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Original Title: Power Electronics Converters for Grid Intregrated Variable Speed_1

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A. Gaurav Singh Bhandari ,1,b) B. Dr.M Kowsalya ,1,b)

1

This paper represents dynamic modeling and simulation of variable speed wind turbine (VSWT) with and without grid

connection using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The variable speed wind turbine with singly fed induction generator (IG) and

power electronic converter with controller modeled for dynamic analysis. Component model and equations are

represented and implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Controllable power inverter switching function strategy is

applied for capturing maximum power under varying speed of wind turbine and controlled reactive power for voltage

regulation. Simulation studies give control performance analysis of a gearless VSWT under varying wind speeds.

I. INTRODUCTION

Renewable energy sources are widely used in industry to avoid pollution and for economic purpose. Solar energy used

for power generation using solar rays, hydro energy is used for power generation using waters hydrostatic energy; wind

energy is used for power generation using wind. Mostly wind energy is used for power generation purpose in comparison

with hydro and solar energy due to following reasons. Wind farm setup require small geographical area in comparison with

hydro power plant that effects in humans life, commercial user, residential area etc. wind energy can be obtained in day

and night in comparison with solar energy because solar energy is obtained in only day .

Variable speed operation yields 20 to 30 percent energy than the fixed speed operation, reduces power fluctuations and

improves reactive power supply. Falling prices of the power electronics have made the variable speed technology more

economic.

A variable speed wind turbine was modelled using PSS/E to facilitate the investigation of the impact of large amounts

of wind turbines on the behavior of an electric power system. The disadvantage is that the authors are not dealing with the

converter control [1, 2].. The purpose of this paper is to provide a dynamic performance and grid impact analysis capability

of a gearless VSWT based on mathematical equation using rectifier and inverter so that reactive power is controlled to

avoid losses and improves power quality and synchronization is possible to grid using Matlab/Simulink

Fig.1 re presents the proposed simulation model which consists of following components

(1): Wind speed model for generating wind speed that can be applied to the rotor.

(2): Wind turbine for converting the kinetic energy contained in wind that can be applied to the generator.

(3): Model of generator and converter for converting mechanical power into electric power and determining the rotor

speed.

(4): rotor speed controller for deriving a power set point from the rotor speed versus generator power control

characteristic, based on the actual rotor speed.

(5): voltage controller for keeping the terminal voltage near its reference value.

(6): protection system for limiting the converter current and for switching off the wind turbine when terminal voltage or

grid frequency deviation exceeds a specified value for a given time.

(7): switching function concept Power Electronics Control [3].

a)

b)

c)

A Switching Function Concept based Power Electronics Converter for Grid Integrated Variable Speed Wind Turbine.

Gaurav Singh Bhandari, Dr. M . Kowsalya, gauravusic09@gmail.com , mkowsalya@vit.ac.in .

School of Electrical Engineering, VIT UNIVERSITY, Vellore, 632014, India.

1. Wind Model

Wind speed is a combination of four components (gust speed, ramp speed, base speed, noise speed). Design of wind

speed is proposed in [7].

VWIND = VGUST + VRAMP + VBASE + VNOISE .

1. Gust Speed

Gust speed is sudden change in wind speed. It is given as:

t T1G

0

0

t > T1G + TG

VCOS = MAXG

(1)

1- cos2 T T - T T

1G

(2)

TG = Gust Period in sec, T1G = Gust starting time in sec, MAXG = Gust peak in m/sec, t = Time in sec.

2. Ramp Speed

Ramp speed is continuous varies with time. It is given by:

t < T1R

0

0

t > T2R

(3)

t - T2R

T

1R - T2R

(4)

a)

b)

c)

A Switching Function Concept based Power Electronics Converter for Grid Integrated Variable Speed Wind Turbine.

Gaurav Singh Bhandari, Dr. M . Kowsalya, gauravusic09@gmail.com , mkowsalya@vit.ac.in .

