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Generalized inverse matrix Padé approximation

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www.elsevier.com/locate/laa

on the basis of scalar products

Chuanqing Gu

Department of Mathematics, Shanghai University, 99 Qi Xiang Road, Shanghai 200436,

Peoples Republic of China

Received 14 November 1999; accepted 15 July 2000

Submitted by R.A. Brualdi

Abstract

A new type of generalized matrix inverse is used to define the generalized inverse matrix

Pad approximants (GMPA). GMPA is introduced on the basis of scalar product of matrices,

with the form of matrix numerator and scalar denominator. It is different from the existing

matrix Pad approximants in that it does not need multiplication of matrices in the construction

process. Some algebraic properties are discussed. The representations of GMPA are provided

with the following three forms: (i) the explicit determinantal formulas for the denominator scalar polynomials and the numerator matrix polynomials; (ii) -algorithm expression; (iii) Thiele-type continued fraction expression. The equivalence relations above three representations

are proposed. 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

AMS classification: 65D05; 41A21; CR: G.1.2

Keywords: Scalar product of matrices; Generalized inverse; Matrix Pad approximation; Algebraic properties; Determinantal formula; Thiele-type continued fraction; -Algorithm

1. Introduction

Let f (z) be a given power series with matrix coefficients, i.e.,

f (z) = c0 + c1 z + c2 z2 + + cn zn + ,

ci = (ci(uv)) Cst ,

z C,

The work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (19871054).

E-mail address: guchqing@guomai.sh.cn (C. Gu).

0024-3795/01/$ - see front matter 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 0 2 4 - 3 7 9 5 ( 0 0 ) 0 0 2 3 0 - 5

(1.1)

142

where Cst consists of all s t matrices with their elements in the complex plan C.

A (right) matrix Pad approximant of f (z) is an expression of the form U (z)V (z)1 ,

such that

f (z)V (z) U (z) = R(z),

(1.2)

where U (z) and V (z) are matrix polynomials of degree at most m and n, respectively,

whose expansion agrees with f (z) up to and including the term zm+n . R(z) in (1.2)

is referred to as the residual of the approximant. A left matrix Pad approximant of

f (z) can be similarly defined.

The definition of a Pad approximant can be made more formal in a variety of

ways. Typically, U (z) and V (z) are s s polynomial matrices, and V (z) is further

restricted by the condition that the constant term, V (0), is invertible (cf. [5,7,27]).

Labahn and Cabay called such approximants matrix Pad fractions, which were consistent with the scalar (p = 1) case (cf. [18]). They introduced and developed the

notion of a matrix power series remainder sequence and its corresponding cofactor

sequence in [25]. An algorithm for constructing these sequences was presented. Xu

and Bultheel considered some possible definitions of matrix Pad approximants for

a power series with rectangular matrix coefficients in [24]. They had to consider

left and right approximants on account of the noncommutativity of the matrix multiplication. Depending on the normalization of the denominator, they defined type I

(constant term is the unit matrix) and type II (by conditions on the leading coefficient) approximants. A uniform approach was given by Beckermann and Labahn for

different concepts of matrix-type Pad approximants, such as descriptions of vector

and matrix Pad approximants along with generalizations of simultaneous and Hermite Pad approximants. In [3], they introduced the definition for a power Hermite

Pad approximant (PHPA) which takes right-hand (left-hand) and rectangular matrix

Pad approximant, matrix Hermite Pad approximant and matrix simultaneous Pad

approxmant as its special case (see [3, Example 2.12.4]).

Various vector rational interpolants were introduced by Graves-Morris (cf. [20

22]). The problem here is to approximate a number of functions by rational functions

with a common denominator. Graves-Morris and Jenkins [22] at first presented an

axiomatic approach which uniquely define vector Pad approximants and established their algebraic structure without reference to matrix-valued C-fractions. It

is important for vector-valued rational approximation problems. However, in contrast to our GMPA approach, Graves-Morris and Roberts extended their approach

from vector Pad approximants to matrix Pad approximants by exploiting an isomorphism between vectors and matrices by means of Clifford algebra representation. By using modified Euclidean and Kronecker algorithms, they established

the interconnections between vector Pad approximation and matrix Pad approximation in [23]. In this respect, Antoulas [1] gave a recursive method of updating the partial realization to include further Markov parameters, so making a major generalization of the generalized Euclidean algorithm. Bultheel and Van Barel [8] formulated a generalization of the Euclidean algorithm to treat the case of

143

case.

Motivated by Graves-Morriss Thiele-type vector-valued rational interpolants [20]

and Graves-Morris and Jenkins axiomatic approach to vector-valued rational interpolants [22], we discussed matrix-valued rational interpolants in Thiele-type form

and the determinantal formula form in [10] and bivariate matrix-valued rational

interpolants in Thiele-type form in [11]. We defined the reciprocal of a matrix as

the generalized inverse of the matrix (2.4), which is shown to be successful in matrix

continued fraction interpolation (cf. [1012]), but we do not analyse the basis of the

definition and do not discuss matrix-valued Pad approximation problems, which is

distinct from interpolation in definitions and algorithms.

In this paper, we present an axiomatic definition to the matrix Pad approximants (GMPA), which is an extension and improvement of [22] in the case of

matrices and analyse the connection between the definition and scalar product of

matirces. Some algebraic properties are discussed. The expression of GMPA is of

the form of matrix numerator and scalar denominator. We obtain three efficient algorithms, where the determinantal formulas and Thiele-type formulas are distinct

from interpolation form [10]. As for -algorithm, the interpolation problems [10]

do not deal with it. In this way, the representations of GMPA are provided with

the following three forms: (i) the explicit determinantal formulas for the denominator scalar polynomials and the numerator matrix polynomials (Section 4); (ii)

-algorithm expression (Section 5); (iii) the expressin of convergents of Thiele-type

continued fractions (Section 6). The equivalence relations above three representations are proposed. Uniqueness is discussed in detail in Section 3. Given results

show that arbitrary two GMPA of the same type may only differ by a scalar polynominal factor. The result also holds for vector-valued Pad approximants [22]. An

existence theorem is given in the case of determinantal formulas in Section 4, but

holds for other forms. A simple proof of Wynns identity for GMPA is given in

Section 5.

