1650 = 1.56 > 1

Over-design

OK

From Table A.NA.7 (Bored piles)

Rb;k

A q

= b b;k ;

R;d

R s;k

A s;iqs;k;i

=

R;d

R c;d =

Rb;k R s;k

+

b

s

R1

Base

Shaft

(compression)

Total/Combined

(

(compression)

i )

b

s

1.0

1.0

1.0

CPGEC7course(Goh)

79

Example 1C

Combination 2: A2 + M1 + R4

Pil t

Piletype

B d il

Boredpile

Permanentverticalload(kN)

1000

Variableverticalload(kN)

200

A2

G;dst

1.0

G;stb

1.0

Q;dst

1.3

cu

M1

1.0

Fc;d = 1000 x 1.0 + 200 x 1.3 = 1260 kN

CPGEC7course(Goh)

80

Shaft resistanc Rs = 0.5vb(1 sin)tan(0.6 x 18) = 962 kN

Example 1C

(A.3.3.2) For pile design from ground parameters, partial factors have to

be corrected by a Model Factor R;d = 1.4

Compressive

p

Resistance Rc;d = Rb;d + Rs;d

= 2632/(1.7 x 1.4) + 962/( 1.4 x 1.4)

= 2632/(2.38) + 962/(1.96) = 1597 kN

Over-design factor = Rc;d / Fc;d = 1597 / 1260 = 1.27 > 1

OK

Rb;k =

A bqb;k

;

R;d

R c;d

R s;k

A s;iqs;k;i

=

R;d

R

R

= b;k + s;k

b

s

R4 with explicit

verification of SLS A)

Base

Shaft

(compression)

Total/Combined

(compression)

b

s

1.7

1

7

1.4

1.7

CPGEC7course(Goh)

81

Shaft resistanc Rs = 0.5vb(1 sin)tan(0.6 x 18) = 962 kN

Example 1C

be corrected by a Model Factor R;d = 1.4

Compressive Resistance Rc;d = Rb;d + Rs;d

= 2632/(2.0 x 1.4) + 962/( 1.6 x 1.4)

= 2632/(2.8) + 962/(2.24) = 1369 kN

Over-design factor = Rc;d / Fc;d = 1369 / 1260 = 1.09 > 1

OK

R4 without explicit

verification of SLS A)

Base

B

Shaft

(compression)

Total/Combined

(

(compression)

i )

CPGEC7course(Goh)

b

s

2.0

2

0

1.6

2.0

82

Example 1C

Base resistance Rb = 49(vb)( x 0.62/4) = 2632 kN

Shaft resistanc Rs = 0.5vb(1 sin)tan(0.6 x 18) = 962 kN

Applied vertical load = 1000 + 200 = 1200 kN

FS =

or

2632 + 962

= 3.00

1200

Qallowable =

2632 962

+

= 1519 > 1200

3

1 .5

kN

Qallowable =

2632 962

+

= 1358 > 1200

3

2 .0

kN

CPGEC7course(Goh)

83

P

boreholes)

Piletype

Boredpile

Pilelength(m)

30

Pilewidth(m)

0.6

cu (kPa)BH1

(kPa) BH1

100

cu (kPa)BH2

110

cu (kPa)BH3

(kPa) BH3

130

Skinfriction

0.5

g

Soil unitweight

3

(kN/m )

20

Permanentvertical

l d (kN)

load(kN)

1000

Variablevertical

load(kN)

( )

200

Rs

Rb

Note: Self Weight of pile is

omitted in the calculations

M d l pile

Model

il method

th d

CPGEC7course(Goh)

84

Example 2

Combination 1: A1 + M1 + R1

P

Design Action (A1)

Rs

Design

g vertical action

Fc;d = 1000 x 1.35 + 200 x 1.5

= 1650 kN

Rb

A1

cu = 1.0, cu = cu;k

G;dst

1.35

G;stb

1.0

Q;dst

1.5

cu

M1

1.0

CPGEC7course(Goh)

Clause 7.6.2.3(5)

Rc;k = (Rb;k + R s;k ) =

85

Example 2

Rb;cal + R s;cal

)

(R

)

(R

= Rc;cal = Min c;cal mean ; c;cal min

3

4

(7.8)

(Rc;cal )min = (Rb;cal + R s;cal )min

Table A.NA.10 Correlation factors () to derive characteristic values of the resistance of axially

loaded piles from ground test results(n - number of profiles of tests)

for n =

3

4

1

1.55

1.55

2

1.47

1.39

3

1.42

1.33

4

1.38

1.29

5

1.36

1.26

7

1.33

1.20

10

1.30

1.15

NOTE For structures having sufficient stiffness and strength to transfer loads from ''weak'' to "strong piles,

values of 3 and 4 may be divided by 1.1, provided that 3 is never less than 1.0, see EN 1997-1 7.6.2.3(7).