School of Electrical Engineering, VIT UNIVERSITY, Vellore, 632014, India.

3. Base Speed

Base Speed is constant speed. It is given as:

VBASE = KB

Where KB constant

(5)

4. Noise Speed

Noise Speed is continuous triangular wave or random variable with time. It is given as:

N

(6)

SV i

2KNF2 i

2 1 + Fi

(7)

3

Where: K N = Surface drag coefficient (0.004) F = Turbulence scale (2000), = Mean wind speed at reference height

Shaft Design of Turbine is given as following equations:

Mechanical Power extracted from wind:

Pm = CP , PW

(8)

PW = 0.5AVW3

(9)

= rRBlade

VW

(10)

- 2

- 0.00184 - 2

13- 0.3

a)

b)

c)

A Switching Function Concept based Power Electronics Converter for Grid Integrated Variable Speed Wind Turbine.

Gaurav Singh Bhandari, Dr. M . Kowsalya, gauravusic09@gmail.com , mkowsalya@vit.ac.in .

School of Electrical Engineering, VIT UNIVERSITY, Vellore, 632014, India.

(11)

The Table I shows parameters entered for the user-defined wind turbine model.

TABLE I. Parameter of wind turbine

Pm

PW

Cp(, )

A(R2)

R

Vw

r

Rating of wind turbine

Kinetic energy contained in wind

Power coefficient of Turbine

Air density(kg/m3)=0.55kg/m3

Turbine swept area(m2)

Turbine Radius(m) = 36.5m

Tip speed ratio of the rotor blade tip speed to wind speed

Wind Speed(m/s), Nominal wind speed =12.35m/s

Generator Speed(RPM),Generator base speed= 2.018 rad/sec

2 MW

Blade Pitch Angle

Fig.2 represents characteristics of (Cp, ). From this fig power coefficient (CP) varies with increasing pitch angle (),

When pitch angle is at minimum value (0 Degree) at this value power coefficient (CP) goes to maximum value. After that

CP goes down with increasing value of . In broad manner we can say CP determines the efficiency of wind turbine.

Suppose Cp = 0.50, It means that 50% of wind energy is extracted using wind turbine and Turbine efficiency is 50

percentages.

3. Design of Induction Generator

Single fed induction generator is used for power generation purpose because it is very economical and low cost. The

two common reference frames used in the analysis of induction machine are the stationary and synchronously rotating

reference frames. Each has its own advantage for some purpose. In the stationary rotating reference, the dq variables of

the machine are in the same frame as those normally used for the supply network. It is convenient choice of frame when

supply network is large or complex design is proposed in [3], [4], and [7].

The Relationship between abc and qd0 quantities of a reference frame rotating at an angular speed , as shown in Fig 3.

The transformation equation from abc to this qd0 reference frame is given by:

fq

fa

fd Tqd0 fb

f0

fc

(12)

Where the variable f can be phase voltage, current, or flux linkage of machine. From fig.4 the transformation angle, (t),

between the q-axis of reference frame rotating at a speed of and the a-axis of stationary stator winding may be

expressed as:

a)

b)

c)

Gaurav Singh Bhandari, Dr. M . Kowsalya, gauravusic09@gmail.com , mkowsalya@vit.ac.in .

School of Electrical Engineering, VIT UNIVERSITY, Vellore, 632014, India.

t t dt + 0 elect. rad.

(13)

Likewise, the rotor angle, r (t), between the axes of the stator and the rotor a-phase for a rotor winding with speed r (t)

may be expressed as:

t

r t r dt + 0 elect. rad.