As compared to the existing matrix Pad approximants (cf. [3,5,78,2325,27]),

GMPA do not need multiplication of matrices in the construction process, and hence,

we do not have to define left-handed and right-handed approximants. It may be useful

in the noncommutativity problems of the matrix multiplication. Second, the existence condition of GMPA is relaxed if only Q(0) of scalar denominator polynomial is

not equal to zero. So, it can be applied to singular matrices. Third, the construction of

GMPA can be simplified in the computation because it only computes the reciprocals

of matrices instead of usual matrix inverse in the case of -algorithm expression and

Thiele-type continued fraction expression. On the other hand, the method of GMPA

possesses the degree constraint (2.8) and divisibility constratint (2.9), which are due

to the construction process of GMPA. The construction constraints imply that our

method does not construct matrix Pad approximants of type [m/n] when n is odd.

Thus, it may not be as effective as the existing matrix Pad approximation in some

cases.

144

2. Definition

E , bE Cd . The scalar product of

Let aE = (a1 , a2 , . . . , ad ), bE = (bP

1 , b2 , . . . , bd ), a

d

vector aE and bE is given by aE bE = i=1 ai bi . The following definition is a natural

extension from vector to matrix, which is different from trA of matrix A in the case

of complex matrix.

Definition 2.1. Let A = (aij ), B = (bij ), A, B Cst . The scalar product of matrices A and B is defined by

AB =

t

s X

X

aij bij ,

(2.1)

i=1 j =1

1/2

t

s X

X

|aij |2 .

kAk =

(2.2)

i=1 j =1

t

s X

X

|aij |2 = kAk2 ,

AA =

(2.3)

i=1 j =1

Lemma 2.2 is given by Definition 2.1.

Lemma 2.2. Let A, B, D Cst , b C. Then hold:

(i) A B = B A;

(ii) (A + B) D = A D + B D;

(iii) (bA) B = b(A B);

(iv) A A > 0, A = 0 if and only if A A = 0.

On the basis of (2.2) and (2.3), the generalized inverse of matrix A is defined as

A

1

=

, A=

/ 0, A Cst

(2.4)

A1

r =

A

kAk2

and

A

1

=

, A=

/ 0, A Rst ,

(2.5)

A1

r =

A

kAk2

where the generalized inverse A1

r denotes the reciprocal of matrix A.

/ 0 and b R, b =

/ 0. Then hold:

Lemma 2.3. Let A, B Cst , A, B =

1

b

=

A = bC.

A

C

(2.6)

145

Proof. As both A, B =

/ 0, it is easy to derive b/A = 1/C from A = bC. By the

left-hand side of (2.6), we get from Definition 2.1 that bA /kAk2 = C /kCk2 . Then

A =

kAk2

C

bkCk2

or

A=

kAk2

C.

bkCk2

Thus,

kAk2 = A A =

kAk4 kCk2

.

b2 kCk4

/ 0 and b R, b =

/ 0. Then hold:

Lemma 2.4. Let A Cst , A =

1

(i) (A1

r )r = A;

1 1

(ii) (bA)1

r = b Ar .

1

Proof. The result of (ii) is evident. We only prove (i). In fact, suppose (A1

r )r =

1

1

1/Ar = b/B. By (2.6), we have B = bAr = b/A. Using (2.6) again, A = b/B

holds.

Lemma 2.4 shows that we need not compute each inverse in the construction

process of GMPA in the -algorithm form and Thiele-type continued fraction form.

Definition 2.5. A matrix-valued polynomial N(x) = (a uv (x)) Cst is said to be

of degree m and denoted by N{N(x)} = m, if N{a uv (x)} 6 m for u = 1, 2, . . . , s,

v = 1, 2, . . . , t and N{a uv (x)} = m for some u, v(1 6 u 6 s, 1 6 v 6 t).

Definition 2.6. A GMPA of type [n/2k] for the given power series (1.1) is the

rational function

R(z) = P (z)/Q(z)

(2.7)

defined that P (z) is a matrix polynomial and Q(z) is a real scalar polynomial satisfying:

(i)

2

(ii)

Q(z)|kP (z)k ,

(iii)

(2.8)

(2.9)

(2.10)

where P (z) = (p(uv) (z)) Cst , the norm kP (z)k of P (z) is as in (2.2).

/ 0 and B(z) be a real

Lemma 2.7. Let A(z) Cst be a matrix polynomial, A(z) =

scalar polynomial. If using (2.4) to rational function

B(z)A (z)

P (z)

B(z)

=

,

=

2

A(z)

Q(z)

kA(z)k

146

(i) Q(z)|kP (z)k2 ;

(ii) N{Q(z)} = 2k, k N.

Proof. As

kP (z)k2 = B 2 (z)kA (z)k2 = B 2 (z)Q(z),

Q(z) = kA(z)k2 ,

Note that if P 0 (z)/Q0 (z) is the irreducible form of P (z)/Q(z) in Lemma 2.7,

may not satisfy divisibility (2.9). Lemma 2.7 explains that the generalized inverse for matrices (2.4) gives rise to the scalar denominator of rational fraction

GMPA which divides the square of the norm of numerator. It is shown that Definition

2.6 for GMPA depends on the properties of scalar product of matrices. Example 2.8

illustrates that (2.4) is efficient in matrix continued fraction interpolation problems

as compared with usual matrix inverse.

