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LEPTOSPIROSIS

Synonyms:
 Weil’s Disease - A severe form of Leptospirosis, usually caused by LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS
SEROVAR ICTEROHAEMORRHAGIAE and occasionally other serovars. It is transmitted to
humans by the rat and is characterized by hemorrhagic and renal symptoms with accompanying
jaundice.

 Canicola Fever - an acute feverish disease in people and in dogs marked by gastroenteritis and mild
jaundice
 Hemorrhagic Jaundice

 Mud Fever

 Swine Herd Disease


Defintion:

 Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infectious bacterial disease carried by animals, both domestic and wild,
whose urine contaminates water or food which is ingested or inoculated through the skin.
Symptoms:

 Fever  Vomiting
 No symptoms - in some cases  Flu-like symptoms
 High fever  Jaundice
 Severe headache  Conjunctivitis
 Chills  Red eyes
 Muscle aches  Abdominal pain
 Diarrhea
 Rash

 Military personnel
Risk factors:  Infected water
 Outdoors  Campers
 Animal exposure  Lake swimming
 International travel  Whitewater rafting

 Animal caretakers  Kayaking

 Veterinarians  Rice fields

 Farmers  Sugar cane plantations

 Sewer workers  Mines

 Veterinarians  Sewer systems

 Slaughterhouses

 Skin wounds
 Fish workers

 Dairy farmers

Medical Mangement:

 Suppressing the causative agent

 Fighting possible complications

 Aetiotropic drugs

 Penicillin, Doxycycline, Ampicillin, Amoxicillin

 For prophylaxis, doxycycline 100mg p.o. every 12 hours x 1 week

 Peritoneal dialysis

 Administration of fluid and electrolyte and blood as indicated


Nursing management:

 Isolate the patient, urine must be properly disposed of.

 Darken patient’s room because light is irritating to the eyes of the patient.

 Observe meticulous skin care to ease pruritus.

 Keep clients under close surveillance.

 For home care, clean near dirty places, pools and stagnant water.

 Eradicate rats and rodents.

 Facilitate health education on the modes of transmission of the disease.

 Encourage oral fluid intake.


Laboratory exams:

 Blood urea-nitrogen and urea

 Enzyme Link Immuno-sorbent Assay

 Liver function tests usually are slightly to moderately elevated

 Apartate Aminotransferase (AST)

 Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT)

 Gamma-Glutamyltransferase (GGT)

 Leptospira Antigen-antibody Test (LAAT)


 Leptospira Antibody Test (LAT)
Health teachings:

 Sanitation in homes, workplaces and farms is a must

 There is a need for proper drainage system and control of rodents

 Animals must be vaccinated

 Reduce contact with soil, vegetation, and water that could possibly be contaminated with infected
animal urine, including urine from rodents.

 If working with materials that could potentially be contaminated, wear protective clothing that covers
the skin, including waterproof boots or waders.

 If working in an especially high-risk area, talk to your doctor about beginning antibiotic treatment
before potential exposure.