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Introduction to Offshore

Structures
Module 3

Contents

PalmGren-Miner Rule
Design Methodology
Simple joint calculation
Fatigue Life Improvement

PalmGren-Miner Rule
Suppose a body can tolerate only a certain amount
of damage, D. If that body experiences damages Di
(i=1,2,n) from N sources, then we might expect
that failure will occur if

=
=1

PalmGren-Miner Rule
Equivalently,

=1

=1

where Di/D is the fractional damage


received from the ith source.

PalmGren-Miner Rule
We can use this linear damage concept in a fatigue setting by
considering the situation where a component is subjected to
n1 cycles at alternating stress 1 , n2 cycles at stress 2 , , Nn
cycles at N . From the S-N curve for this material, then we
can find the number of cycles to failure, N1 at 1 ,N2 at
2 , , NN at N .

Example
Assume we are interested in the cycles to failure of a
paper clip. As illustrated in the following figure, a cycle is
defined as opening and closing a clip. It is known that the
angle of the two arms of the paper clip affects the number
of cycles to failure. So here the angle is treated as the
stress.

PalmGren-Miner Rule -Advantages


For tests with random loading histories at several stress
levels, correlation with the Palmgren-Miner rule is
generally very good.
The Palmgren-Miner rule can be interpreted graphically
as a "shift" of the S-N curve.

PalmGren-Miner Rule - Limitations


1. It does not consider sequence effects, i.e. the order of the
loading makes no difference in this rule. Sequence effects
are definitely observed in many cases.
2. Palmgren-Miner rule says that the damage accumulation
is independent of stress level. This can be seen from the
modified S-N diagram above where the entire curve is
shifted the same amount, regardless of stress amplitude.

Design Methodology
1.

2.

3.
4.

Develop a parametric equation


empirical method for each of the plane
frame and basically looking similar to
either T, Y, K or X.
Analyses will be done plane by plane.
Of course, the three-dimensional effect
is taken into account in terms of
empirical multiplications.
If the design of one side is done, the
effect of other side is already taken into
account.
Repeat the procedure for all frames in
one junction and look at whichever is
producing maximum requirement

Design Methodology

Tubular Joint

Simple joint calculation API RP2A

Simple-joint calculation
This is valid based on the following criteria:
0.2 1.0
10 50
30 90
Fy 72 ksi (500 Mpa)
g/D>0.6 (for K joints)

Simple-joint calculation

Tubular joints without overlap of principal braces


and having no gussets, diaphragms, grout or
stiffeners should be designed using the following
guidelines (plus increase in both cases where
applicable).

where
Pa = allowable capacity for brace axial load;
Ma = allowable capacity for brace bending moment,
Fyc = the yield stress of the chord member at the joint(or
0.8 of the tensile strength, if less), in ksi (MPa);
FS = safety factor = 1.60.

Strength Factor Qu

Chord Load Factor Qf


The chord load factor Qf accounts for the presence
of nominal loads in the chord and is calculated
from the following equation.

Chord Load Factor Qf

Strength Check
The interaction ratio JIR for the joint with
applied axial loads and bending moments in
the brace should be calculated using the
expression:

Joint detailing- In plane

Joint detailing- Out of plane

Fatigue Life Improvement


The fatigue life can be improved by one of the
following methods.
Profile grinding the weld
Weld Toe grinding
Hammer peeling of the weld toe
Smoothening Weld caps in butt welds.
Post weld Heat treatment
Adding Internal rings

Profiling the Weld surface


Involves smoothening
of weld caps at the
butt weld
It improves fatigue
life by reducing the
stress concentration
due to under cut or
crack like features

Smoothening weld caps


In this process, fatigue
life is improved by
reducing the stress
concentration due to
undercut or crack like
features

Thank You