Suppose the interpolation point set U = {zi = xi , i = 0, 1, . . . , n; xi R}. By

making use of (2.4), we recrusively defined the nth convergent of Thiele-type continued fractions in [10,12]:

x xn1

x x0

Rn(0) (x) = B0 (x0 ) +

B1 (x0 x1 ) + + Bn (x0 x1 xn )

with

P 0 (z)/Q0 (z)

B0 (xi ) = A(xi ), i = 0, 1, . . . , n,

B1 (x0 x1 ) = (x1 x0 )/(B0 (x1 ) B0 (x0 )),

(2.11)

Bl1 (x0 xl1 )), l > 2.

Example 2.8. Using algorithm (2.11), find a rational interpolant R2 (z) = P (z)/

Q(z) for the data

2

0

1 0

0 i

, A(z1 ) =

, A(z2 ) =

A(z0 ) =

0 i

1 i

1 0

at points z0 = 1, z1 = 0, z2 = 1.

Solution 1. Using the generalized inverse (2.4), we get that

z

z+1

2

0

+

R2 (z)=

0 i

1 1

0 + 1 17 12i

1 2i

2i

6

11 5

2

1

12z(z + 1)i

5z 12z + 7

=

11z2 + 6z + 7 5z2 + 12z + 7 (13z2 + 6z + 7)i

and find that R2 (zi ) = A(zi ), i = 0, 1, 2.

147

2

R2 (z)=

0

z+1

z

0

+

i

1

0 +

5 4i

i/2 2i

1

2i

2

1

4z(z + 1)i

7z + 4z + 3

= 2

z + 6z + 3 (z + 1)(3 + z) (z2 2z + 3)i

But for higher order matrices the method of Solution 1 is superior to the method

of Solution 2 in matrix continued fraction interpolation problems.

We discuss uniqueness and some algebraic properties of GMPA in this section.

Lemma 3.1. Let (Pi (z), Qi (z)) be two different GMPA of type [n/2k], i = 1, 2.

Then hold

P1 (z)Q2 (z) = P2 (z)Q1 (z).

(3.1)

U (z) = P1 (z)Q2 (z) P2 (z)Q1 (z) = (Q2 (z) Q1 (z))O(zn+1 ),

(3.2)

N{U } 6 n + 2k,

(3.3)

then

order{U } > n + 1.

kU (z)k2 =kP1 (z)k2 Q22 (z) + kP2 (z)k2 Q21 (z)

=Q1 (z)Q2 (z)Q(z)

for some real scalar polynomial Q(z). From (3.2) and (3.3), we find that

N{Q} 6 2n,

order{Q} > 2n + 2,

Let

Mn,2k = {(P , Q): P /Q is the GMPA of type [n/2k]},

Nn,2k = {(P , Q): P /Q satisfies (2.10) of GMPA}

148

and

u = min{N{P }: (P , Q) Mn,2k or (P , Q) Nn,2k },

v = min{N{Q}: (P , Q) Mn,2k or (P , Q) Nn,2k }.

Note that (P , Q) Nn,2k means that Q|kP k2 and degree conditions (2.8) may

not hold as compared with (P , Q) Mn,2k .

Lemma 3.2.

Nn,2k so that

Mn,2k or (P , Q)

(i) There exists unique (P , Q)

= v.

N{P } = u, N{Q}

(3.4)

(ii) For any (P , Q) Mn,2k , there exists a scalar polynomial (z) so that

Q(z) = (z)Q(z).

(3.5)

Proof. By definition of u and v, it is known that there exists (Pi (z), Qi (z)) Mn,2k,

or (Pi (z), Qi (z)) Nn,2k , i = 1, 2, so that

N{P1 } = u,

N{Q1 } > v,

N{P2 } > u,

N{Q2 } = v.

N{P1 } + N{Q2 } = N{P2 } + N{Q1 }.

Then, N{P2 } = u, N{Q1 } = v. So (i) holds.

For any (P , Q) Mn,2k there exists some scalar polynomial i (i = 1, 2) so that

/ 0),

(3.6)

P = 1 P + 1 , N{1 } 6 N{P }, (P =

From P Q = P Q by Lemma 3.1, it is derived from (3.6) and (3.7) that

(1 2 )P Q = 2 P 1 Q.

(3.7)

(3.8)

1 = 2 = .

Thus

1 = P P ,

2 = Q Q.

(3.9)

P ) = O(zn+1 )

2 f 1 = (Qf P ) (Qf

that (1 , 2 ) Mn,2k or (1 , 2 ) Nn,2k . By the definition of u and v, we find that

1 = 2 = 0. So (3.5) holds.

Lemma 3.2 implies that for any (P , Q) Mn,2k , they may only differ by a sca Therefore, R(z) = P (z)/Q(z) is

lar polynomial factor between (P , Q) and (P , Q).

unique in the sense.

149

is unique.

Let (P , Q) Mn,2k be as [n/2k]f for the given power series (1.1).

Example 3.4. Let

f (z) = ezA =

1

0

0

0

+

1

0

1

0

z+

2

0

1 2

z +

2

(3.10)

0 1

A=

.

0 2

Solution. By the determinantal formulas of GMPA (see (4.1) and (4.2) in Section 4),

we get [2/2]f = P2 (z)/Q2 (z), where

z+1

z

= P (z),

(3.11)

P2 (z) = 25(z + 1)

0

1z

= 25(z + 1).