(14)

The angle, (0) and r (0), are the initial values of these angles at beginning of time t, the qd0 transformation matrix, [T qd0

()] is given as:

cos

2

Tqd0 sin

3

1

Tqd0

cos

3

sin

3

1

2

cos

cos

3

cos +

cos +

sin +

sin

2

sin

3

sin +

(15)

(16)

The stationary reference frame is used so speed of reference frames () = 0 and = 0, Following steps is taken for

designing of Induction Generator:

Step.1: Transformation of stator phase voltage to qd0 stationary voltage by = 0.

s

v qs

s

v ds

2

1

1

vas - vbs - vcs

3

3

3

1

vcs - vbs

3

1

v0s = vas + vbs + vcs

3

(17)

(18)

vdr vsds cos r t - vsqs sin r t

Step.3: Transformation of flux linkage () and current of stator and rotor axis to qd0 axes.

a)

b)

c)

Gaurav Singh Bhandari, Dr. M . Kowsalya, gauravusic09@gmail.com , mkowsalya@vit.ac.in .

School of Electrical Engineering, VIT UNIVERSITY, Vellore, 632014, India.

(19)

rs

xls

(20)

rs

sds b vsds

smd - sds dt

xls

(21)

b

v0s - i0s rs dt

xls

i0s =

(22)

r

rr

qr b vqr dr smq - qr

b

xlr

r

rr

dr b vdr qr smd - dr

b

xlr

dt

dt

b

v0r - i0r rr dt

xlr

i0r =

i

s

qs

i qr

sqs - smq

xls

- smq

Where

s

mq

r

q

xlr

(23)

(24)

sds - smd

, i

xls

s

ds

(25)

r - s

, i dr d md

xlr

1

1

1 1

xM xm xls xlr

(26)

sqs qr s

sds rd

xM

+

, xM

+

xls xlr md

xls xlr

(27)

3 P

sds isqs - sqs isds N .m.

2 2b

d r

b Tem + Tmech - Tdamp in per unit

And Speed is given by: 2H

dt

Tem =

(28)

(29)

from equation (20, 21) represents transformation flux linkage of stator axis to qd0 axis. Equation (23) represents

transformation rotor flux linkage to qd0 axis, Equation (22, 24) represents zero sequence current is stator and rotor axis,

Equation (25) represents transformation stator and rotor current to qd0 axis, Equation (27) represents magnetizing flux

linkage in q and d axis .

The Table II shows parameters entered for the user-defined wind turbine model.

a)

b)

c)

Gaurav Singh Bhandari, Dr. M . Kowsalya, gauravusic09@gmail.com , mkowsalya@vit.ac.in .

School of Electrical Engineering, VIT UNIVERSITY, Vellore, 632014, India.

Stator Leakage and Rotor leakage inductance (Lls = Llr,)

Magnetic Inductance (Lm)

Rotor Resistance (rr)

Number of pole

Frequency

Rotor Inertia (Jrotor)

Inertia Constant (H)

Damping Constant (D)

3.35

6.94mH

163.73mH

1.99

4

60HZ

0.1kg/m2

5.04

0

.

4. Design of Three Phase Uncontrolled Rectifier

The three-phase uncontrolled diode bridge rectifier converts input ac power into the output dc one. Typical DB

circuits are shown in Fig.5 [5]. Since the diodes are uncontrolled devices, the time instant of each switch is determined by

the circuit condition, in contrast to controlled rectifier units based on thyristors or transistors. From Fig.4 After rectifier LC

filter is used so output is pure dc voltage. Hence the development will be based on the non-switching model, as detailed

below.

Non Switching Model: Under the balanced conditions, the three-phase sinusoidal voltages at ac side terminals Va, Vb

and Vc can be written as follows:

cos t +

Va

Vabc = Vb Vm cos t +

3

Vc

cos t + +

Under this set of voltages, the fundamental of switching functions thus can be expressed as:

a)

b)

c)

Gaurav Singh Bhandari, Dr. M . Kowsalya, gauravusic09@gmail.com , mkowsalya@vit.ac.in .

School of Electrical Engineering, VIT UNIVERSITY, Vellore, 632014, India.

