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Design and Aerodynamic Analysis of a Flapping-wing Micro Aerial Vehicle

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www.elsevier.com/locate/aescte

Bor-Jang Tsai ,1 , Yu-Chun Fu

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Hua University, No. 707, Sec. 2, Wu Fu Rd., Hsinchu, Taiwan 300, ROC

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 2 October 2007

Received in revised form 6 July 2009

Accepted 9 July 2009

Available online 20 August 2009

Keywords:

Planar membrane wing

Flapping wing

MAV

This paper presents the design and aerodynamic performance of a planar membrane wing as shape airfoil

for the micro aerial vehicle. This simulation calculates the average lift force, L as the criteria weight of

the apping wing (weight must be lower than 8.78 g), to make one ultra-light, small size apping wing

MAV. In here two phases are discussed. First, the 3D aerodynamic calculation and ow eld simulation

of a planar membrane wing as shape airfoil for a MAV were studied. Analyzing the apping wing under

different frequencies and angles of attack, investigates the pressure distribution, the airfoil-tip vortex and

the up-wash situation of the air ow. Second is to average lift force, L 8.78 g for designing weight limit

of the MAV. The specications of apping wing MAV are 8 g gross weight, the 15 cm wingspan, and

5 cm chord length. In this vehicle, we employed the concept of four-bar linkage to design a apping

mechanism which simulates the apping motion of a bird. The angles of upstroke and downstroke can

be varied in the design. The total apping angle is 73 . The apping frequency of wing is 25.58 Hz.

The power source comes from motor with a LiH battery. A simple ight test was carried out and the

result of the ight is going well. The actual ight distance is approximately 8 m, and the primary goal is

achieved. By the way, we found the rigidity of tail wing is crucial and should be enhanced to prevent the

apping-wing MAV will be unable to revise if the MAV in a crooked condition and it will cause a crash.

2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

The micro aerial vehicle, in English is abbreviated as a MAV,

according to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

(DARPA) of USA, the size of various aspects of micro aerial vehicle (MAV) is limited to 15 cm, the ying speed is 1020 m/s, the

Reynolds number must be below 106 . Regarding a apping wing

for a MAV, the most important issue at present is the aerodynamic performance. The Reynolds number of a MAV is about 105 ,

this range of Reynolds number will cause laminar separation phenomenon occurred on the surfaces of the body. Moreover, since

the denition of a MAV includes size limit, and the challenge of

this work is to design an ultra-light and small size of a apping

wing MAV comparing all literatures [1,7,9,10,13], therefore by using very low aspect ratio of MAV to obtain enough lifting force,

L. However, small aspect ratio will increase the three-dimensional

effects on ow eld. The MAV is small and the speed is low, the

ight stability of a MAV is affected easily by the external wind

shear or other disturbances.

This research applied dynamic moving grid technology and analyzed a planar membrane wing under the low Reynolds number.

Each pattern of the ap movement initiates a complex and un-

*

1

E-mail address: bjtsai@chu.edu.tw (B.-J. Tsai).

Professor.

doi:10.1016/j.ast.2009.07.007

crucial. To predict lifting force, L needs to solve the whole unsteady apping ow eld of a wing. Approaches of solving this are

divided into two steps; rst, we do the ow eld simulation and

analysis, second, we design and manufacture it.

Regarding the literature survey, in 2000, Neff and Hummel [9]

studied the two- and three-dimensional ow elds by plunging

and pitching movement for NACA 0012 airfoil, they solved the Euler equation to simulate the ap and twist movement for the rectangular wing. In 2003, Tuncer and Kaya [13] made the movement

of the upstroke and downstroke ap by using the two-dimensional

NACA 0014 and they analyzed the reason which is thrust force, T

produced and observe the overow situation of its turbulent ow.