(3.12)

= z + 1,

Note that (P2 (z), Q2 (z)) M2,2 , but (P (z), Q(z))

2

2

2

Theorem 3.5. Let R(z) = P (z)/Q(z) be a [n/2k]f and if the coefficients in the

power series (1.1) satisfy

ci = ciT ,

i = 0, 1, 2 . . . ,

(3.13)

Proof. From Definition (2.6), Q(z)f (z) P (z) = O(zn+1 ), then

Q(z)f T (z) P T (z) = O(zn+1 ).

By (3.13), we can derive that

f T (z)

(3.14)

The divisibility condition, that Q(z)|kP T (z)k2 is easily verified because of Q(z)|

kP (z)k2 . The degree condition is evident. So we obtain [n/2k]f (z) = R(z) =

P T (z)/Q(z). By Theorem 3.3, R T (z) = R(z) holds.

/ 0, where

Theorem 3.6. Let [n/2k]f (z) = P (z)/Q(z) and g(z) = fr1 (z), f (0) =

z R for (1.1), P (0) =

/ 0, and fr1 (z) is defined as (2.4). Then

[n + 2k/2n]g (z) = Q(z)P (z)/kP (z)k2 .

(3.15)

150

Proof. By Definition 2.6, Q(z)f (z) P (z) = O(zn+1 ). According to the usual

multiplication of matrices, we have

Q(z)P (z)f (z) P (z)P (z) = O(zn+1 ).

From the condition f (0) =

/ 0, it is known that

that

(3.16)

fr1 (z)

That is

fr1 (z) Q(z)P (z)/kP (z)k2 = O(zn+2k+1 ).

So we have

kP (z)k2 g(z) Q(z)P (z) = O(zn+2k+1 ).

The divisibility condition kP (z)k2 |kQ(z)P (z)k2 is easily verified. As for the degree, we find that

N{Q(z)P (z)} 6 n + 2k, N{kP (z)k2 } = 2n.

/ 0. Find

Example 3.7. Let g(z) = f (z)1

r in the power series (3.10). Then f (0) =

[4/4]g .

Solution. By (3.11) and (3.12), we get that

Q(z)g = kP (z)k2 = 625(z + 1)2 (3z2 + 1),

z+1

z

,

P (z)g = Q(z)P (z) = 625(z + 1)3

0

1z

where P (z)g , Q(z)g satisfy:

(i) Q(z)g g(z) P (z)g = O(z5 ),

(ii) N{P (z)g } = 4, N{Q(z)g } = 4,

(iii) kP (z)g k2 = 625(z + 1)3 Q(z)g , Q(z)g |kP (z)g k2 .

So [4/4]g = P (z)g /Q(z)g .

Theorem 3.8. Let f (z) be given by (1.1), z R and

"

#

m1

X

m

i

ci z = cm + cm+1 z + cm+2 z2 +

f (z)

g(z) = z

i=0

If

m > 1,

n m > 2k 1,

(

[n m/2k]g (z) = z

[n/2k]f (z)

(3.17)

m1

X

i=0

)

ci z

151

Q(z)f (z) P (z) = O(zn+1 ).

(3.18)

Q(z)

m1

X

=O(z

) + O(z ) = O(z ).

m

Define

P1 (z) = P (z) Q(z)

m1

X

ci z i

i=m

m

i=0

n+1

!

ci z

zm .

i=0

Then by (3.17),

N{P1 (z)} 6 n m.

From (3.18), we obtain that

Q(z) f (z)

m1

X

ci z i

!

P (z) Q(z)

i=0

m1

X

!

ci z i

= O(zn+1 ).

(3.19)

i=0

Q(z)g(z) P1 (z) = O(znm+1 ).

By virtue of

!2

m1

X

ci zi Q(z)

kP1 (z)k2 = kP1 (z)k2 + Q2 (z)

i=0

!

#)

"

m1

m1

X

X

i

i

ci z + P (z)

ci z

z2m

P (z)

i=0

i=0

and Q(z)|kP (z)k2 , we obtain Q(z)|kP1 (z)k2 . Hence [n m/2k]g (z) exists and

(

)

m1

X

m

i

ci z .

[n/2k]f (z)

[n m/2k]g (z) = z

i=0

Theorem 4.1. Let R(z) = P (z)/Q(z) be a GMPA of type [n/2k] for the given power series (1.1). Then hold:

152

L01

0

L21

..

.

L02

L12

0

..

.

..

.

L0,2k1

L1,2k1

L2,2k1

..

.

L2k1,1

L2k1,2

z2k1

z2k2

0

L10

L20

..

.

Q(z) = det

L2k1,0

z2k

L0,2k

L1,2k

L2,2k

..

.

(4.1)

L2k1,2k

1

and

P (z)

L01

0

L21

..

.

L02

L12

0

..

.

..

.

Ln1,1

1

P

ci zi+n1

Ln1,2

2

P

ci zi+n2

i=0

i=0

0

L10

L20

..

.

= det

Ln1,0

c0 z n

L0,n1

L1,n1

L2,n1

..

.

0

n1

P

ci zi+1

i=0

L0,n

L1,n

L2,n

..

.

Ln1,n

P

ci z i

i=0

(4.2)

where

Lij =

jX

i1

cl+i+n2k+1 cjl+n2k

l=0

t

s X

X

u=1 v=1

Lij = Lij ,

where cl =

(uv)

(cl )

jX

i1

(uv)

(uv)

cl+i+n2k+1 cj l+n2k ,

j >i

(4.3)

l=0

j < i,

(4.4)

The proof of (4.1) was given by Chuanqing [13], which is an extension of that

of Graves-Morris and Jenkins [22], from the vector case to the matrix case, but the

proof of (4.2) is at first given.

Proof. (i) n = 2k. We express (P (z), Q(z)) as

Q(z) = Q0 + Q1 z + + Q2k z2k ,

(4.5)

P (z) = P0 + P1 z + + Pn zn , Pi Cst

(4.6)

Gn (z) = [f (z)]n0 .

