You are on page 1of 15

Human Resource

Management
TWELFTH EDITION

GARY DESSLER
BIJU VARKKEY
Part 2 | Recruitment and Placement

Chapter 4

Job Analysis
Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:


1. Discuss the nature of job analysis, including what it is
and how its used.
2. Use at least three methods of collecting job analysis
information, including interviews, questionnaires, and
observation.
3. Write job descriptions, including summaries and job
functions, using the Internet and traditional methods.
4. Write job specifications using the Internet as well as
your judgment.
5. Explain job analysis in a jobless world, including
what it means and how its done in practice.
Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

42

Types of Information Collected


Work
activities

Human
requirements

Job
context

Information
Collected Via
Job Analysis

Human
behaviors

Machines, tools,
equipment, and
work aids

Performance
standards

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

43

Use of Job Analysis Information


Recruitment and
Selection

Legal
Compliance

Discovering
Unassigned
Duties

Compensation

Information
Collected Via
Job Analysis

Performance
Appraisal

Training

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

44

FIGURE 41

Uses of Job Analysis Information

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

FIGURE 42

45

Process Chart for Analyzing a Jobs Workflow

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

Source: Compensation Management: Rewarding Performance by Richard J.


Henderson. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
46

Steps in Job Analysis


Steps in doing a job analysis:
1

Decide how youll use the information.

Review relevant background information.

Select representative positions.

Actually analyze the job.

Verify the job analysis information.

Develop a job description and job specification.

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

47

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis


Information: The Interview
Information Sources

Interview Formats

Individual employees

Structured (Checklist)

Groups of employees

Unstructured

Supervisors with

knowledge of the job

Advantages
Quick, direct way to find

overlooked information

Disadvantages
Distorted information

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

48

FIGURE 43
Job Analysis Questionnaire for
Developing Job Descriptions
(continued)
Note: Use a questionnaire like this to interview
job incumbents, or have them fill it out.

Source: www.hr.blr.com. Reprinted with


permission of the publisher, Business and Legal
Reports, Inc., Old Saybrook, CT

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

49

FIGURE 43
Job Analysis Questionnaire for
Developing Job Descriptions
Note: Use a questionnaire like this to interview
job incumbents, or have them fill it out.

Source: www.hr.blr.com. Reprinted with


permission of the publisher, Business and Legal
Reports, Inc., Old Saybrook, CT

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

410

Job Analysis: Interviewing Guidelines


The job analyst and supervisor should work together
to identify the workers who know the job best.
It is advisable to quickly establish rapport with the
interviewee.
Follow a structured guide or checklist, one that lists
open-ended questions and provides space for answers.
Ask the worker to list his or her duties in order of
importance and frequency of occurrence.
After completing the interview, review and verify
the data.
Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

411

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis


Information: Questionnaires
Information Source
Have employees fill out

questionnaires to describe
their job-related duties and
responsibilities

Questionnaire Formats
Structured checklists
Open-ended questions

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

Advantages
Quick and efficient way to

gather information from


large numbers of
employees

Disadvantages
Expense and time

consumed in preparing
and testing the
questionnaire

412

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis


Information: Observation
Information Source
Observing and noting the

physical activities of
employees as they go
about their jobs

Advantages
Provides first-hand

information
Reduces distortion of

information

Disadvantages
Time consuming
Difficulty in capturing

entire job cycle


Of little use if job involves

a high level of mental


activity
Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

413

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis


Information: Participant Diary/Logs
Information Source
Workers keep a

chronological diary/ log of


what they do and the time
spent on each activity

Advantages
Produces a more complete

picture of the job


Employee participation

Disadvantages
Distortion of information
Depends upon employees

to accurately recall their


activities

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

414

FIGURE 44
Example of Position/Job
Description Intended for
Use Online

Source: www.ncf.edu/humanresources/documents/
A&P%20Final.doc. Accessed May 10, 2007.

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

415

FIGURE 44
Example of Position/Job
Description Intended for
Use Online (continued)

Source: www.ncf.edu/humanresources/documents/
A&P%20Final.doc. Accessed May 10, 2007.

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

416

Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques

Quantitative Job
Analysis

Position Analysis
Questionnaire

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

The U.S.
Department of
Labor (DOL)
Procedures

Functional Job
Analysis

417

FIGURE 45
Portion of a Completed
Page from the Position
Analysis Questionnaire
The 194 PAQ elements are grouped into
six dimensions. This exhibits 11 of the
information input questions or elements.
Other PAQ pages contain questions
regarding mental processes, work output,
relationships with others, job context, and
other job characteristics.

Source: www.ncf.edu/humanresources/documents/
A&P%20Final.doc. Accessed May 10, 2007.

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

418

FIGURE 48
Sample Job
Description,
Pearson
Education

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

419

FIGURE 48
Sample Job
Description,
Pearson
Education
(continued)

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

420

10

The Job Description


Job Identification
Job title
Preparation date

Responsibilities and
Duties
Major responsibilities and

duties (essential functions)

Preparer

Decision-making authority

Job Summary
General nature of the job
Major functions/activities

Relationships
Reports to:
Supervises:

Direct supervision
Budgetary limitations

Standards of
Performance and
Working Conditions
What it takes to do the job

Works with:

successfully

Outside the company:


Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

421

Using the Internet for Writing


Job Descriptions
O*NET Online

Source: O*Net is a trademark of


the U.S. Department of Labor,
Employment and Training
Administration. Reprinted by
permission of O*Net.

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

422

11

Writing Job Specifications


What traits and
experience are required
to do this job well?

Specifications for
Trained Versus
Untrained
Personnel

Specifications
Based on
Judgment

Specifications
Based on
Statistical
Analysis

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

423

Writing Job Descriptions (continued)


Step 1. Decide on a Plan
Step 2. Develop an Organization Chart
Step 3. Use a Job Analysis/Description
Questionnaire
Step 4. Obtain Lists of Job Duties from O*NET

Step 5. Compile the Jobs Human


Requirements from O*NET
Step 6. Complete Your Job Description
Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

424

12

Writing Job Specifications (continued)


Steps in the Statistical Approach
Analyze the job and decide how to measure job

performance.
Select personal traits that you believe should

predict successful performance.


Test candidates for these traits.
Measure the candidates subsequent job

performance.
Statistically analyze the relationship between the

human traits and job performance.


Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

425

Job Analysis in a Jobless World


Job Design:
Specialization and
Efficiency?

Job
Enlargement

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

Job
Rotation

Job
Enrichment

426

13

Job Analysis in a Jobless World


(continued)
Dejobbing the
Organization

Flattening the
Organization

Using SelfManaged Work


Teams

Reengineering
Business
Processes

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

427

Competency-Based Job Analysis


Competencies
Demonstrable characteristics of a person that enable

performance of a job.

Reasons for Competency-Based Job Analysis


To support a high-performance work system.
To create strategically-focused job descriptions.

To support the performance management process in

fostering, measuring, and rewarding:

General competencies

Leadership competencies

Technical competencies

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

428

14

Competency-Based Job Analysis


(continued)
How to Write Job Competencies-Based Job
Descriptions
Interview job incumbents and their supervisors
Ask

open-ended questions about job


responsibilities and activities.

Identify

critical incidents that pinpoint success


on the job.

Use off-the-shelf competencies databanks

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

429

KEY TERMS
job analysis
job description
job specifications
organization chart
process chart
diary/log
position analysis questionnaire
(PAQ)
U.S. Department of Labor (DOL)
job analysis procedure
functional job analysis

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

Standard Occupational
Classification (SOC)
job enlargement
job rotation
job enrichment
reengineering
competency-based job analysis

430

15