In 2001, the Caltech, Pornsin-sirirak made a MAV [10], they used

the titanium alloy wing of the xylene thin lm, complete the altogether weight is 10.5 g, also y for 518 sec successfully. In

2005, Delaware University in USA, Agrawal imitates an insect ight

and they studied the multi-dimensional apping movement and

the twisting movement to simulate the hummingbird ap and but

not becomes a MAV [1]. In 2006, Lin, Hwu and Young reported

the trust and lift of an ornithopters membrane wings with simple apping motion on the journal [7], they revealed the lift force,

L of a exible apping wing will increase with the increase of

the apping frequency under the corresponding ying speed. For

the same apping frequency, the ying speed can be increased by

decreasing of the angle of attack with the trade of loosing some

lifting force. The apping motion generates the trust to acquire

384

Nomenclature

L

P

L

T

T

CL

CL

CD

CD

K

AOA

pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pa, psi

lift force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N

thrust force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N

average thrust force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N

lift coecient

average lift coecient

drag coecient

average drag coecient

reduced frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hz

angle of attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

the ying speed. The ying speed and angle of attack combine

to generate the lift force, L for ying. This paper is the most important reference to us. In recent, the design of precision balance

and aerodynamic characteristic for micro aerial vehicle to measure

lift, drag, rolling-moment, and pitching-moment of a MAV was reported by Suhariyono et al. [12], but measurement is for the xed

wing MAV only, not for apping wing, the measurement of apping wing is critical. Only Singh et al. [11] studied an experimental

apparatus that incorporates apping wings and measures the small

amount of thrust generated by these wing motions is described.

This methodology is used to measure the thrust generated by two

wings at different wing pitch settings. Also, the effect of change

in pitch phase during a apping cycle is examined experimentally.

Regarding the simulation, Larijani [6] proposed a nonlinear aeroelastic model for the study of apping wing ight in the 2001, this

paper conducted the Huangs [5] numerical analysis for the apping wing MAV later.

From Refs. [9] and [7] we know the three-dimensional movement of many birds apping is used the standard NACA shape

airfoil as wings, but actual apping wing of MAV to be restricted

in the volume and the weight. Its unlikely to use the NACA series

of wing section. On the contrary, the most of the apping wing

for MAV, a planar membrane wing are used primarily. In order to

imitating the insect utter and the ight pattern, therefore, this

investigation does take the planar membrane wing as a study target vehicle, discussing its aerodynamic characteristic and to predict

average lift force, L as the criteria weight to manufacture a future

MAV. The actual MAV was made by the wingspan is 15 cm, the

mean chord is 5 cm, the weight is 8 g, the wing area is 75 cm2 ,

the apping frequency is 25.58 Hz of a apping wing MAV.

2. Numerical analysis

Wm

U

Re

J

AR

different weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . g

ying speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m/s

Reynolds number

advance ratio

aspect ratio

density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kg/m3

length of chord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m

the frontal area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m2

time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . s

slope angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rad

dynamic viscosity

c

S

t

which in the volume change rate is smaller than after each time

the iteration that we give.

C k =

(2)

2.2.1. Estimation of the MAV weight

The MAV weight (W Total ) may include a MAV main body weight

(W Fuselage ), a wing weight (W Rudder ), the load weight (battery and

switch or joint) (W Payload ) and the power unit (motor) (W Power ).

2.2.2. Aerodynamic parameter estimates

Lift coecient:

2L

CL =

(3)

U 2 S

Thrust coecient:

CT =

2T

(4)

U 2 S

Reduced frequency:

fc

K=

(5)

Advance ratio:

J=

U

2 f R

Wing tip speed

(6)

Reynolds number:

Re =

B n n B 0 0 < (given value)

C Ut

4 f R 2

AR

(7)

In the numerical simulation solves the speed and the pressure

on this pattern ow eld. It is an integral control volume method.

In the control volume denition, each physical quantities is signicant because the separation variable is the integral of control

volume for the governing equation, therefore we must rst take

the separation of the governing equation to control volume of the

ow eld computation.

Governing equation:

1

g t

r grad ) = S

g + div( u

(1)

: Diffusion coecient

S : Source coecient

3.1.1. Geometry contour and grid establishment

In order to conform to DARPAs denition of the MAV, therefore this research takes 15 cm as the wingspan length and only

constructs the single wing (half wingspan) of grid. The main consideration of chord length is for hoped the induced drag is small

but the wing induced drag following the lifting force, L occurs, the

lifting force, L is bigger and the induced drag is also bigger. But

the wing induced drag is directly related to the aspect ratio and

if the aspect ratio is bigger, relatively, the induced drag will be

smaller. Therefore, this research designate the aspect ratio is 3, the

chord length c is 5 cm, the thickness of planar membrane wing

is 0.3 mm and the rectangular shape of wing. The grid uses the

385

Fig. 1. The grid disposition of the rigid wing section for a three-dimensional planar membrane wing.

constructive grid to process the complex geometry, has the convenience to use the three-dimensional dynamic moving grid skills

[4] as well. The connecting positions of wing entity and the ow

passage will have the boundary layer effect, therefore the grid became dense but the entire ow passage used the dispose for the

C grid, the total grid point is 854,090, shown in Fig. 1. The computational domain; the length is 32.5c, the extended is 12.5c, the

height is 25c.