CPGEC7course(Goh)

86

Pile base resistance = 9cu

Pile shaft friction = cu = 0.5cu

cu (kPa)BH1

100

cu (kPa)BH2

110

cu (kPa)BH3

130

Skinfriction

0.5

Shaft resistanc Rs = 0.5cuAs = 0.5(cu)(0.6 x 30)

BH cu (kPa)

BH1

100

BH2

BH3

Rb (kN)

254

110

130

280

331

Rs (kN)

2827

Example 2

R1

Base

Shaft

(compression)

Total/Combined

(compression)

b

s

1.0

1.0

1.0

Rc;cal (kN)

3081

3110

3676

3390

4007

CPGEC7course(Goh)

BH

cu (kPa)

Rb (kN)

Rs (kN)

Rc;cal (kN)

BH1

100

254

2827

3081

BH2

110

280

3110

3390

BH3

130

331

3676

4007

87

Example 2

(Rc;cal)min = 3081 kN

Rb;cal + R s;cal

)

(R

)

(R

= Rc;call = Min c;cal mean ; c;cal min

3

4

CPGEC7course(Goh)

88

Example 2

Table A.NA.10

(Rc;cal)mean = 3483 kN

(Rc;cal)min = 3081 kN

Rc;k = (Rb;k + R s;k ) =

Rb;cal + R s;cal

)

(R

)

(R

= Rc;cal = Min c;cal mean ; c;cal min

3

4

BH

cu (kPa)

Rb (kN)

Rs (kN)

Rc;cal (kN)

BH1

100

254

2827

3081

BH2

110

280

3110

3390

BH3

130

331

3676

4007

R1

Rs;k = 2827/1.33 kN

Rb;k = 254/1.33 kN

CPGEC7course(Goh)

Base

Shaft

(compression)

Total/Combined

(compression)

b

s

1.0

1.0

1.0

89

Example 2

p

resistance, and not a combination of the lowest base

compressive resistance and the lowest shaft friction

d d

deduced

d from

f

another

th test.

t t

Rc;k = (Rb;k + R s;k ) =

Rb;cal + R s;cal

)

(R

)

(R

= Rc;cal = Min c;cal mean ; c;cal min

3

4

Rc;dd = Rb;k

b k/b + Rs;k

k/s = 2317 kN

Design vertical action

Fc;d = 1000 x 1.35 + 200 x 1.5 = 1650 kN

Over-design factor = 2317 / 1650 = 1.40

1 40 > 1

OK

CPGEC7course(Goh)

90

Example 2

Combination 2: A2 + M1 + R4

P

Design Action (A2)

Rs

Fc;dd = 1000 x 1.0 + 200 x 1.3

= 1260 kN

Rb

A2

cu = 1.0, cu = cu;k

G;dst

1.0

G;stb

1.0

Q;dst

1.3

cu

1.0

CPGEC7course(Goh)

91

Example 2

A2

Pil t

Piletype

cu = 1.0, cu = cu;k

B d il

Boredpile

Pilelength(m)

30

Pilewidth(m)

0.6

cu;k (kPa)

100

Skinfriction

0.5

Soil unitweight(kN/m3)

20

Permanentverticalload(kN)

1000

Variableverticalload(kN)

200

M1

G;dst

1.0

G;stb

1.0

Q;dst

1.3

cu

M1

1.0

R4 with

ith explicit

li it

verification of SLS A)

Pile base resistance = 9cu

Pile shaft friction = cu = 0.5cu

A)

Base

Shaft

(compression)

Total/Combined

(compression)

b

s

1.7

14

1.4

1.7

by load tests (preliminary and/or working) carried out on more than 1%

of the constructed piles to loads not less than 1.5

1 5 times the

representative load for which they are designed, or (b) if settlement is

explicitly predicted by a means no less reliable than in (a), or (c) if

settlement at the serviceability limit state is of no concern.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