153

P (z) = [Q(z)f (z)]n0 = [Gn (z)Q(z)]n0 .

Definitions (2.8) and (2.9) imply that

2n 2k at most, and so that

i2n+1

h

= 0.

kP (z)k2 /Q(z)

kP (z)k2 /Q(z)

(4.7)

is a polynomial of degree

(4.8)

2n2k+1

F (z)=(P (z) Gn (z)Q(z)) (P (z) Gn (z)Q(z))

=kP (z)k2 + Q2 (z)kGn (z)k2

Q(z)(P (z) Gn (z) + Gn (z) P (z)).

(4.9)

which leads to

2n+1

F (z)/Q(z) 2n2k+1 = 0.

From (4.9) and (4.8), we obtain that

i2n+1

h

P (z) Gn (z) Gn (z) P (z) + Q(z)kGn (z)k2

2n2k+1

= 0.

(4.10)

By (4.7) we find that (4.10) represents 2k + 1(n = 2k) linear equations for Q0 , Q1 ,

. . . , Q2k of (4.5), which may be expressed as

2k

X

Lij Q2kj = 0,

i = 0, 1, . . . , 2k 1,

(4.11)

j =0

2k

X

L2k,j Q2kj = 0,

(4.12)

j =0

where the coefficients of Q2kj in (4.11) are Lij , as given by (4.3) and (4.4).

Eqs. (4.11) and (4.5) form a system of 2k + 1 non-homogeneous equations for

Q0 , Q1 , . . . , Q2k , as expressed by

L02

L0,2k1

L0,2k

0

L01

Q2k

L10

0

L

L

L

12

1,2k1

1,2k

Q2k1

L21

0

L2,2k1

L2,2k

L20

Q2k2

.

.

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

.

.

.

.

.

1

L2k1,0 L2k1,1 L2k1,2

0

L2k1,2k

Q0

z2k

z2k1

z2k2

z

1

154

..

.

.

Q(z)

(4.13)

From (4.6), (4.7) and n = 2k, we derive that

n

X

P (z) =c0 Q0 + (c1 Q0 + c0 Q1 )z + +

cnj Qj zn

n

X

!

ci zi Q0 +

i=0

n

X

j =0

!

ci zi+1 Q1

i=0

+ + (c0 z

n1

(4.14)

(ii) n 6 2k.

Define

Di = 0,

i = 0, 1, . . . , 2k n 1;

Di = ci2k+n ,

i = 2k n, 2k n + 1, . . . , 2k.

and P [2k/2k] (z) of the type [2k/2k] as in (4.2). The numerator polynomial is defined

by

P (z) = zn2k P [2k/2k] (z).

(4.15)

(iii) n > 2k. Let

X

ci zi+2kn .

f(z) =

i=n2k

(4.1), and P[2k/2k] (z) of type [2k/2k] as in (4.2). The numerator polynomial is defined by

P (z) = zn2k P[2k/2k] (z) + Q(z)

n2k1

X

i=0

ci z i .

(4.16)

1

1 0

f (z) = 0 1 + 1

1

0 0

1

0

0 z + 0

1

0

155

0

0 z 2 .

0

Find [2/2]f .

Solution. By (4.1) and (4.2), we get

0 3 4

Q(z) = det 3 0 2 = 3(2z2 4z + 3),

z2 z 1

0

3

4

0

2

P (z) =det 3

2

2

2

c0 z + c1 z

c0 + c1 z + c2 z

c0 z

2

0

z z+3

=3 z(3 4z) 2z2 4z + 3 ,

z(3 z)

0

where (P (z), Q(z)) M2,2 satisfy:

(i) N{P } = 2, N{Q} = 2,

(ii) kP k2 = 27(3z2 + 2)Q, Q|kP k2 ,

(iii) Q(z)f (z) P (z) = O(z3 ).

To calculate higher-order determinantal formulas (4.1) and (4.2), we introduce

Cayleys theorem.

Lemma 4.3 (see [19]). Let A be a square matrix of even dimension. Let R, C denote the anti-symmetric matrices formed by altering only the rth row, column of A,

respectively. Then

det A = Pf R Pf C,

where Pf R denotes the Pfaffian formula of R.

According to (4.17), we obtain the following result in [14] (also see [19]).

Theorem 4.4. Define Pfaffian formulas, respectively,

z2k

L12 L13 L1,2k+1

..

..

..

,

1 (z) = det

.

.

.

z

L2k,2k+1

(4.17)

156

L12

2 (z) = det

L13

L1,2k+1

2k

P

zi

2k1

P

i+1

ci z

i=0

.

..

1

P

ci zi+2k1

i=0

2k

c0 z

ci

i=0

L23

L2,2k+1

..

..

.

L2k,2k+1

Then hold:

(i)

(4.18)

(ii)

(4.19)

Example 4.5. Find [4/4]f = P (z)/Q(z) for the given power series (1.1).