3.1.2. Setting of boundary conditions

The predetermined MAV ying speed is 10 m/s, therefore incoming air speed is 10 m/s. The outow is an atmospheric pressure. Because of ow eld assuming sliding, therefore the hypothesis of ow passage ank is the sliding boundary, then, the position

of boundary will not have the boundary layer effect. The apping

angle is 30 .

3.1.3. Numerical algorithm and setting of parameters

The convection terns of momentum equations use different approaching principles by spatial separation variables, two principles

were employed in this study, the pressure term uses staggered

type of PRESTO (Pressure Staggering Option) principle. In addition

to the speed-pressure eld coupling uses the SIMPLE principle. For

the time accuracy, the time step is carried on iterations by the two

step implicit expression law (2nd order Implicit Algorithm) [3]. The

important parameter settings are as follow:

1. Reduced frequency K setting: the K value is 0.1 and 0.2 and

0.3, from Eq. (5), may know the actual ight of birds conversion to the apping frequency.

K = 0.1, is equal to ap of 6.369 times in each second.

K = 0.2, is equal to ap of 12.739 times in each second.

K = 0.3, is equal to ap of 19.108 times in each second.

2. Angle of attack setting: designates the angles of attack is 0 ,

5 and 10 .

3.2. Program validation by a case of three-dimensional rigid wing

Based on 2004, Ref. [5], in view of aerodynamic analysis for

a three-dimensional apping wing, simulates the behavior of the

NACA 2412 rigid wing ap. Case uses the same wing section and

the ow eld conditions. That is the NACA 2412 rectangular wing

and AR is 8, and the single wing of grid was constructed, namely

half wingspan is 4c (c is the chord length 3.4 cm), the is 15 ,

the angle of attack is 0 , the U is 8.6 m/s, the ap frequency is

8 Hz, 16 Hz and 24 Hz respectively, carries on the computation of

dynamic ap of unsteady ow eld. The grid distribution is shown

in Fig. 2, and the total grid number is 641,624. Fig. 3 is a comparison of lifting coecient in condition of unsteady state, result

of lift coecient between this research and Ref. [5] is quite close,

Fig. 2. The grid system of the rigid wing section for the three-dimensional NACA

2412 under the upstroke and downstroke.

model is accuracy and correct.

3.3. A three-dimensional case of planar membrane wing in different

K AOA = 0 , K = 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3

3.3.1. Lifting force and thrust force

When the angle of attack is 0 and the K value is 0.1, 0.2

and 0.3 respectively, investigates the increasing of K to inuence

on the aerodynamic forces. Fig. 4 shows the comparison of lift coecient, C L and different drag coecient, C D based on different

K values, in the lift coecient, C L portion, the movement of ap

wing starting the downstroke and arriving the center point position from the highest peak, the lift coecient, C L elevates to the

maximum value, the movement of ap wing apping again from

the center point downstroke to the perigee position, and the lift

coecient, C L falls to the starting value. Therefore, in downstroke

for the lifting force, L is positive. Starting to upstroke, the ap

apping from the perigee to the center point position, the lift coefcient, C L falls to the minimum value, the movement of ap wing

apping again from the center point to the peak position, the lift

coecient, C L rises to the starting value, thus the lifting force, L is

negative value in upstroke.

The increase of K causes the prole of top and bottom oscillation amplitude for the lift coecient, C L to become the proportional increasing, while in downstroke, the positive lift coecient, C L becomes the proportion to increase. While K = 0.1, the

maximum of lift coecient, C L is 0.1. While K = 0.2, the maximum

of lift coecient, C L is 0.2. While K = 0.3, the maximum of lift coecient, C L is 0.3. While in upstroke, the negative lift coecient,

C L becomes the proportional increasing. While K = 0.1, the smallest lift coecient, C L is 0.1. While K = 0.2, the smallest lift coecient, C L is 0.2. While K = 0.3, the smallest lift coecient, C L

is 0.3. Increase of the positive and the negative counterbalances

mutually, thus the K value increase does not have the contribution

386

Fig. 3. The comparison of lift coecient, C L under different frequencies for the NACA 2412.