92

Example 2

Rc;cal = Rb + Rs

BH

cu

(kPa)

Rb

(kN)

Rs

(kN)

Rc;cal (kN)

BH1

100

254

2827

3081

BH2

110

280

3110

3390

BH3

130

331

3676

4007

(Rc;cal)min = 3081 kN

Rb;cal + R s;cal

)

(R

)

(R

= Rc;cal = Min c;cal mean ; c;cal min

3

4

CPGEC7course(Goh)

93

Example 2

Table A.NA.10

(Rc;cal)mean = 3493 kN

(Rc;cal)min = 3081 kN

Rc;k = (Rb;k + R s;k ) =

Rb;cal + R s;cal

)

(R

)

(R

= Rc;cal = Min c;cal mean ; c;cal min

3

4

= Min

Mi {(3493/1.42

1 42) ; (3081/1.33

1 33)} = Min

Mi {2443

{2443; 2317} = 2317 kN

BH

cu (kPa)

Rb (kN)

Rs (kN)

BH1

100

254

2827

3081

BH2

110

280

3110

3390

BH3

130

331

3676

4007

Rs;k = 2827/1.33 kN

Rc;cal (kN)

R4 with explicit

verification of SLS A)

Rb;k = 254/1.33 kN

= 2827/(1.33 x 1.4) + 254/(1.33 x 1.7)

= 1631 kN

Base

Shaft

(compression)

Total/Combined

(compression)

CPGEC7course(Goh)

b

s

1.7

1.4

17

1.7

94

Example 2

Design Resistance (R4)

= 2827/(1.86) + 254/(2.26) = 1631 kN

Design vertical action

Fc;d = 1000 x 1.0

1 0 + 200 x 1.3

1 3 = 1260 kN

Over-design factor = 1631 / 1260 = 1.29 > 1

OK

R4 with explicit

verification of SLS A)

Base

Shaft

(compression)

Total/Combined

(compression)

b

s

1.7

1.4

17

1.7

CPGEC7course(Goh)

95

Example 2

= 2827/(2.13) + 254/(2.66) = 1423 kN

Design vertical action

Fc;d = 1000 x 1.0

1 0 + 200 x 1.3

1 3 = 1260 kN

Over-design factor = 1423 / 1260 = 1.13 > 1

OK

Base

Shaft

(compression)

Total/Combined

(compression)

CPGEC7course(Goh)

R4 without explicit

verification of SLS A)

b

s

2.0

1.6

1.7

96

based on a reference value of about 10% for the COV of the

pile compressive resistance. For the COV less than 10%,

the mean of the resistance should govern the design,

whereas for COV greater than 10%,

10% the lowest resistance

should govern.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

clay data from 4 static pile load

tests, tested to failure)

Piletype

30

Pilewidth(m)

0.6

4000

4200

4500

5000

Permanentvertical

l d (kN)

load(kN)

1000

Variablevertical

load(kN)

( )

200

Rs

Boredpile

Pilelength(m)

97

Rb

Note: Self Weight of pile is omitted in

the calculations

CPGEC7course(Goh)

98

Example 3

Combination 1: A1 + M1 + R1

P

Design Action (A1)

Fc;d = 1000 x 1.35 + 200 x 1.5

= 1650 kN

Rs

Rb

A1

G;dst

1.35

G;stb

1.0

Q;dst

1.5

cu

M1

1.0

CPGEC7course(Goh)

99

Example 3

(Clause 7.6.2.2)

(R )

(R )

Rc;k = Min c;m mean ; c;m min

1

2

axially loaded piles from static pile load tests (n - number of tested piles)

for n =

1.55

1.47

1.42

1.38

1.35

1.55

1.35

1.23

1.15

1.08

NOTE For structures having sufficient stiffness and strength to transfer loads from ''weak'' to "strong piles,

values 1 and 2 may be divided by 1.1, provided that 1 is never less than 1.0, see EN 1997-1 7.6.2.2(9).

CPGEC7course(Goh)

100

4000

Pil T t #2R

PileTest

#2 Rm (kN)

4200

4500

PileTest

#4 Rm (kN)

5000

Example 3

(Rc;m)min = 4000 kN

(R )

(R )

Rc;k = Min c;m mean ; c;m min

= Min {(4425/1.38)

{(4425/1 38) ; (4000/1.15)}

(4000/1 15)} = Min {3207; 3478}

= 3207 kN

Table A.NA.9

for n =

1.55

1.47

1.42

1.38

1.35

1.55

1.35

1.23

1.15

1.08

NOTE For structures having sufficient stiffness and strength to transfer loads from ''weak'' to "strong piles,

values 1 and 2 may be divided by 1.1, provided that 1 is never less than 1.0, see EN 1997-1 7.6.2.2(9).