(30)

cos t +

S a

2 3

2

Sabc = Sb

cos t +

3

Sc

2

cos t + +

(31)

As it is seen from (25) and (26), the switching function fundamental components are in phase with input terminal voltage

for this rectifier type. The input-output relationships of the DB rectifier are given as:

Iabc = Ia Ib Ic Sabc IDC

T

(32)

Figure 5 shows the circuit configuration of voltage source inverter. From this figure designing input and output

variable using switching function concept. Inverter acts on two mode of conduction. Design is proposed in [6].

Relationship between input and output variables is given as:

Vab

Vbc

Iin = TF. Ia

Vca TF .Vd

Ib

(33)

Where Vab, Vbc, Vca is Output Voltage, Iin is input current and Ia, Ib, Ic is o/p current. TF is transfer function of VSI.

Generally transfer function consists of several switching function is given as:

(34)

In order to define the switching functions SPWM technique is applied as control strategy. Based on SPWM two switching

function (SF1,SF2) is designing for inverter modeling.SF1 is used to express the (Va0,Vb0,Vc0) and calculated the inverter

line to line voltage(Vab, Vbc, Vca) and phase voltage (Van, Vbn, Vcn). SF2 is designed for voltage across switch and load

a)

b)

c)

Gaurav Singh Bhandari, Dr. M . Kowsalya, gauravusic09@gmail.com , mkowsalya@vit.ac.in .

School of Electrical Engineering, VIT UNIVERSITY, Vellore, 632014, India.

current (Ia, Ib, Ic). In SPWM Block Vtri (carrier wave) is compared with (Sine wave) and generate SF1-a, SF1-b, SF1-c

(switching function of SF1).Using switching function SF1-abc the voltage (Va0, Vb0, Vc0) is obtained. Equation is given as:

Vd

.SF 1 - a

2

Vd

Vb0 =

.SF 1 - b

2

Vd

Vc0 =

.SF 1 - c

2

Va0 =

(35)

(36)

Inverter natural voltage (Vn0) and phase voltage (Van, Vbn, Vcn) is given as :

1

Va0 + Vb0 + Vc0

3

Van = Va0 - Vn0 , Vbn = Vb0 - Vn0, Vcn = Vc0 - Vn0

Vn0 =

(37)

Ia =

Van

Vbn

Vcn

, Ib =

, Ic =

R + JL

R + JL

R + JL

(38)

. The entire VSI control scheme is presented in Fig. 6. Main control targets are the desired real and reactive power, P ref

and Qref to be followed by actual active and reactive power, P inv and Qinv the desired values are specified according to

power Control strategy of the VSWT. The strategy is to capture the maximum energy from varying wind speed while

maintaining Reactive power generation for constant power factor or voltage regulation. Once the target values are

determined, dq transformation control is applied to enable real and reactive component of ac output power to be

separately controlled. The basic concept of dq control is as follows: variables in the abc coordinate may be

transformed into those in the dq coordinate rotating at synchronous speed by the rotational dq transformation matrix is

given in equation 15.

In a balanced three phase system, the instantaneous active and reactive power (Pinv, Qinv) is given by:

Pinv =

3

3

VdId + VqIq , Qinv = VdIq - VqId

2

2

(39)

Through proportional-integral (PI) control gains, errors between Pref and Pinv and between Qref and Qin (depending

on reactive power control mode) in Fig.6 are processed into the q and d axis reference Current Iq_ref and Id_ref, respectively,

which are transformed into the a, b and c axis reference current Ia_ref, Ib_ref and Ic_ref by the dq to abc transformation block.

The phase-lock loop (PLL) block generates a signal synchronized in phase to the inverter output voltage Va to provide

the reference phase angle ref for the rotational inverse dq transformation T ()-1. When the desired currents on the ABC

frame are set, a pulse width modulation (PWM) technique is applied because of its simplicity and excellent performance.

