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XI.

COOLING TOWER DESIGN


A cooling tower is a heat rejection device, which extracts waste heat to the
atmosphere though the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature. The type of heat
rejection in a cooling tower is termed "evaporative" in that it allows a small portion of the
water being cooled to evaporate into a moving air stream to provide significant cooling to the
rest of that water stream. The heat from the water stream transferred to the air stream raises
the air's temperature and its relative humidity to 100%, and this air is discharged to the
atmosphere. Evaporative heat rejection devices such as cooling towers are commonly used to
provide significantly lower water temperatures than achievable with "air cooled" or "dry"
heat rejection devices, like the radiator in a car, thereby achieving more cost-effective and
energy efficient operation of systems in need of cooling. Think of the times you've seen
something hot be rapidly cooled by putting water on it, which evaporates, cooling rapidly,
such as an overheated car radiator. The cooling potential of a wet surface is much better than
a dry one.
Common applications for cooling towers are providing cooled water for airconditioning, manufacturing and electric power generation. The smallest cooling towers are
designed to handle water streams of only a few gallons of water per minute supplied in small
pipes like those might see in a residence, while the largest cool hundreds of thousands of
gallons per minute supplied in pipes as much as 15 feet (about 5 meters) in diameter on a
large power plant.
The generic term "cooling tower" is used to describe both direct (open circuit) and
indirect (closed circuit) heat rejection equipment. While most think of a "cooling tower" as
an open direct contact heat rejection device, the indirect cooling tower, sometimes referred to
as a "closed circuit cooling tower" is nonetheless also a cooling tower.

Design conditions:
Mass of cooling water from condenser, mcw = 1041.48 kg/sec
Outlet temperature from condenser, t36 = 155.626
Mass of water from boiler blowdown, mBBD = m41 = 0.409kg/s
Temperature of water vapor leaving boiler at 5,861.1001 kPa, tBBD = 495.825 0C
Mass of water from evaporator blowdown, mEBD = m42 = 0.102kg/s
Temperature of water from evaporator blowdown, tEBD = 211.3012 0C

Taking mixing chamber as control volume

mCW,tCW

tBB
mBB

tEB
mCT,tCT
mEB

By mass balance:
mcw + mBB + mEB = mCT
mCT = 1041.48 + 0.409+ 0.102
mCT = 1041.991 kg/sec
By Temperature Balance;
Temperature of Entering Water, tw1

= 23.7682

Temperature of Leaving Water, tw2

= 20

Temperature of Entering air, t3

= 20: RH = 60 %

Temperature of Leaving air, t4

= 28: RH = 100 %

Temperature of Make-up water, t5

= 25

Atmospheric Pressure (standard)

= 101.325 kPa

Amount of cooling water, mcw = 1041.991 kg/sec


As recommended, Principles of Refrigeration by Dossat page 259, the temperature of the
water leaving the cooling tower will be 70 F to 100 F wet bulb temperature of the entering air.
t = t4 + Wbt

t = 8.5 0F

t4 = 28 0C = 82.4 0F

Wbt = 82.4 0F 8.5 0F


Wbt = 73.90F = 23.278 0C
Air Properties
@ 20; RH = 60 %
W B=

0.622 P v
P tP v
Where:
Pv1 = Psat @ 20 and 60% RH
Pv1 = 2.339 x 0.6 = 1.403 kPa

Thus,
h1 = 43.7 kJ/kg
W1 = .0088 kg moisture/ kg d.a
@ 280 C and 100% RH

Where:
Pv2 = Psat @ 28 and 100 % RH
= 3.782 kPa
h2 = 89.9 kJ/kg
W2 = .0242 kg w/ kg d.a
V2= 0.883 m3/kg d.a
From steam table:
Water entry to the cooling tower: point 3: @ t3 = 23.7682 0C
h3 = hf @ 23.7682 0C = 99.7311 kJ/kg
v3 = vf @ 23.7682 0C = 0.0010026 m3/kg
Water leaving the cooling tower: point4: @ t4 = 28 0C
h4 = hf @ 280C = 117.43 kJ/kg
v4 = vf @ 280C = 0.0010037 m3/kg
Make up water:point 5: @ t5 = 250C
h5 = hf @ 250C = 104.89 kJ/kg
Calculations:
1. Amount of Cooling Water: mct
mct = mcw + mBBD + mEBD
= 1041.48 + 0.409 + 0.102
mct = 1041.991 kg/sec
2. Cooling Tower Range, CTR
CTR = tw1 tw2 = 23.7682 20 = 3.7682
3. Cooling Tower Approach, CTA
CTA = tw1 Wbt
Thus,
CTA = 23.7682 23.278 = 0.4902
4. Cooling Tower Efficiency