Fig. 4. The comparison of the lift and drag coecient, C L , C D under different K (AOA = 0 ).

this way is unable to generate the lifting force, L.

Moreover, in the drag coecient, C D portion, while the K increases, the drag coecient, C D has the big variation only when

the ap starts apping. While K = 0.1, the biggest drag coecient, C D is 0.0125. While K = 0.2, the biggest drag coecient,

C D is 0.014. While K = 0.3, the biggest drag coecient, C D

is 0.015. The drag coecient, C D reduces relatively when the

K value increases, after the rst ap cycle, no matter how K value

is, both in downstroke and in upstroke will not have big change,

the mean drag coecient, C D is 0.018. As a result, while the angle of attack is 0 , the increase of K value does not have a quite

big contribution to the average thrust coecient.

3.3.2. Wing tip vortex

In order to ensure the accuracy, the second period of ap cycle in numerical calculation was selected to observe, it separately

picks six points of time period in the cycle to observe. Fig. 5 shows

the t / T = 0/6 t / T = 5/6 are in order. Figs. 6 and 7 show the velocity vector diagrams for K = 0.1 and K = 0.3 respectively, at the

position of 1/4 chord length observes the wing tip vortex. While

the t / T = 0 starting downstroke, then curls up the counterclockwise rotation of the wing tip vortex, the strong turbulent ow

causes the low pressure region for the upper wing surface, there-

fore it may bring the upward lifting force, L for the plate wing.

While the t / T = 3/6 in the perigee position of downstroke, instantaneously, the turbulent ow can be absorbed because of the big

reacting force. While the t / T = 4/6 starting upstroke, then curls

up the clockwise rotation of the wing tip vortex, the strong turbulent ow causes of the low pressure region for lower wing surface,

therefore the negative lifting force, L is not favor for the MAV

ight.

While K = 0.1, no matter how the downstroke or upstroke

is, the wing tip vortex appears smooth. While K = 0.3, the wing

387

(a) t / T = 0/6

(b) t / T = 2/6

(c) t / T = 3/6

(d) t / T = 5/6

tip vortex can be seen obviously and the average vortex velocity

is 8.02 m/s for the wing tip. As a result of the K increase can

cause the maximum vortex velocity increasing quickly for the wing

tip, wing tip vortex became obvious, it affects the pressure between upper and lower surfaces of airfoil, and inuences on lifting

force, L and thrust force, T as well. Regardless of the increasing

of K , the upstroke and downstroke have the same clockwise and

counterclockwise strength of the vortex, therefore the positive and

the negative of lifting force, L is mutually offset. This causes the

average lifting force equal to zero. This result veries that C L and

C D of different K at AOA = 0 as our expectation.

3.4. A three-dimensional case of planar membrane wing in different

angle of attack K = 0.3, AOA = 0 , 5 and 10

3.4.1. Lifting force and thrust force

K = 0.3, AOA = 0 , 5 and 10 , investigates the increasing of K

to inuence on the lift coecient, C L and the drag coecient, C D .

Fig. 8 is the comparison of the lift coecient, C L and the drag

coecient, C D under the different angle of attack, so the increasing angle of attack conducive to favor the lifting force, L and the

thrust force, T generation, while in downstroke the positive lift coecient, C L becomes the proportion to increase. While AOA = 0 ,

the maximum lift coecient, C L is 0.3. While AOA = 5 , the maximum lift coecient, C L is 0.5. While AOA = 10 , the maximum

lift coecient, C L is 0.7. While in upstroke, the negative lift coefcient, C L becomes the proportional reducing actually. While the

AOA = 0 , the smallest lift coecient, C L is 0.3. While AOA = 5 ,

the smallest lift coecient, C L is 0.15. While AOA = 10 , the

smallest lift coecient, C L is 0. According to this, while AOA = 10 ,

the lifting force, L is no longer negative. Thus, the angle of attack

In addition to the drag coecient, C D in the downstroke and

upstroke, the prole change of oscillation amplitude is obvious.