Solution. Making use of Pfaffian formulas (4.18) for the denominator polynomial of

GMPA and Pfaffian formulas (4.19) for the numerator polynomial of GMPA, we get

that, respectively,

0

G1

G1

0

G2

2H23

2H24 + G3

2H

G2

0

G3

2H34

Q(z)=det

12

0

G4

2H13 + G2 2H23 G3

z4

z3

z2

z

1

=QPf (z)QPf (0),

where Gi = kci k2 , Hij = ci cj ,

G1 2H12 2H13 + G2

G2

2H23

G3

QPf (z)= det

= det

b

e

c

f

h

d

g

j

k

z4

z3

z2

z

1

2H14 + 2H24

2H24 + G3

2H34

G4

z4

z3

z2

1

1

157

+ (j c bk hd)z3 + (gh + ek jf )z4 ,

Q (0)=(ah bf + ce)

Pf

and

P (z)

2H12

2H13 + G2 2H14 + 2H23

0

G1

G1

0

G2

2H23

2H24 + G3

2H12

G

0

G

2H34

2

3

= det

2H13 G2

2H

G

0

G

23

3

4

2

3

4

P

P

P

c0 z 4

c0 z 3 + c1 z 4

ci zi+2

ci zi+1

ci z i

i=0

i=0

i=0

=P Pf (z)P Pf (0),

(4.20)

where

P Pf (z)=(ah bf + ce)(c0 + c1 z + c2 z2 + c3 z3 + c4 z4 )

+ (de + j a gb)(c0 z + c1 z2 + c2 z3 + c3 z4 )

+ (ak gc + df )(c0 z2 + c1 z3 + c2 z4 )

+ (j c bk hd)(c0 z3 + c1 z4 ) + (gh + ek jf )c0 z4 ,

Pf

P (0)=(ah bf + ce)c0 .

Notice that P (z) = P Pf (z)P Pf (0) using usual multiplication operation of matrices

in (4.20).

Let

H (0, 2k, 2k 1)

L01

L00

L10

0

L

L21

20

=

.

..

.

.

.

L2k1,0 L2k1,1

L02

L11

0

..

.

L2k1,2

..

.

L0,2k1

L1,2k1

L2,2k1

..

.

0

L0,2k

L1,2k

L2,2k

.

..

L2k1,2k

Theorem 4.6 (Existence). Let [n/2k]f = P (z)/Q(z), where P (z) and Q(z) be given by (4.1) and (4.2), respectively, and n = 2k. Then [n/2k]f exists if and only

if

Q(0) = det H (0, 2k 1, 2k 1) =

/ 0.

Proof. By the construction of Q(z), we derive from (4.13) that

158

Q2k

Q2k1

Q1

Q0

then

Q2k

Q2k1

H (0, 2k 1, 2k 1) . = Q0

..

Q1

L0,2k

L1,2k

..

.

(4.21)

L2k1,2k1

If Q(0) = Q0 = detH (0, 2k 1, 2k 1) =

equations (4.21) exist as a unique solution Q0 , Q1 , . . . , Q2k for Q(z). From (4.14),

it also means that (4.21) exists as a unique solution P0 , P1 , . . . , Pn for P (z) in the

case of n = 2k. Hence, [n/2k]f = P (z)/Q(z) exists.

Let [n/2k]f = P (z)/Q(z) exist, then it implies from (4.21) that

rank H (0, 2k 1, 2k 1) = rank H (0, 2k, 2k 1).

(4.22)

If Q(0) = det H (0, 2k 1, 2k 1) = 0, it holds from (4.22) that rank H (0, 2k,

2k 1) < 2k. Hence, it follows from (4.1) that Q(z) 0, which is contradictory to

definition (2.7) of GMPA.

Example 4.7 [26]. Let

1 0

1/2

w(z) =

+

0 1

0

0

1/4 2

z +

1/4

0

0

z3 .

1/8

0 0

Q2 (0) = det

= 0,

0 0

but [3/2]w = P3 (z)/Q3 (z) exists because

0

5/16

Q3 (0) = det

= 25/256 =

/ 0,

5/16

0

where Q3 (z) is constructed by the coefficients {c1 , c2 , c3 }.

By making use of the generalized inverse (2.4), we define the matrix valued algorithm by

(j )

1 = 0,

j = 0, 1, 2 . . . ,

(5.1)

(j )

0 =

j

X

j = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,

ci z i ,

i=0

(j )

(j +1)

k+1 = k1

159

(j +1)

+ (k

k )1

r ,

(j )

(5.2)

j, k > 0

(5.3)

By usual construction, it involves the two-dimensional array called the -table

(see [4]).

Theorem 5.1 (Identification theorem). The matrix-valued -algorithm, as expressed

by (5.1)(5.3) with the generalized inverse (2.4), construct GMPA, is identified by

(j )

2k = [j + 2k/2k]f ,

j, k > 0.

(5.4)

Proof. For zeroth column k = 0, the proof is obvious. From (5.1)(5.3) and (2.4) it

is derived that

(j )

(j +1)

1 = (0

j +1

0 )1

= H0 (z)/zj +1 ,

r = 1/cj +1 z

j

(j )

(5.5)

For the second column, by (5.3) it is obtained that

(j )

(j )

2 =

(j )

j

X

1

Ci zi + Cj +1 zj +1 + zj +2 /(Cj1

+2 Cj +1 z).

(5.6)

i=0

(j )

2 = O(zj )(z ).

(5.7)

1

2

Let g(z) = Cj1

+2 Cj +1 z. Then N{kg(z)k } = 2 and (5.6) becomes

(j +1)

(j )

2 = (kg(z)k2 0

(5.8)

N{P2 } = j + 2,

N{Q2 } = 2.

From

(j +1) 2

kP2 k2 = Q22 k0

we get Q2 (z)|kP2

(z)k2 .

(j +1)

k + Q2 z2(j +1) + Q2 (0

(j +1)

G + 0

G),

(j )

Make the following inductive hypotheses, each true for j = 0, 1, 2, . . . , k > 2:

(i)

(ii)

(j )

(j )

(j )

(j )

(5.9)

(5.10)

160

where

(j )

(j )

(j )

(iii) 2k = [j + 2k/2k]f .