In the PWM generator block, the desired current vector Iabc_ref and the actual current vector Iabc of the VSWT are

compared. The error signal vector Ierror is compared with a triangle waveform vector to create switching signals for the six

IGBTs of the VSI. Iq_upper and Iq_lower are usually set at 1.1 to 1.5 times the VSIs rated current to protect the system from

excessive heating. Upper and lower limit of Q-axis current is given as:

Iq_upper = 0.82 [kA], Iq_lower = -0.82 [kA

a)

b)

c)

Gaurav Singh Bhandari, Dr. M . Kowsalya, gauravusic09@gmail.com , mkowsalya@vit.ac.in .

School of Electrical Engineering, VIT UNIVERSITY, Vellore, 632014, India.

Maximum power is obtained by varying the turbine speed with wind speed such that it is on the track of the maximum

power curve PMAX at all times. One reliable way of capturing the maximum power is to specify the desired real power Pref

of the inverter as the available maximum power multiplied by the system efficiency as given in (40):

PMMAX

CMAX

1

R 5 P3 3M

2

OPT

(40)

Pref = P

MAX

M

Qref = Pref.

1- PF2

PF

(41)

PID controller designing can be done by Ziegler Nichols Method. Following steps are taken for designing.

At controller, select P-Controller (set derivative and integral terms to zero).

Tune P-Controller from minimum until controlled variable encounters harmonic oscillations.

Take down the final P value as ultimate gain, K and find the time period for one oscillation as ultimate time period T.

a)

b)

c)

Gaurav Singh Bhandari, Dr. M . Kowsalya, gauravusic09@gmail.com , mkowsalya@vit.ac.in .

School of Electrical Engineering, VIT UNIVERSITY, Vellore, 632014, India.

Controller

P only

PI

PID

P

0.5*K

0.45*K

0.6*K

I

0.833*T

0.5*T

D

0.125*T

Simulation model is given in figure.8. It consist four models (wind model, Induction Generator, Three Phase Diode

Rectifier, Three Phase Inverter). Wind model for generating wind speed, wind turbine for generating mechanical torque

that drives Induction Generator. IG Model for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy, three phase diode

rectifier for converting AC to DC. Three phase Inverter Modelling for converting DC to AC Voltage. Converter and

Inverter are used for synchronizing with power grid so that improve power quality and reduce harmonics (THD-total

harmonic distortion) and increased efficiency is modelled using MATLAB /SIMULINK. Firstly we are designing open

loop control and then for closed loop control.

A. Open Loop Control

FIG.9: Speed, Ramp speed, Gust Speed and Noise Speed (m/sec)

a)

b)

c)

Gaurav Singh Bhandari, Dr. M . Kowsalya, gauravusic09@gmail.com , mkowsalya@vit.ac.in .

School of Electrical Engineering, VIT UNIVERSITY, Vellore, 632014, India.

TABLE IV: Cp (, ) Characteristic Curve

a)

b)

c)

Tip speed ()

0.5

2.5

4.0

5.84

6.96

7.92

8.6

9.59

11.75

12.35

13.56

15.71

17.61

20

21

22

0.035

0.10

0.13

0.2413

0.3311

0.3925

0.4307

0.46

0.488 - CP-MAX

0.4855

0.4706

0.4211

0.2942

0.1011

-0.05

-0.1

Gaurav Singh Bhandari, Dr. M . Kowsalya, gauravusic09@gmail.com , mkowsalya@vit.ac.in .

School of Electrical Engineering, VIT UNIVERSITY, Vellore, 632014, India.

FIG. 11: Cp (, ) graph, PW (Wind Power in Watt), Mechanical Power (Pmech in Watt), Mechanical Torque (Tmech in Pu).