When apping wing starting downstroke and arriving the center

point position from the highest peak, the drag coecient, C D falls

to the lowest. Again wing apping from the center point downstroke to the perigee position, the drag coecient, C D elevates to

the starting value, this may know while in downstroke the thrust

force, T is positive. Then wing apping starts to upstroke from the

perigee to the center point position, the drag coecient, C D rises

to the highest. The movement of wing aps to upstroke again from

the center point to the peak position, the drag coecient, C D falls

to starting value, this means while in upstroke the thrust force, T

is also positive.

Although in downstroke the minimum drag coecient, C D assumes that the linear proportion to reduce, but it reduces relatively along with the angle of attack increase. While AOA = 0 ,

the minimum drag coecient, C D is 0.018. While AOA = 5 ,

the minimum drag coecient, C D is 0.06. While AOA = 10 ,

the minimum drag coecient, C D is 0.135. But in upstroke

the biggest drag coecient, C D actually assumes that the linear

proportional increasing. While AOA = 0 , the biggest drag coecient, C D is 0.015. While AOA = 5 , the biggest drag coecient,

C D is 0.005. While AOA = 10 , the biggest drag coecient, C D

is 0.02. It increases along with the angle of attack increase, although in upstroke the biggest drag coecient, C D does not assume that the linear proportion to reduce, but for all cases, the

angle of attack increases will help the entire cyclical of the average thrust force T .

388

(a) t / T = 0/6

(b) t / T = 2/6

(c) t / T = 3/6

(d) t / T = 5/6

Fig. 7. The velocity vector diagram of a apping cycle (K = 0.3, AOA = 0 ).

Fig. 8. The comparison of the lift and drag coecient, C L , C D under different AOA (K = 0.3).

Figs. 7 and 9 are the speed of vector diagrams for AOA = 0

and AOA = 10 , when K = 0.3 and at the position of 1/4 chord

length observes the wing tip vortex. While AOA = 0 , regardless of

in downstroke or upstroke, they all have the wing tip vortex. Also,

the average vortex velocity is 8.02 m/s for the wing tip. While

AOA = 10 , the average vortex velocity increases to 12.4 m/s for

the wing tip. In addition, the scope of turbulent ow increases

gradually. While the angle of attack increases, the average vortex velocity was already bigger than the free-stream speed for the

wing tip. While the angle of attack increases, the upper and lower

surfaces of wing have the pressure difference, producing the wing

tip vortex of the wing to form the lower pressure area, it creates

a function of suction force to the ow eld and causes the ow

However, in upstroke, because it has the inuence of the angle of

attack, causes of the frontal area of lower surface of wing to increase and resulting in the pressure of the lower surface of wing

relative to enhance and it with upstroke the lower surface of wing

produces the lower pressure region mutually to balance, therefore,

there are no the wing tip vortex, the negative lifting force, L relative to be smaller is good for the ight of the apping wing of a

MAV.

Along with the angle of attack increasing, in downstroke the

speed of average wing tip vortex is accelerated gradually. The intensity is strengthened gradually and the scope of turbulent ow

is expanded gradually, relatively, upper and lower surfaces of wing

have the pressure difference to be bigger, the lifting force, L is

(a) t / T = 0/6

389

(b) t / T = 2/6

(c) t / T = 3/6

(d) t / T = 5/6

Fig. 9. The velocity vector diagram of a ap cycle (K = 0.3, AOA = 10 ).

Table 1

The average lifting force and thrust force of the different angle of attack (K = 0.3).

AOA = 0

AOA = 5

AOA = 10

CL

CD

L (g)

T (g)

0

0.1875

0.3625

0.018

0.0325

0.0775

0

4.39

8.4874

0.4214

0.7609

1.8146

balances the upper and the lower surfaces of the wing tip vortex,

the negative lifting force, L relative to be smaller. This can verify

the C L and C D under different angle of attack.

The K = 0.3 is under the different angle of attack of the analysis result to the average lift and drag coecient, C D , substitution

for Eqs. (3) and (4) may result in the average lifting force and

thrust force, T of ap in the single wing, the thrust force, T value

(Table 1), calculates that the value might help for designs in the

future whole of the weight reference for the apping wing MAV.

4. The design and actual manufacture

The design parameters of apping wing for a MAV: the

wingspan is 15 cm, the aspect ratio is 3, the mean chord is 5 cm

Fig. 10. Design drawing and three views of the apping wing MAV.