CPGEC7course(Goh)

101

Example 3

Rc;d = 3207 kN

Design vertical action

Fc;d = 1000 x 1.35 + 200 x 1.5 = 1650 kN

Over-design factor = 3207 / 1650 = 1.94 > 1

OK

R1

Base

Shaft

(compression)

Total/Combined

(compression)

CPGEC7course(Goh)

b

s

1.0

1.0

1.0

102

Example 3

Combination 2: A2 + M1 + R4

P

Design Action (A2)

Fc;d = 1000 x 1.0 + 200 x 1.3

= 1260 kN

Rs

Rb

A2

G;dst

1.0

G;stb

1.0

Q;dst

1.3

cu

1.0

CPGEC7course(Goh)

M1

103

4000

Pil T t #2R

PileTest

#2 Rm (kN)

4200

4500

PileTest

#4 Rm (kN)

5000

Example 3

(Rc;m)min = 4000 kN

= Min {(

{(4425/1.38)) ; (4000/1.15)}

(

)} = Min {{3207; 3478}}

= 3207 kN

Table A.NA.9

for n =

1.55

1.47

1.42

1.38

1.35

1.55

1.35

1.23

1.15

1.08

values 1 and 2 may be divided by 1.1, provided that 1 is never less than 1.0, see EN 1997-1 7.6.2.2(9).

CPGEC7course(Goh)

104

Example 3

Rc;k = 3207 kN

Design vertical action

Fc;d = 1000 x 1.0 + 200 x 1.3 = 1260 kN

Over-design

O

d i factor

f t = 1886 / 1260 = 1.50

1 50 > 1

OK

R4 with explicit

verification of SLS A)

Base

B

Shaft

(compression)

Total/Combined

(

(compression)

i )

b

s

1.7

1

7

1.4

1.7

CPGEC7course(Goh)

105

Example 3

Rc;k = 3207 kN

Design vertical action

Fc;d = 1000 x 1.0 + 200 x 1.3 = 1260 kN

Over-design

O

d i factor

f t = 1604 / 1260 = 1.27

1 27 > 1

OK

R4 without explicit

verification of SLS A)

Base

B

Shaft

(compression)

Total/Combined

(

(compression)

i )

CPGEC7course(Goh)

b

s

2.0

2

0

1.6

2.0

106

Clause 7.3.2.1(3)P

Two

o app

approaches:

oac es

(a) the ground displacement is treated as an action. An

interaction analysis (e.g., t-z method) is then carried out to

determine the forces, displacements and strains in the pile;

(b) an upper bound to the force, which the ground could

pile shall be introduced as the design

g action.

transmit to the p

Downdrag is considered a permanent action

CPGEC7course(Goh)

107

Example 4

P

Piletype

surcharge

Boredpile

Pilewidth(m)

0.3

downdrag skinfrictionqD;k

(kPa)characteristicvalue

20

stiffclayskinfrictionqs;k

(kPa) characteristic value

(kPa)characteristicvalue

50

Permanentverticalload(kN)

300

FD

5 m soft clay

Rs

18 m stiff clay

y

Rb

A surcharge is placed at ground level after pile installation, causing settlement of

the soft clay and downdrag FD (negative skin friction) on the pile. The base

resistance Rb is assumed to be negligible.

Note: For simplicity, Self Weight of pile is omitted in the calculations

Any

y variable action may

y usually

y be ignored

g

((Clause 7.3.2.2(7))

( ))

In most cases, downdrag is only relevant for SLS

E

Example

l M

Modified

difi d ffrom Simpson

Si

&D

Driscoll

i

ll (1998) E

Eurocode

d 7 a commentary

t

CPGEC7course(Goh)

108

Example 4

Piletype

il

Boredpile

d il

Pilewidth(m)

0.3

downdrag skinfrictionqD;k

(kP ) h

(kPa)characteristicvalue

i i

l

20

stiffclayskinfrictionqs;k

(kPa)characteristicvalue

50

surcharge

FD

5 m soft clay

18 m stiff clay

y

Rs

Permanentverticalload(kN)

300

Rb

The interaction between the pile shaft and the soft clay should take into

account the relative movement of the pile and the soil eg. using t-z

method. This may result in negative skin friction that varies with depth

and the location of the neutral point above the bottom of the layer.