(5.11)

As (i) stands, it is obtained from (5.3) that

(j +1) 1

)r )

(j )

= O(zj 2 ) + O(zj 1 )

=O(zj 1 ) (z ),

(5.12)

(j )

(j )

2k+2 =O(zj +1 ) O((2k+1 )1

r )

= O(z )(z ),

j

so (5.9) is proved for k + 1. As it stands, (i) and (ii) are reduced fractions, suppose

that

(j +1)

2k

(j )

= S(z)/T (z),

2k = U (z)/V (z).

(5.13)

F (z) = S(z)V (z) U (z)T (z) = zj +2k+1 Fc (z),

we can prove that V (z)T (z)|kFc

N{S} 6 j + 2k + 1,

(z)k2

(5.14)

N{T } = 2k,

N{U } 6 j + 2k,

N{V } = 2k.

(5.15)

From (5.14) and (5.15), we get N{Fc } 6 2k, N{V T } = 4k. Then, it is derived that

M(z) = V (z)T (z)/Fc (z) = V (z)T (z)Fc (z)/kFc (z)k2

is a matrix polynomial and NM > 2k. It follows that

(j +1)

(2k

2k )1

r =1/(S(z)/T (z) U (z)/V (z))

(j )

=M(z)/zj +2k+1 .

(5.16)

(j )

(j )

(j )

(j +1)

2k )1

r

(j )

(j +1)

=H2k (z)/zj +2k+1 ,

(j )

(j )

(5.17)

(j )

Hence (5.10) is proved for k + 1. By means of (5.17) and (5.3), we have

.

(j )

(j +1)

(j +1)

(j )

+ zj +2k+2

H2k (z) zH2k (z) .

2k+2 = 2k

(5.18)

(j +1)

161

(j )

N{G} 6 2k + 1.

(5.19)

(j +1)

duced from

(j +1)

S( )/T ( ) = 2k

(j +2)

(j +2)

(j +1)

r

that

(j +2)

(j +1)

2k1 ( ) = 2k1 ( ).

(5.20)

(j +1)

(j )

(j +1)

2k+1 ( ) = 2k1 ( ),

(j +2)

2k+1 ( ) = 2k1 ( ).

(j +1)

(j )

2k+1 ( ) = 2k+1 ( ).

(5.21)

(j +1)

(j )

(j )

2k+2 ( )=S( )/ T ( ) + 1 2k+1 ( ) 2k+1( )

=S( )/T ( ) + (j +2k+2) /G( ).

(5.22)

/ 0 by the Existence Theorem 4.6, that is to say, =

/ 0. Hence, it

is known that both terms of the right-hand side of (5.22) have poles at z = . Above

discussion shows that if z = is arbitrary zero of T (z), then holds G( ) = 0. From

(5.15) and (5.19), suppose that

G(z) = T (z)G0 (z),

G0 (z) Cst

N{G0 } 6 1.

(5.23)

2k+2 =S(z)/T (z) + zj +2k+2 /G(z)

(j )

=P2k+2 (z)/Q2k+2 (z),

(5.24)

kP2k+2 k2 =kSk2 kG0 k2 Q2k+2 + z2(j +2k+2)Q2k+2

+ Q2k+2 zj +2k+2 (S G0 + S G0 ),

we get

Q2k+2 (z)|kP2k+2 k2 .

(5.25)

162

(j )

+ zj +2k+2 G (z))/T (z)kG0 (z)k2 ,

(5.26)

N{Q} = 2k + 2.

(5.27)

(j )

(5.28)

(j )

Example 5.2. Let f (z) = c0 + c1 z + c2 z2 be the same as Example 4.2. Find [2/2]f

by -algorithm.

Solution. By (5.1)(5.3) and (2.4),

0(0) = c0 ,

1(0)

0(1) = c0 + c1 z, 0(2) = c0 + c1 z + c2 z2 ,

1 0

1 0

1

1

(1)

1 0 ,

=

1 = 2 0 0 ,

3z 1 0

2z 1 0

2(0)

z2 z + 3

1

z(3 4z)

= 2

2z 4z + 3

z(3 z)

0

2z2 4z + 3 = [2/2]f .

0

Now suppose

(j +1)

N = 2k2 ,

(j 1)

W = 2k

(j )

C = 2k ,

(j +1)

E = 2k

(j 1)

S = 2k+2

(j )

nw = 2k1,

(j +1)

ne = 2k1 ,

(j +1)

sw = 2k+1 ,

(j )

se = 2k+1 ,

which occur in column of odd index. According to the - algorithm (4.1)(4.3), they

are located as follows:

N

nw

W

ne

C

sw

E

se

(5.29)

163

1

1

1

(5.30)

(N C)1

r + (S C)r = (E C)r + (W C)r

holds provided that the quantities involved are well defined by using (5.1)(5.3) and

the generalized inverse (2.4).

Proof. As

(nw ne) + (se sw) = (se ne) + (nw sw)

(5.31)

it follows from (5.1)(5.3) that (5.31) holds, then (5.30) holds by (5.29).

By virtue of Lemma 5.3 and Theorem 5.1, we obtain the following result.

Theorem 5.4. Wynn identify of GMPA

([j + 2k 1/2k]f [j + 2k/2k]f )1

r

+ ([j + 2k + 1/2k]f [j + 2k/2k]f )1

r

= ([j + 2k 1/2k 2]f [j + 2k/2k]f )1

r

+ ([j + 2k + 1/2k + 2]f [j + 2k/2k]f )1

r

holds provided that the GMPAs involved are well defined by using (5.1)(5.3) and

the generalized inverse (2.4).

6. Continued fraction expression of GMPA

By making use of the generalized inverse (2.4), we construct Thiele-type matrixvalued continued fraction as

z

z

z

+

H (z) = B0 +

B1

B2 + + Bn +

with matrix elements Bi Cst , z R. The nth convergent of H (z) is defined by

z

z

z

+

(6.1)

Rn (z) = B0 +

B1

B2 + + Bn

and it is evaluated by backward recursion.