390

Table 2

The various components weight of the MAV.

Components

Weight (grams)

Airfoil

Lithium battery

Joint

Motor

Total

2.3

1.5

1.5

0. 7

2

8

and the wing thickness is 0.03 cm. The overall design conguration

is shown in Fig. 10.

4.1. Overall design

4.1.1. Estimation of total weight to take off

The prediction of numerical calculation tells us, the gross

weight has to be lower than 8.78 g to be able to y. Therefore

aspects of weight to take off is estimated, weights of various components are listed in Table 2. From Table 2 we can see that the

total weight estimate to take off is 8 g, lower than 8.78 g. Eliminating crosswind shear and projection angle problems, this apping

wing micro aerial vehicle should be able to y ideally.

By Refs. [2,8], in general, the length of fuselage is approximately

0.71.1 times of the main plane wingspan, the area of the horizontal tail is approximately 712% of the main wing area, and its

position is approximately 1.52.5 times length of chord away from

center of gravity of the airplane. Thus, the fuselage length is 12 cm

and the horizontal tail is installed away from the nose 9.5 cm, the

wing area of horizontal tail is 5.625 cm2 .

In order to avoid the overweight of battery and the motor affects the lifting force, L, therefore the choice of the weight of

battery is 1.5 g and the output voltage is 3.7 V of the lithium battery, shown in Fig. 11(a). Weight of motor chooses 2 g, as the input

voltage of high eciency motor is 3.7 V that the output rotational

speed can reach 28,000 rpm.

4.1.3. The reduction gear of transmission

Four-bar linkage was used as the actuating transmission unit.

The ap angle of 30 cannot just make it because of the ratio

of gears and spacing problem of transmission unit. Therefore, the

optimum design of the ap transmission system employed the program ap design, numerical result decides the angles of upstroke

and downstroke are 35 and 38 respectively. The transmission

system unit is shown in Fig. 11(b). The MAV vehicle wants to be

able to y, the K = 3 at least. However, rotation speed of motor is

Fig. 11. The entity and components drawing of the MAV.

391

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Fig. 12. The MAV ying test.

high and torque is too small resulting in the ap wing cannot ap

eciently, it is necessary to reduce the gear ratio to 18.24:1, and

the nal apping frequency of wing is 25.58 Hz.

4.1.4. Estimation of aerodynamic parameters

By using the above conditions of the MAV, Eq. (6) calculates the

J is 2.047, in which the speed of wing tip is 4.886 m/s. We know

the wind speed is bigger than the wing tip speed, in other words,

the ap frequency excessively small. The ight characteristics of

apping wing displace the unsteady state to the quasi-steady state

that is a contradictory phenomenon. If the speed of wing tip can

be promoted, it will cause the J equal to about 1, so that the ight

of unsteady apping wing become realistic, then using Eq. (7) to

calculate the Re is 16,733, small than 106 just right to describe

the ight region of MAV. In the situation of the ap angle, the

wingspan and the aspect ratio xed, the ap frequency then becomes the main variable of the Reynolds number.

4.2. Manufacture and test ight

The manufacture of wing contains an airfoil outrigger or bone

rib between the wing root and the wingspan skeleton, in order to

maintain stiffness and shape for the thin lm of airfoil does not

happen dramatically in upstroke or downstroke. The thin lm wing

has made by the ethylene material. The main body of fuselage uses

carbon ber stick. The MAV is shown in Fig. 11(c), (d).

While a simple ight testing, throws the MAV by hand, the

best far range of ight may reach 8 m and discover the vibration of transmission system small, in addition to the horizontal

tail is quite benecial for the ight stability of MAV. While the

horizontal tail adjustment supremely curls upwards to 10 , the

ight condition is the best. In addition, throws by hand if not

has suitable skill, it often causes the angle of attack oversized or

slightly has created loses speed then crash. Test ight as shown in

Fig. 12.

5. Conclusions

(1) The numerical analysis is a tool to help the design of micro

aerial vehicle.