Wind Turbine rating is 2MW.From Fig.10 Wind speed is varying from 3.5m/sec (cut in speed) to 11.35 m/sec .This speed

is below base speed (12.35m/sec).Using simulation tool control wind speed for capturing maximum power from wind

turbine

From Fig. 11 Cp is 0.488 at = 11.75 it means efficiency of wind turbine is 48.8% (48.8 of wind energy is extracted from

wind turbine) after increasing lambda ( )power goes down. From Fig.11 950 KW Mechanical power is generated that is

(48.8% of Wind turbine rating), Mechanical Torque is below base torque.

a)

b)

c)

Gaurav Singh Bhandari, Dr. M . Kowsalya, gauravusic09@gmail.com , mkowsalya@vit.ac.in .

School of Electrical Engineering, VIT UNIVERSITY, Vellore, 632014, India.

FIG. 12: Input Voltage (V), dq axis Voltage (V), Output Voltage (V)

From Fig.12 represent the three phase input voltage (220 V) is given to Induction Generator at 60 Hz. From design point

of view convert 3- phase (abc) to 2- phase (dq0) using reference frame transformation theory and next transform dq

generated voltage into three phase generated voltage.

FIG. 13: Output Current (Amp), Rotor Speed (Pu), Electromagnetic Torque (Tem in Pu).

From Fig.13 represent three phase output current for load resistance (3) as we know that induction motor work as

generator for negative slip. In negative slip Rotor speed lies above synchronous speed and electromagnetic torque should

be negative .From fig initially Tem is positive and r lies below base speed after that Tem is going negative and r is

increasing above base speed .

a)

b)

c)

Gaurav Singh Bhandari, Dr. M . Kowsalya, gauravusic09@gmail.com , mkowsalya@vit.ac.in .

School of Electrical Engineering, VIT UNIVERSITY, Vellore, 632014, India.

FIG. 14: Rectified Voltage (Vd in Volt), Rectified Current (Id in amp).

FIG. 15: (a). Carrier wave, Sine Wave (A, B, C) (b).SF1-A, SF1-B, SF1-C.

From Fig.15 represent generation of pulse (SF1-A, SF1-B, SF1-C) using SPWM as we know that each switch in inverter

is conducted at 120 degree. Based on this strategy Compare three sine wave (A,B,C) having phase difference 120

degree with carrier wave having frequency (1kHz) and generate three pulse (SF1-A, SF1-B, SF1-C) for controlling

conduction of inverter. Based on equation generate inverter line to line and phase voltage.

a)

b)

c)

Gaurav Singh Bhandari, Dr. M . Kowsalya, gauravusic09@gmail.com , mkowsalya@vit.ac.in .

School of Electrical Engineering, VIT UNIVERSITY, Vellore, 632014, India.

FIG. 16: Inverter Phase Voltage (Van, Vbn, Vcn in Volt), Inverter Load Current ((Ia, Ib, Ic for RL Load).

a)

b)

c)

Gaurav Singh Bhandari, Dr. M . Kowsalya, gauravusic09@gmail.com , mkowsalya@vit.ac.in .

School of Electrical Engineering, VIT UNIVERSITY, Vellore, 632014, India.

a)

b)

c)

Gaurav Singh Bhandari, Dr. M . Kowsalya, gauravusic09@gmail.com , mkowsalya@vit.ac.in .

School of Electrical Engineering, VIT UNIVERSITY, Vellore, 632014, India.

FIG. 20: Active Power of inverter (Pinv), reactive Power of inverter (Qinv) without controller

From Fig.20 Reactive power of Inverter is increasing , more harmonics is introduced in system so resultant useful power

(Active Power) is less here no controller is used, next to improve power quality (increasing Active Power) using Control

Strategy is given as Fig. 18.

FIG. 21: With PI Controller. (a) Current, (b) Inverter Phase Voltage (V an, Vbn, Vcn), (c) Active power (Pinv), (d) Reactive Power

(Qinv).

a)

b)

c)

Gaurav Singh Bhandari, Dr. M . Kowsalya, gauravusic09@gmail.com , mkowsalya@vit.ac.in .