CT =

C ta
Ctr

t w 1 W bt 23.7682 23.278
=
t w1 t w2
23.7682 20

CT = 13.01 %

5. Mass of Air, ma
By Energy Balance:
m2h2 + m4h4 = m1h1 + m3h3 + m5h5
Where:
m5 = m4 m3 = air
m2 = m1 =water
m3(h3 + h5 - h4) = m1 (h2- h1)
ma =

1041.991( 89.943.7)
( 99.7311+104.89117.43 )

ma = 552.12 kg/s
6. Mass of Make-up Water
Make up water for the water loss due to:

Evaporation

Drift-droplets carried away by the wind velocity

Bleed-off; continuous wasting of a certain percentage


of the circulated water in order to avoid a buildup in the
concentration of dissolved minerals (solids) and
impurities in the condensing water.
m=552.12 kg/sec (0.02420.0088)
m=8.502kg/sec

7. By Drift and Evaporation, mde


mde= ma (w2- w1)

= 552.12 (.0242 - .0088)


= 8.5 kg/s
Mbo = (.015) (1041.991)
= 15.63 kg/s
Ms = mde + mbo
= (8.5 + 15.63) kg/s
= 24.13 kg/s
8. Volume Flow Rate of Air, V1
P1V1 = M1RT1

Va =

m a R a Ta
P1 Pv
Where:
Pv = 1.901 kPa
P1 = 101.325 kPa

Va =

552.12 ( 0.287 ) (20+ 273.15)


( 101.3251.403)

Va = 452.18 m3/sec
9. Cooling Tower Area
t = (23.7682 + 20)/2 = 21.8841 oC
vw = vf @ 21.8841 oC
= .0010022 m3/kg

= 997.8048 kg/m3

Thus,
Vw = 1041.991 /997.8048
Vw= 1.044 m3/sec (60sec/min) (264.2 gal/m3)
= 16553.98 gpm
Cooling Tower Area = 16553.98 / 3
Cooling Tower Area = 5517.99 ft.2
The cross-sectional area of the cooling tower is square: L=W=S

ACT= S2
S = 5517.99 1/2
S = 74.28 ft = L = W
10. Height of the Cooling Tower, hCT
The height of a field erected induced draft tower, from the basin curb
to fan deck, ranges from 8 to 50 ft.
Use: hCT = 40ft.
11. Number of Nozzles Required
Using 2.5 gpm capacity per nozzle
No. of nozzle =

16553.98
2.0

= 8276.99

Use No. of Nozzle = 8277 nozzles


12. Nozzle Arrangement
No. of Rows = with 1 ft distance between each rows and 2 ft.
allowance both ends.
Thus,
No. of Rows = 15

Nozzle
8277
=
row
Number of Nozzle per rows = 15
555.8
Use: 556

Nozzle

row

13. Dimension of Line (Condenser to Cooling Tower)


Let water velocity = 2 m/s
Using pipe line to the cooling Tower =

1041.991
997.8048

Then,
Q/pipe = 1.066 /3 = 0.355 m3/s per pipe
Q = AV
0.355 m3/s = (D2/4) (2 m/s)

= 1.066 m3/s

D = 0.475 m
No. of rows per pipe = 15/3 = 5 rows per pipe

14. Dimension of Heater


Secondary Heaters
1.066
4

= (D2/4)

D = 0.58 m
From Table 7-2 Page 136, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
(Stoecker and Jones)

Use Schedule 40 steel pipe:


For Primary Header:
Inside Diameter

= 303.3 mm

Outside Diameter

= 323.9 mm

Nominal Size

= 300 mm

For Secondary Header:


Inside Diameter

= 254.5 mm

Outside Diameter

= 273.0 mm

Nominal Size

= 250 mm

15. Decks (Alternate Arrangement)


a. Decks per column
Distance between decks

= 6 in

Number of decks/column

= 6 decks

b. Number of Column
= 40 ft./1.5 ft. = 27 column
c. Total Number of decks
= 162 decks
d. Length of decks
= 10 ft.
16. Diameter of Fan Stack
D 2
V
Q = AV = 4

V=

2gh

Use h = 50 m
V=

2 ( 9.81 ) (50)

= 31.32 m/sec

Using two fan stack for two fans


Where:
Q =175.43 m3/sec
Therefore,
175.43 = D2/4 (31.2)
D =2.6757 m

17. Induced Draft Fan (Axial fan)

a. Air Power
Air Power = Qgh
Where:
air =

101.325
0.287(28+273.15)

= 1.1723 kg/m3

Thus,
Air Power =

290.434 (1.1723 ) (9.81 x 50)


1000

b. Fan Motor Horsepower


Assumptions:
Fan efficiency

= 75 %

Motor efficiency

= 90 %

Motor Power = 167.0034 / (0.75 x 0.90) = 247.4124 kW/.746


= 331.6521 hp

= 167.0034 kW