(2) While AOA = 0 , the K is increased and does not have the

contribution to the average lifting force (all are zero), but the

mean drag coecient, C D all is 0.018. While K = 0.3 and

AOA = 5 , the average lift coecient, C L climbs to 0.1875, the

mean drag coecient, C D reduces to 0.0325. While AOA =

10 , the average lift coecient, C L promotes again to 0.3625,

392

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

it may be known that a moderate increase of the angle of attack is quite advantageous to the production of average lifting

force and average thrust force T .

While AOA = 0 , the K is increased. It causes the average

speed of wing tip vortex speed relative to increase relatively,

but the upstroke and downstroke of the clockwise and counterclockwise strength of the vortex is equal. Therefore, the

average lifting force is zero. While K = 0.3 and the angle of

attack increases, the counterclockwise rotation average wing

tip vortex speed is bigger than the free-stream speed of the

downstroke that lifting force, L relative to promotion. Because

the lower airfoil frontal area to increase in upstroke will cause

the pressure enhance and it with lower pressure region balances each other of the lower airfoil. Therefore, the wing tip

vortex production is not discovered. Its relative to smaller of

the negative value for the lifting force, L.

As a result of the MAV, it must y with minimum angle of

attack is 5 . Therefore it uses the horizontal tail to produce

a downward force. By pulling up the nose will produce the

angle of attack and it discovered adjustment supremely curls

upwards 10 , the ight condition is best.

The result of using motor that make the output rotational

speed excessively quickly, therefore it needs the gear group to

reduce the driven rotational speed to obtain more torsion and

enhances the transmission system supplies to the ap wing to

output the lifting force, L and the thrust force, T . Otherwise, it

is will be insucient for the torsion and unable effectiveness

to ap the wing.

After the actual test ight to prove that horizontal ight reach

above 8 m, and it discovered the smaller transmission system

vibration and addition to the horizontal tail are quite benecial for stability of the apping wing MAV ight.

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the support of the MRL of the ITRI,

ROC 2007 and the funding of the National Science Council in Taiwan under the contracts of NSC 94-2212-E-216-004.

References

[1] S.K. Banala, S.K. Agrawal, Design and optimization of a mechanism for out-ofplane insect wing-like motion with twist, Journal of Mechanical Design (2005)

841844.

[2] Electric remote control airplane design, 2006, http://home.kimo.com.tw/

epowery/diypage.htm.

[3] Fluent 6.1, Users Guide, 2003.

[4] Gambit 2.0, Users Guide, 2003.

[5] Shi-Ming Huang, Numerical simulation of ow over a apping wing, PhD Dissertation, National Cheng Kung University, 2004.

[6] R.F. Larijani, J.D. DeLaurier, A nonlinear aeroelastic model for the study of apping wing ight, in: T.J. Mueller (Ed.), Fixed and Flapping Wing Aerodynamics

for Micro Air Vehicle Applications, in: AIAA Progress in Aeronautics and Astronautics, vol. 195, AIAA, 2001, pp. 399428 (Chapter 18).

[7] C.S. Lin, C. Hwu, W.B. Young, The thrust and lift of an ornithopters membrane

wings with simple apping motion, Aerospace Science and Technology 10 (2)

(March 2006) 111119.

[8] Micro aerial vehicle, 2006, http://bicoreeos.solarbotics.net/2nd.gen-mavCG.mav/.

[9] M.F. Neff, D. Hummel, Euler solutions for a nite-span apping wing, in: Conference on Fixed, Flapping and Rotary Wing Vehicles at Very Low Reynolds

Numbers, 2000, pp. 57.

[10] T. Nick Pornsin-sirirak, Y.C. Tai, H. Nassef, C.M. Ho, Titanium-alloy MEMS wing

technology for a micro aerial vehicle application, Sensors and Actuators A:

Physical 89 (2001) 95103.

[11] B. Singh, M. Ramasamy, I. Chopra, J.G. Leighman, Insect-based apping wings

for micro hovering air vehicles: Experimental investigations, in: Proceedings of

the 60th Annual Forum of the American Helicopter Society, June 2004.

[12] A. Suhariyono, J.H. Kim, N.S. Goo, H.C. Park, K.J. Yoon, Design of precision

balance and aerodynamic characteristic measurement system for micro aerial

vehicles, Aerospace Science and Technology 10 (2) (March 2006) 9299.

[13] I.H. Tuncer, M. Kaya, Thrust generation caused by apping airfoils in a biplane

conguration, Journal of Aircraft 40 (2003) 509515.

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