This approach is more complicated that assuming a maximum (limiting)

downdrag load along the entire length of the pile in the settling layer.

In this example, for simplicity the maximum downdrag load is assumed.

CPGEC7course(Goh)

109

Example 4

Piletype

Boredpile

Pilewidth(m)

03

0.3

downdrag skinfrictionqD;k

(kPa)characteristicvalue

20

stiffclayskinfrictionq

stiff

clay skin friction qs;kk

(kPa)characteristicvalue

50

Permanentverticalload(kN)

300

FD

surcharge

5 m soft clay

18 m stiff clay

y

Rs

Combination 1: A1 + M1 + R1

Rb 0

A1

; = (0.3)(5)qD;k

;

= (0.3)(5)(20) = 94.2 kN

Design

g value of downdrag

g load FD;d = GFD;k

= 1.35 x 94.2

G;dst

1.35

G;stb

1.0

Q;dst

1.5

cu

M1

1.0

Fc;d = 300 x 1.35 + 94.2 x 1.35 = 532 kN

CPGEC7course(Goh)

110

Piletype

Example 4

Boredpile

Pilewidth(m)

( )

0.3

stiffclayskinfrictionqs;k

(kPa)characteristicvalue

50

FD

surcharge

5 m soft clay

Combination 1: A1 + M1 + R1

Design Resistance (R1)

Rs

Compressive

C

i R

Resistance

i t

Rc;d = Rs;d

= (0.3)(18)50/( 1.0 x 1.4) = 606 kN

Over-design factor = Rc;d / Fc;d

= 606 / 532 = 1.13 > 1

OK

18 m stiff clay

y

Rb 0

From Table A.NA.7 (Bored piles)

R1

Base

Shaft

(

(compression)

i )

Total/Combined

(compression)

b

s

1.0

1.0

1.0

Design

D

i vertical

ti l action

ti

Fc;d = 300 x 1.35 + 94.2 x 1.35 = 532 kN

CPGEC7course(Goh)

Piletype

Example 4

Boredpile

Pilewidth(m)

( )

0.3

downdrag skinfrictionqD;k

(kPa)characteristicvalue

20

stiffclayskinfrictionqs;k

(kPa)characteristicvalue

50

Permanentverticalload(kN)

300

111

FD

surcharge

5 m soft clay

Rs

Combination 2: A2 + M2 + R4

18 m stiff clay

y

Rb 0

Design

g Action (A2) and M2

Design value of downdrag load FD;d = ()FD;k

= 1.25 x 94.2 = 118 kN

Design vertical action

Fc;d = 300 x 1.0 + FD;d = 418 kN

M2 = 1.25

1 25 is considered an action factor because downdrag is

usually calculated by effective stress analysis (eg. method)

CPGEC7course(Goh)

A2

G;dst

1.0

G;stb

10

1.0

Q;dst

1.3

M2

1.25

112

Example 4

P

surcharge

Combination 2: A2 + M1 + R4

FD

5 m soft clay

Rs

= (0.3)(18)50/(

(0 3)(18)50/( 1.4

1 4 x 1.4)

1 4) = 433 kN

Rb 0

A.3.3.2

Over-design

= 433 / 418 = 1.04 > 1

OK

18 m stiff clay

y

A NA 7 (Bored piles)

R4 with explicit

verification of SLS A)

Base

Shaft

(compression)

Total/Combined

(compression)

b

s

1.7

1.4

17

1.7

CPGEC7course(Goh)

113

P

Example 4

surcharge

Combination 2: A2 + M1 + R4

FD

5 m soft clay

Rs

= (0.3)(18)50/(

(0 3)(18)50/( 1.4

1 4 x 1.6)

1 6) = 379 kN

Rb 0

A.3.3.2

= 379 / 418 = 0.91 < 1

Not OK

A NA 7 (Bored piles)

Base

Shaft

(compression)

Total/Combined

(compression)

CPGEC7course(Goh)

18 m stiff clay

y

R4 without explicit

verification of SLS A)

b

s

2.0

1.6

20

2.0

114

Thank You

CPGEC7course(Goh)

115

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