As the result of [16], recursive coefficient algorithm of (6.1) is given as follows

for the given power series (1.1).

Coefficient algorithm:

A0 (z) = f (z),

A1 (z) =

k > 2,

B0 = B0 (0) = A0 (0),

1

(Df (z))r = [Df (z)] /kDf (z)k2 , B1 = B1 (0) = A1 (0),

2

Bk = k(DAk1 (z))1

r |z=0 = k(DAk1 (z)) /kDAk1 (z)k |z=0 ,

where D denotes derivation with respect to z.

164

Theorem 6.1 (Identification theorem). If zero divisors are not encountered in the

construction of Rn (z) in (6.1) by using coefficient algorithm with the generalized

inverse (2.4), then hold:

[2k/2k]f ,

Rn (z) = [n/2k]f =

[2k + 1/2k]f ,

n = 2k, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,

n = 2k + 1, k = 0, 1, 2, . . .

(6.2)

R0 (z) = B0 = B0 /1 = P0 (z)/Q0 (z) = [0/0]f .

For n = 2k + 1, k = 0, we get that

R1 (z) = B0 +

zB1

B0 kB1 k2 + zB1

z

P1 (z)

,

= B0 +

=

=

2

2

B1

kB1 k

kB1 k

Q1 (z)

(6.3)

Then

R1 (z) = [1/0]f .

(6.4)

For n = 2k, k = 1,

R2 (z) = B0 +

z

z

z

,

= B0 +

B1 + B2

S1 (z)

(6.5)

where S1 (z) = B1 + z/B2 = P1 (z)/Q

N{P1 } = 1,

N{Q 1 } = 0,

Q 1 |kP1 k2 .

1 P

zQ

B0 g1 + zP1

z

P2 (z)

1

= B0 +

,

=

=

S1 (z)

g1

Q2 (z)

kP1 k2

where Q2 (z) = g1 . Then N{P2 } = 2, N{Q2 } = 2. From

R2 (z) = B0 +

(6.6)

it is held Q2 |kP2 k2 . Hence R2 (z) = [2/2]f .

For n 1 = 2k or n 1 = 2k + 1, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . let

Rn (z)=Pn1 (z)/Qn1 (z) = [n 1/2k]f

(

[2k/2k]f

n = 2k, k = 0, 1, 2, . . .

=

[2k + 1/2k]f n = 2k + 1, k = 0, 1, 2, . . .

For n = 2k, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . let

z

z

z

z

,

+

= B0 +

Rn (z) = B0 +

+

+

B1

B2

Bn

Sn (z)

where

(6.7)

(6.8)

z

z

z

Pn1 (z)

.

+

=

B2

B3 + + Bn

Q n1 (z)

Using the inductive hypothesis (6.7), we obtain that

n1 } = 2k, Q

n1 |kPn1 k2 .

N{Pn1 } = n 1 = 2k, N{Q

Sn (z) = B1 +

165

(6.9)

(6.10)

Substituting (6.9) into (6.8), we get that

k2

n1 P

zQ

z

n1

= B0 +

Sn (z)

kPn1 k2

B0 gn1 + zPn1

Pn (z)

,

=

=

gn1

Qn (z)

Rn (z)=B0 +

(6.11)

N{Pn } = n,

N{Qn } = 2k.

(6.12)

For

2

+ z2 kPn1

k2 + zgn1 (B0 Pn1 + B0 Pn1

)

kPn k2 = kB0 k2 gn1

we get

Qn |kPn k2 .

(6.13)

Rn (z) = Pn (z)/Qn (z) = [n/2k]f = [2k/2k]f ,

n = 2k, k = 0, 1, 2, . . .

It is known from Theorem 6.1 that each convergent Rn (z) in (6.1) is a corresponding [n/2k]f and is of the sequences [0/0]f , [1/0]f , [2/2]f , [3/2]f , [4/4]f ,

[5/4]f , . . .

Example 6.2. Let f (z) = C0 + C1 z + C2 z2 be the same as Example 4.2. Find

[2/2]f by the convergent of continued fraction (6.1).

Solution. By coefficient algorithm of (6.1) and using (2.4), we get

1 0

z

z

R2 (z) = 0 1 +

1 0 +

1 0

0 0

1

1

4 0

1 0

3 1 0

2 1 0

2

z z+3

0

1

z(3 4z) 2z2 4z + 3 = [2/2]f ,

= 2

2z 4z + 3

z(3 z)

0

166

where

1 0

A0 (z) = f (z), B0 = B0 (0) = A0 (0) = 0 1 ,

0 0

1 + 2z 0

1

1

0 ,

A1 (z) = (Df (z))1

r =

8z2 + 8z + 3 1 + 2z 0

1 0

1

B1 = B1 (0) = A1 (0) = 1 0 ,

3 1 0

B2 = B2 (0) = 2(DA1 (z))1

r |z=0

2(8z2 + 8z + 1)

(8z2 + 8z + 3)2

1

=

8(2z + 1)

4 [(8z2 + 8z + 1) + 8(2z + 1)2 ]

2(8z2 + 8z + 1)

1 0

1

4 0 .

=

2 1 0

0

0

0 z=0

We take notice that [2/2]f in Example 4.2 is the same as that of in Example 5.2

and in Example 6.2. It illustrates that the generalized inverse (2.4), which is on the

basis of the scalar product of matrices (2.1), is successful in the matrix-valued rational approximation and interpolation. On the other hand, Lemma 2.4 shows that we

need not compute each inverse in the construction process of GMPA in some case.

Acknowledgement

The author would like to thank the referees for their corrections and many valuable suggestions.

References

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Amsterdam, 1990, pp. 1151.

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