School of Electrical Engineering, VIT UNIVERSITY, Vellore, 632014, India.

Here K = 0.1, T = 0.018. So for PI controller K p =0.045, KI = 0.014994. From Fig.22 Active Power of inverter (Pinv) is

increasing and reactive Power (Qinv) is decreasing so resultant power quality is improved. Suppose comparing Phase

Voltage without controller in Fig.16 and with controller in Fig. 21,

We can see that phase voltage contains more harmonics and current not so uniform (initially certain distortion occurs)

In Fig. 16 (without controller), But phase voltage contains less harmonics and current waveforms are uniform in Fig. 21

(with controller), so resultant Power Quality is improved is given as Fig. 22.

Fig. 22 represents THD with controller, suppose comparing THD without Controller (Fig.17) and with controller (Fig.22),

from here THD is decreasing with Controller than THD without Controller. So resultant Power quality is improving.

IV. CONCLUSION

In this paper we are analyzing VSWT performance in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Models of the subsystems of which a

variable speed wind turbine consists were developed and practical values for the various parameters were given. It was

concluded that both theoretical considerations and experimental evidence justify the representation of the two most

important variable-speed wind turbine concepts with the same model in power system dynamics simulations. The

integration of the developed model into a power system dynamics simulation using Matlab /Simulink was discussed and

simulation results that were obtained with the derived model were analyzed.

V. ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The Authors would like to thank VIT UNIVERSITY, Vellore for providing significant support under research.

VI. REFERENCES

1

Seul-Ki Kim and Eung-Sang Kim, PSCAD/EMTDC- Based Modelling and Analysis of a Gearless Variable Speed

Wind Turbine, IEEE Trans. On Energy Conversion, Vol. 22, No. 2 (2007).

2

J. G. Slootweg, S. W. H. de Haan, H. Polinder and W. L. Kling, General Model for Representing Variable Speed

Wind, Turbines in Power System Dynamics Simulations, IEEE Trans. On Power Systems, VOL. 18, NO. 1, (2003).

3

Narayan Prasad Gupta, Preeti Gupta and Dr. Deepika Masand, Power Quality Improvement Using Hybrid Active

Power Filter for A DFIG Based Wind Energy Conversion System, Nirma University International Conference On

Engineering, (2012).

4

Yuya Izumi, Alok Pratap, Kosuke Uchida, Akie Uehara, Tomonobu Senjyuand, and Atsushi Yona , A Control Method

for Maximum Power Point Tracking of a PMSG-Based WECS using Online Parameter Identification of Wind Turbine,

IEEE PEDS, ( 2011).

a)

b)

c)

Gaurav Singh Bhandari, Dr. M . Kowsalya, gauravusic09@gmail.com , mkowsalya@vit.ac.in .

School of Electrical Engineering, VIT UNIVERSITY, Vellore, 632014, India.

Masaaki Sakui and Hiroshi Fujita, An Analytical Method for Calculating Harmonic Currents of a Three- phase DiodeBridge Rectifier with dc Filter, IEEE Trans .On Power Electronics, VOL. 9, NO. 6, (1994).

6

Byoung-Kuk Lee, Mehrdad Ehsani, A Simplified Functional Simulation Model for Three-Phase Voltage-Source

Inverter Using Switching Function Concept, IEEE Trans. On Industrial Electronics, VOL. 48, NO. 2, (2001).

7

Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-102, No. 12, (1983).

8

Chee Mun Ong Dynamic Simulation of Electric Machinery Using MATLAB/SIMULINK West Lafayette, Indiana,

Purdue University, pp. 167 243.

a)

b)

c)

Gaurav Singh Bhandari, Dr. M . Kowsalya, gauravusic09@gmail.com , mkowsalya@vit.ac.in .

School of Electrical Engineering, VIT UNIVERSITY, Vellore, 632014, India.

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